Correspondence, 1938, 1947


Material Information

Correspondence, 1938, 1947
Series Title:
Guatemala Project Files
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Wagley, Charles
Charles Wagley ( donor )
Publication Date:
Physical Location:
Box: 1
Folder: Correspondence, 1938, 1947


Subjects / Keywords:
Anthropology--United States--History
Galvao, Eduardo Eneas
Gurupa (Para, Brazil)--Photographs
Indians of South America--Brazil
Tapirape Indians
Tapirape Indians--Photographs


General Note:
Folder 7

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID:

Full Text


October 29th., 1938

Dear Charless

I received your two letters and was very glad to hear froa you. v" '." hav sny :..
about .-' me infor -:... about Cuatemala. that I can send you. It is indeed a pleasure
for me to do so. First of i.', I do hope that your South XAerican platnfall thru, as I
want to see you back in -' "-. Rather selfish of me to say that, because it would
be an experionoe for you to go to SoWth 1aericas, .' then one certainly wants to see
g..- fr'i-.'. ...J-.ii. I must not' loose much time giving you the inf o..:'n you want
as per your second 1"tter ,' October nth, so here goes what -. 'I- and T have been able
to gather about it.

Natalie and I went to the Archivo to secure a copy of a Recopilaoion de Le'r Agrarias
de Guatemala, which contains almost e,- LHiE. that you wa- t to have about the land laws.
This, Natalie sent you already by last mail, I have been away on a tour and c mea c1k
a day -f I have now with me a copy of this .oo* and wish -o 'rin, to your attention
the l':s that seem to me to i ar on the *"ject ,Ji.. interests you. So I -till state No.
of low and page where it is printed.
P.5. Ley VIj., P.. L1 V., P.6,. Ley "1L:J., P... Ley F7..,, F.7. Ley YII:J.,
P.9. Ley XVIIIJ., P.S. Ley :...'..., P.9. Ley XX., P.10. "rd. and 2nd. e:-di:-.
before last one on left hand side column, P..i Ley i- and Ley fr and Ley %.
P.14. Art.7. of Instruccion etc., of F.13. P.26. Art. 7 of TnrtrucoiIn etc., on
P.". P."J. 1st. and ".. said -e. P.44. "-.-L.7 to 10 .' Instrucion
on P.43. .."...; "" "- P.7'. Mo.378 Ley la. P.56 :o.37' Ley 2a. P.5.. Tc.
1 Loy 4a. and on to P.84. ',F..)OS ET AL. The most j.p'tant 1.i. is on P.90,
Decreto i/170 and Circular on P.93. *:,-. read thru the subsequent laws.

."n I.---ed with this letter lie has copied for you the !-aws .... r l a.'J dealing with the
land policy. So this will give you a -i opportunity to prepare a very e'l.'..ini i,
disertation on the land policy f the Spanish C.- ard the Inder se. 2 Coverrents.
The above answers your and partially your second stion. As to why these laws were
given, it :would appear that from q '- timeo on to the preseat,the o-rerment has wanted
the Indians to possees land and togeslitles for saine. This hisa us to the actual
s1. i ir,:. where Indians hold lands, with titles sizee colonial ties) without titles
(c j*'.-: and tierra communal) and privately : land also without s o doubt there
must have been a reparl .-,-* of land :-ter Independence vhen the eJiier: were distributed
tothe dwellers c' a munici-. But fro7 y :r' -os on to the presort certainly there have beer
repartinientos; by Barrios to ill-ianos (war veretans) a11d by P'hsident '" .-o wo has
formed various col:~.i s of i.' utt-. land is mostly to non Indians it would seems.

Thi most dificul -'-estion to answer in your second letter is .. ':.. the situation inside
tie municipio when land was held by a common title, because this is r.. r': ional and can be
glean at only by in'erence fr- the laws and I have not '- able ;o find ary-'.', iL definite
that regulates this situation, and therere ae no Indian now that would remaeer that far
back (117 years ?>0). I was so perturbed about the matter that today I as1ed Natalie if
she wate.d to go to M.-ta Maria de Jesus uzxai with me so that I could find out from the
neaONsAv..P. to the City how the :'.' i ad been there in olden times. So we rode to
Antigua this ,f'#er'noon end just got back with a very interesting answer. Hone of the Indiar
there know what rit-:- on prevailed there before Barrios time, All hold titles to their
land. But there are a little over 5 caballerias (say 550 acres) of land which is still
comunal land. There ?50 men plant their corn, those that own no land. The land has been
distributed way far back (the Indian s..d to me 10 years ago but his subsequent remarks
Lf-- y tlis statement) by a man which he called "Caporal". This man is chosen for this /
post by the Indians owning no land. rt', adult male is Jv-r. 5 c.' de 40 varas Ech.
This land he uses "2-rev r" provided he does not re the moral code of the community
Stealing, and,1 suppose other such things as would make him .J.-jectionable to the community.


