i w" ., f 0
John Henry ruwar'ds
Frport on voyage by L)oyd B3rsileiro steaiicr "L'.Li.IDAnITE
li-'P.L" from Fortaleza to Belem, Par& with (.6 ...irai.ts, bein, b73
.;en, 140 women and 175 cLildren, recruits of the De,-arta,c:i.to jiacio-
nal de TI,:lrarcao for rubber extraction on the p.lanitatioins in Amazo-
The i,Lra:,ts frri the Rest housee at Alaadi.o ,.'crE taken on
Loarl the '.:ip on tne llth of Aoril tov.a:cds the vcinL.; They were
givcn, a meal before leaviin, the Rest .:ouse, but, ovin, to the co;ndi-
tions oi. bI-ard 1,hich called for all food to be served d.-rii dayliigt,
scene of them did not arrive on board in time to have the ship's di.,ier
which is scrv.d at l:._U pFm. 11..rtiher, .o special arraig(elts has been
made for feeding them on this day on board as the sli-p was not yet on
her voyage. This was ccri.e.isated by the assistcLLce LIve~, by the SES
Qrardas :..edicadores detailed for the voyage, who, in combination; wit
a si:,iilar employee of the D.N.I.. distributed milk to the children, and
fr-.it to the adults so far as was possible. Mlost of the faiiles .auG
r.rcvide3 themselves with some fruit, etc, so they did not pass so
badly, under the circnirstances.
oCViE.-4+80 were taken on bocrd, beinL a mixed cr'..'d of men, women
a A c.'.l1rp2, the single men beiiL, taken on boari on tlhe next day iror-
the i tst House at Praco, co'-pleting the entire c:.L.i:flnt.
The shi ... it was rigorously co trcllod by the D.N.I.(a/,.AJLTA)
-.ficials at the ;Aiarf, each family bei ,. checked into the uoats for
tra.-.-fer to the shi.p, so;:e ..L'/l00 fatl.ors from the wharf. These
boat-loads U'ere limited strictly to the capacity of the boat and, in
no case which I observed, was this cxcceded. The ..N.I. officials
were, as t observed, before join tie ship, extrcf'ey considerate to
t-.e chiefs of fa;iilies, check: iiL up the niii-bcr and ideti!l; of the
c:, ldre;,. The tra.s-it to t:;e ship 'as ra.pl, a;lu ti.e rece,.tioin oi
ioard was ti, coitroiled by D.'.I. officials, .aw, the ...edical Officer
of the ship in cw,-;bination with the P.rser. These two :el;tleman also
s--iF.eOd ,reat ihr-i:aaiity in their de<inL. with the :.iLrants ad their
fa..l.i. ies u;der cc.d.tions, at ti.ies, sc e.;eit ifificult .d abnormal.
;&.y of these ;.erple were out of their element on 'c.,.rd, at first, a.-
i.at ialL fo ," it difficult to settle down for t;Li voyfa.e. ,i. s fetl-
*'.s was ,not ,:tiated by the delay in the ship's depart\..re fro,:, the
-r-rt after all the rui%.ranits lad beei, taken on board, ailo found the.i-
selves cram:i-pcE for space cv.ini to tie larLe I,.ab'- and tlhe sa.ill space
allotted to tiiUj.l class passecners. Tii s ,:2iI; has acco.ldation for
sore liu third class -passei.aers iI the steerage two decks down ;der
the forecas-tle v.-Lcre t:-ere are beds fixed in tiers. This space was
Liven ever to the '1oiaeie and cri. idrc.n. Lcfore the ship Lot il'.er way,
tL.e stech in this corrpartimeiit was indst-criuable, but after the ship
e:.ei.hed aiiLorI, the air cl.e d a. ~ was quite L, cct. T'he rE..t ,.- the
,.jl.r,ri ts, -osttly men, ..,,. sce..e \ o'.'.,, c.;lipc cl 1. on the forwa-;, haatch
cv:.I which wvas spread an -iv-. i., but this did not Lci,;; matters too
.-'ch ii. the rail fell, as it did frEu.,ently (i.iJLt; the passa.'.
