2000 ASEE Annual Conference

Chemical Engineering Division Program

June 18-21, 2000 St. Louis, MO

Pre-Conference Workshop
"Modem ChE and ME Laboratory ChE Division Lectureship
Instrumentation" Monday, June 19, 4:30-6:00 pm
Sunday, June 18, 8:30 am to 4:15 pm Moderator Michael Cutlip
Coordinators: Washington University
Jim Henry and Charles Knight
Workshop Cost $65

Technical Sessions
Session 2213, "ChE Instruction in the Future"
Tuesday, June 20, 8:30-10:15 am: Co-Moderators Kirk Schulz and Christopher Wiegenstein
Paper 1: "Approaches or Learning and Learning Environments and Lecture Evironments,"
Donald Woods, Andrew Hrymak, and Heather Wright
Paper 2: "Lectures or Electrons: Which Works Better for Chemical Engineering Fundamen-
tals Class?" Billy Crynes, Connie and Barbara Greene
Paper 3: "An Inductive Approach to Teaching Heat and Mass Transfer," Robert Hesketh and
Stephanie Farrell
Paper 4: "Expandable Polystyrene Batch Reactor Design: An Academic/Industrial Collabora-
tion in Teaching Reaction Engineering." Robert Barat and Ronald Gabbard
Paper 5: 'The Student Consultant: Enhancing Communication Skills in the Undergraduate
Laboratory," Dennis Miller

Session 2313, "Instructional Technology: The Future of ChE Instruction?"
Tuesday, June 20, 10:30 am-12:00 pm: Co-Moderators Thomas Edgar and Scott Fogler
Paper I: "Development of an Extended Campus Chemical Engineering Program," Jimmy
Smart, William Murphy, G. Lineberry, and Bonita Lykins
Paper 2: "Molecular Simulation Via Web-Based Instruction," Peter Cummings, David Kofke,
and Richard Rowley
Paper 3: "Analysis of Instructional Technology Usage in the Introductory Chemical
Engineeering Course," Richard Felder, Amy Michel, and Jan Genzer
Paper 4: "Information Technology and Chemical Engineering Education: Evolution or Revo-
lution?" Thomas Edgar

Session 2513, "The Greening of the ChE Curriculum"
Tuesday, June 20, 2:30-4:15 pm: Co-Moderators Dennis Sourlas and Ashish Gupta
Paper I: "Production of Clean Fuel: A Biochemical Experiment for Unit Operations Labora-
tory Developed Through Undergraduate Research Projects," Muthanna Al-Dahhan
Paper 2: "Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Chemical Manufacturing Processes,"
Joseph Shaeiwitz, Roger Schmitz, Mark McCready, Joan Brennecke, Mark Stadtherr,
Richard Turton, and Wallace Whiting
Paper 3: "Development of an Elective Course on Pollution Prevention." Dennis Sourlas and
Ashish Gupta

Session 2613. "Implementing Soft Skills Into ChE Curriculum"
Tuesday, June 20,4:30-6:00 pm: Co-Moderators Douglas Ludlow and James Newell
Paper 1: "Integrating Soft Criteria into the Curriculum," W. Nicholas Delgass, Philip Wankat,
and Frank Oreovicz
Paper 2: "Training in Multidisciplinarianism." Daina Briedis and R. Mark Worden
Paper 3: "An Industrial Internship Program to Enhance Student Learning and Marketability,"
Zenida Keil and Melanie Basantis
Paper 4: "An Investigation of the Communication Culture of an Introductory Chemical
Engineering Class," Heather Comell, Wade Kenny, and Kevin Myers

Social Activities
ChE Division Reception
Monday, June 19, 6:30- 8:00 pm
Moderator Robert Ybarra
Washington University

ChE Division Awards Banquet
Tuesday, June 20, 6:30-8:00 pm
Moderator Michael Cutlip
Missouri Botanical Garden, Spink Pavillion
Guest Speaker Dr. Peter Raven,
Director of Missouri Botanical Garden
Cost: $48

Paper 5: The Business Meeting: An Alternative to the Classic Design Presentation," James

Session 3313, "The Future of Engineering Education"
Wednesday, June 21, 10:30 am-12:00 pm: Plenary Session Moderator Dendy Sloan
Speakers: Donald Woods, "Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards of Teaching Excellence"; Richard
Felder, "Teaching Methods That Work"; James Stice, "Learning How To Teach"; and
Armando Rugarcia. "A Vision for A New Century."

Session 3413, "ChE Laboratories in the Next Millennium"
Wednesday, June 21, 12:30-2:15 pm: Co-Moderators Richard Gilbert and Steve LeBlanc
Paper 1: "A Laboratory for Enhancing Process Control Courses Using Real-Time MATLAB/
Simulink," Babu Joseph, Deepak Srinivasagupta, and Chao-Ming Ying
Paper 2: "A Fluidized Polymer Coating Experiment," C. Stewart Slater, Robert Hesketh and
Michael Carney
Paper 3: "Enhancement of Instrumentation and Process Control Studies at the Undergraduate
Level," Rebbecca Toghiani, Hossein Toghiani, Donald Hill, and Craig Wierenga
Paper 4: "Development of Unit Operations Fermentation Laboratory Experiment Using Indus-
trial Collaboration," G. Dale Wesson, William Muth, Bryan Landen, and Egwu Kalu
Paper S: "Introducing Freshmen to Drug Delivery," Stephanie Farrell and Robert Hesketh
Paper 6: "Incorporation of Graduate Facilities Into Undergraduate Unit Operations Labora-
tory," Muthanna Al-Dahhan

Session 3513, "ChE Education: How Do We Assess It?"
Wednesday, June 21, 2:30-4:15 pm: Co-Moderators Daina Briedis and Susan Montgomery
Paper 1: "Student Portfolios: Assessing Criteria 2000," Carolyne Garcia and Edgar Clausen
Paper 2: "The Process of Learning Chemical Engineering: What Works and What Doesn't."
David Dibiasio, William Clark, Anthony Dixon, and Lisa Comparini
Paper 3: "Assessing Chemical Engineering Education As It Is Delivered," Joseph Shaeiwitz
Paper 4: "Principal Objects of Knowledge (POK's) in Colloquial Approach Environments,"
Pedro Arce

Session 3613, "ChE, Computers and the Next Millennium"
Wednesday, June 21, 4:30-6:00 pm: Co-Moderators Skip Rochefort and Valerie Young
Paper I: "A Virtual Reality-Based Safety and Hazard Analysis Simulation," John Bell and
Scott Fogler
Paper 2: "Combining High-Level Programming and Spreadsheets: An Alternative Route for
Teaching Process Synthesis and Design," Jorge Gatica, Mauricio Colombo, and Maria
Paper 3: "24x7: Lab Experiments Access on the Web All the Time," Jim Henry
Paper 4: "MATLAB Application in Reactor Design and Simulation," Charles Okonkwo and
Gbekeloluwa Oguntimien
Paper 5: "Professional Simulation Packages as Effective Teaching Tools in Undergraduate
ChE Curriculum," David Dixon. Jan Puszynski, and Larry Bauer

Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611
PHONE and FAX: 352-392-0861
e-mail: cee@che.ufl.edu
Web Page: http://www.che.ufl.edu/cee/

T. J. Anderson

Phillip C. Wankat

Carole Yocum

James 0. Wilkes, U. Michigan

William J. Koros, University of Texas, Austin


E. Dendy Sloan, Jr.
Colorado School of Mines

Pablo Debenedetti
Princeton University'
Dianne Dorland
University of Minnesota, Duluth
Thomas F. Edgar
University of Texas at Austin
Richard M. Felder
North Carolina State University
Bruce A. Finlayson
University of Washington
H. Scott Fogler
University of Michigan
William J. Koros
University of Texas at Austin
David F. Ollis
North Carolina State University
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Ronald W. Rousseau
Georgia Institute ii I '. 1,,, ..
Stanley I. Sandler
University of Delaware
Richard C. Seagrave
Iowa State University
M. Sami Selim
Colorado School of Mines
Stewart Slater
Rowan University
James E. Stice
University of Texas at Austin
DonaldR. Woods
McMaster University