4o" P9-t
U101 -

When I Tcy "forev--" itkeans that he and his sons use it. If the man dies, his eldest
son takes the us,..:-e of the In.rd. 7,-:. land ry.. be laid fall if it needs a rest, one
or more years and user .:-f same does not looo.-. the ri:g:t to this Iad. It was beyond
the infori-n'.. un...e.. -'.-d...g ho' the land could be left without cuill ivatior. if it was
:ill fr riil ', n I tried to ask hiL if the user of the land would loose it if he did
not cal.tiv~.'e it for a year or more '.ith-'.t. a lei"i-:'--.e excuse (because the recent laws
state this very clearly), Fow, care must be .".:r1 not to generalise ":is case of !'ita.
:. :ri-. de s"i I don't know how it is in : '.. :..rg Chimal~tir -:-o & most i xcu& in
C'hii.hic.rtencnu-, .5 r nd t.''. tll !be, -.T to the coy1j. ,d. From ithi.. example of
l-irs. still owned by th "eii! ui4y in .,"-'-is de Jesus possibly an analogy may te made with
what happened in co.o'.. tir'.ec. As regards .-yrp-nt for this land in S,., the Indians are
?ye.ipte from doir so by peci- ..*.',mi:ri ,-.n 7.. if you -,"d +.i-'. the laws right after
Inderendn:c'- - d ,Pirri.- .amlmi KhitB mmCEAk3i you will see that oeynent was expected for
the use .f commu.rnti land. The payment was c-.'L7d 7207T "7'rTT1CUT.0 and t-d. last word
me "Caorni.n pner'per.u o ;,r lpe.:-o t c .. *': domino iP.4i' de un inueble mediante el
c;o annual do un pre:i. (canon) y de un r-rlchc (price also) por cadsa rna ci'.n del
d1ico d-.iib'"1 '.''th a 1 .0nri.'h '"n,-1.'-h dW- -"'r-i*y you 1will the r..ain.-. of this defiitio:
which I do nn+ want to translate as I -,Agh' ch'n.'r: the --.'n'," of the words, !-i C7'.:c
which is a rent, was also i1*i-1 in cLonial times, "u. where is the law regul.tin-.h itj I
d nt know, It is a pity tha- ,-ou are so ruthe3 o-.i. this matter, as with more time
a more t1:oreL'-h research could be made here in the "'cchve and per'Fe;- find it.

Thh effect of Frnsir'.,r-al decrees was,that many e-i-'Erc.i titles to their lands, 1jht
after P s or say to .4, 1.. acres of land were 'r4. ., to privJ-te property.
Thin does not by n: ns refer to Tindi1'- alone, but s Ich the figure I have fr"
a publication ieal -'.- bout n'-r.::'ian laws .. to I believe 1890, which publication has
no name or date, as the let few pares arv ieci-g.

Question #5. To whom did they pay censo antes? Pardo saa:, to the ::'"'"l oerent. *y
own :..:.-.0.:" is, that :..- was r-.' to the "'-'jade r..m'.3..,. But Pardo miht be right. Ho:w
much? I cant nser h yet, untl find out or :.' .' t.' tter,

Estate of of te pric of a cuerda :. vras in the -..-..-._.-. .. l .,:...* A nr ol
ac2rO e acres for .-C.,".C near .

There is a dil '"~rence between rd -i and the commun ., An ejido c" a sq, league
was 1'P:. to each and every town or AOil,, e ,,-i.-. ,-..,i-.". L'-'... 7 ', e .r', according
to defCinj ,, is the couna land not ool ..A...& used for common .. .. The
cou -al land gre:. up from the fact ihc:. the ejil... was :J-' di-i'g n... h to givt and
to everybody to plant (against efLi. on) extr. 1 ~i. grated by the ..*:".l
'C:rn for that purpose. Later on he wr& e ji? has .-. -..'cl i,..isi..:ily i.:r co.unal
ld .:i. land and set aside for the use of the v:', such as pasture and l.i.,.r hliiid,
?ut I feel that every vill.L still oWKs its litL:.i plot of eoi, which i.r called now
conlunal lai.l.

RLf.+. h ~ .L might 6;lv, you very .a data on Ch.l.ic:.".. '.Q and *.l^i:', as she
mentions in 'l 2 ;mL;*ologu ph..: "The 'Quic 1'... have a real lan problem aL.o",
so she must have .":::~ -r' 2 re.a.'.' to the '.I htrj' .. of l id withe ^ui.C h.E'.

