evi t .-1, ruiv-. .Tunicir 1, ._ P ulo, 140, V1. 71
/87/ ?whe Time C. .c the IP zili.n In i ns
special l for the vi. r uivu)
He t>- t 1$ 1 'u.
(Of the '-*ee School of <,'iol.y
Politic. 1 icienc oS;o P.ulo)
/.,i'/ In !Tuhl: n-i (p. -4',) ve re d: "In Polr.esi., the ne-,
:' v ..;i ur-ed fro t he b t.i: in.,1 of the fi.hir- se son, n since
this .ri'io of time coincided iith the ^,ppec.r .~c C of the Pl i- 'es
above the horizon, fruitful h.ilf-ye r, a ta-li'i-i-nia, th t is,
IPlei des e bove,1 v-s distirnui .u.e : 1r n 1iinfruitful or less
fruitful half-y.: r, ta -li' --i-irro, th t is, v'iei :des below.'
A i diLc ye : s also k no n in India ."
It is lso vourt men i..i. t'tr .ux1s ob erv tion (p. 51)
th-t the Pi-i .es 'ee to h ve been the object of s, eci 1 beliefs
i... the u n -i .', vho i .'ere coui.- l:ed. uccor I: to rn 1r-ui lishe(.
r.nuscript b* T'hevet, that they fostered the *r.:*th of tm rioc,
st.pe of their iet. Cr.- of the aosi. r- utiful l-t,-r. of the
Tauli.- C., Carib tribe of the '-,. rel tes ho e Pleildes
c_]e to the sky d alo me rtiuos :,air fiction as aitatm~uS of the
r ul.- season that bt *i buir, ce of food with the e-e r -ce of
the a e of fi:h (..c.-Grtti:.er' p. 1T)).
'..,._ the pir. p :, I did not fir. :nythit correS.'-o.lUin, to
this In r `. Poly.=v-sian culture tr it. /Tr. The T pir n" do 1~nd
i.ipr v.ce to th Ple. i-s./ It i true th:t of 11 ev, .ts in the
y'-rerly cycle, the r int :ee son i:. of -..e interest to t e
Indii.l,. r.ey did not tell e .t-,. bou he Plei. e, however.
The r- *, ..; ia to thea the o site of h- t ih i, t, the
T ulip:ig, n -nely, not the time of fell-be' :, but in th.e 'ords of"
the T,.. pir: pE( the time uf evil ,i'i. of b. leful spirits. It is
ch~ir.cteri tic of the ..i na tur of te i I i o1 .. th t
they lend -,i- Ite.t i:-' -.rt. rcce to the time of r t-.est distress.
in:te d of centering thtir i.1u ht. or the ay c~cn, whichh is to
eth- t e leas..;t time of li--c et....'. 1- n(i 1ni'il1 foods.,
Sne. ly h ire of he-ith ,,nd vr:l-sure in '-c i. alive.
/90/ he T pir'.p. could not *ell nec the nmber of d.ys in
the lunir :;:ionth, I thI:. .t they e,:e f '*i- r .lth the ..lLr. cycle
a .. c r..- '. c- '.u.:r. W^h? p''t 'a on leeps," r tx lt
k ni',:. A 1, ".L.o. f-,'nhed, e fu1 noon t. h h, ho being, the
u ,.-;-t.tive suffi.: y twv corr' or ,;. ,. bl.; to the aU,
ln,; .-," listed by c" u c iC u "full, f-.t joon,"
tiveni by Str delli, The first u rt 1c, the v1isblc p rt is
not yet very thick, is c lled ,-, -- -,- rf, r -r i th t :- .. tL
the thin, .lor;, teibetd /Tr. lip lur/ of the t.,'s. To other stA.es
of /91/ visibility the1 g, ve the n-aes i'. v.-hi-fU -ri, evY .
c erticr, three *:.r.i -h..e -1 nli: I .'s un ble to determine
-which au i. tIe.efore be Csep -..-hey r.. until .-----4 elucidated
It bec .- .*,-i.t that the pir p4 i-re not in the h bit of
figuri'r, ti.'r in t .-. of lur v rorth ': 'he: I trtempt.; to fi, out
the 'ur tion t.he, to the s' of tire c.rr ir.. ro ,;
to our year. They dist in,.- Hc the TLi: i. .UepE riods:
i.. "r in," the r iny se on; u. .1: ,., the end of t.. u ir_
se *i; r. *iir: P-'- "r i sleeps, the ry eson. --7y
at -ibutei, still b'ith sone certcin.-, bout Ie t:' k ntxm,
uoo,. fini -h.- l,' to the fir.t .-ri: -vhile their- cnput. tons for
the second ,-,-riod v rile ":- one to five, ndi .hos.e for the 'sleep
of the ir" fr. three to ei ht.
.L t-u they ': not unf ili ir t the coiit.inu.is
litern -tion of 7 rit, the Br :zil! n Ii. 'i .'m n. u *., knovl : .e,
do not h;,ive cove-:' those e ni. T L p
v .ord na rerel ...sign .e thge daoy f' i- 1:rise to; surdo: in
oppo .iti..r to the d rknes he the night, correspou to .r in
the 'bove-cite.' Tur;" dictionrr)-s, 'oS " 1 i. ht the 1 pi. p' h vve
the term k nI (or rnt.), prttdr. (or frrtfu ^ x. h ei.Y (or
tx'hy nr) the first one design: t7!- o.1 htf.l or e.rly -v.ni .., the
second Ex Rrk, '~..u le / .../ ri .t, nd the 1..i'.d oo lit ril ,t
or moonlight. /omissi :,*/
/.mi -4t-./ It is not surpri ir.. that '.he concept ,f .i.ht"
is 1! -i ,, .on ,cic.c los peo -l- like the 7' pil'p .... /..,i i.; /
h-e J.:,c bu!l'ii.,i : i'..,u ?: :..flic /Voc.Luul ry of t:le '.L,-i i, .1
Br zili .. L i.,u ge/ lists t11. v.r,- ri ri vith tl-e tr nl. tiunr,
,the '. bh.olc night, or thrjouhut the ni5}:t." I dia not hear iny
.i:ail r term in 7 pir pr, not '-."- a i si il r to pLh another
term fur "ni. ht" li-i. e b, ',ontoy .
The T ,i i p6 "or'.k 4" "dk,,bi e .:," cor.espon ri to coe_ in
Montoy co6i in the Dicion'rio Pr ill n.. /Aborigrin 1 Br:.zilian
Dictionary/, co-mutu in the Voc bul'ri, P. LfnL.u PFr silic., and
co4m in Str lelli.
For "iid( y the T pir pf s id atxavo pit. ;ontoya lists
C .ya, ,,i the Voc bul)ri -n Lir.Fu .Pr silic 9 .l. In
Str (delli, the word "middle" is pytr .
Acco, ,I.:. to nT. T pir pd inform nts, ".01 y" is in,
"tomor.o'"-' is txeiv4, '": str : y" is de it.: ted by the number
::,txeo, "one," .:. "d before yest.r.!'" bU, '^.koid.i, "two."
.1lonI the T.pir p-, the exact ,r nuuneric 1 reference to
a o. st evr.nf ::eldon goes f tther b Lck than inkoimi, "day before
Sister' ;/," since as a rule th-y do not count to m~pt, "three,"
preferring to say /vu itre, ".nuch," or m_ (or ma), "far a-.y"
(a word tht design tes ; rI .t dist ce, in sp ce as well as /95/
tim.e, nd 'h4e is perh ps rel:.e to .'obtr, "fr awy," in
'forttoya), Concernirng the future, on the other h' r,., they
frequently say tntxeiv4, "1 umnorrov," Ilthough they .y be referring
to a later time than the following day.
Since not only the c. "iputc.tion@ of time but L its direct
"' i I
./^ y -, '-' .-oi; ? .. ,
d :no:ninr ti nr, .- ) --i,-;, abstract, ho ever, it is more
convenient to the Tapir.p4 mentality to .-M use chiefy- of sK
indirect de:.idn .tion:, by groun.Liin;g (T-c.ncrete Fhenomen .-the
refeeces to p ,st and future times Thus, they indicate the time
of day by strte hing their h.nr.I in the direction of the spot -here
the sun st. od or will stand at the time in question. By vh;t I s w,
l". aso by 'at. Kr use (p, 7'P) mentions, the ar; j' proce.'- in
the s me f )1.lc'.
If ce:'rt L,. events took place sever I veek of ...nths earlier,
the T~ pir p4 .in.-:.in:t their: chr. ,olorically by h'.-.i,.- i ith the h nd
the dt P1-e of development of n,-t La pi nts t the times in que tion,
for ex mple the height of m iLe or sug .r-c -.e. If _ever 1l ye rs
h.ve gone b,' the T ir..p~ Ln. rr ..tor stretcr: .-out his h.nd to the
hci.ht 8 ;t ce'rt .in .-;r--.r. h re ched ct th t time. This -rson
is u :.1 ly the nr .tor Lili elf, if his ge en bles 1ia to .o so.
If he is buut 50 yewr old :-- thus sto :&e ro~_oiig. dozen of ye rs
., but vi hcs to i .'.c te in event t.t occurred .".I.ve ye rs
e rlier, he -ill use a chill of five ye~.rs or o l
It h,.ul: be menti:.L i, fin 1ly, th t the ords k 6,
td breakk" and Ia: ";l.-.htf ll," a:re *lso use for pur' ses of
orientation in rco, r. bical ..' ce, the for er e a .. "east" ,i the
lu.t er e ,t." J-id. ing by the expl n tions given t_ me by tLe.