Chemical Engineer g Ed tion

Volume 34 Numbe 1) (Wint 2000

98 G.V. (Rex) Reklaitis, of "Old Purdue," Phillip C. Wankat, Frank S. Oreovicz

102 University of Alberta: Tradition and Innovation,
J. Fraser Forbes, Sieghard E. Wanke

108 Part 3. Developing Critical Skills,
Donald R. Woods, Richard M. Felder, Anrando Rugarcia, James E. Stice
118 Part 4. Learning How to Teach,
James E. Stice, Richard M. Felder, Donald R. Woods, Armando Rugarcia

128 Particle Dynamics in Fluidization and Fluid-Particle Systems:
Part 2. Teaching Examples, Liang-Shih Fan

138 Toward Technical Understanding: Part 5. General Hierarchy Applied to
Engineering Education, J.M. Haile

144 The Scholarship of Teaching, Richard M. Felder

146 Teaching PDE-Based Modeling to ChE Undergraduates: Overcoming
Conceptual and Computational Bariers, Karsten E. Thompson

154 An "Open-Ended Estimation" Design Project for Thermodynamics Students,
Stephen J. Lombardo

158 Low-Cost Mass Transfer Experiments: Part 6. Determination of Vapor
Diffusion Coefficient, I. Nirdosh, L.J. Garred, M.H.I. Baird
168 Is Matter Converted to Energy in Reactions? Paul K. Andersen

162 Incorporating Molecular Modeling into the ChE Curriculum,
Robert M. Baldwin, James F. Ely, J. Douglas Way, Stephen R. Daniel

172 A Laboratory for Gaseous Diffusion through Permeable Solids: The Time Lag,
Olivier Dufaud, Eric Favre, Louis Marie Vincent
178 Use of an Emission Analyzer to Demonstrate Basic Principles, Keith B. Lodge

167 Letter to the Editor
ChE Division Program, ASEE Convention Inside Front Cover
Positions Available Inside Back Cover
Call for Papers Outside Back Cover

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by the Chemical Engineering
Division, American Society for Engineering Education, and is edited at the University of Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Copyright 2000 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American
Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and
not necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced
if notified within 120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy costs and
availability. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department., University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611-6005. Periodicals Postage Paid at Gainesville, Florida.

Spring 2000



G. V. (Rex) Reklaitis




Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907
Professor Rex Reklaitis' CV is impressive: Head at Purdue
for twelve years, author or editor of six books and editor-in-
chief of Computers & Chemical Engineering, with over 110
refereed publications and numerous seminar and conference pre-
sentations; involvement in the organization of 42 conferences and
symposia; director of AIChE, past president and current trustee of
CACHE; NSF postdoctoral fellow and Senior Fulbright Fellow;
winner of the ASEE ChE Division lectureship award and ASEE
ChE Division Corcoran award, Fellow of AIChE, winner of AIChE
Computing in Chemical Engineering award; research advisor for
37 MS students and 28 PhD students, and involvement in grants for
over five million dollars for research and over ten million dollars
for the School of Chemical Engineering. Listening to this is enough
to make any good Boilermaker sing Hail, Hail to Old Purdue.
But, what is Rex Reklaitis really like?
Out of the upheaval of World War II in Europe in 1942, the
world gained one Reklaitis-Rex was born while his parents were
traveling through German-occupied Poznan, Poland, on October
20-and lost another two years later when his father became a
casualty of the war. From then on his uncles, and later his stepfa-
ther, filled that role as part of the extended family that helped mold
Rex. They lived in Bavaria until moving to the United States when
he was ten.

Professor-turned-chef grills 'em up
at a departmental picnic.

Arriving in a new country at such a tender age, Rex
was able to learn English much more quickly than is the
experience of most adults-and without any trace of an
accent. He was already bilingual in Lithuanian and Ger-
man. Learning a third language also helped make him
aware of the importance of grammar and structure in
language, and before too long he was speaking as well
as, if not better than, most native Americans. He and his
mother became naturalized citizens in 1958. After gradu-
ating in 1961 from St. Rita high school in Chicago, he
enrolled at the Illinois Institute of Technology [also alma
mater of one author (FSO) and of the other author's
father]. He graduated from IIT with a BS in chemical
engineering in 1965. (Back then, graduating in four years
was common.)
While growing up in Chicago, Rex became interested
in classical music, especially opera, and learned to play

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2000

Chemical Engineering Education

Use CEE's reasonable rates to advertise.
Minimum rate, 1/8 page, $100
Each additional column inch or portion thereof, $40.


The Department is seeking to fill two tenure-track faculty positions at levels
appropriate to the qualifications of the candidates. Candidates should have a
PhD degree in chemical engineering or a closely related field.US citizenship or
permanent resident status is desired. Responsibilities include teaching at both
the undergraduate and graduate levels and establishing a high quality, funded
research program. Applicants must have research interests relevant to the
Center for Membrane Applied Science and Technology. Candidates with com-
panion research interests in biomedical engineering, bioengineering, or phar-
macological engineering are particularly encouraged to apply.
The Department enrolls approximately 350 undergraduate and 50 graduate
students and presently has 14 faculty. The faculty includes an NSF Presidential
Young Investigator and two NSF Career Grant Awardees. Nearly 22,000 ft2 of
modem research space is available to the Department, much of which is in the
new 175,000 ft' Engineering Research Center. The Center for Membrane
Applied Science and Technology has exceptional research facilities and is
complemented by the Center for Computer-Aided Molecular Design and the
Polymer Research Center. Applicants are encouraged to visit the Department's
web site at
The University of Cincinnati is one of two public comprehensive research
universities in the State of Ohio. It has an enrollment of over 35,000 in an
attractive urban environment with a metropolitan area population of 1.5 mil-
lion. The campus provides unique opportunities for research interaction be-
tween the Engineering College and the Medical Center. The University has
competitive salaries and provides attractive fringe benefits for its employees,
including free tuition for spouses and children.
Applicants should submit a resume, publication list, statement of teaching
and research plans, and names of three references. Applications received before
May 1st will be given preference, although applicants will be evaluated until
both positions are filled. All correspondence should be addressed to:

Professor William B. Krantz
Chair of the Faculty Search Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0171

The University of Cincinnati is an Equal 'r, . ..... '.* Action Enployer.

into flue varies with the flow of natural gas.
The various temperature data presented here will help the
student form a simple picture of a flame, a complicated
reacting system."' The first observation is that the model to
explain the formation of NO leads to temperatures larger
than the adiabatic flame temperature, the maximum possible
flame temperature, and the measured exit gas temperature. A
flame is far from being a homogeneous reaction mixture,
either in its temperature distribution or species distribution.
The primary reaction, the combustion of a hydrocarbon here,
occurs in a zone defined by mixing the fuel and air and their
subsequent reaction; this is the so-called combustion zone.
Because the combustion is highly exothermic, the heat gen-
erated raises the temperature of unreacted gases, such as
excess 02 and N2, to such a level that they start to react in a
zone, the post-combustion zone that is spatially distinct from
the combustion zone. Also, it is interesting to note that the
NO-formation and adiabatic-flame temperatures appear to
converge upon extrapolation to higher natural gas-flow rates
where the fuel-air mixture becomes stoichiometric. This sug-
gests that NO is formed in zones within which the local fuel-
air mixtures are stoichiometric. So, qualitatively, the first
observation can be explained on the basis of reaction zones
with non-uniform temperatures and composition.
A second observation supports the idea of non-uniform
temperature distribution. After running the experiment at the
highest exit temperature (about 14500F), it was noticed that
the burner's nozzle had become partially coated with zinc.
This means that the inside wall of the flue must have reached
a temperature of 787F, the melting point of zinc. This is
much lower than the NO reaction temperature. The use of a
stainless steel flue, or even better a quartz tube, so the
structure of the flame can be observed, would be a worth-
while improvement. It would also be safer.
The discrepancy between the adiabatic flame temperature
and the exiting gas temperature may seem large. The flue
cap used is designed to allow for air infiltration through
perforations fabricated in its walls just as the gas leaves the
main part of the flue. The astute student will notice this and
realize that it will lead to errors in the gas compositions and
temperatures; they will be lower than they should be. The
cap is designed to ensure a temperature reduction in the gas
just before it enters the surroundings. No attempt was made
to modify this, or rather to change the position of the probe,
because the maximum operating temperature of the probe is
1550F for continuous service and 22000F for short-term
use. Such imperfections in laboratory experiments, in our
opinion, are not a bad thing; they often help students exer-
cise their critical faculties.