I regret that I an so uL..... f in the information I can give you on the questions you have
sent me, b eL believe me 1. does -* i11 a d..rr ud. ariort of research since any o these
matters are bL.ied- ii- stacks of papers in the Archives,

','.h rgard to the 4.... e.tion of your paper that you sent me, when you come to ".;atemala
I will tcjik the matter over with you.

Very ..regards to r.. r.-i.' to whom please c.'.v." the new that I am axnx 'i.rring
my -. to go to the C-. :es to study, also to Charles WVithere, whom I would very much like
to see back in uatemala, and to you my pest wishes for a fplcndid' Thesis and your return
to ; i,.1..

_______ CL 4 ^ A4 J cl^ ^ .t j^_____or . y^ J___________

o/o American Legation,
Guatemala City
Friday Oct. 28

Dear Chuck:

For days I've been composing an answer to the letter that
you wrote Tony, but I haven't time at the moment to send you other
than the briefest of notes. I'll send the other letter some time
during the coming week.

Tony was just about to go on tour when your letter ar-
rived, so he turnedit over to me, and together we went for a mom-
ent to the Archles presided over by his friend Pardo (who knows \
everything). One obvious thing was to send you a copy of the
Agricultural Laws up to 1890. I sent off the booklet by th^NY
boat and it should reach you the end of next week I think. The
laws that follow that time are varied and various, and I have copied
some of them for you. I'll add to this letter whatever it will hold
in the way of literature, and then send the rest next week, after T.
has returned from his trip and after the three of us have gotten to-
gether for a confab. I have an idea that you will have your work
cut out for you in reading and digesting that tome which I sent, and
that you won't mind any delay that may come in receiving this.

As for your questions, we shall try to go over them and
do what can be done. That too will have to come next week when tik
T. has recovered from this week's bout with tourists.

T. did not give me the drink you ordered in the next-to-latt
letter, the nasty-man. I'm afraid I'll have to wait for you to deliver
it in person.

Hasta luego, and in some haste,

Sunday Oct 30

Dear Chuck:

Here is some more mss. for you. I am sending it by

straight mail, tourist-borne, because I think that it will arrive

by the time you need it, irrespective of the mode of communication.

I sent the first three pares of this by air mail last Thursday and

trust that they arrived safely.

Tony is back from the highlands but I haven't yet seen

him. If he recovers from his absorption in his navel, we shall pro-

bably get into a huddle with Pardo and try to answer your questions,

some of which I trust have been answered already by the pamphlet

which should have arrived by this time. I copied almost everything

I found in the two volumes cited on pages 10 and 11 herewith enclosed,

on the general theory that too much copying was better than too little.

Undoubtedly T. will condemn much of the labor, in which case I shall

include his deletions when we next write.

In the interim, good luck and pleasant journeys. I 'still

am going to write you a long letter on the subject of Travel in the

Cuchumatanes, but at the moment I am fed up with letter-writing and

this will have to suffice.

Be a good boy, and come down soon

[________I__ 1'A4 t____ 6A -kM

A- -

in close contact with civilization. It felt good to hear the
oar coming through those wild meadows to fetch me back to
Huehuetenangoe. I said goodbye te the Guchumatanes and to a
most marvelous experience.
Saturday I saw Mr. Rocinos and left your sleeping bag with him.
It certainly was a godsent at T.S. I bought 2 rolls of T.P. to
include with the sleeping bag for Mr. Recinos to forward you at
first opportunity. I get to Quetzaltenango very late that after-
noon. axu 5 o'clock. Decided to spend Sunday in Quetzaltenango
and flew today to the City,
I have been getting some data on Jllip we made and here it is
in ease it is of interest to you:e
Huehuetenango: 6,156 feet above sea level.
San Sebastian: 3,559 "
Santa Isabel : 7,775 7 "
fan Juan Atit. 7,940 "
Chimaltenango: 7,369 "
San Pedro N. : 5,085 "
Todos Santoa: 8,104 "
I .am leaving tomorrow on a tour, so will not have time to
get the other dope I want, but will inform you what I can
find here. More about Chimaltenango, etc.,
I am suseribing you here to El Imparolal.
With kindest personal regards, and wishing you the best of
luck in your work and the best of health carefull L the
"alambique") please remember me to Carmelo, Dofia dVLa and
don Amalie, and awbaitag to hear from you soon, I remains
as always;
Yours very sin rely


Todos Santos Cuchumatan,
June 26. 1938

Charles Wagley,
West 115th street,




'^ aqal. /
q*an 'aqal yellow ear ;
saq 'aqal white ear
Planted Maroh 15-20
Harvested Se-Gandae /
,in Dec. and Jan.
Cultivation f the 'aq Varieties
see following ge