T pir p4, the concepts of "nLrth" .n 1 "south" are U.s-e- .lurt
/onl:, of those titles nenti.,nei above /
Liccior .rio Portuuez-Pr .ili r. e Er :ili r.o-Por u.uez /Portuguese-
Aborigin 1 Brazilia:n .n 1 Aboriginl Brasili n-Portuguese Dictionary/,
complete reprintingr. of the 1795 edition, follow. by a s<-cn,
part, hitherto unpubli..,-A'e, elite' <.i. preface,, by Pifnio
Ayros.. :.evit du Museu P.uli.t Vol. 43, "o P.ulo, l ...
Th.o ,cr Koch-Gruunberg, V-1: P-r i On'.co /From the Roroima
to the Orinoco/, Vol. 2, Myth- .d (T.eI eds of the T ulip .L
znd" rekun- Ini .. Stu~, t, I .4.
Fritz Krause, In .lei. ,il-niL er Pr iliens /In the .-ildIs of Br zil/,
'ilhel uehlm:.nn, _:y en- und VWll.. .uI de /
/, Br;-un ch e i e'. I
rin no utr- t~elli, Vcc bul'rio l!i.'u t .--1 1 purturug.--nher;U. t
Sihe&,; tu-pjrtu'ue.t"/Voc bul.ry of the lingu eral,,
artu:uese-TNhe-in;.: td -.nd AThetnt.Q.til-Portuguese/. Revist- do
.In..titulo HiAt6rico e GC-oCr'1fice E ileiri, torme 104, vol. 158,
io dle Janeiro, 19r9.
Voc .bul-'riu r. Li:.gu Ilic 1 ; .u 1u:.cri 'i- ur, u ^ -Tupi .:o
_'culo VII /Vocbul ry of the Aboriginal Brazili an Lngu ,e;
Portu-uese-Iupi ; nuscript ofthe 17th cen.:ur./ edited! b, Plinio
,ros .. Volume <0 in the collection of the Dep rt 'ent of
Culture /Decprt, mento ,Ae Cultur/, Sgo Paulo, 1938.
Dr. Herbert Baldus
Head of the Section of Ethnology at the STo Paulo Museum and Professor
of Brazilian Ethnology at the Free School of Sociology and Polii.cal
Science, 'ffiliated Institutesy University of Sao P:.ulo.
"Tribes of the Araguaia BLsin 'nd the Indi n service"
RCViSta d.o Museu Pz~u1ist:~. /Journ2. of the S~o P~u1o U~eU2u/
-- Volume II
/137/ Having been invited by Dr. Modesto Donctini Dias du.
Cruz, director of the Indian Service, to represent the S!o Paulo
Museum .nd the Free School of Sociology and Political Science of "Jo
Paulo on the team he organized to inspect the India;n Posts and to
explore certain areas of Centr;.1 Brazil, I oman id to him in a
report d:.tedt October 31, 1947, the observations m-.de in the course of
the journey carried out during the months of June, July and August
of the same ye r, as well as few suggestions on the matter. The
following p?-;ges. reproduce this report with a few modific.-ations --nd
I. The Tapirap6
On July 19, 1947, we counted62 inhabitants in the T.ipirip46
village of Timplitiua, 59 of whom vere subjected to a medic .1 ex.mina-
tion by my travelaft companion, Dr. Haroldo C:andido de Oliveira.
The following table provides the age and sex ratios:
Male Female Total
5 years and under 5 3 8
from 6 to 15 years 7 3 it
from 16 to 30 years 14 17 31
over 30 years old 6 4 10
Total 32 27 59
It is to be assumed that the three who evaded the examination
were boys. In addition, we found at P~rto Velho a Tapirap4 woman
over 30 years old who was living among the frontiers people.
In 1935, Tampiitlua had 130 inhabitants, 69 of them male and
It is-we-iJ-.to~inertion, that since that time certain individuals
hL.ve crigrted to Txitxut.ua, another T;.pirap4 village -Aieh lies
quite ... diit-nce avay. Their numbers, however, seem tc be inferior
to the& number of people who moved_ fro-n there to T:m.plit5ua.
Accor("in., to various /138/ reports, Txitxut
this vill ge, so that today the entire Tc.pir,.pd tribe prob -bly does
not have th'e than 100 members.
Vhat strike_ us in the above table is, on the one h.rnd, the
smial number of children in relation to adults (18 individuals from
0 to 15 years:-'nd 41 over 15 yet.rs old), .-,nd> on the other h.nd, the
brevity of the life sp.n (only 10 individuals were over 30). Only
one man :nd one wom.n were slightly over 40.
According to reports which I received in October 1947 from
Mr. V. lenti.a Gomes, the m..i in ch-rge of the Indian Post "H-eloisa
Alberto Torres," and from Fr. M. H. Lelong freo Concei5~o do Ar u. i...,
the numerical ratios listed .bove underwent modifications caused by
the Kuiap6 attack on T..mpiit-u.. at the end of August, urin-g which
three voae'. were killed nd tw- vomer and one boy were abducted.
Of the 59 examined individuals, therefore, there rem.inel 31 mnles
nd. 22 females.
Aside from illness, the custom of killing newborn children
under certain circumstances contributes to the diminutioni of the tribe.
Of the changes in T-pirap4 culture which occurred since my
first visit 12 years ago, I wish to mention pria.-rily the scarcity
of vegetable foods. The literature on these peaceful and A*tM
industrious Tupi Indians contains numerous references to their large
plots. I may add that in the quantity and variety of their garden
produce they outstripped not only the neighboring tribe- but also
the frontiers people. In 1935, in the months of June to August,
I foun'1 the vill-g-e replete with the most delicious bn.n :--.i, with
five varieties of manio/and numerous other tubercles, with be-n.,
peanuts and maize. In 1947, at the -.'e time of year, I found :lnmout
nothing of the sort as I went through all the house;. It had b.-cone
difficult o obtain a few b.inanCs, a little car_ /Tr. a variety of yam/
or m n e m ber1er"?F esiee of the
peanuts, for the lenL.th of their pods and seeds had decre..se by
ricrri one a apparentyOwing to the quality of the soil 1 i '
new _U 5 13"
.. b~h o:ior ..tT-c-rt r --t- ir:ir, '- .r .-".. r
formerly unbounded Tapirape hospitality.
It is true that thit may slso have resulted in r -.rt from
contact vith the Cnite neighbors who have settled on the Tapirape
river over the past fewv years. As a rule, these frontiersmen either
have nothing to offer, or sell their surplus to buy salt and clothes.
Their 'o-.y is unrernourished, but their culture compels them to cover
it. Thus, instead of satisfying the appetite of their Indian
visitors, they are cmrpelled to inflict a nev need upon them, the
purely cultural rather than physical one of covering th-msz'lves. In
1935, all T'.-piitaua -o-menr went altogether naked. Now, in the
presence of the i1hites, many of them use rags tied about the waist,
and some of them wear complete dresses.
It is difficult to ascertain -hether the Tapirap4 are actually
experiencing a shortage of animal foods brought about by their new
neighbors. It should be kept in mind that the decrease in the numbers
of Tampiitaua inhabitants has been more rapid thtn the increase in the
numbers of river dwellers. Such complaints as the following /139/
in 19S5, its b-.nk:: vere uninhabited. There was a. In&le inhelbitant
at the river mouth .-r he canned, so to ope .k, the .mos-t -.dv.nced post
of our civilization. In July 1947, there weie eight houses in PSrto
Velho, which stands morE or less at the middle point of the nvig.ble
stretch, that is, 15 or 18 le-,gues frocr the mouth, nd r.e. rly all of
their occupants c:-,e front the state of P..r Linl h-1 lived previously
at various ;ots on the Ariguaia.
Their settlement, rnd with it the occupation of the Indian
l:.nd, beg-n about five years -go -n',3 *.- 7 -spects haracteristic of
the processes -hich -eve repeated, vith certain variations, throughout
the colonization of Bra~ il. Their le .der is a far-er by the n..,e of
Lucio Pcnn.L da Luz, who lives at M-..to Verde, a hamlet established in
were not lacking, however: HTTow the Tapirape only eat small fish,
they can no longer eat tucunare /Tr. large fish/, turtles or turle
These words refer to the occupation of the entire river by
frontiersmen, who have thus taken over the princiy-al source of
animal protein and fats. It is well to keep in kind also that every
year during the dry spell, when stre--s and lakes vanish, the fauna
as well as the human beings in the region have to cluster around that
watercourse in order to satisfy their thirst and hunger. There is
no doubt that the frontiersmen, by settling pern-nently on all the
habitable spots alcng the river and by becoming increasingly numerous,
will keep depleting the game and fish which the Indians used to
exploit only at certain times of year. In any case, the fact tha-.t
Ta:ipiitaua has moved lately farther frc-' the river and farther north
seems to prove that the Tapirap4 felt threatened by the proximity of
-the 'hitE settlers; -
!hen I ascended the length of the Tapirap4 river in & canoe
in 1935, its banks were Aninhabited. There was a single inhabitant
at the river
1935 on the L;tu Orosso iide of the Aragudia ad :.bout 15 leagues
above the mouth of the T1pi."p. In the course of ti.ie, it bec...me
known that it w.s relatively easy to move cattle from thisriver to
Mato Verde, the l:nd journey from Pfrto Velho being made in day
arnd a half. Thus, inh:- bitairts of Furo de Pedra :-nd of the, T. .pir p >/
bar aLscended thii Iiver dnd settled on its left bank.