We thank the National Science Foundation for an ILI
grant, award number 9451666, and the University of Minne-

sota, Duluth, for funding this work. For technical assistance,
we are indebted to D. Long and D. Anderson. We acknowl-
edge an anonymous reviewer for two helpful observations
that we have included. Professor Dorab Baria (April 5, 1942
- June 1, 1999) was the principal investigator of the NSF-ILI
grant from which the analyzer was purchased; this paper is
dedicated to his memory.

1. Altieri, V.J., Gas Analysis & Testing of Gaseous Materials,
1st ed., American Gas Association, Inc., New York, NY
2. Baria, D., D. Dorland, R. Davis, and K.B. Lodge, "Incorpo-
rating Hazardous Waste Processing in Unit Operations Labo-
ratories," NSF-ILI grant (1994)
3. Lodge, K.B., R. Davis, D. Dorland, and D. Baria, "Experi-
ments in Waste Processing for Undergraduates," Proceed-
ing of National Conference held in Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
American Society for Engineering Education (1997)
4. DeSautelle, C., P. Johnson, J. Marinoff, B. Muetzel, B.
Pogainis, R. Rishavy, B. Schuler, and J. Shamla, "Vitrifica-
tion of High-Level Radioactives Wastes," University of Min-
nesota, Duluth, entry in the National Design Competition of
the Waste Management Education and Research Consor-
tium, Las Cruces, NM (1996)
5. Barnard, J.A., and J.N. Bradley, Flame and Combustion,
2nd ed., Chapman and Hall, London, England (1985)
6. Coulson, J.M., J.F. Richardson, J.R. Backhurst, and J.H.
Harker, Coulson & Richardson's Chemical Engineering, 5th
ed., Vol. 1, Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer, and Mass Transfer,
Butterworth-Heineman, Ltd, Oxford (1996)
7. de Nevers, N., Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers,
2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1991)
8. Perry, R.H., D.W. Green, and J.O. Maloney, eds., Perry's
Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York, NY (1984)
9. Johnson, A.J., and G.H. Auth, eds., Fuels and Combustion
Handbook, 1st ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1951)
10. Felder, R.M., and R.W. Rousseau, Elementary Principles of
Chemical Processes, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New
York, NY (1986)
11. Sandler, S.I., Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics,
3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY (1999)
12. Fogler, H.S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering,
3rd ed., Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NY (1999)
13. Schmidt, L.D., The Engineering of Chemical Reactions, Ox-
ford University Press, New York, NY (1998)
14. Smith, J.M., H.C. Van Ness, and M.M. Abbott, Introduction
to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, 5th ed., McGraw-
Hill, New York, NY (1996)
15. Davis, R.A., "Nitric Oxide Formation in an Iron Oxide Pellet
Rotary Kiln Furnace," J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 48,
16. Levenspiel, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd ed.,
John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY (1999)
17. Hanson, R.K., and S. Saliman, in Combustion Chemistry,
Gardiner, Jr., W.C., ed., Springer-Verlag, Inc., New York,
NY, p. 508 (1984)
18. Warnatz, J., in Combustion Chemistry, Gardiner, Jr., W.C.,
ed., Springer-Verlag, Inc., New York, NY, p. 508 (1984)
19. Miller, J.A., and C.T. Bowman, "Mechanism and Modeling
of Nitrogen Chemistry in Combustion," Prog. Energy Com-
bust. Sci., 15, 287 (1989)
20. Atkins, P.W., Physical Chemistry, 5th ed., W.H. Freeman
and Company, New York, NY (1994) O
Chemical Engineering Education

After a few weeks,
though, it became evident
to the chemical engineer-
ing professors on the
committee that Rex was
the ideal candidate. They
were able to persuade the -
dean to forego the exter-
nal search since it was
clearly unnecessary.
Thus, late in 1987, Rex
officially became Head of -
the School of Chemical
Engineering, an office he :
has since fulfilled with
distinction. ,
Rex has been very suc-
cessful in hiring outstand-
ing new faculty and help- .
ing them obtain NSF CA-
REER and other presti-
gious grants. He has de-
veloped an active Indus-
trial Advisory Council
consisting of about The Reklaitis family,
twenty companies and
frequently personally hosts the board members. The council
is currently working with the faculty on five projects: con-
tinual renovation of equipment in the undergraduate labora-
tory, purchase of new research equipment, hosting young
faculty at their research facilities, developing realistic de-
sign problems, and developing a survey of graduates and
employers for an ABET outcomes assessment. After years
of effort, Rex has also obtained approval from the admin-
istration to add a new wing to the chemical engineering
building that will increase its space by sixty percent.
This will allow for a much-needed increase in the size of
the faculty. All chemical engineering has to do now is
raise the money for this purpose!
Throughout all this time, Rex's teaching and research
continued unabated. A dedicated teacher and educator who
has taught many of the courses in the curriculum, he revised
the introductory course in mass and energy balances at Purdue
and developed new courses on "Optimization" and "Com-
puter-Aided Process Design." His efforts on two of these
courses resulted in two textbooks, Introduction to Material
and Energy Balances (Wiley, 1983) and Engineering Opti-
mization, with A. Ravindran and K. Ragsdell (Wiley, 1983).
Both books have sold around 9500 copies-very respectable
numbers. The second edition of the optimization book is
currently being prepared.
Undergraduate students have always found Rex's office
door open to them. He takes great care in teaching the senior

at h

design course, but despite
his heavy schedule, enjoys
morning meetings with
student groups. He pa-
tiently pushes students to
produce "just a little bit
better" results. Then, dur-
ing the spring semester he
interviews most of the
graduating seniors. These
"exit interviews" provide
very useful feedback to
the school, and some of
the ideas generated by
them have been adopted.
Rex has also been a strong
advocate for student
groups in chemical engi-
S Peering. It is not unusual
for the Reklaitis' to enter-
tain up to 40 students from
various groups in their
home before Christmas
vacation. Rex does his
ome for Christmas 1998. share by doing clean-up
Working with a team assembled by Professor Bob Squires,
Rex developed educational modules using videotape and
computer simulations to give students a feel for complex
processes. The modules were generously supported by in-
dustrial contributions, and the completed modules are being
distributed by CACHE. Several articles on these modules
have been published, the most famous of which, "Purdue-
Industry Computer Simulation Modules: The Amoco Resid
Hydrotreater Process" (Chem. Eng. Ed., 32, 98, 1991) by
R.G. Squires, G.V. Reklaitis, N.C. Yeh, J.B. Mosby, I.A.
Karimi, and P.K. Andersen, won the ASEE ChE Division
Corcoran award for best paper that year. As a culmination of
his interest in the use of computers in engineering education,
Rex now serves on the editorial board for the journal Com-
puter Applications in Engineering Education.
Rex's research in computer applications in chemical engi-
neering and batch processing is well known. He developed,
implemented, and demonstrated computer-aided methodol-
ogy for the design, scheduling, and operation of batch pro-
cesses. This research involved development of a modularly
structured, dynamic/discrete process simulator that defined
the structure of batch-processing networks and generated
preliminary equipment sizes. In particular, his research high-
lighted the importance of intermediate storage and devel-
oped new scheduling algorithms for multiproduct plants.
Rex has coauthored well over 110 research papers and
Continued on page 153.

Spring 2000

university's enrollment has grown from 45 students in 1908 to slightly over
30,000 in 1999.
Size of the chemical engineering classes has also grown from the first three
graduates in 1928 (when chemical engineering was a special program in the
Department of Chemistry) to between 65 and 70 Bachelor of Science degrees
awarded annually for the last few years. Many other changes have occurred
since 1928. In 1946, the department became one of the departments in the
Faculty of Engineering, and in 1948, shortly after the discovery of a major oil
field just south of Edmonton, it was renamed the Department of Chemical and
Petroleum Engineering.
For the next 25 years, the department offered undergraduate and graduate
programs in chemical and in petroleum engineering; it was also during this
period that research began to be an increasingly important component of the
department's activities. In 1973 the OPEC oil embargo precipitated an oil crisis,
and the department again became the Department of Chemical Engineering
when the petroleum engineering faculty members joined another department. In
the late 1970s, a co-operative engineering program was introduced in which
participants obtain 20 months of relevant industrial experience as part of the
five-year undergraduate program. The majority of our chemical engineering
undergraduate students are currently enrolled in the co-op program. The com-
puter process control (CPC) program was introduced as an undergraduate
elective stream in 1986 and the first students graduated from this unique
program in 1989. (A more detailed history of our department can be found
in Wanken'1 and Mather.'21)
The 1990s witnessed major changes. The department had 18 academic faculty
members when the decade started, but by 1996 one-third of them had retired and
been replaced and an additional two new positions had been created through
expansion of the program. In addition, nine materials faculty joined the depart-
ment, resulting in the first Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering in
Canada. The influx of new staff brought with it excitement and new approaches
to teaching and research in the department.
The changes and growth experienced in the 1990s were accompanied by
significant growth in the numbers of undergraduate and graduate students. Each
undergraduate engineering program has a quota in the sophomore year; the
chemical engineering quota increased from 65 to 75 in 1996, to 90 in 1999, and
will increase to 100 in 2001. About two-thirds of the chemical engineering

4 Tina Barker
in the

-. VUndergraduate
student and
next to
fluidized bed
column. N

Spring 2000

Application of

principles to
the process
and the

development of
mathematical and
analytical tools
for improved

performance and
will be the

focus of our
research in the next


A Undergraduate students doing the senior distillation laboratory.