S aqwa
q'an t-wits yellow ear
saq xal white ear
Planted April 15
Harvested after Candelaria or
Candlemas (Feb.2)

Have just returned from my trip through the department where I secured complete
corn data from 25 different pueblos and aldeas, including your beloved Chimalte-
nango. While there I also made a list of the relationship terms you wanted, in the
same alphabet I sent you the others from Todos Santos. I will get right down to
business and transcribe my notes herewith, for it will take quite a while, and
I have so damned much to do to get all my material together, it is really a tre-
mendous job, and I may be sent to Peru any day, although that is not at all certain
yet. The following material on Chimaltenango will appear in my publication on
maize cultivation in Huehuetenango, better arranged and compared with the other
towns, but meanwhile you may be able to extract from it the desired material:
Santiago Chimaltenango, altitude approximately 7390 feet above sea level.
Population about 2000. Informants: Jost Clotilde Lopez, 32, and Gregorio Martin, 46.
Approximate area o f municipio (I am not treating it as an aldea, as it will soon
be made a municipio again due to a new acuerdo) is 1,730 acres, same as area of
Colotenango and about 700 acres more than San Juan AtitAn. As most of land of munioipio
is above level of town, it is less productive than San Juan, and does not produce
enough corn to support the population, although I feel that it almost does. T y
have to buy every year. Some sanjuaneros plant on Chim. land, and pay,e'rental of
8 jornales for the use of an amount of land that can be planted with one almud ("4)
of corn, or in other words, 10 ouerdas of 25 varas each side.
40 ouerdas is considered a poor holding for an individual, some ri -Ahave as muo 'a5
200-300 ouerdas, with a possible average holding of 100 cuerde4* This is much 1j:ger
then in the majority of the towns I have studied, end : ,ue to the small popu ati
in comparison with the large amount of land in the m P940o. Mozos are paid 1
cents per day or _e -e-e.ra 5 lbs. corn per cuerda i*nch results about the same.
Instruments used in cultivation, eto : azad6n .09k ; machete f" 'matjete
haoha '*k'ubil (last vowel neutral); paohan plantng stick) 'aup:il (i is neutr.)
garavate (wooden hook used in conjunction with maohete)- fok ; home-made small hoe -
'qoxbil (i neutral).
Their is practically no land h n OY,, exapting the small amount of montaa or
forest on the high summits, h is only about ton cuerdas, or slightly more than
one acre! This is not p d to corn. either i -re much grass land, and paj&n
for thatching houses i brought from San Juan.
e i eD /t a ded a- a nd
The corn may be d:lded into two groups:aqaVld aq w_ and used for summer and winter
planting, .esp..tvely. There are two kinli of seed in eah group:,



Slanted in March. First oultivatibn or limpia in April or May, done with hoe and
weeds buried. Milpa is about 1 foot tall and weeds sameheight. One man can oulti-
vate one ouerda per day in this way.
Second limpia in June, when plant is 2 varas tall and weeds about six inches. Pro-
cedure same as in first limpia, but is easier, some do two cuerdas per day. Weeds
buried. Some lower leaves of corn plant stripped off and left on ground for ferti-
lizer. Plants flower in July, elotes or roasting ears obtainable in September.
Harvested in Dec.
Cultivation of aq wa varieties:
Planted April 15. First limpia June 15. Milpa 8 inches tall, as are weeds. Hoed
at mx rate of one ouerda daily. Weeds buried. S eeond limpia in July. Plants half vara
tall, weeds half that. Can hoe two ouerdas daily. Third limpia in August. Milpa
six feet tall and weeds six inches. Hoed under. Two ouerdas per day. Fourth limpia
in November (not always done). With machete, weeds out and left on top of ground.
At this time plants are flowering. Can chop 4 ouerdas per day. Milpa is about
2 and one half varas tall. Harvested in February. Elotes in December. (NOTE:
in no their plaoein the department are four cultivations given, and rarely does one
find three. Two limpias are the rule). 3
Usually the Rx 'aqal varieties are planted in the highest lands of the municipio,
just below them the aq wa varieties, and in the lowest and hence warmest parts of
the area another kind called pafiok is sown. One man can plant about 4 ouerdas per
day and uses in this some 5 lbs. of seed. Planted by making hole with paohtn and toss.
ing in 6 grains to each hole.
As the Chimaltecos do not use animal manures, they are forced to let the land lie /j
fallow. AS there is plenty of land, this is easy. Usually they try to have three
different parcels of land. Each parcel is planted in rotation for two years, hence
is also rested four years. In these four years a woody vegetation usually springs
up and when ready for planting the parcel is chopped over with machete (2 ouerdas per
day) in April and when dry is burned off and then planted. The usual yield is 100 lb1
shelled corn per ouerda first year, and 75 the second.
Sod land, which has only a ghort vegetation, and no woody growth, isplanted in April
with iron-pointed paohan (ground is very hard then) and not cultivated until after
first rains. Then given the four cultivations above mentioned. The rozas or burned (
lands receive only three limpias.
Corn plants are planted at distance of 2 varas apart on ggod land and at vara y media
on poor land. Replanting occurs 20 days after pa&t4at planting. Plants are not
topped nor doubked..
Harvesting is unusual, as it is like a log-rolling. Owner usually seeks help enough
to complete harvest in one day, women and b ildren help. Usually one person can
harvest two cuerdas per day, and each takes a row. The small ears or muloos are
kept in the tapanoo and eaten first, while the large ears are kept in a bin of corn
stalks in a corner of the house and not utilized until later.
Costumbres connected with corn cultivation.
My data iw probably incomplete on this. dut there are at least three costumbres,
that of the planting, that of the harvest, and that uponing opening the bin.
At planting time they burn candles and oopal mixed with egg before the seed, and pray.
This occurs in the house and again in the milpa to be planted, where a small wooden
cross has been reacted in the middle of the field. At harvest time, this same rite
is repeated before the same cross and also at the spot where the corn is to be piled
preparatory to carrying it home. The third rite is just before opening the bin of /
large ears, and after all the muleos have been eaten. It consists of burning a roojs-
ter's blood with the oopal and candles, and prayer that the corn about to be begun
may not soon terminate. All these oostumbres are called in lengua tApoaal rin
which means literally "the corn's oopal".
Beans of various kinds, as well as chilaoayote are planted with the corn.