Vhen, a fe.i ye: r3 .go, ;ll regular boat tri-nsport.ation on
the middle Araguain c.me to stop :After the dissolution of the
enterprise which handled thi service :ith motor l.:unches, life in
those ti:o locations :;ete:ricr.te: to the point of despair, for there
was no longer Lny outlet for the loer1 products. In the entire area,
there remaine. but one m.:-n vcho bought them: Mr. Lucio. He v.s and
rfcu.- y O r ck"f ,'*'-';' r, 7"
s t--4-s the im-nd supplier of the eihef goods needed by the
frontiersmen: salt, ;no v o,.ie cloth--triss-4na. Furthernore, he
gives themn crealt. They sell to this nma.n, vho owns a motor /bout?/,
a house covered ,ith tile. -nd thousands of head of cattle, vhat little
rice Arnd iatioc flour they ha.re left over and an occasional cow out
of the half dozen ~hi- constitute their wealth. And they 3pe.k yell
of the mrn :nd r'eg.. rd him as their greatest benefactor.
Mutual attraction led Mr. Licio and his clientele to tseet
half-way. He set ui :., ranch on the upper Tpir; pe, ;-nd the people
Vv,/ < ;
from the br of this river and froi Furo de Pedra settled nore or less
close by, that is, i. Pfrto Velho aind inland .nd up-river from it.
As happens to mos.t of the Araguais settlements, however, the yearly
floods trp /140/ the new dwellings on the T-pir'pd river, so th t
here too, for Iev l months on erd, the c.noe replaces the horse in
visiting neig-bors. N-turally, in such 'rn environment the cultivation
of the soil remains qitie lmite44, and this, incidentally, -g~ees
with the nomadic bent of these small c title herders who tend to
exploit the soil extensively rather th- n intensively. Thil type
of frontiers:.'in, vho originated on the fringe. of our societ; and
who hs been for centurie. the d--ne- u.rd of ojr civilization in
the penetrationt of Bra.zil, proceed.- forward, ever for- rd, leaving
behind him the huge empty sp ces so characteristic of th's country.
He c.lls sertao bruto /"rav wilderness"/ the n
weil hem_-- tc him inw hi.: fell;vs., nd when he settle on it he *d
n --esupunctiuli,- ltu L'a4-> His thnccentris--n prevents
hia ftron understanding theft the wilderness which has not yet been
explored by the Vhites de-h*.v owners. These owners, th;-t is, the
Indians, do not a: rule overstep the bounla'rie:- of their own
territory -.nd strictly re pect ;.Ijoining ;rea unless they intend to
make .-r or to trade. Since ethnocentrism is the very human tendency
to regard all things exclusively froln the standpoint of one s own
people, as though, vith their concepts, they were the center of the
world, it is not surprising that ,hat seems "rav" to us 4-& often not
io to men of/-nother culture. This attitude le'-ds people of such
limited intellectual horizons as the frontiersmen to reg rd the
differences between the, and the Indians as so enormous thatthe
latter do not leok-lIe "people", $e-eheu Taking this as a premise,
they act with i'm'eccble logic when they conclude that the lind of
the -:borigines is untenanted. And the authorities who ratify this
conclusion whe-no less ethnocentrism.
Far be it from me to d4rw the inhabitants of the Tapirap4 as
furious invaders. They are humble people, movingly naive, who
represent what is conventionally designated as "good people." It
seems that it is not only for reasons of numerical inferiority that
they seex to have peace with the Indians by treating them gently.
In spite of this, of course, shocks are unavoidable. There .re
encounters where no blood is shed. Economic interests are met in
the hunting and fishing zone of the T'.pirap4, and the latter are
deprived of protein The interests which spread gonorrhea -mong
thear .ja ..re of a different sort. In both cases, however, the
Indi ns concerned are so gracious th t these encounters, in spite of
their baleful consequences for the tribes concerned, :re at worst
"mild shocks" to the frontiersmen as compared iith those they suffered
from Indians of quite a different temper, n.aely, the K-iap6d i
/Caiapo/ and Chav nte.
Theee Chavante -.nd Kaiap6 are Ge Indians, that is, they belong
to the large group of tribes which offered greater resistance and
gave greater frights to the White intrd4wers thun mo-;t other Brazilian
Indians. They usualy find the clash of solid clubs preferable to
idle talk. Tapirap4 territory is edged in between them. The
northern Kaiap6 are more feared "th.n the Chavante, and in fact the
number of their victims is larger than that of the strangers who lost
their lives in Chavante territory. Furthermore, the Kiap6 not only
march on the Araguaia to do away with the frontiersmen an heir
hou es, butalso march south and attack Tampiit6ua as I shall dee-be
/141/ The superiority complex, characteristic product of
ethnocentrism, is not lacking ;~nng the new inhabitants of the Tapir p4
river. These people, who are cAlled caboclo-/htei(sbackwoodsmenJ'
by the city dwellers of Rio and Sao P.ulo, in turn call the Indians
by this narm, thus following the custom of the north-Bruzilians.
To us, caboclo is the man who goes barefoot. To those shoeless
frontiersmen, however, ca~boclo is the man who does not even bother
to wear pants. Although pants and shoes delimit the c -ltural
,' f- -
distanfe whieh separate them zs from the Indians on the one hand
and from us on the other hand, hbiaggL* there is one fact-sa}-
marks them asmembers of our society and of no other. These poor
conquerors of the unknown are not exempt from taxes. They have to
pay them in head of cattle.
Concerning this, it is eli- to mention the historic
settlement of S&o Jose, a conglomeration of about 30 hours, replete
with disease nd misery, located at one of the most beautiful spots
on the Araguaia. The inhabitants pay taxes of various sorts and say
that the government does nothing for them. They pay a school tax,
for example, but they have no school. Our companion, Dr. Haroldo
Candido de Oliveira, was the first doctor to visit them in 20 year:.
When the launch of the Indiai Service goes by, these forlorn
inhabitants of Goids get a few medicines.
What would contribute to the frontiersman's feeling of
superiority over the Indian, however, aside from the pants and the
taxes? The taxes which enable him to belong tu the capitalist
world? Rifles are already found among the Karaj4. And the Indians
ofthe Araguaia rw are better fed, wash more often, and, as disclosed
by the medical examination, suffer less from malaria and enjoy better
genera-l health than the 3so-called civill ed people" around them who
are for the most part, incidentally, Negroes and mulattoes. As an
ethnocentric man, however, the frontiersman regards everything that
differs from his own culture as inferior. The cultural differences
between him and the Indian extend so tho' gughly to every aspect of
life, moreover, thAt they ne'rly conceUl the s;iiluritie. caused by
the samene u-of-the geographical environmental ...n by the fact th. t
both groups belong to the same human species. Such tasty Indic.n
dishe ,as the peanut, maize and manioc soups chewed by the vomen to
'6e sacharif44I byr the sa.liva ,re, to the frontier-u-ian, "filthy
.-uff" from which he turns in di.sgust. Tapirip6 houses, covered
with palm and "wild b-nna" i leaves, a sturdy protection against heat,
cold -.nd rain, are worth nothir.g in the eyes of those who own earthen
walls. The language which they do not understCInd see2;s as ugly to
them as all the strange custo-rs seem ridiculous or horrifying, be
they facial painting, masked dances, or the practices of the
sorcerer-medicine men. This doeL not prevent them from being no leas
"primitive" than the Indian in certain aspects of their material
culture. In POrto Velho, for example, a family from Conceiqgo used
a tree trunK t-th hollowed steps : ladder, thus re
Oiampi Indians of Guiana w-ho reach their /pSail a/ house ng
Retreating before the 1ihite intruders with the transfer of
Tampiitiua, the T:ipirap4 fell once more into the hands of that
neighbor who has probably beer for centuries the number one enemy
of their tribe. In 1935 they hAd .lre;dy shown their terro- openly
at night, asking me not to let go of my revolver when I ~e4 down
in my netk so as to be ready to defend them from the Kaiapo who
/142/ had attacked and destroyed anotherr village of theirs three
years earlier, killing most of its inhabitants, Vhen I reached P~rto
Velho last July, the same preoccupation had seized th4frontiersmen.
They spoke of the nearness of the Kaiap6 in the same ifener as it
had been mentioned 1 years earlier in Timpiitlua. These rumors
were confirmed by the presence of three f ..nilie. vho hA.d come fro; Y-&
OC4pe-s-d Conceigao do karaguaia. They sa.il th:t t.hcy h.ad left it
only for fear of those Indians, who hAd killed seven persons iastho
v-ei the p.t year.
Unfortunately, the expected Qanger vw-, not im ginary.
few weeks after our last visit, the Aaiap6 attacked T mpiitLua.
Details of this tragic occurrence are related In the letter I
received from fr. M. H. Lelong. In it we read th.t the village v.,s
1. Conceigno do Araguaia, 11 october 1947
Ji I am the Frenchman you met on the Araguaya as
you vent up from the Tapir pe ovward Leopoldina.
I knou how interested you were in this sm:.ll group
of attractive Indians, and thus, aftermrriving at Concei95o
the day before yesterday, I hasten to send you the nevs,
which is very sad.