V Dr. Suzanne Kresta and students in

< 4

Chemical Engineering Curricula
Beyond the First Year

Subject Area
Mathematics, Statistics, Numerical Methods
Transport Phenomena
Reactor Design and Analysis
Process Design, Analysis, and Economics
Chemical Engineering Laboratory
Process Control
Materials Science
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals
Technical Electives
Communications (oral and written)

SChemical Engineering: figures given as single-semester course
" Computer Process Control: figures given as single-semester course

2 1
5 5
3 2
4 4
1 1
4 4
3 2
1 4
I 1
1 2
4 4
1.67 1.67
3 3
0.67 0.67

Spring 2000

fundamentals, specialty process-control courses, and com-
ponents from electrical engineering and computing science.
Wood13 provides a historical perspective on the program as
well as details of the development and design of the pro-
gram. In 1999, the CPC program was modified to create two
streams: computing systems and signal processing. The two
streams are defined by technical-elective packages. In the
computing-systems stream, students take electrical engineer-
ing courses in digital logic and microprocessors, a second
computing science course, and a further technical elective.
In the signal-processing stream, students take an additional
mathematics course in complex variable theory, the electri-
cal engineering signal-processing
course, a second computing science
a problem-solving lab. course, and a further technical elec-
tive. Thus, the CPC program uniquely
positions students to fill a niche in
the process industries.
At the graduate level, Master of
Science (MSc), Master of Engineer-
ing (MEng), and Doctor of Philoso-
phy (PhD) degrees in three disciplines
(Chemical Engineering, Process Con-
trol, and Materials Engineering) are
offered. The MSc and PhD degrees
are research-based and require that a
student take six graduate-level,
single-semester courses for the MSc
degree and nine graduate-level,
single-semester courses for a PhD degree. Of these courses,
three must be selected from a core program, with the remain-
der being chosen to suit the student's interests. Since these
degrees are research-based, each student must also complete
a thesis. At the PhD level, students must complete three
written preliminary examinations taking three hours each
(usually after the first eight months of the program) and a
candidacy examination of the proposed research and the
student's capability to pursue the proposed research. The
MEng degree is course-based and requires completion of
ten graduate-level, single-semester courses as well as a
project. The MEng is considered to be a terminal degree and
not a route to the PhD program.
Recently, at the graduate level, a number of joint degree
programs have been evolving. The two programs currently
in place are Chemical Engineering and Medical Sciences,
and Chemical Engineering and Biological Sciences.
Coursework includes core chemical engineering courses,
courses taken from the "partner" discipline, and courses that
match the student's interests. These joint degree programs
are new to the UofA, but student interest is driving their
One of the strengths of the UofA programs is interaction
with industry. This interaction occurs formally through some

First-Year Engineering

Subject Area Single Semester
Course Equivalents
Chemistry 2
Physics 3
Mathematics 3
Computing 1
Humanities 1
Other 0.67

ratus, and stabilization of bitumen-in-water emulsions by clays.
Other active projects in this area include fluid dynamics aspects of
pulp and paper processing and computational (CFD) and experi-
mental studies in the area of mixing and separation equipment
Thermodynamics and Separation Technologies Thermody-
namics research, largely dealing with vapor-liquid equilibrium of
systems related to oil and natural gas, started in the 1940s. It
culminated in the 1970s with the publication of the Peng-Robinson
equation of state. The separation research in these decades empha-
sized the measurement of data and modeling of systems used in the
removal of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from natural gas.
The process models developed for the sour-gas separation units and
the vapor-liquid equilibrium data obtained for the amine-sour gas
systems are still used today. In the 1980s, separation research
shifted to improving the energy efficiency of packed and trayed
columns. Fundamental work on factors affecting the efficiency of
separation columns, including studies in interfacial properties, re-
sulted in the development of column packing and column internals
with improved efficiencies. These improvements are being used
commercially. Current work is using the vastly increased power of
computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) packages to model the influ-
ence of packing geometry on detailed flow patterns, with the aim
of improving separation efficiencies. Distillation and packed tow-
ers, with one-foot diameters, are used to validate the CFD predic-
tions. Research projects in thermodynamics today deal with the
application of statistical rate theory to interfacial and membrane
transport, experimental and molecular simulations of miscibility of
polymer blends, and measurement of hydrocarbon solubility in
Advanced Materials This is the most recent general area of
research in the department. It started in the 1980s with an indus-
trial-sponsored project on gas-phase olefin polymerization; the use
of new catalysts to produce polyolefins with novel molecular archi-
tecture continues to be an active research area. Investigation into
the thermorheological properties and microphase separation in block
copolymers is ongoing. The preparation of magnetic microparticles
with different surface functionalities is being studied; such par-
ticles have wide application in removal of contaminants from in-
dustrial effluents, carriers for drug delivery, and biological cell
separation. The merger with materials engineering in 1996 brought
many projects in advanced materials into our department, including
surface modifications for improved wear resistance, preparation of
electronic materials, and sintering of cemented tungsten carbide.
Other Research Activities Academic staff participates in vari-
ous formal interdisciplinary projects beside the chemical-materials
projects; these include projects with the Departments of Biological
Sciences, Chemistry, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Elec-
trical and Computer Engineering, Mathematics, and Mechanical
Engineering. Graduate students, who will receive double major
degrees as described previously, are involved in several of these
interdisciplinary projects. There are also joint research projects
with other Canadian universities as well as with universities in
China, Germany, Great Britain, New Zealand, Poland, Taiwan, and


Chemical engineering continues to change, and the pro-
Spring 2000

grams at the UofA are no exception. The huge increases in
computing and networking systems will affect the delivery
of undergraduate and graduate programs and influence theo-
retical, modeling, and experimental research. Increasingly
powerful and reliable design packages will reduce the amount
of instruction dealing with empirical information, e.g., prop-
erty and transport correlations. The efficiencies provided by
improved software and computing systems will be used to
include more instruction on interfacial and molecular pro-
cesses (e.g., molecular phenomena important in colloidal
suspensions, emulsions, and adsorption).
This return to the fundamentals of chemical engineering
and applied chemistry is needed if our students are to play a
major role in the burgeoning oil-sands industry. The in-
creased reliance in Canada on synthetic crude oil, up to 50%
of Canada's oil use of 2010, will require chemical engineers
with a sound knowledge base in interfacial science (e.g., the
molecular processes involved in removal of high molar mass
hydrocarbons from sand, the processes involved in the eco-
nomic removal of solids from "stable" colloidal solids in
process water suspensions, and the removal of corrosive
materials present in submicron suspensions or emulsions).
The revised curriculum should also reflect the changes in
process control tools available today (e.g., dynamic process
simulation software, computer-aided mathematics packages,
robust-optimization packages, etc.).

The applied research in the department will continue to
focus on the main industrial activity in Alberta; the oil-sands
(synthetic crude oil) industry, the petrochemical industries,
and the pulp-and-paper industry. These industries will con-
tinue to be the core of Alberta's process industry for many
decades, and the problems to be solved will be a continuing
challenge to the university. The increased capabilities of
available analytical, instrumental, and computational tools
will allow solution of previously intractable problems; how-
ever, the basic principles of science and mathematics are still
applicable to these problems. Departmental research will
concentrate on the application of fundamental science and
mathematics to the solution of practical problems and the
development of new tools and techniques to solve these
problems. Application of surface-science principles to the
process industries, and the development of mathematical
and analytical tools for improved process performance and
materials characterization, will be the focus of our research
in the next decade.