Further, there were some 300 to 400 hammocks slung on the upper deck
and the two side alleys were also taken up with hanmocks which made
transit alouL1 the decks difficult by daylight, and almost impossible
Lby night owini, to the absolute blackout on board. There was ample
provision for saving life so far as rafst, janLadas, and boats were
concerned, but even with lifebelts, I should imagine the loss of life
would necessarily be very breat owing to the darkness, and unfamilia-
rity with the conditions on board, and the difficulty in movement
from the numerous hammocks blocking transit. There would be a panic,
in event of a collision, or other casualty, and I fear the women and
children would have but a thin time in the struggle for life that
would ensue. At night, under the conditions of darkness, it must be
nervous travelling for many of these people, especially the vone;~s, and,
as a matter of fact, one case of hysteria developed in the tween decks
steerage, a woman, who vas taken care of by the SESP Pinheiro during the
first night of travel.
After joining the ship, and whilst still laying in port awaiting permi-
ssion to sail, 24 cases of sickness and irregularities in records were
observed and returned to the shore. There were some cases of measles,
and mumps which it was inadvisable to keep on board for the voyage
owinL to the excessive crowding of the ship, and the danger of spread-
ing the sickness arongst those otherwise in good health.
Directly owing to these precautions, the cases which developed on \
board were relatively small in number there be~nr 14 cases of measles,
and mumps when ship landed the mi grants at Belem. These were transfer-
red to the Rest house at Curro where two of the children died a few
Loi;rs after their arrival at the infirmary.
Tie accommodation, even under extraordinary circumstances of a short
voyage, is inconvenient for any number exceeding 800 migrants with some
5,. of children. This num'ger car be handled comfortably by the medical
service of board, Dr. Jose Gonzaga Ferraz, and the SESP Mlale lJurses
under normal circumstances. Beyond this number, the case is more com-
plicated, both as regards the greater number of sickness which appear,
and the greater risk of contagion from overcrowding.
The isolation of contagious cases is done in tle Second Class part of
the ship where there are 5 cabins of 4 beds each, and a separate dining
room which could also be used, in emergency, for more cases. This
step was taken by the ship's doctor, Dr. Ierraz, who faced with a
great potential problem in event of much sickness, skewed great
willingness to cooperate with the SESP Nurses in every way. These,
for their part, also shewed a wonderful spirit of tea' work in combina-
tion with the D.N.I. Nurse and the ship's medical officer wXich,
withoi.t doubt, smoothed out many a possible friction.
The food given to the migrants, whilst plain, was, so far as I noted
at the hours of distribution, sufficient in quantity and similar to
what the migrants had been accustomed to ashore. L.eat, beans, rice
and mandioca flour there being no signs of pinching the food for
economy's sake. The kitchen was normally clean and sanitary, and all
the food for the ship is prepared there, equally first class and
rmigrant. The fcod for the First Class, on the crowded voyage was not
too excellent, but sufficiently good to pass without .runjblini. On
the retlri trip it was much rl tter, bit this is z.,.dcrstadaubie as
the service in t. e kitclii. is less b:' about a t'.-i aid neals per
da', In fact, we had on board bread superior to any I ate in
T'c ,.aL.itar, c(Lond t ioi: o, ,'ri:r-c, once the mairants had settled down,
was satisfactory. The decls were fli.sherc daily, a..:, the migrants,
their, slves, took a certain care in not Ifo"-lin the dei s hecre they
Were camped out. 'Inere were, of course, isolated cases: who ,ad to
i ,e provision of .',Ls seer(v nadr-' :ate. Tu r double seated erections
rl_'.t Ift which discharged direct into the ocean, aid io bathing
accommodation is available, iot evecL for the First Class uasc..Lers
beyo;,J a bucket of frresh :Later which it is necessary to fix the
steward to get for one. .The shower is T.is is in the ,alco.,
accommodation, for the ',:,ir'ts there is no provision.