During the last days of August, Cayapo warriors--
Gorotir4 evidently--attacked the Tapir ap village while all
the men were at Lake Tucunard. Only the women, the children
and the old man Camara4 vere left. They killed twL women a.nd
a young girl: Fir6a, wife of Tampiri, Amoou, vife of
Perer., and Tamamatchoa, and abducted a woman, a young girl
and a smrll boy; IpAr4nahl, wife of Camairad, Amarai,
daughter of Pereira, and Uacure, son of Eir8a (please excuse
the transcription of these Tupy words). The old man ;hot his
arrows, -nd the Cayapo "braves" fled .After bufring down
two houses. Fr. Palha and I found the frightened
population at Porto Velho where they had sought refuge,
lacking everything, hungry, disheartened. In short, a
hea.rt-reniin& sight simil-r to what I have seen in
Europe. We convinced the Tapir pd to go to their
village. The woner. were afraid And tried to dissuade
the men. Seven left with us, and four stuck it out to
the end. We found this charming little village, which you
were the last to visit along with Dr. Haroldo, savagely
looted. 1c brought back the cudgels which were used in
the h.l4.ughter. I shall describe them to you and give you
many other details an this event. The Cayapo had returned
that very morning to continue the looting. Unfortunately,
we did not come upon them. We remained one day and one
night. The three Tapirap6 took up a load of cotton and
flour (they have no more hi-aoc-s and suffer a great deal)
and set fire to their village to prevent the enemy from
utilizing it further. It was rather tragic. We returned
to Porto Velho. They intend to settle a few leagues from
Sao Joao. I saw the lrge plots of these good, industrious,
peaceful people, -.na it is a pity. Ten armed men would
suffice to clear the territory of these assassins, but no
one doe anything about it. I shall leave in three or four
days for Maraba, where I shall citch the plane. I hope to
proceed directly to S"o Paulo, where I shall promtply look
you up to see whether it would be possible to obtain
urgent help for these poor Tapirap4.
Hoping to see you soon, etc. etc......
(s) M. H. Lelong, O.P.
sacked and burned an h-t the survivors have ibew refuge in P6rto
Sw Velho, where they lack foodstuffs, sleeping hammocks, cotton to
make new hammocks, agricultural tools, and kitchen implements.2
E. I have remvad those p.rts of my report in which
I emphasized the need to send help to the survivors. The
man who saved them was Mr. Lucio Penna da Luz, who gave
them shelter and food. In September 1948, Mr. Harald
Schultz, lecturer in Ethnology at the Sto Paulo Museum,
found the majority of them living in sheds at the Sao
Pedro ranch, the property of 4r. Lucio, loc ted on the
right bank of the Tapirapd.
An urgent measure to be taken is the establishment of a
Post on the upper Tapipap$ river. Up tc/ov, the Indian Post
"Heloisa Alberto Torres" /143/, now located at the mouth of that
river, was aeant to protect the Tapirap4 Indians. I turned out to
be inadequate tb-this-end because it was too far removed from the
habitat of the tribe. On the other hand, already in 1942, when I
commented on the attempts to resettle the Tapir.p4 at that spot -af v
the Araguaia, I called attention to the fact that "the immediate and
continuous contact of these Indians with the most varied
representatives of our civilization, which would be inevitable if
the above-mentioned project were to be carried out, would bring
the certain annihilation of this peaceful Tupi tribe." (Sociologia,
Vol. IV, p. 407). In this respect, indeed, the T-pirap4 are unlike
the true masters of the Araguaia, namely, the Karajd, who have been
in contact with the Whites foricenturies nd who have seemingly
developed, ;at least to some extent, a certain physical and mental
resistance to them.
The imprccticality of settling the Tapir2 p4 -t the mouth of
the river of the same name does not &mply the ib-ndonment of the
"Post Heloisa Alberto Torres." This post is indispensable nut only
to protect the northern Karaj& group, which is settled there, and
the other groups living down the Araguaia, but also to control the
entrance to the Tt.pira.p4 river.
At a location forthefuture Protective Post ofthe Tnipirap4,
I vould suggest the spot on the left bank calleI Pfrto Frederico by
the frontiersmen in memory of my travelling companion of 1935, a
British missionr.ry who builra shelter there. It is located on a
steep bank half a league from Sao Domingos, the spot here the
Dominicans from Concei;go do Ar .guaia usually land on their apostolic
journeys. It is the lst spot where it is possible to moor a boat
on the navigable stretch, for there is a waterfall not far above it.
Here -efve-s the trail, perhaps several centuries old, 4ti-eh connects
the river with the great forest inh bited by the Tapirapg from
distant times, the edge of which 9 be reached during the dry season
in one lay or foot or o hor ;eb.c A canoe with a motor at the stern
takes two days, travelling from morning to nightfall, from POrto
Frederico down to the mouth of the river, ".nd usually -n t..ke -w-o
&yA longer going up since the current is weak. -e= e&s Pfrto
Ve4hJo in one day.
A ,arently, Mr. Lucio Penna da Luz .lso noticed the adv ntages
of Pbrto Frederico. When we got there on July 17, 1947, we found two
cowherd families who h:d arrived on the previous day. On the orders
of the't rancher, they had already erected the fr-.ie-ork of their
future dwelling and they were preparing p lm leaves to cover it.
They explained th' t they ht-d come to astah bt u: r-nch on these lands
and the.t their m .ster intended to establish yet another one, up-river,
so th .t the entire margin of the T lpir-pg river which hasbelonged so
far to the Indians of the same name would now be occupied.
An Indian Post established in POrtu Frederico &r its vicinity
would not serve only to watch the territory set aside for the T.pir-.pg
and to offer thefa a refuge in cs.e of northern Kaiap6 advances or
attacks. It might also preclude the entry of adventurer: into the
1..nds situated to the south and west, which are assumed to be
inhabited by the Akug-Chav:nte and by the Tupi tribe of the .:a;p -ne5
(in this re-pect, cf. my works, "An ethnographic bri ige between the
Xingu and the .Aruguaia," Revista do Arguivo Municipal, Vol. 43, SOo
Paulo, 1938, and "The T..pirap4, a Tupi tribe of Central Brazil,"
ibid., Vol. 1CC, Sao Paulo, 1945).
/144/ Since the Tzpirap4 are traditionally forest Indians, we
must consider the possibility of est blishirig the new Post in the
vicinity of the recently-burned vill&ie, thAt i-;, -t the edge of the
great forest. I regard this possibility :as extre.-ely slight o- ng
tu the difficulties of communication during the ye -rly flood&,, whieh
cover the s-wvanna .nd the fore t ground.
anotherr possible way of protecting the Tapirap4 would be to
gather them into a Post to be established on the isl14of B..narnl.
The dv. nta~ge here -ould be their loc-liz.tion of a Fdderal
Territory intended exclusively as a reserve tion for the local Indians
and more easily accessible than the u'-per Tapirap4 river. On the
other hand, bYwaiMm?, this very accessibility might n .keit difficult
to preserve the tribe as an ethnic entity.. In addition, the
folloviri factors must be considered: although eei+.i T-Apir.p4
groups, according to certain sources, lived for :. while on the isle
of Bananal more than 10C years ,go, everything indicates that the
bulk o,'the tribe has lived in its present habitat since the 18th
century (cf. my study of this question in the Revista do Arquivo
Muncipal, Vol. 98, sAo P. ul.,, 1944), and the Tapira;p4, therefore, are
physic .lly and culturally ,-.dpted to this environment and cLapable of
preserving their culture within it. It should be added th.,t in this
case, also, the contact between the inhabitants of T npiittua and
Txitx~t4un would be ret-ined, and with it the possibility of marrying
m; as a result of
outside the village or movi from one village to the/ other gmtAgaWa
disappointments, political u'eP90s- etc.
1. In a repo t on his visit to the T;.pirapg vhi
-ecurred in September 1948, Mr. Harald Schultz tells me
that "none of the Tf;pirape like the idea of being
transferred to a, spot near Conceigao do Araguia, as was
Fr. Luiz Palha's plan." He says that these Indi...n3 wish
to build a village near the houses of the above-mentioned
5o Pero ranch, on the right m.-rgin of the T pir..p4, .nd he
adds: "If the Indi,:.n Service is not in position to
es;t-blish post for the Tapir.pd Indians, it -,.juld be
ivorth studying the possibility of entrusting Mr. Lucio
d. Luz with their protection. Mr. Lucio i:. Luz is a man
of rne t :ae..ns, and he would not be pri:i rily inte--ested
in the me.,ger w -ges of man-in-charge or whatever he
might be to those Indians, but woul'i rth- do t. out of
the hu;".-.nit:.ri-'.n feeling... hih ie ] 2- timig tL o -. "
"h..tever the cL.se m.-y be, there :rethree b-sic needs to be
con.Aitered in any resettlement of the T pir,;p4: (1) the existence of ,
.i-1-e forest adequatee to the 1 rge g .rdens of this es,.,enti.lly
far.-iin,, tribe; (C)the exclusion of ,.ll representatives of our
civilization vho :.re not employees of the Inmi n Service, anthropo-
logists, or 4ok4e-tes associated ilt,.h the Service; (3) the exclusion of
members of oth-r .borigintl tribe..
I believe thAt Fr. Lelong is correct .hen hEvriteL. in his
letter, with i-i.ect tc the Kllp6 vdho inv ded T.-pir :pe territory,
"Ten r..rmed mer. .'ould -!uffice t.. cl :.r the region of these .s -ssins."