1. Wanke, S.E., "Chemical Engineering," in Sons of Martha:
University of Alberta Faculty of Engineering 1913-1988, G.
Ford, ed., University of Alberta Press (1988)\
2. Mather, A.E., "History of the Department of Chemical Engi-
neering," Colloquium, University of Alberta, 5 (1996)
3. Wood, R.K., "Computer Process Control Program," J. Eng.
Ed., 51, January (1995) 0

Future of Engineering Education )

role is primarily that of a coach, encouraging the students to
achieve the target attitudes and skills and providing con-
structive feedback on their efforts. A number of approaches
to process skill development have been formulated and proven
to be effective in science and engineering education, includ-
ing Guided Design,17-lo0 active/cooperative learning ap-
proaches,E3'"-'16 Thinking-Aloud Pairs Problem Solving
(TAPPS),"7-20" and the McMaster Problem Solving pro-

Some Evidence-Based Components
of Expert Problem Solving"

Problem solving is the process used to effectively and efficiently obtain the best value
the best decision for a given set of constraints when the method of solution is not ob'

Evidence-based targets

Progress toward
20% 40%

1. Describe your thoughts aloud as you solve problems.
2. Occasionally pause and reflect about the process and what you
have done.
3. Do not expect your methods for solving problems to work
equally well for others.'
4. Write things down to help overcome the storage limitations of
short-term memory (where problem solving takes place).

5. Focus on accuracy and not on speed.
6. Interact with others.
7. Spend time reading the problem statement
8. Spend up to half the available time defining the problem.c
9. When defining problems, patiently build up a clear picture in
your mind of the different parts of the problem and the
significance of each part.r
10. Use different tactics when solving exercises and problems.Y
11. Use an evidence-based systematic strategy (such as read,
define the stated problem, explore to identify the real
problem, plan. do it, and look back). Be flexible in your
application of the strategy.
12. Monitor your thought processes about once per minute while
solving problems.

S( by Donald R. Woods, 1998). Some of the items in this table are derived froi
References 22-24.
This process is in contrast to exercise solving, wherein the solution methods ar
because similar problems have been solved in the past.
An important target for team problem solving.
Successfid problem solvers may spend up to three times longer than unsuccessj
problem statements.
Most mistakes made by unsuccessful problem solvers are made in the definition
The problem that is solved is not the problem written in the textbook. Instead,
interpretation of that problem.
Some tactics that are -.. r .. ', in solving problems include (1) trying to find a
includes precisely all the variables given in the problem statement, instead of t
the fundamentals needed to solve the problem; (2) trying to use solutions from
when they don't apply, and (3) trial and error.

Spring 2000


The following activities promote establishing an effective
learning environment for process skill development:
1. Identify the skills you want your students to develop,
include them in the course syllabus and (if department fac-
ulty agree) the university catalog, and communicate their
importance to the students. If developing problem-solving
and teamwork skills are among your
objectives for a course, include
"problem solving" and "teamwork"
in the list of course topics in the
syllabus and university catalog and
allocate time for activities that will
e of an "unknown" or provide practice in them.17'211 Be sure
vious.5 the students understand the relevance
of the skills to their professional suc-
rd internalizing these targets
60% 80% 100% cess, and discuss the skills with the
same level of seriousness and enthu-
siasm that you use when presenting
the technical content of the course.

2. Use research, not personal in-
tuition, to identify the target skills,
and share the research with the stu-
dents. Table 1 summarizes evidence-
based target problem-solving skills.
A more complete compilation of
novice versus expert evidence is
given by Woods,1221 with more re-
cent evidence also available.123'241
Target skills have also been identi-
fied for communication,25-281 team-
work,l'' 6.2S assessment (including
self-assessment),129.37.381 lifelong
learning, 439-7] and change manage-
ment.14'48 521
3. Make explicit the implicit be-
havior associated with successful
application of the skills. Much pro-
m material in cessing takes place subconsciously
in the head of a skilled practitio-
e quickly apparent ner. When asked "How do you do
that?" the reply is often "I don't
dil ones in reading know; it just happens." Our task is
to take the skill and behavior apart,
Stage. discover what is really important
it is your mental (based on research), and commu-

Snicate it to the students in easily
rn equation that
y'ing to understand digestible chunks. Illustrative ob-
past problems even jectives and assessment methods
for most skills can be downloaded

Future of Engineering Education )

statement that helped you to identify the information needed
to solve the problem. Which key words helped you identify
the required simplifying assumptions?" Explicitly making
such connections helps build problem-solving expertise."21591

Writing Skills
In addition to the eight basic activities, give assignments
that require writing. Long essays are not required: single
paragraphs can be effective at facilitating the development
of writing skills and do not impose a heavy grading burden
on the instructor. Brent and Felder1601 offer suggestions for
brief writing assignments that address a variety of different
instructional objectives. In-class writing exercises are par-
ticularly valuable in that they provide snapshots of what the
students actually do. Students can often be observed follow-
ing a typical pattern of unsuccessful writing: they sit with
pen poised, staring at the paper and waiting for inspiration to
strike. Encourage them to brainstorm ideas about the topic
and about the target audience and to try to find a match
between the audience needs and the topic. Suggest that they
free-write without critiquing themselves and then discard
sections that don't work.

Teamwork Skills
Many instructors seem to believe that simply giving three
or four students something to do together-a laboratory
experiment, for example, or a process design project-should
somehow enable all of them to develop the skills of leader-
ship, time management, communication, and conflict resolu-
tion that characterize high-performance teams. Unfortunately,
it is not that easy. What often happens under such circum-
stances is that one or two students do most or all of the work
and all students get the same grade. This promotes a great
deal of resentment of both the slackers and the instructor. It
does not promote development of teamwork skills.
If promoting teamwork skills is an objective, use a struc-
tured approach to teamwork such as cooperative learn-
ing[1"13.15] in addition to the basic eight activities. The team
assignments should be structured to assure positive interde-
pendence (that is, if anyone on the team does not fulfill his or
her responsibilities, everyone is penalized in some manner),
individual accountability for all the work done on the project,
face-to-face interaction (at least part of the time), develop-
ment and appropriate use of interpersonal skills, and regular
self-assessment of team functioning.
Part 2 of this series131 offered suggestions for meeting the
defining criteria of cooperative learning and for overcoming
the resistance that some students initially feel toward the
approach. The following procedures help make students aware
of several of the requisites of good team functioning:
Assign a chairperson/coordinator for every meeting.
Spring 2000

Research has shown that groups function better if a desig-
nated chairperson coordinates arrangements. The chair's tasks
are to schedule meetings, to make sure that all team mem-
bers know what they are supposed to do prior to each meet-
ing, and to keep everyone on task. Research also shows that
the chair's role differs from the role of leader[331-someone
who holds greater decision-making authority than the other
team members-although serving as chairperson helps de-
velop leadership skills. (We do not recommend including

Many instructors seem to believe that simply
giving three or four students something to
do together-a laboratory experiment,
for example, or a process design
project-should somehow enable all of
them to develop the skills of leadership, time
management, communication, and conflict
resolution that characterize high-
performance teams.
Unfortunately, it is not that easy.

the role of leader in team activities.) Require the chairperson
to prepare and circulate an agenda ahead of time and ask the
group to give written feedback to the chair at the end of each
meeting. The chairperson can use this input to reflect on his/
her skill and to set targets for improvement.
Have the group hold a "norms" meeting soon after they
are formed. Ask the teams to hold a meeting at which they
decide on group behavior norms, reaching consensus on
specified questions such as "What is the role of the coordi-
nator?" "How will we handle missed meetings and late-
ness?" "How will we make decisions?" "How will we deal
with team members who repeatedly fail to meet their respon-
sibilities?" "How will we deal with conflicts that develop in
the group?" The teams should summarize their norms on a
sheet of paper, sign it, and turn a copy in to the instructor.
Several weeks later, the instructor might return the copy and
ask them to reflect on how well they are meeting the norms.
A checklist of 17 items that should be addressed in establish-
ing norms is available.[71
SAsk students to complete inventories such as the Myers-
Briggs Type Indicator,[6'~ FIRO B,131'62 Johnson's conflict
inventory,631 or the Index of Learning Styles.'641 Suggest that
team members share their results and discuss the implica-
tions, making sure they are aware that the most effective
groups include people with different styles. Although differ-
ences might lead to apparent conflict, they can be used to
bring a synergy to group activities that might otherwise be
Incorporate formal team-building exercises as part of