1i..ere is a :.c'int of great 1-lpurtance in this service of .j rant trans-
fer. ... )_rd buar_ ._iiL Ii.ould be reduced i, C il0c ,.I I'Iiu1:,oi All other
factors should be bi cu~,t into 11'ie sub,'ect to the shipping cf the
::i r:...ts. hi. the cx.vc: has been definitely fixed so far as depar-
ture is concerned, i..I ';.i1":t th.e ship is ready for sea-in all other
restects, then the il rants should be taken on board, n... not before
that. DeI,.; o0. board in t.he port has a 'c.ut effect upon the metn whoi
come on board keen to get tc their destination and -re held up
apparentlyy, to them, witho,:f reason makes thfU d: satisfied :',th tie
conditions which, other..ise wo'L.. pass uno'berves in the novel". of
the voyae. This spirit s-hewed' itself in sr-.e cases by men say!...
they would go ac.-iore aL':-.".- This in conversations .:: a t themselves.
Of course, they could not .,p so in ipra-ctice. t.,:. the present
vo;' -.e as an :. : le0, the men ',-re on bi:. from 11. till 16th. ...
. .... tl:ls short sp ae of time sJVIE:. cases of measles broke out.
These ;,eie controllc.,- bi., ,sh.orl there be a ver'- i'ret I,::,.b-r of
c. es, theI isolation space would not be sufficient. Delay is wear:,-
ing, even. for First Class p s -..sc.ger, with, relatively, evei, '..i'fort.
How much more for those who hi;'. to pass the days in their ':... -ocks
for lack .f h .. ce to exercise? A...' bow nuch .-.:.F pre j,'cial to the
geir.T.1: health of t:.. nln e s a whole.
LL_:; service should be re,_-ircdd as a national Labour Scheme, and tih ,
men who have voluntecroi. -to serve in it should be si.e,', all conside-
ration as regrJ-:-; their c..,i.rt and welfare duri ., the 1.. :c I.y are
en route to their destination. This is given freely by the ship's
. ple, jre t this is not ,:i-rk. The considerate on si. uld commence
at the hour of t.ibr.r.t. J,..I the rc.t should be rrady before the
i;rst i r,..t ;:,'Lts his foot' o, the ship, and the last of the isrty
should not be too or.. after the first one so that there would be no
,1 estion of nighjts and Ly";. jpent in port with part or all of the
..I rts 'i..::,' on board already iL,.deroln.. the rigors of the vo:~a:ee.
ti t. .LJver~ c ti: :.t rj &nits i t, nrfcctL -:C:l'.: oi;rj.; tiOi, JrL the
S O &l .I. 'th r factors ;.0ol. be rG cri U.' c .' t : Zt- t iU i..
tLi e... Jothij E.__:l o this matter s an',r 11, rtL.c.I. i.'e, ce ,
Small oti'"r sfctrs :;.oui.LC com into l.ine .itl. t; rI.oint of re'LciiL. the
delay on bo(crdi to thI, uJLi,.iu.' necessary for the actual trip from port
to nor /
before closiiLL tp this report I should like to pay a tribute to the
threee 01e iursc.1, 'rs. ianiioel 1 ofueira .I-iAe.hiro, Chief, Antonio
Freitas de Oliveira and Esier' Xavier da Silva, Assistants, on their
excellent v:r>: on t:.e trip, duri ,, which they, as a body, and indivi-
dually, unwearyiig, in giving attention to the sick on boards, distri-
buting prepared milk to the vc,,eiL and cliildreri, aind promptly takinL
care of all cases which called for their services at any icur of the
day or night. Their team work in crnmbl etion vith the D.r.I. .Taale
nurse andi the ship's medical officer. Dr. JOr-E. GL,;a,a Fcirr, was
such that the entire medical service went off in ;irfect hiarL.,ony, andi
s.:-'ot.iiss. I should adrc that it takes no mean type of man to go
domn into a hold, two decks below the pr-c.rc.;.de ceck, and give aid to
sick people in the dar-':tess of a blaci.:c. t. This calls for coui e.
Yet these three men, almost boys, were doing this nightly when neces-
sary. And, I should add, they perfectly ..'erst.~;. the conditions in
event of any contrete-:r.s.