These ten .'en, however, should be under the orders of the Indin.-
Service so :4s to c tch the slu.ughter culprits without shedLing blood
:.nd t:;ae the:- to the idyllic peniten iLry est..bli he:i at the In,.liA.n
Post of Ic: tu in the st-'.te of So Pulo. One of the most urgent t.sks
is unquestionhably, the 1uting p cific ..tion of the north- rn Kaiup6
w-o, unlike the Akud-Ch.,vate, h.ve the ha.bit of leaving the
traditional boundaries of their territory to .att.ack harmless neighbors
(cf. what I wrote about this in the Revistzb do Arquivo Muncicipal,
Vol. 102, So P-.ulo, 1945, pp. J$I 123-130).
*..; Plate I, figure 1. Young T:;pirrip4 uwmasn l vith the body
painting chir ctertstic of vomen.
figure 2. Tapira-p4 youth vith frizzy hair, fore-.rm
ornaments .nd body p-inting.
Pit.c II, figure 3. Tapir p4 youth with -nothcr type of body
figure 4. Young Trpirapp-g6 r vith +* bc-y p.Iinting
characteristic of vo-en.
Plate III, figure 5. Tapir p4 nm :n, Iravuy by name, 1ith body painting.
figure 6. Tapir..p4 youth with body p -inting .nd
Plate IV, figure 7. Tapirap6 girl vith the ornaments ch.ra-cteristic
of pre-puberty.- L A-" & "''
figure 8. Tapir-p4 youth.
Plate V, figure 9. Tanupantx6a-K m .nan, about 45 .ears old, -nd
in 1947 the oldest T.pirap4. He defended his village alone
against the Kaiapi.
figure 10. Tapira4 youth ; king a v.x doll.
Plate VI, figure 11. Tapir p4 children playing &n the beach j P~rto
H' ,' P : i i US
rn.- iv, 'c ]tnclj"1 P.. .lelin
/Essays or P-.- -i r Ft-hn:lo."/
ril intocM e- 'r I silef. .
/8q/ Th, e tin.- group, :' 'ork- 'roup- '-.on:.' the T ir T _
,' ..7/ I id b to di c]>.-'. In '.h p.,es tb t- fllov, a s.- 1i
institutions of ? -..', : '.e like of
Ae socil ; f.s tc,1 .e of .' -. ,i ti n .t e ing
:.," erive 'V m. _.;: oe, htch i: .L. : ct ti c. ,
it h:. : .he .. c.: f h nt cr c, ich
.:. t)hee In ns v b ten L., either ex i lso .: ..
dc. _" '... (for e -rle, V. 1 _. t, cur sct, ':, turtle, 1 '.:,._y, it .)
.- 1. ble
i0 ttoo a / 'J- lie hnt r!r : : .y rot d l .3. t*c be.
.- .' as ":.. L : I ith t "."'tth .. '. i of
. :11 e. I ..ch v il Ic: a lt: .. ct, th
.;: trit lution 1is ia e .r...:, -., xembers of the e.. li. r.... .,u to: i._c ,
the h' .:ter b-l'- L
't the .. of M0 :y -"Y the T! 1 th .. e '-ide
i ,- e.ttn- gr..:. s /8r/, They s.y tchxt in the old he
.L: ., ,' :-.ern cor n ,rI-,ju ., The n :r : of the e. is .ir s are
Sr Ar- n 1- t 1
T: ,.'. c, .5 .' ith .l' ( ,il. t',.'), *.. i ti .-.. 1 C. k:.i,
^ ^-.^ ff^.-.C <:?,,
( variety of rn ni.oc), ~ ;ith vii rid'r ( nether v net5 of
LOC)~ ihi ~i u~ ve2'ie of totetdiic idE though ~.-~teIi
~ ~.' iii- e in the bEl' vior afthe ru: :i'~rnber~, ~cr
e: pie, the tti'u ~e of tile r~ n~p~ ~ cup ~ -~ Lx r'~ to r the
~.ii: tar i~ no diffe ent r~ tP'~t of the '~b~r of a i~ ruup..
It i~ true t t z. h'- c.'' m fe s;~, e oh ~er ~ufl i2 C
c"~ w. t~, his vcu~ 1 o i~ ~hc t th~ n e r-pre ents.
Thu, for c... :~1e, ~e ibci' at' th~ ; n~p~r gr~up ii). s~ y,
Tx~ Tx rL ~6pt~r vriich ne r~ both 'I .~ c lied .~ ni: r~p6r") ni
"1 iA 4 is' ~ ~nd elI nis :rcu ~fcIIcA, m le or ~etn- le,
~x:rs1j~e~1'., ~.ou ~re o lie 7 ii r~6p~rL c~ ~Ycu e
r~k n~p6r ."
1 t'uo.'U tde~i.r Te'- bcth ~he i~ I Cr Le .t of group LK the
in~titutic~ of e ~ gruup. i1~ gen~x'~l. Lcri I :kc~ the ..' pir o!
ha tn-. c lie K~e' eiv~ Cu ui~ity, I ~ me ~ cr
~ ht ~ :~.1 theiupiaf the :uri) ~ ie~t e~r
t> t ii rtici. nt~ ir. t t 'uplY /CC/ r lie' ~
iiOtflirY* could pLlirlt ou~ ~he inp~t floe of t.i~t ii: titutioL -~o~ e
effeotiv~i; than thj5 ~b ~ Lw cion. A ~i. .~ic'i'/
The vor'i i~ u~ed batn b the I rir p~ &UQ L,. t~i&
K L.J~ to ueL.igL te cultiv te b ~i in gener~ 1. It I *. ie
rifired in *i~ 1 *,~ s ii Ii 'iuri-Uu n ni t~n~ c nd 1ff r~
fiu.a thee i:r~iy in iL~ fl~~: liz~.Lion, n elernenL hid1 i3 pecuU. r to
the pirp'~ 1 r~u *e ~ whole,
The ciL~ up~t~ LC 3~ ~v-ryt.hin e
's~ ~O~(I I turU I ~. tht lie U ~t out, or th t
evE&.~l:1~1fl; th t FE tie ire ~ s e. en.
rT,,r.- indvi'tdu i b--li,rgs to the s, .e e t i" cour thr u:h
li e. oTg b:,.. t. their fter.s ui hiters to their
Lu 'e. n1' t t
e e :-" .*.I -re c I- ori rt to a -.' e. ; ,
se of the : -cr.1:. -".- -s e ...ur. L. ; 1 ves, vnile others
belion to a differentt -:roup.
/9] The rt-citlp- chief ir ri6, v : .
,le the "-. chief, '-t .. t . I li e
f"ot to be '*, N thc "r e. 'he to th -
co eu.ce r: o 40-ive ; l .. btn, e 1 t, bco 7 : r4per,
t'rhiLn th fr ,.-.-, all re be s e n th, .s J r--ther
:rr is another as .eL of the e. til. group, hch i s i 'ort nt
to social lifef, wll, th-t ,*. the coialon ie 4st "-opie it n- t to
Se.:7-'- tr c : ..:.,.c 'i e ir,. -i bl/ eumiect:..- it. the vhile
th., .. ."-'. jol.n them on ol" i, occ. sin ;. This i,-. titution
thus cream te : b,:r, j<.ir.i 'h(:. i,:.i bi'- ts of different hou ees
occ ionrlly f.uoT blith to .-E th.
At. certain t.i 'es the rri t.e popul t1iei of the vill e
Sthn t ..!.p .L for the tt.'tup..a which is not the-)- ac'u 1i,/i V
feast e..-'ri. ou' to neet ihe o:.lir ILt r 1.:'*o L- z- the consmLtion-
-roup o',, r '.. tion, but a "'? rit-bie b r,-.uet,
; July ', hc :i-v of the k"uih6 or A "b .. k. f'" (liter lly,
"big t!if /Tr, mish/) v. ix.,. to .lu. e. In '.Le afternoon,
the chiefs ga- c .l the occup-mts of iheir house E:E nut, k-u, which
formerly was chw-eel only by chiefs vives n.i not by other vomen.
/-X +t 'i:' i o h foofC d* y, 1 e phot; p 1-t
cf v *iouL fo'- tel lui IZ e plC),. -*rd pl ced in
six ." s. Th et t 1 <.: ith the e 1 'L oups. 1he ..ndi,
o: g th -i 1 I r. j i th .v inki in/, ..'-le
gc ,U. ie- ;e e r a n :h : : u ; r 'i . :u.r, boiled fi rh,
/Tr, f :c o j -./, pf.. u e c efore th r, here s 6i
is io of e.v 1. lvi-u:- offeriu those peolc
f- >h. ; ; likiw or fc; cej :- &f no 21 scio tic
Sur. .. nch s43ilar ...., s. .1' chiefs got L e
ter pt '.. a i ceiv d. r ee 1irS of si or:s ,
.1 four Ii *o iu ', :1:'ci 5e lh to 1 e0 .r t'h 3 h } '' ..:*
L ier, 'the -" .. rrou, s :; .rour their pot ;. F- ". ae '.-_
1. t ...she.. I' t-out The 1er C' of e'ch C -.u: u e
1 n, -o'er a' c' lie V t 'te ev% ry hi' i:h
p the p- rrip..l Ie .r, got :he be:: .-ece, a
chu < chl u I, *i hi; usui I e, t. shf rel it Ai th e,
hi;' .- ;her,, c e. othe .: "p r:p nd i ,
L'. ,ile d)opt ve I ,~.h t bet 'ecr. tus, to ,
, .-;. y, 3<.l e 1:c, 1 Let her b,,- the s. e -. -. ;~ 71
in the .Iher u-ps o c led ime "Tx : r.p1.,- ::,i -i lied
'h:- b tihe n. i of ie' 'oup. ,e \ee ~ 11 in very )i. L rit
/93/ All the p.Lrticip nts in thL. feast t -c clo e
together th t there n4o n3p ce Awhatever &bet een the groups.
withinn a quarter of i. hour, evr-rythinc }-d-i bee, eaten,
The pots nd pl,.tes were re'ioveI', -rthe people :-srlt Night
c me. The pl.z. was t,.:en ov-r by bhe .:. ke '. ncers. They
repreE-lnted:l "the ood ..h- -." All the "evil sh ds" h i t. ken
k ZUih6 *ni: vinishe.. Tht b,[ r- tny wve~ther, with its atten: tt
hunr--.r nfr illness the wvirter" of th -w e -, -4- i Vs, v Cs ve.r,
No- ther- be' n the dry se Ison vith its "8u0(- '.i$v," su v.er.