Rex with Ron Barile (left) and
Lowell Koppel (right) at
a faculty lunch in
December of 1976. >

Rex and Janine, hosts at a party in
their home in 1994, sharing a
smile with Ramki Ramkrishna
and Linda Wang. V

the mandolin and the clarinet-the love of music has
remained with him through the years. He ran track and
played tennis in high school, and his uncles introduced
him to carpentry and sailing. Sailing and skiing (which
he first did in high school on old-fashioned wooden skis)
have remained his two major hobbies.
He met Janine when they were 15, but only she real-
ized that it was a fateful meeting. He "awoke" when they
later became reacquainted through student organiza-
tions at the end of their sophomore years in college.
When Rex decided to go to graduate school at Stanford
in 1965, Janine followed him and enrolled at the Uni-
versity of California-Berkeley. They were married on
August 20, 1966.
Rex and Janine settled down in San Francisco and
faced the daily routine of Rex taking the Southern Pacific
to Palo Alto while Janine drove across the Bay Bridge to
Berkeley. Commuting lost its charm after a while, so in
1968 Janine transferred to Stanford, and they moved to
Palo Alto. Rex worked with Professor Doug Wilde at
Stanford and also had significant interactions with Pro-
fessors Andy Acrivos and David Mason. He took four
years to earn his master's degree and no time at all to
earn his PhD, since both degrees were awarded in 1969.

Rex presents
an award
(now a
at the
University of
at the
in 1991.

(He claims that a secretary forgot to tell him to turn in a form to
claim his master's!)
From 1969 to 1970, Rex was an NSF Postdoctoral Fellow at the
Institute fiir Operations Research und Elektronisch
Datenverarbeitung in Zurich, Switzerland. He worked with the
Institute directors, Professors Kinzi and Krelle on nonlinear
optimization. Janine continued working on her PhD while
they were in Switzerland.
In the summer of 1970, Rex started as an Assistant Professor at
Purdue, a position he had accepted before starting his postdoctoral
year in Switzerland. He and Janine settled in West Lafayette and
Rex started the interesting and challenging life of an assistant
professor while Janine finished her PhD (which she received from
Stanford in 1972). She subsequently accepted a position as assis-
tant professor of linguistics at the University of Illinois at Chi-
cago, and once again the Reklaitis family became commuters as

Spring 2000

Future of Engineering Education )

change the traditional way of delivering engineering educa-
tion in order to respond to rapidly changing conditions in
technology and society, and the second two papers[3'4] ex-
plained some of the education jargon and offered ideas for
improving teaching effectiveness and personal satisfaction
with teaching. We now come to the question of how engi-
neering faculty members can best learn their craft and con-
tinue to keep up with emerging developments in educational
methods. In this paper, we will describe a variety of faculty
preparation programs and offer suggestions for self-study.

Every skilled craft provides formal instruction and/or
mentorship for its new practitioners...except college teach-
ing, which expects its newcomers to learn everything them-
selves by trial-and-error. While there is something to be said
for trial-and-error learning, requiring it for a craft as com-
plex as teaching is absurd. If the learning occurs at all, it
normally takes years, and the ones who pay the penalty for
the errors are not the ones who make them.
Much of the knowledge and many of the skills college
teachers need to be effective can be taught. Good courses on
college teaching are offered on a few-perhaps several
dozen-campuses, but our applause at their existence should
be somewhat restrained. Why don't we see such courses at
every college that offers the doctoral degree? What hap-
pened to good old academic entrepreneurship? A change is
long overdue.
Graduate courses on teaching offer several benefits:
> Teaching Assistants (TAs) support their graduate studies by
providing formal or informal instruction to undergraduates
in lecture and lab courses. The students whom the TAs are
assisting deserve good teaching, which is what they (and
their parents and, for public universities, the state legisla-
ture) think they are paying tuition to get. If we can improve
the skills of the TAs by as little as five percent in a teaching
course, the cost of the course would be a bargain. There is
no way a teaching course could fail to lead to at least that
much improvement.
1 A well-designed teaching course gives students considering
academic careers a much better picture of the profession
than they could ever get in the normal course of a graduate
program. Their career decisions are much better informed
after they take the course, and if they eventually take
teaching positions their professional learning curves could
be shortened by years. Moreover, if the course is taught
well, some students leaning toward industrial careers might
be motivated to go into teaching, helping to meet the
challenge of filling all the faculty vacancies predicted to
occur in the coming decade.
> Students who take teaching courses receive training in
effective presentation, teamwork, assessment of learning,
time management, dealing with student-related problems,
and other important topics that are not part of normal

Spring 2000

graduate training outside schools of education. The
resulting knowledge and skills are useful and marketable,
whether the graduate joins a faculty or goes into an
industrial or government career.
There are several reasons why such courses are not com-
monplace, their benefits notwithstanding. First, most faculty
do not see a need for courses on teaching, believing that the
knowledge and skills required to teach effectively can just as
well be picked up on the job. (If they think about some of
their colleagues or their own teachers, they will quickly see
the fallacy of this reasoning. We never see our own short-
comings in our mental telescope, of course.) In addition,

Every skilled craft provides formal
instruction and/or mentorship for its new
practitioners...except college teaching, which
expects its newcomers to learn everything
themselves by trial-and-error. While there is
something to be said for trial-and-error
learning, requiring it for a craft as
complex as teaching is absurd.

many dissertation advisors actively discourage their gradu-
ate students from taking courses that are not required to pass
the qualifying exams and take time away from research.
Finally, most engineering faculty do not feel prepared by
their own education or experience to teach courses on teach-
ing. This fact in itself is a criticism of our system, which
allows us to practice in a profession whose skills we are not
equipped to pass on to others.
The time has come to change the way we think about
preparation for college teaching. In the first three papers in
this series, we proposed viewing undergraduate education
less as amassing of information and more as learning how to
think, how to create, and how to develop the motivation and
skill to be a lifelong learner and problem solver. In this
paper, we argue that a graduate education should be viewed
in a similar way. Learning how to do research is an impor-
tant component of a PhD program, but it should be exactly
that-a component. All engineering PhDs do not go into
research as soon as they graduate, and very few of those who
do spend their entire careers there. They may become design
engineers, middle and upper-level corporate managers, con-
sulting engineers, faculty members, department heads, deans,
provosts, and chancellors, and a wide variety of other things
that do not involve research. Part of our responsibility to our
graduate students is to equip them with some of the commu-
nication and interpersonal skills they will need to succeed in
those positions. Providing training in teaching is a good
step in this direction. Following are some examples of
how it might be done.
Since 1972, Jim Stice has offered a course at the Univer-

Random Thoughts...


North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695

n his landmark 1990 monograph, Scholarship Reconsid-
ered,111 Ernest Boyer observed that the work of the pro-
fessoriate involves four different functions: discovery
(advancement of the frontier of knowledge in a discipline),
integration (putting research discoveries in broader con-
texts, making connections across disciplines), application
(applying the outcomes of discovery and integration to so-
cially consequential problems), and teaching (helping stu-
dents to acquire specified knowledge and develop specified
skills and attitudes). Boyer argued that these four activities
are equally vital to the academic mission and that the acad-
emy should therefore recognize and reward scholarship
equally in each of them.
The scholarship of discovery-frontier research-is what
most faculty members think of as academic scholarship, and
while the scholarship of integration and the scholarship of
application may not occupy the same honored position in the
faculty incentive and reward system, most professors would
at least agree that they exist in principle. It's a different
story with the scholarship of teaching. Administrators and
faculty members traditionally put teaching and scholarship
in non-overlapping categories: some argue that "scholarship
of teaching" is a contradiction in terms, and many who
concede its theoretical possibility question whether it can be
validly assessed.