^^^> '-----------*- ------ J in`0^

I presume this information will satisfy your needs, but if anythingneeds clearing
up, letme know. Now for the xasi relationship terms:

Mother u Mother,vocative nan Father man

Father,vocative ta Grandfather +an Grandfather, vocative tao

Grandmother jai Grandmother, vocative nan .Great-grandparents same as
or grandchildren in general
grandparents. Grandson( grandfather sp.)- tmnan grandmother sp.- b etJjl

Children wl (NOTE: they told me the woman thus referred to her children and the
man says k-wal, but this prefixed k sound undoubtedly means "our", as in M.Nx Man
generally. So wal is probably the form for both).

Son kjahl (my son n-kjahl-i)

Daughter UeSx

SElddr brother (man speaking) sikj (ny elder brother n-sikj-e)

Younger brother itan (my younger brother w-itsn-e )

Sister, elder or younger, (man speaking) aaibe 'anib (my sister -'w-anib-e)

Sister, elder or younger, (woman speaking) Jipn (my sister n-Lipn-e *
'(Through an unforgivable oversight I lack the equivalent oe brother, woman speaking)

Brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law .balik (my brother-in-law- n-'balik-e )

Father-in-law, son-in-law -. i (This is also the vocative form) My n-xi

S Mother-in-law, daughter-in-law i'lib (Also evocative) My w-i'lib-i

Stepfather relations are similar to normal ones except that the particle bl is
interposed between the root word and the possessive ending, thus

My stepfather n-man-bli

My stepson n-kjakh-bli

My stepdaughter n-mex-bli
My stepmother n-tfu-bli

S ons and stepdaughters, stepmother speaking wuddlh=tx w-al-bli
n stepfather n-kwal-bli (NOTE. This
apparently invalidates my assumption in the first note above concerning wal and kwal
so that it appears.that the one word in its zwqiwK root form is al and the other kwal.
It is difficult to determine these root forms, as the terms are never used without
the possessive pronoun attached, which in case of a root beginning with a vowel is
the prefixed w, and a prefixed n if the root begins with a consonant. In the case of
the vowel, not only is zxx.a..t the w prefixed, but often an e or an 1 sound
is suffixed to the root. There is great variation even in so important a thing as the
possessive pronoun among the various villages of Mam speech.)

Godson tjel (my godson n-'tfel-ni)

Godfather tlel (My godfather- tlel-we')
(please note one istfel and the other tjlel) The suffixed we? means "mine
and differs from the attaohedpossessive pronoun in that it can stand alone.


Cousins are treated as are brothers, there being no special terms for them.
Compadre and oomadre are derived from the Spanish, thus, kom'pal, ko'mal.

A man's lover or oasera is not recognized by his children by his other woman
with any special term, theymerely refer to her as t-pax n-man, my father's asera.
The prefixed t is the possessive pronoun, third person, and the whole expression
merely conveys the relationship my father-his lover,

I hope that with this information you willbe able to complete your report to
the satisfaction of your jefes. Of course you will wee my report some day, but
it will then be of little use to you, for it will undoubtedly be delayed a great
deal in publication.