They s'y that at the tine of the h rvest, I.round Sept.elb r,
they l::u hol! une of the:.e co:i i-0 b- nuets for ;ll the eating groups.
On July 15 I h d the oprorvtunity to watch the t:t-t'up.:-" of n
eatliin group. On the previous y, a v.nri of the .v inkf~ h r killed
rith a club wild pig brought to bay by the U<.Ls. The t .k of
---44 the meat t ho.'ie fell to the voie b-longinr- to thi-
eatinUL group. In p.-yment for this work they '-ere *llu e.1 to 'eep
at hoie cert..in parts such as the head nd legs, which they C ve to
those members of their f really who did not b-.lun& to the sw e e tint
The fe sting Ire-d:. beg i. before the sun v s up. In the
t -'n., the 1 rge rnc, house, which i. e s.enti 11, a er s hou. e i
thus as a rule not visit. by vo'-en, the 7vWrinket of both ..e. sat
oi; stra w mI th s.tr-tcher for the purpose arcun. 1 rt,e pots ont ining
the re t pic. 'ihe zim 1 v5.s cut ur in such a.- y that the piece-s
couli e sil be held in the h n.,
hen I av-e re], the, all gr'..ciously invitt'i me to help
selfl. I declined, st 4iin. th.t I wvs TX nk nrp4r and it view
of this theY did not in is t fu. their.
1? .u ly, i..'b rs of Co '. '0 e:L' ,, & .sk .h. "i e s
...rtici. nts i. .- t for a ece, C .tea, ho1 ever, ue-. ..A1
th t they withdraw. ftcr i.ceiv... vh!t 'h,, r ,eLed,. Ol members
of the r.- : it. in the c -..l- s. ir: ...mi .i: the pot .
rule, however, -, of .-.thr t .. cu do not come to the people
'he ...4e tr stinL ; - for i- ce
In ny c. e, I ..i.' o to e rry .. pri e ir beL'.. a
T .nr too fmr, :. t ee* .Oce: h. the ic':it tion of p-cial
friend, Vu..no.: i.tx, U:.. ,if h d ..p; red the bulL: of the v'ini- 's
fc.. .' thus e. rt: the pi..'s I he for Eb r f 7mily. ile she sat
o1 0.-ith her greoup-fellows in the I k n her hu.b -. .on, a
fev other per. ..1 r ho T *ere not rel tives but who blon. ed to +-
f il, so to bec.se .e heth h cher occup nts .' the
s ai hut, l y crus- I. ir h . cks. ch e.. c.te. tifdl. h} n I
c i.. in, Vu7:-u., t.-.. tore 7Ci the .i s he .* the pie e ;i.ich he
consider best .i off -r,.. it to i!,e. I b,: to chevy it, .ni this
re-, .irE .~'iuch .orti i..': -L c, use .',- tpe t v ,V -vy tough, /95/ h,'n
i, chin be, tc hur'. b ,.i; .. I re c.e. the c-r ini.y t1i t I h. d
S 11C': rnvLugh of thosc .uf'il bites, I f-' t T1 bo.nu e
for t Je T, in-,. My frirn. ilE'- r- he 1; .s -. ri:il;
.mile- thuroug]-ly jyouL.. ,, r.l xve.:-- .:..* gve me to *u "'erst .
that 'y tat.-..- vere i,ut inf 'rii. to those of the mo-t illuA i1.us
T. pl. p, '"hen, '-ith his athletic st','.th, he o opera the -kull,
h jr.e to me th.e buli- of the brv ins, .an s :ff. rest into his
F-efo'e the sun h--'T'"up, only the pi[ 's bones ~-.1ft
in Vu_"*iu -ntxi's house n, in the t k'n .
Aside froi Lile t-L ..upA there is riuther in.titutic., -hich
lij involve, e-rin, in hereditary groups-. It i c 11e.1. p .txrir.,
Its purpo._e, ho' ever, i. tot 11., different fro that of the t.-t'up-O-A.
It is not oa roup orf .niz tio:i for cunsuApi ion, but am for proluctio-n.
Lc I this re : -un, .Iso, the feasts in pacificc &roup. associate vith
thi.. institution are ,efre 'cce-sory. *vi.-..
'..e social sinific rce of pktxird re-ides in the possibility
of th.;rln:3 a collective t- s: in such a ay th t no .er.iber o/'c.,e tribe
1 Ji feel :.i_-cr- ite.. b., an un'a ir :..ii.. tent. i ti.- ..-ne by
turning, oL into a festive occasion a _pir c :n; edition,
W"h'-c there i: a lot of .. tr v^-ry here in the r iLy
season, the rQv-n. i *sh-.Ii' live in the : ]In 'heir headdress nd
breechcloth are of' murity leaves, but their he ; .re. does not have
any "i c v feathers, /98/ They ,i r.ce thr.uuLh aihe r iny c s.. n,
At th t i.e, there l.re no other tn SrA,. ( ntxfn..) Ei-e fro them,
These, unlike other -h_., cL.,i to not live in the hills or ir: ihe
voters, but unly in the i...... They do n1-t inc., but only i runt
in a lo-' voice. During ',h,2 moons of the gi t r. ini the b-jlly does
n't get as full &s *.urin_ the (ry -e corn. But he -."v .- I h.ve to
eat, .' .-n th. g.o to the rdens r:nd steal, They t ke .bt they
stole to the t k1-'r:, "here thc,,i e t it. In the p t ird, -e prep re
the i ilen. "heir they .-:.e.k their fc-od, ihey tsie 1 only fro:, tho-e
gar'-n:-, which .re pr. p :r--., for them WW-. lone, The ''Uv n 1 re not
evil. All T'apir~, o men are -.v -n a "
"uch is, in su.n.i .r:, the inf.,--i tion I i;ot vhen I -:e.: for
the purpoi.I of the con ion V'. -ens prep,.-re, in the txird.
For the .p.-.Ltirl, (.11-. T pir-p4 meni are 'ivi V- int -:.-ree
vork-..: ou, c, liea vuira. hv- word vuira me- ns "bir.," the Y. -E
of each gricu:. -.~i- .tes a mythical bird whichh is j I e.J.r rot
aLi, by ti. group as a whole but by,- each of its in'l-ivi.u 1 nei ber ,
T! ,.y ire c .11-. i....-ve, .n...ntx-, Vuir rntxinic.
T}i a rx.v6 gioup ,a s the smallest one At the ti.ie of iy
visit, blt.. it Lclu-.e.. the irn.Livl u 1. of highe-.t -.ocial stA.tu::
the )ri.c..w.~ ir h6, the -c':n-d chief Vu t nuamll, thFi
chief ,r, ,o t e:ieni-forcerer-'ie:Licine m. n, Uruiu-if", -. myself,
(I- "-- :.-* i -..-. ,j h[L. ir h16 1t.. sta; l '1 ,ne-i tely l h t I vould
be T:.r.'v like hiaQelf),
/97/ J ch of .'.e ti-ee e o-k-group. t-o le _e-... c. lie'-
-t v '' of tne Tr '.4 -were i'~ n ..'1 r.L Urukumi,
(l !hou... ,'h6 h 1 r a T n.v4, he e- e JihLs c .-
pri cip1. chief f, 0.. b w.r. ,e of .11 thre- .'oup. HIe Is .so 1. '.
only ce .hoE e .iv-te plot is prep red b., the vill ge inh Li i.t
s collective u., evor, .-ii-Le the priv i.e plots of other -rLb 1
-b.- ,-" aPe .-.' .e cOnl by T.. i- respective oTiere s. .Io not kn.,v,
howev. r, whether .e fil'e'- roup.- ve rL -icuszing here .i irvolve.
in the n,(.p t;: tlc of the prirncip 1 chief s gi: .en.)
'h '- .I iv o. the .n. rtx -erve chief I nu,? x _. .. -uir 1,
and ,-:,ie of Thc /rU.' n inin ."e chief Mxbh T' m. i. -nnd so. cerer.
.ie iic i.-e ma, ". ,,.,.:.h6,
In the oal di.ys, the boy of the tribz ere 'ivi.iek into '"i-ee
*.roup'. corre .:.'. to the r en s or.--r,r..u .., Th yj -e.:.. c. llei
Vu r rnkor:, Vuir ntxin and 'ua utxl.oi NBtyltatikwaands
Th.: l1 t one is rn yt i-t. 7'FT. bp,?s 1:. e f others .e r v6
V .r., .,-....... to e .... 'one, ..he ird ,u-- --o c".! t a .
L:.-- pi.st of boy- ..o.-e f others ere 7aj.- nt:i',i-.6, 'le t. t
the lole.-cen, enters hi. f their's u -.k-g,-.u at m his initiotlien
. i Ci-o.' a e beiiebc of it for life.