What is the scholarship of teaching?
According to Boyer, the elements that define teaching as a
scholarly activity are mastery of the subject being taught,
knowledge of pedagogical methods that have been proven
effective at promoting learning and skill development, and
commitment to continuing personal growth as an educator.
To this list might be added involvement in educational re-
search and development-designing, implementing, assess-
ing, and disseminating innovative instructional methods and
Research in education-related disciplines has a long-estab-
lished tradition. When done right, it adheres to the same
standards of scholarship that characterize good engineering

research. These standards have not been routinely observed
in engineering education, however, and until relatively re-
cently most of the literature has consisted of variations on
the theme, "We tried this method and liked it and so did the
This situation has begun to change in the past decade,
largely due to the efforts of the National Science Foundation
Division of Undergraduate Education and the Engineering
Education Coalitions, and a growing percentage of the engi-
neering professoriate is now engaging in serious educational
research and development. It is no longer enough to say that
everyone liked a method and the students performed well
when it was used. The NSF project monitor and the Journal
of Engineering Education reviewers will inevitably respond
with questions such as "What learning objectives were you
trying to achieve?" "How well were those objectives met?"
and "How do you know-what were your assessment mea-
sures, your control populations, your statistical analysis pro-
cedures, your evaluation criteria?"

How should the scholarship of teaching be assessed?
Boyer proposes making the scholarship of teaching a
legitimate basis for awarding tenure and promotion to fac-
ulty members who choose to make education a major focus
of their careers. (Not all faculty members should be expected
to do so.) This proposal-which has predictably encoun-
tered considerable skepticism and some outright hostility
from administrators and professors-will gain widespread
acceptance only if criteria for evaluating the scholarship of
teaching are established and generally agreed-upon. I pro-
pose that the evaluation should consist of answering three

Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese Professor Emeritus of Chemical
Engineering at North Carolina State University. He received his BChE from
City College of CUNY and his PhD from Princeton. He has presented
courses on chemical engineering principles, reactor design, process opti-
mization, and effective teaching to various American and foreign industries
and institutions. He is coauthor of the text Elementary Principles of Chemi-
cal Processes (Wiley, 2000).
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2000
Chemical Engineering Education

Special Feature Section




James E. Stice University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712
Richard M. Felder North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695
Donald R. Woods McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7
Armando Rugarcia Iberoamericana University, Puebla, Mexico

In the next few years a large number of college teachers
will retire to enjoy their golden years far from the sound
of class bells, the demands of lectures, exams, grades,
research, and committee work, and all the other joys and
vexations of their busy lives as educators. Hired in the ex-
pansionist 1950's and 1960's, they have fought the good
fight and have found satisfaction in their work, their col-
leagues, and their students. Their departure is watched with
interest by the young PhDs who would like to have their
jobs. It will be the biggest turnover in faculty since the
University of Bologna was founded a thousand years ago!
And what of the qualifications of these hordes of would-be
teachers? Do they know anything about course design, learn-
ing psychology, classroom dynamics, student learning styles,
testing, grading, analysis, synthesis, cooperative learning,
problem-based learning, leading discussions...? Do they know
anything about teaching? You can bet they probably know
very little, but know not that they know not. Teaching?
"Why, I'll just teach the way I was taught. By the way, can I
borrow your lecture notes?"
Then there are the in-betweeners, who have been teaching
for three to fifteen years. Obtaining funding for their re-
search is the biggest roadblock on their path to tenure."11
They spend inordinate amounts of time writing grant pro-
posals and keeping their research programs together in the
face of ever-shrinking funding pools. "It's ridiculous-the
two-inch thick proposal has to be so detailed that I almost
have to do the research before I can write it," one grumbles
in frustration. When they aren't writing proposals and culti-
vating funding agencies, they visit companies to forge con-
nections that may lead to industrial support. If they venture
into the education literature to try to see what they might do

more effectively in the classroom, they soon encounter a
language that's foreign to them, with terms like epistemol-
ogy, Bloom's taxonomy, Jungian typologies, and Perry lev-
els. Deciding that they don't have time to decipher all that
gibberish, they give up and just go on lecturing.
Still other faculty members may have given up on the
chase for research funds to focus on teaching, concentrating
on writing clear sets of notes and designing and preparing
good overhead transparencies. They may try some experi-
ments in the classroom such as putting students in teams to
work on problems, but find that their ratings drop, and de-
cide to "Forget that!" They subsequently focus on playing it
safe-avoiding rocking the educational boat-because stu-
dent ratings are their bread and butter.
Many of the problems faced by these diverse souls-the
wannabe faculty members in PhD or postdoctoral programs,
the new or well-established professors who suspect there are
more effective ways to do things but don't exactly know
how, and those who have little time to spare from their
never-ending quest for research dollars-stem from a single
cause. With rare exceptions, no one teaches college teachers
to teach! They receive training as researchers, join faculties,
and enter their classrooms without so much as five seconds
of instruction on what to do there. A few of them seem to
have an innate ability to motivate students and facilitate
learning and high-level skill development and some acquire
this ability through years of experience. Many never acquire
it, however, and in the absence of any pedagogical training,
they teach the way their teachers (who also never received
any training) taught them. This is a questionable way to run a
profession, but it's been done this way for centuries.
The first paper in this series121 established the need to

@ Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2000

Chemical Engineering Education

i. To what extent did the teaching qu,,al;f/ as a scholarly
activity? Answering this question requires evaluating the
faculty member's subject knowledge, pedagogical knowl-
edge, commitment to growth as an educator, and involve-
ment in educational research and development.
2. How effective was the teaching? How well has the
faculty member's teaching motivated students to learn and
promoted their acquisition of desired knowledge, skills, and
3. How effective was the educational research and devel-
opment? How well were the faculty member's educational
innovations designed, implemented, assessed and evaluated,
and disseminated? What has been their impact on engineer-
ing education?
The data that can be used to answer these questions fall
into four categories: archival data (lists of courses devel-
oped and taught, representative instructional materials and
student products; numbers of undergraduate and graduate
students advised and faculty colleagues mentored; disciplin-
ary and education-related conferences and workshops at-
tended; journals subscribed to; conference presentations,
seminars, and workshops given; articles, books, and
courseware published); learning outcomes assessment data
(test results, evaluations of written and oral project reports

and other student products, student self-assessments); sub-
jective evaluations by others (student end-of-course ratings,
retrospective student and alumni ratings, peer ratings, awards
and recognition received, reference letters); and self-assess-
ment data (statement of teaching philosophy and goals, self-
evaluation of progress toward achieving the goals). A subset
of these items gathered into a teaching portfolio provides a
sound basis for assessing the scholarship of teaching."
Glassick, et al.,121 suggest the following standards for evalu-
ating educational innovations:
U Clear goals: Is the basis of the work clearly stated, the
questions addressed important, and the objectives realistic
and achievable?
U Adequate preparation: Does the scholar display an un-
derstanding of existing scholarship in the field and the
skills needed to assemble the necessary resources and do
the work?
U Appropriate methods: Were the methods used appropri-
ate for the goals, applied effectively, and suitably modified
when necessary?
U Significant results: Were the goals achieved? Did the
work contribute significantly to the field?
] Effective presentation: Was the work presented effec-
tively and with integrity in appropriate forums?
] Reflective critique: Does the scholar critically evaluate

Assessment of the Scholarship of Teaching

Statements of teaching philosophy x x
List of courses taught and developed, representative instructional materials x x x
Representative student products x x
Learning outcomes assessment data x x
End-of-course student ratings for the past 2-3 years x x
Retrospective senior ratings x x x x
Alumni ratings x x x x
Peer ratings x x x x x
Self-evaluation x x x
Teaching seminars and conferences attended, books read, journals subscribed to x x
Presentations, invited seminars, and workshops on teaching given x x
Published papers and monographs x x x x
Published textbooks and courseware x x x x
Awards and other recognition x x
External references x x
Spring 2000

his or her own work,
bringing an appropri-
ate breadth of evi-
dence to the critique
and using the critique
to improve the qual-
ity of future work?
Faculty members do-
ing educational re-
search that meets these
standards are clearly
contributing to the
scholarly mission of the
university. They merit
advancement up the
faculty ladder-tenure,
promotion, and merit
raises-no less than
faculty members who
meet institutional stan-
dards for disciplinary
Table 1 contains a
matrix that may be used
to custom-design a pro-
cess for assessing the
components of the
scholarship of teaching.
Continued on page 152.