Many people in "himaltenango asked for you. Chico is quite all right, and grow-
ing fast. Your dog is now a handsome creature and quite large. Everyone wanted
to know when you were returning. I understand that Carmelo is now a traffic cop
in Guatemala. I shall return to 1 imaltenango for the fiesta of July 25 and to get
some notes on the lengua, which is rather different from the Todos Santos Mem.

Meanwhile, take care of yourself and write me once in a while.

*/' ; > 7 / z c / .

May 21st, 1938

Dear Charles:

I was very glad to receive your letter of 7th inst., and congratulate you upon
having passed your exams. I can readily understand how tired you must have felt
during thbsalast few weeks preparing for them, Now that you are working on your
thesis more leisurely, I hope I will hear from you more often. I feel very
complimented in seeing that you have liked my paper. By all means use whatever
you believe will be useful to you, of same. I do also regret that you did not. O
in for more linguistics at Santiago. It should be quite interesting to get some
of their texts, as it is Man, and not much has been done with it. La Farge and
others have worked somewhat the farther northern places, Jacaltenango etc., I
wonder whether Ray Stadelman will pick up Mam texts from Todos Santos.

In accordance with your wishes, as to information re corn in Santiago Chimattenango,
I send you herewith, the last Census of cultivation oorrespodning to this town,
as per official figures. I went to Estadfstioa here and got it for you* As Santiago
is now annexed to San Pedro Necta, the data was included in this municipio's census
of cultivation, but I was able to select the Chimaltenango figures, as dwelling
place of persons was stated in the census. I hope it will of some use to you.
I got also some information from the 1930 Census that was never finished, which I
will send to you some other time. Then Chimaltenango was still an independent
municipio. Do you know when it was annexed to San Pedro Neota? If you do, ok and don't
bother with it; If not I will try and find out for you'

The figures enclosed herewith are official, but perhaps it will be better not to
state so, as officials here are very reluctant in giving this information for
publication knowing that the data might not be quite exact, as they fully realise
the. people they have to wor Eh in those way out of place towns. If you use the
figures, use them as if secured by you, I mean don't quote "Official". 95 names
appear in the list. This I think is pretty good for a census of this kind, taking
into consideration the small number of inhabitants of Chimaltenango. Of the great
many more in Chichicastenango, a similar list shows only 514 landholders, which I
believe is ridiculous. If you have the exact number of landowners, then you can
work out these figures better* But as they are, they are quite interesting giving
an idea of the disttkbution of the land, size of holdings, planting and output.

S am trying to get the information on the oomunal and private land holding. Off hand
I know that before Barrios (1872) Indians held the municipio lands in a comunal form,
paying to the munioipio what was known as CENSO, rent, for it. But Barrios by
decree and since his time, almost every President has tried to get the Indians to
register their land as private holdings, having divided the comunal lands up into
small plots, and here I believe is the origin of the present land holdings. I am
getting you the actual Presidential Decrees, relating to this land legislation. I
know that Santiago Atitlan for example has as comunal land some 4500 acres,
and it appears that the Indians are not so keen in registering this land as not all
'4 of it has been yet allowed the the people of Santiago Atitlan. In other words, most
everybody owns land there, and there is still more to be had, which is kept yet as
eomunal land.

Your impression of Iatalie Raymond coincides entirely with my own. She is a most
brilliant girl, and I am glad that she is coming back to Guatemala, and do hope that
she does get to work of that guide-book. She should do a splendid job of it. She
"rites me that you might be going to Madagascar, so do you also, well it is a far
off place from Guatemala, but I sincerely hope that you go there and get a slant at
those negro primitive cultures. I am sending you by separate mail Reoinos Huehuete-
nango, with the compliments of the sender. Best regards, and write soou-
with i e of the Cordially, and wrt-

Municipio of San Pedro Necta, Departamento of Hue-
huetenango, Republic of Guatemala.

MAY 1936 TO APRIL 1937.

Land Units The "cuerda" of 625 sq. "varas",
A "Vara" is .835 cm.
Weight Unit: A qq.(quintal) is 100 lbs.