The boys groups rc-,'y. n,, the th-ec. :-ier .s work-gr'up. in
;11 lhtA-ir e.le .vor The female ; c-x oe: ..; ,lc;:: to this
i,.-titutiol, for ",he ic-e i i Is t .y hb .he,. the -. ,. --U
do collective oor.~."
/93/ c.'. sy that group hi its .--ific
or: ,e:nt for ce'i i-i d nces, but i ;i :. r;re 1i-.u 1_ '.l t .- of
ye hu I t it the T.irp.. '-i-.- v4 we v. U 1 r.e
r:,-i ,'. fe .th,-r3 '.. i-: f.. : the he d onto the b ..k. -ih r. ntt .
I. e thr'e-e- 1 r,.e iac w fe.. r in the s ne f .nio, .o
are : the blue- .'-,,-bll :m c 2 onl-, l-.h ,* le 1 . : -;
I .tio 'h.:.y ,e:- on their i'm: u he hiLte bre-st fluff" of the
:i. -v .!ture. -:-, Vu ." n.',--ii6 re not _,ii erienti.te, i he
T 4, :i- ,'i r ,;6ra ve r .. 11,j~r d fe the-: fr::.. ..e il .
Shte .e .w :-,'n,; rf ~ n the he'd onto the b 1. ie xi
re I i'l 1e ., l o 'E. v n c v flu f oi h i .
Co, erriu .' ..-.-.. ",, t i r juc v e i
follows ,1 l..tter i tet Febru 0, 0 : *. l. i. .u ." .
o.' 'yt d is 'hi U u 1 '.up er fore : theri:, of p C-.l1 !.o, rd
S, or, s (ir i:n'rily, fo o .e i" 'iviu 1 I-volve ).
/,,-1 ..[ on/,"
/SO3/ On July L, i. ir lh6 h ...vi,' me to go vit'h }. i the
p.txiAr. On the previous Y. y, Ilrc ;:.,, chief T c.up .i.':6. h
beL.uun the cu.i .o felli,, P: tree ith :ecv 1. e .
In the af :.crnoo;- -e e bcul. r. h : 1A _-.
throu;.h trhe forc.t until w re; ch.i. the spoc r .. le
lworki,.,.. un-ter the lc- .er::hio of the ~ni. .Yv of i.h.: -Ai l-] ,
T nup- :tx,:6. .n.d ur. Y. He-e the .n .ntx' we-e -vr :.enI in i.-.L"
nuaber- th- n the other -,roupL., for they vere, so to say, the
c ntr .ctors of this p rticul r ..p..-::ii 1. 4 1:., Oivi Al.i. in-', tI Ce
groups nas t Abmip ho:.ever, as the c.rl-i pro, re. r e ', 11 i,=
T.. n.vi, ..n itx' .. Vuir t:-.i'36,_ .i t o ", ,. "h at r .'-, .
T nup .,,tx LM- r: .c .C out the forest .E-cti ..u to be le -I b.y
--.1,,.. to thus ;:ots *Lthout :( ,,in :a o '-t at -'i -'.-. !Ith
his txe. He C n- L t he I-.:s +h le det by c--'.: -- i..
tl. -, o:.ii .rs.
Stiv of ot .rup, vere so ;, uch
as Uru-:ui.1 of 1.e 7' -v ..1 W.. ..r' of the u3l..- .' :t t ,
S o I 1, :i'-
h gone to hi:; g .rmi. :, aniitoM.i prob bl/ nted to V'-,, ee t-in
S.. Irn~- :ho. he h. t ie.. ni i ioh6 h st yc hc,.-e ,.. ir hit t
on ftAlled ti'-.. *.i vw tct 1,.
/1C / u ch m;lm, a u'..' s he felt It,. desire tc 21: ,j-..e
a :.'- or ia.-.l as he .- .e'l i. l .-. vicitty of the y- ,
.'I,, n to cn o. .t did not see. to .-..te .1 t
o fellow v.. ...:e!r L.a f .ht to Itr over the o lic-L 1' chlievii"L a-,I',
but : joy-.u'- cr,' est ainst the b t io . .-: t. ,lit-
,.t tne for I:t as hole, for i vas .t i...- mat- ;
coca-.ueCri:,e. each I-e, indivi.,.u ll : ith th, brute s -,-2i. th :e
ar" but lso a m-tter of str:te V y. First i inci .i. :- a ...e
irto. guc numbti' of trees in uc a y .[ t they c oul .11 fall
in the sme die.cti..n -" h .ai t.t U.rtir neI. hboc' le ..' a :inst
theLi in 1' Co.)-ite di ectt. ., l th, f."-.st i e.
felled, said f-.i in s'ic.' v. th-t .t dr. ith it .. the
g couru. its ello e ekened b t' e c.xe.
Aftt;r '.orkiin. f. e vhile to ,.n extra -.e of exc;'t.iL ., e .ch
rn --ould r st until he felt like res-,..'.i hi t ;. i'.,. e.-e .11
quit.-- Ailig- nt.
The I,.i l: coor I to diff'i k t r:.yLh' th: n that
followed by the iei of our civil tion. . o not c out the
: t-,-s- every d;;.y, at a cerl_ in i tt-i nd for C.;- e i., terio.' of
t i.n, but gives ',in elf up ;it'. .I senses ,-tre ,r.iL to
'.h tev~r t2sek e.- 1e. t o hi c t -ce& r:. "t ih .0vnt A L.
it-_ to hi; cr'e Liv'. ur: e, h, '... Li,, he doe: 1o0 re
ht.a .elf but i --' L-. h, v '. o : until ht. is coiplefel, Exh. uE.i.x...
Lo !pl-, he i.ivc-. hi.-.e.lf ith such f .n ici. to the fc-lli'., of
tree thiL t on the follo' 11.' ..y he c- h rdly :..t ou: of hi h 1L.c'.
fr musul.r p in /101/ SA sC! L s he feel. :: little Letr, e
c~rves a o' -st ve or vreves basket ucdenly, he feels cr vi..
for b n r. If he h no b r.. n:s left t hoie, the [: .... to
ih.. ,. to wt tet a nev ;up ly. He returns s( [:.erin_ unfer +n
enormous lo.- for he brii,-s as much he ca carry. and .l-hough
by thiL: ti-:t he is re re ti' enough t-o lie L in .h h r.1 iuck
in, i a b t-h he ,. fulfill hi_ uii. i as t s cE-; nd
1i ._er x thrc.u:.hout the r.i ht), ul le -4 ,s ie .; of l, I a
th-- re..te legs a-d lunr s, of five stc ..., amles.
/lOE/ On [th other h nd, it 1,is true tht LI...re re ._ t
.' 'c--s. .'n ith- v rious tribes a s :r is iu tr lou .ie ;. is
e...-er u: u- the T pir y be poii't out -b in e .-cL 1y
i i'i& t,." t e t!L; m i.n' 1h ', i h d .n : buAt. .ce
of food, n i ite of thi they worked very ,', in t,:ei, .rde:.-
L '. o t.,t the i Aelv- up t: th .' less zel . ,..-.v. ; to their
fiu u' civili: ti:.-', the th. r r 'ct.lon of .-c'. tool_. 1.h .~- 'iy
be .in dL-.e of ears go ":'rcu h "': r e ster. et'hbor tr .e
j _l the 1 c of n-li. etivitie; or bc:n hcad x eff: ct
h O -l -ome fafthr
di :ectly opro ite to th -t ;ner in 'te Itr't ;-.. civilize by u..,
thzt I.. to .-. .v. of their cult'- 1 in ..[r- ce,
ir i r
f.., . . .. .. .. ..-... .. .. .. ... . . o f
. ..rh I- dir rc ..t -f- 1 ry1 .'" yn-re
.-nor the' p.-op.r cot..ext, hot-'-r, Sto discoure .-bout .hea.
ih-se tLo fo or h id4 not hirer 'T he vitl f,-c.:- or imp ir the
c' tiv-e it." of the Ir'.i.n'i, but t r guara.nt ee l ieir -ub ist.:,.ce
i. lcre ..e 0t:-ir el -be in: If, in pite of .i .., :.o, .i. of
*t ene ... i re- 9 r-.L nT'r' the pir p4, /106/ the e. LU-..t
D- ,..uht :-e .here, Thi.:, he. ever, is not th-- proper CULnte:L. to
4 ..j- -ru- --brtm t them,
/,-:.t .. ior,/ -!.- pl tehi. *' a :coll-ective t'sk ,:!O.t iie In .i ,. .
..uch .s the p .'ird of the i pir p4, cn-- has the iac.re...-ion tih t
the joy with whichh it is done incre se- ;he strerp,.tho,z o f A *
As I che.i hoi.t- mr i, Ic'-, t -.' h-. -. o-e .. th: phy i .ue
of aut dole- cents, cur. .uerir pice lfi,--r otice a. h. hue f j-.t
::cou.. .':. I ub E vve.i c--ore't of 1he o . y eriouen n,.
. iou..s ss -hi ,i ch r eterize so -.uch &. the rc-ll.ectiv- v~.l,1i. on
us, Joyou_ .hour. eche'. n.. pe Is :;' lu ght-r t .. o Cut. on t _- ry
".:e hi., nee' ret L t u, the felled trun.~: -. ..y h ve
:.' e 1, rLt of cui<,,:,C I .... ve:c .. lo... i The. 1. c-e
,u of. .. .4ke. pi.e, ..u- iernl.- the-e a lot of _.hcu"ir.,
thI- 11 C Al- r ..i a shoL '. o joy. r -te i u. of live ti .!e s
h- ., /1L7/ 1 r A a E - t le '.w 1-. cr hi th
ihti T.-r..t:. noise, dLr G inr lo,.w in i fll it ve c:: i' C... ios
,' <.- C : ii while, a voice :. :, i r, bc-hin-. -te trees,
Or.e- coull not Z-. ho it I ;s, but the all i.u,. f.L. c-. r' clo.e,
Ii- li '1r, the boys rus.htL., bo the po h h: voic/c J.e fic
'. the, fretur..-' i.h *t e.i.r ar .t. full of b r n t iey r .,'
j L.[1 :,;1 to u-; -.. 4 s d tribut,-1 .! i *,i.