The voyage ter.Ainated on 16th. 4pril at 10 A..". when ship was -Ioored
along-side the Quay Si'e at ,.-.<.:,, the entire party being Liven Yellow
Fever T.aLnunity treatment and then taken to the two Rest houses at
Cuiro, aid Tapcna where tl,;, passed -lr.er the ob~E.c1'r-.tion of the SFbP
.-edical officers, Ilrs. I.ciato Caetano a;i ic'vilacqua Souza Soares.
Coi clusio;ns de-iluced fi'oi,' obse: rvat.oiS o,.1 Ic: 'C.
litat the D.N.I. (A/ -.riA) is ;xercis. ..all possible care in t;.- trans-
port of these uil rants to .ole1:. frci' 1ortaleza.
.l:t the feedj.ri arrangements ~2ii1d.. the ve: .,e, with the exception
of the first shipriert to the steamer, and which was a case of Force
majei.re are quite satisfactr-', boti. as re, yards quality and quantity.
T;...t the r--axi~:,. number of -" rants fi-. this particular steamer should
not exceed 800 with za.'y 5," of children tdi. ed.
That special atte.rtion si,;nuld be Live.-, to the c-.ml:.ition of the migrants
on the day of shipment to avoid ':-i.. so far as possible, conta-
gious cases wV1.;.ch hi,.ve to be ret; r .ed .;::-. ashore.
''~lt the tl.'ie on board sholi be cut to the mini-n a ps_.ible to c,-oid
a,: e ..:.., to cont.lri on in case of an outbreak.
T'.-.t, under -irrial travel c ..:ditions, .r1- men recentlyy tr.Lv.llin0 as
.a]u n;.rses are, on combination with the ship's :.cdical officer, and
the -D.;.I. rese, quite ct: tentet to cope with their dutlc; in a sa-
tisfactor:. manner and that, in vie..- of the ris,-. a.:.crent to their
work, they sho-.1d be given better recuP 'i.eise: than for shore .i ties.
In the section of photori L.-iL will be eC cc. ~iaterc'. t. ph, t,.Ora;,s
taken on m, trip.
Attached the histories of five ,.I:ran-t types selected on aboard.
SOLL: TYPES IIl .JIu FAIiTS Oj BOAiD John Henry Edwards
..arried couple, no children, eie 24 to C_ years, obviui:sly active
and well disposed towards work. Ori6',.ll:,' liver- in State of Rio
Grande do :orte. Left their home and because tli-r was no rain
up till .-arch eC which is accepted as a critical date for the
winter to co--neince at its latest. had lost their small plant -
tions two cci.secutive :years, and preferred to risk the un-liown
than to starve in tie 1.nowni. i ad no definite plans, but hop.-d
for advice fror relatives resident in eielc.i.
i.:arried couple, with one cliild, by, b years old, parents strong,
coloured, ori6`iially liviit, Iguatu; snall planter and also la-
bourer in Oil '!iil but this latter apoili;db his hand for other
work, and furtiier, t.he-re being little vworl at the :ii'.l presently,
repeated Josses of cops, decided to try the Amazon. iF.,, started
after eilistilnL, but still came. Said tire were many fai.ilies in
lil:e case who would follow.
jiarried coucrle with child 4 years old, parents ?21 to 23, strong,
healthy ;imir, and woman, child sickly. Sam.- story of lost crop-s and
lost hlop's. Decided to tr:- the Amazon, but have no idea of what
the future holds out or -.'ere they will go.
.:a, vidower, with 6 strong e men, sons, father about 55/60 -cears old.
ie still a strong healthy type of man, tiad been many year-Tip river
in agriculture and co,,ls.':eered that Amazonia offered. the best future
for his six sons. ri-ce, he returned to his home district in Par.i-
ba, and took them bac.. 'ith hi r..
:.an, Asr -. e e.Gut 0 years (he declares) looks 70, fr'". Brejo das
ireiras, Paralba, left district Cv.iiL, no i.,crk for a..ricultural la-
bc,.urcr uwi;iL to drought. Has no regrets at leavir.. his hor-cFlanld.
ai-d is anxious to try agriculture in the new zone, or collect rubber.
Fortaleza, April 25, 19144.
(siLned) JcL;,, Henry Edwards
Travellin- as observerr on board.