N. Name Total area owned Cuerdas of Corn Qq. of Corn Cuerdas Quintals
in cuerdas. planted, harvested planted harvested

1 Juan Diaz 40 28 14
2 Domingo Diaz 15 15 8
3 Diego Diaz 10 9 5
4 Jacinto Carrillo 8 10(0) 6
5 Martin Hernandez 20 12 7
6 Diego Diaz 6 12(0) 7
7 Dionisio Sanchez 3 12(0) 7
8 Juan Martin 30 22 15
9 Diego Hernandez 20 9 5
10 Jose Martin 45 25 25
11 Francisco Zacarios 6 8(0) 2
12 Diego Sanchez 5 10(0) 6
13 Diego Sanchez 2. 2 7(0) 4
14 Juan L6pez 27 16 13
15 Martin Hernandez 5 5 5
16 Domingo Diaz 2. 15 10 8
17 Juan Diaz 20 16 16 10
18 Victoriano Diaz 16 5 3
19 Aquilino Jimenez 2 9(0) 9
20 Juan Ord6iez 5 11(0) 11
21 Juan Jimenez 60 15 8 1/2(1) 2(1)
22 Juan Ordoiez 20. 20 10 10
23 Manuel Aguilar 25 10 8
24 Silvano Jimenez 50 10 10
25 Juan L6pez 2. 100 20 20
26 Martin HernAndez 30 10 5
27 Pedro Aguilar 20 12 10
28 Mariano Jimenez 25 12 10
29 Marcos Diaz 40 13 10
30 Jos4 Leon Hernandez 20 6 5
31 Juan Carrillo 10 10 9

TOTAL carried ford. 696 379 275 1/2(') 2(')

(0).- This must mean that not having enough land of his own, the balance of cuerdas was planted
in land belonging to somebody else.
(I).- Of lima beans.


- 2 -

N. Name Total area owned Cuerdas of Corn qq. of Corn Cferdas Quintals
in cuerdas. planted, harvested, planted harvested


TOTAL brought for'd.
Francisco Carrillo
Marcos Jimenez
Pedro Sanchez
Victoriano Diaz
Diego Jiminez
Gaspar Diaz
Juan Domingo
Pedro Aguilar
Domingo Jimenez
Marcoe Aguilar
Pedro Martin
Santos Domingo
Pascual Hernandez
Diego Martin 1.
Diego Carrillo
Juan Martin
Diego Diaz
Juan Godinez
Pascual Aguilar
Juan Ord6oez 30.
Jose Sanchez
Cesario Jimenez
Diego Bernardo
Julian Hernandez
Diego Hernandez
Martin Hernandez
Pedro Hernandez
Ventura Aguilar
Miguel Zacarios
Juan Perez
Diego Zacarios
Juan Diaz
Juan Chivez
Diego Diaz
Manuel Godinez
Manuel Andres
Pedro Jimenez
Domingo Jimenez
Francisco Martin
Ramiro Salazar
Manuel Godinez
Juan Chavez
: Diego Vicente
Juan Vicente





TOTAL carried for'd




See note on proceeding page.
Sugar Cane.-
Black Beans
Lima Beans.

3(# 3(')




1(") 2(4)
.,*' !









3(#) 8(')

'.-,, h

# 0

- 3

N. Name Total area owned Cuardas of Corn qq. of Corn Cuerdas Quintals
in cuerdas. planted, harvested, planted harvested.

.TOTAL brought for'd

Cruz Ambrosio
Julian Hernandez
Pascual Aguilar
Pedro Garcia
Francisco Damjo
Juan Martin
Pedro Carrillo
Diego Perez
Juan Mendez
Jose Hernandez
Manuel Jimenez
Diego Hernandez
Jose Lopez
Manuel Aguilar
Pascual HernAnde z

From "La Florida"(1)

Francisco Godinez
Pedro Martin
Manuel Garcia
Diego Ji.enez



3(#) 3(')



3(#) 8(')



TOTAL............... 4025 2064 1061 3(') 8(')
2(") 2(")
1/2(0) 2(')
---------- -----Mm-------------------------------

(0).- See page 1.-
(#).- Black Beans.-
(').- Sugar Cane.-
(").- Coffee.-
(').- Lima Beans.-
(1).- This is a Canton or Borough of Santiago Chimaltenango.-

Todos Santos August 28, 1938.

Dear Charlie:

Sorry to have kept you waiting so long for an answer to yours
of July 12. I really have no good excuse, either.
I met your pal Carl Withers in Huehuetenango during the fiestas
julias and we had a very enjoyable time together although unfortunately he doesn't
drink! Not much, that is. When I was on my way to Chimaltenango for the fiesta
there I met him en route, he was coming to see me at Todos Santos after having
visited San Juan Atitan. So we went on together to Chimaltenango. I returned
alone and expected that he would later drop over to see me, for he wanted to
stay on longer and perhaps do some work there, but I understand he did about
nothing at all, as I think he got sick again. While there in the village I
asked Jose Clotilde about the common land and threw his lie into his face. He
then admitted there was somewhat more than ten cuerdas of common land, about a
caballerla, he said (some 64 manzanas!). So your informants told the truth, prob-
ably. I also think they lied about the average landholding per family, as they
said it was about 100 ouerdas, which is around 10.8 acres. As the total area of the
'munioipio' is only 1,730 acres, it means that the family must consist of about
ten individuals on an average (considering the population to be the 1,700 the
census shows). Figure it out for yourself. About their supporting themselves -
if we assume they produce 16.5 bushels of corn per acre and that all the land of
the municipio is krable (which it is not), thedf on 1,700 acres (allowing the 30
acres for the village itself) they can produce yearly only 9,349 bushels of corn.
(Only a third of the arable land is cultivated at any one time, as they plant a
parcel two years and rest it four). This amount of corn will support about 719
adults or about the 908 sould you counted in the village. But what about the
animals And the rest of the 1,500 people, where are they As far as I was able
to ascertain, there are no Chimaltenango tenants cultivating land in any other
municipio. Did you find out how many go every year to the coffee finoas? That is
a point I intend to investigate soon, through the habilitadores. I know that from
San Juan, Todos Santos and Concepoi6n the figure runs about 400 to 500 every year,
which means that there is a considerable entry of coin into the village and fewer
inhabitants who cultivate maize.
Replanting is just what it says replanting. As you know, they
plant five or six4 grains with the hope of getting five stalks to a mat. If
only two or three shoots come out, through faulty germination or theft of the seed
by animals, they replant enough grains to bring the number of plants in each hill
up to five. That is replanting.
According to the new acuerdo, to be a pueblo a community must have
an urban population of 1,000, houses aligned to form streets, school water supply,
etc. Chimaltenango fills the requirements, I believe, and the Jefe is favorably
inclined, so that I think it is but a matter of time until it resumes the pueblo
Your friend Morris Siegel passed through here a few days ago en
route to San Mateo Ixtatan where he expects to remain ten months if his money lasts
that long. He was unfortunate in getting dysentery in Huehuetenango and was de-
layed several days, but seemed all right when he came through here. He stayed two
days with me then went on.
My maize report is finished, about 232 pages, more than half are
tables. It covers 27 settlements, and the cultivation of 166 varieties of maize.
I expect to turn it in very soon just as soon as I get the photos ready, but I
don't know if the Carnegie will publish it right away. They are pretty slow about
that, you know.
Take care of yourself and write again when you can.



I ) 7


/. Juan de Dios Rosales
s cuela Naciol. de AntropologI e H1ist .cria
Id5: 'D 3,

April 20, 1947.

SDr. GCharles agley
SGugLgeneirM Mei, rial Fo unoatio t
1551 Fifth Avenue. "lew York. N..Y.

Dear :.h'. ay

I reviewed carefully your tmn slating por-
.tions of the diary you. sent me on -ipril 10'h. So I send it
back to you, as the original Sparnish and the.list of ques-
tions and phrases wlii/ich you did not understand.

As you can see now I did not fi"'' cut any
bre-t iristake in youi. translation, it was a very-good trans-
S latio. I could not get the scientific rnaie, nor the iexican
vulgar name of mazorquilla and pacaya plants. If ,ou are. very
.. ...iterested on tlem, I ,oest to ask Mr. Ta>. or Antonio Gou-.
baud about them. They k.rnow these plants, I think.

If .you hIve more questions about this work,
write 'to me please.


k -








p. 191 (p. 7)















20o (p. 21


3 and Questions from G. Wagley, translator

last line tambien las habfa de paja, dos lados tambien

giisquilares en tapescos de palos. .. .- ,

c u a r i ft ) . . . ,,,".. J ^ -.


c Semitas --c-
achiote (Bixa Ocellara) .


pacaya ..

jicarita de bebida do you a_-o, aie nd ..tor r

esto salio I translated it freely as "I knew this because..."

colgado de 3 cordelitos u,*.e -, .

varas (how much is it?) "-

reales (how much in quetzales?) 5 '- -

- Dec. 25) what do you mean by bebida--aguardiente or maize
and water? <, p. :: c, o -A .

- Dec. 9) "con los ingresos del ornato de la misma" do not


-; .* ,^ i < / {<-< lt '- "
vv (








l.xican friends could not identify this plant.
So, it has a Guatemalan vulgar name. It is a
wild herb and its fruit, like a small ear of corr,but
soft, is used instead of ,soap.

P&caya. The same case as above. It is like a small palm.
Its leaves is used for ornament and its tender flower
is good for eating as a dish.

Reglas. These are the long pieces of wood on which lie the
the tiles of a roof.

This is one of the extreme wal"s of a house and
its last adobe bricks touch the highest of the roof.
Like this.