T ,- b i- :. re ch-. a ler th of 30 cer'.- ate s
1id-i e circu'iv e t i ,c- of 15 to '-O c--ti ,eLers, h,.e mic.-. brcu ht tihe
in it :e t.* i .e to ohe ,.o.ki -. .. ., but ri-. v .' r-, out _' f 1he ,.. ..,
i: to 0i. . r ith tLhei o10d.
,hne .Li. of (0h- b r-, f w v s bl ck ; ih -eir fe:.i -" Ire .y
bt'i -,.-L- I too .L.2 t. hi... is the c-.,, itiox in i b cl. the pir p4
like. th-_- best 'e fruits : g the,-': -,hen t:-e ni burie-i at
h.= ,not here th-. ;_,.r,-:. r- j"' do "'!.- s: me thi. .. In the
su.-h. -e .'ou- the b r c.. the ire st- te of roLteru.e.s
move quickly th-- if 'hr. ere ker. It .>- ie. too, they re
rl her. t: :c-,.' -.ut of the r-ound, "' e e -r; i'. fu"thez to
the I-. 11 -ns.
h1 are nc, pe le" in order to b e&. ten. 'he I ou(:i skin
is cp:.,' little ;.t one of ihe tips, or t the tip is ple ed
beti.en the 11is n" the '-:i.- slol.. Em-ptied b. : sqIue:;-'in'. it ith
he f i.. ei-s so theft 'hr pulp gru dully eut c.-. the .:-uth. i' .h6
:,e one b. n n .fter another, As for elf, I foul'. ~ he.
/108/ The ss .. l ile r, ,-uite io- when -e left. "ie fu~ ged
head t r. id p ce, one lehiL.i ihe other 11" the v h t il, "e
-,ere not far fro the villr c-. vhen the thppe-c ito 11,
cle .-e-, trli n-ular ce -h. vome. s t ir I1 r,:r of hi: -
Sn .-. lo*oel--.- u: in IiL:.ce. Th. ome. : 1is h t '
into r:ce -:.cup.s which led ith he o k- :u- c-f their
husb -1d i;. f: .tIhe.. h., h d pl ce. I.ts f food on .he re
". s :e '' -. ement. -i ..e b:n.n I : f :.u. I ui, cotton-
seed i.-:.l, toasted kar r. m-ny o hl- r good .i s. *.- ,.-l. -i".u te
oj_7 f, .,! the poi -: v-hich hd Lce- pl ce,. foir i t 0:pcfic f ot,
T'-e ee .llpi- ,u titless for the Tr v4, bv.. u i. -e
fever, I -.as invited fr.- 11 is e, r: .i.ce I f. .s vei, huiry
r".d not up v_ the other l u* .up.. :,1l.i when I bew-iK'.i to &
.. em-i- *n- .!'" I put -o n, ill: uc-, sho of ..urpiise, the b n .: -.,-.oup
pot of the ln YnLx' fro-.i which I h d just p rt. 1.er, -n: 'Lcel re th t
I -s T.'r,'v4, This f: et, hoe-ever, Ail not _ee; t.c. be of u.e tA
i 1oi'tance to my hosts.
The eS 'e -- tied, the ae ... i 1. c e
pice'. ..i.e. un, n took ci-e'i h-1 1 1h oen fullo ., n
.ke i i-st, ith the .uii ,rxir? i bhin., the .d ', .'
1 .t. Th-- kept this o'.:, -rt me b- t Ihe rve:. I
ste: .e-.--not unin-t t-loTi 11;r--into -'h r.i. t of ih-. V i.. txi.i
/109/ a s .n S t Lhe v 1. <- Ii .: nih ., 1. .
to move. '.he men rn i. hi to the kPr. .et ;..,s- -l-v---p
S o 'ie n i. e 'est in this,
...i, e, ire U L i.\fo-r i, :i' v pr t to ih'i.': huts,
The cin p- i st. o.. in i (r. clust in front of ,.he
entr ;ice. In e- ch pAir, s v:s cus to0.ry, .,:, of the !ei I.1a hi
.,- .cross the olher1' shoul>rs, ''.il his c. .: rtc h.:.-l his arm
:ac'.-s tj ( I' hips. Boc, hel in the oth r r. ,. clu,
bush-kniife or bo,-. In the mi 'st of ;-he :-rcup s .c,: h-- le *ii pair,
T nutp nix6 Vu-iri, *ihe aut.v of .ntx ''. .1 i.tx: t1 h1d
noI- la .ee I ih the Vui nmtxini6. Of ;h- T'. -v6, L tly -:, i' h6,
Urukum t .:t I h d come. "e ,,' ye. ne r, ".,
Fir .t, "ho !:.'a a ,.- for vtile .:, the -ae put. u u 1,
,,_.., p e lie gru,-.., 11 t l e -i h the C fioo
1.i' ;r7 lter I ,(l .. r .1.-i ri.h to left, .,' ko. .---i.. -i:i k e
.,lrgh:ly ben, n h.' n.-: 'ie p rt of L hc o y .:h hly bur fo1. r.
Tl.en e le n',. p : r ,1n l y icv,'.- y f -c.. , ,-b pot. -..ey
(1 *c c ith sE" 1 -p1 out of 'he The. oC h ,r.. fA.llu e in
the '. -. ic.. ../ 11 i u'.-e- one p ir afitr Ihe other, r lo 1 ,
tbo -.rd Vu t : ''its hou.:.e, s ,.. Ln. i. t :.oui . shouts r their i1 n
1her. they r.. chen the house cf the ..ecur. leader, ,he
proce :-.i,. Lrok up, 'iiy not sc tter, ho ev~ie, but re. ir'.,.
clo.e toogether /110/, '.he r0 e Lc& r. It i- c cLe, 'h"tuf, "L.h
Snu "I r.rJ." The .*,.l ..cn .ct :. i h i h ini-Ji tion y-. r, u thus A
riL, f ce n'.. bo,'j cuiplc t ly biL-e:C1. th i eiip ?, t t
i ,ie in a st- Liht line c he dn-- ,1 to bdb; n, At
.. ir. h6to hou-e. c'iu II/, 1. :e vs no soj, to be "e che: i':.t
b t. -. in:.er, th .. e s ,. 1 e .:' I'c- p: et tors. It hi.t ht
:.;O:t L be i. that L eiere ". i I IL..ee., the .!e i,'e to be
ii.:.l-. ju-t., or t'... .le out saro m egacI-s1 1.aE .-- ty is ".,t
:i .if'e. ', e. b L. e e, Ir,! r: ,samana ind i p' .h bly ev ."re g .: a
b* i her.s i-ie- to hce h r. n; of the cmvinuilty. h.e -e ces
aiei'&rely ..ee-ae-. to be rnL :ni- as uatuo f .:,t A:.. po :.ble cro-s ;
the ,C _1.. c--. L '. E.'v C t.". T1've s. ;. .i. own
.bll L ." s,.on s :'- ruivner, rt che Kaca ir h6 s .,uu.,e, they
re, '-*i I':e 'i ..itu- 1 holi .I AL e .Ie gr : Lou :t e ch. othcr-,
1. In a lett' o: FeLiu ...,. o-', .i'.? t _i-Lu ji
.-rote ae- of the Tihabira, a Ge tribe: "The Tiibir 1..o
h-ve a p l..-el r. c.i -.crosa the vll. .oe pl z.. (-hich is
300 meter:-; in dil.Jeter). It i:. usu 11y h-ll follo- i:..
a rcrF. import .-'.' cer .torn It t ': 11E'. .." .: (0 .
'v ll... e pl.z2:., .n- :.'io ..., crotsh) "
L te -'-1', Inef. of 1:he inei 1.o tc.k p :r' .U: th-: t.-_t*, evei: the
! "old I- p.r" T '.t:ov. '.I. "'h-n 4aa 1ie :- fell, thl, all ent ho..ie.
O'lyr y. d'_e' p ir.. had ru ItogeCthtr, lo" ithev h d ;L .etc,' out hen
the un '1 Alre iy sun.: behind the forest.
- ., ~ -r
* ~. r'-4**** .4-, .
PH-' 0 G PH.:
7. c re of men *;omern.
0; The r. ce t ,l.i'htf: ll folio; i .. -
1I. o0n[ii ptu, i:.; uruu.,
/l/ the -olni. ftetcn:K ihe ;: ao* her _r '_i_ ,
.t different S .ct- '.e rt cp.. t- ,e o fe th..t ej'e J s
no 1r.ncing or r,..; .- "7 t';:, .biggr r s .ir held
1- r ..l the I.1 .. thij P.'.;.. 1o tLhe nort- ct ..- the vill e.
'hu r .xiri are held c- .i. f f ,.r-t 31a. s t dif f c.*-:t 0.uta.
ot Ill the mer tIe 'r Cane Iorl. To i:.el,.. in their r
.e : n ;. others st .
' . .- .".-- .. ,^ .