students typically are introduced to PDEs. Unfortunately, these encounters are infrequent
and generally presented as asides to the main material.
Consider three of the most likely places that ChE undergraduates run into PDEs. First,
they may arise at the end of an introductory numerical methods course. But using Chapra
and Canale[61 as a guide, we see that PDEs are relegated to Chapter 29, suggesting that the
topic probably receives a quick overview near the end of this type of class. PDEs are
usually presented again in the undergraduate fluids course in the form of the Navier-Stokes
equations, but the emphasis here is placed on the flow phenomena rather than the math-
ematics (rightly so), and the solved examples are nearly always one-dimensional problems
that reduce to ODEs. Hence, for chemical engineering students, the lasting impression of
PDEs usually comes from dealing with the unsteady heat equation. While the equation and
its application are fairly easy to grasp, the mathematics are not; the most common
introductory solution is for a semi-infinite domain, which calls for abstract boundary
conditions, a similarity transform, and an error-function solution. (Surely, the frequent
appearance of erfon comical student-organization T-shirts should tell us something!)
While experiencing PDEs in a variety of contexts emphasizes their importance, it
likewise seems to leave the students somewhat unsettled and without a firm foundation for
the subject. These considerations helped formulate an approach that was used when given
the luxury of spending three or four weeks on the topic of PDEs with senior-level chemical
engineers. At LSU, the class in which this occurs is "Development of Mathematical
Models." It affords a number of unique opportunities for the instructor. Being a math
course among other more popular electives, it attracts some of the better undergraduates
along with a few Masters students from our graduate program and from industry, and these
students have more-or-less completed the 'principles' classes. Also, beyond the class's
strong modeling emphasis, the topical coverage is left largely to the instructor's discretion
(see Rice and Dom7' for a template of the course offered at LSU). Finally, at the point in the
semester when PDEs are introduced, the students have themselves derived a number of
PDEs governing transport and reaction engineering problems that subsequently were
reduced to simpler form. Hence, their foundation for model development is strong, and
they can clearly see the need to move beyond algebraic equations and ODEs in order to
make full use of their models.

The educational objective is to allow the students to solve complex PDEs of real
engineering interest, without sacrificing coverage of fundamental mathematical behavior.
To realize this goal, an approach is used whereby classroom coverage includes topics such
as the origin of the equations, visualization of the solution space, qualitative behavior, and
ties between the physical phenomena and mathematics. These topics are potential concep-
tual barriers, and overcoming them can make the terminology and the detailed mathemat-
ics less intimidating. At the same time, to prevent excessive classroom time being devoted
to numerical techniques or specialized software, the students are left mostly on their own
to pursue numerical solutions to homework or modeling projects. This approach works
well (given good numerical tools) because the solutions that the students have themselves
worked out are highly effective illustrations of conceptual topics. In the past, it would have
proved less feasible because, until the instructor covered solution techniques, the students
lacked the tools to fully explore the mathematical models with which they were working.
The intent is not to de-emphasize the crucial subject of solving PDEs. Rather, these
issues are postponed until the foundation is stronger. If implemented properly, this ap-
proach shares many positive attributes of 'just-in-time learning' employed by Finlayson:181
modeling projects evolve so that just as students identify the need for new mathematical
tools, the relevant subjects are addressed. The benefit of incorporating software such as
MATLAB is that topical coverage in the classroom can remain fundamental without
slowing the students' progress toward quantitative solutions.

The ideas
and examples
here were
as part
of a
course at LSU,
... When
the PDE
of the
it was helpful
to consider
the contexts
in which our
typically are
to PDEs.
infrequent and
presented as
asides to
the main

Spring 2000

The example shown here can illustrate the unsteady evolu-
tion of a temperature profile as well as the steady-state
temperature profile for various heat-transfer coefficients.
The transient problem underscores the behavior of parabolic
PDEs, while the steady problem helps to illustrate engi-
neering fundamentals: the
conditions under which fins
are useful for increasing SUR
heat-transfer efficiency.
Parameters are taken from
Example 27-3 in Bennett and HIGH DENSITY RE
Myers,[l51 and the fin dimen-
sions are based roughly on the
elliptic example above. The ge-
ometry is made somewhat more RPLECiv
complex to illustrate the versa-
tility of MATLAB's GUI.

Figure 3 shows the fin at Fi
t=7 sec, t=2.4 min, and t=12
min. The shading shows the evolution
of the temperature profile in time (an
effect that is much more dramatic in
color). Figure 4 shows two steady-state
profiles, for a high external heat-trans-
fer coefficient [1500 Btu/(hr.ft.F)] and
a low external heat-transfer coefficient
[1 Btu/(hr.ft.-F)]. The graphics shown
here help students conceptualize the con-
ditions under which fins can significantly
increase heat transfer.
We make two final points. First, the
evolution of the temperature profile (es-
pecially in color) is helpful for under-
scoring the behavior of a parabolic PDE:
a change in the boundary condition has
immediate but weak influence through-
out the fin, and the temperature evolu-
tion is smooth. Second, one can easily
envision numerous exercises that could
be performed to illustrate important be-
havior. For instance, a spatially varying
heat-transfer coefficient (discussed in
Bennett and Myers) is impossible to im-
pose for even simple analytic solutions,
but can easily be incorporated into the
MATLAB solution.

Example 3
Wave Propagation in a
Heterogeneous Material
Applications of the basic wave equa-
tions are less frequent in chemical engi-
neering. While strong convection effects
Spring 2000

can produce wave-like behavior, MATLAB (to the author's
knowledge) is not equipped to handle convective transport.
One can, of course, simulate vibration problems or certain
problems involving sound waves. Instead, the example
shown here is a highly simplified illustration of seismic
exploration. It was chosen
heclise of its intuitive an-

gure 5. Geometry used for wave propagation examp

Figure 6. Wave propagation and reflection
in a heterogeneous domain. White corre-
sponds to higher-pressure transients.

peal to an engineer of any
Artificial seismic waves are
used in oil exploration or geo-
physical analysis to map sub-
surface structure. The wave
source may be either on the
surface or lowered into a well,
and the responses to the wave
at various detector locations
are interpreted to give the
mapping. On a simplistic
level, the propagation of pres-
sure waves in the ground is described
in the wave equation[16]

1 a2p
V2p 0
V2P 2 2 = 0
c2 at2
where c is the wave velocity, depen-
dent primarily on the material proper-
ties. A time-dependent pressure must
be defined at the wave source. Along
reflective boundaries of the domain, one
specifies n-Vp=0.
Figure 5 shows the geometry used
for this simple example. The interest-
ing features are the slope of the lower
boundary (which could be interpreted
as a geologic bedding plane) and the
inclusion of a material heterogeneity
at the lower right. These two fea-
tures make the response more inter-
esting, but preclude solution by ana-
lytical means.
To solve the problem, a pressure spike
was induced (via a rapidly decaying
exponential function) along the top
boundary at t=0. Figure 6 is a qualita-
tive illustration of the resulting wave's
behavior. The lighter shading (which
represents the traveling high-pressure
front) propagates downward, reflects
off of the bottom boundary, and then
returns to the surface (where it would
be detected). Although length and time
scales are not included since the ex-


equate and superior scholarship. Describe the rating system to
all departmental faculty members who may wish to include
educational scholarship in their credentials and display sev-
eral examples of excellent portfolios as models.
U Provide training to portfolio raters. Give detailed explana-
tions of the evaluation criteria to faculty members who will be
serving as raters and provide guided practice on sample port-
U Collect at least two independent ratings of each portfolio
submitted and have the evaluators reconcile their ratings to
arrive at a consensus rating. Incorporate the consensus rating
into the overall tenure/promotion dossier evaluation process.

1. Boyer, E., Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Pro-
fessoriate, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of
Teaching, Princeton, NJ (1990)
2. Glassick, C.E., M.T. Huber, and G.I. Maeroff, Scholarship
Assessed: Evaluation of the Professoriate, Jossey-Bass, San
Francisco (1997)
3. Felder, R.M., A. Rugarcia, and J.E. Stice, "The Future of
Engineering Education. V. Assessing Teaching Effective-
ness and Educational Scholarship," Chem. Eng. Ed., in press.

Continued from page 10].

review articles and has received many invitations as an in-
vited lecturer. He supports his research through a number of
NSF grants and an industrial/university consortium, CIPAC
(Computer Integrated Process Operations Center), at Purdue.
He was one of the founders of CIPAC and served as its
director until this year when Professor Gavin Sinclair took
over. In 1984 he won the Computing in Chemical Engineer-
ing Award of the Computing and Systems Technology Divi-
sion of AIChE. He was again recognized by AIChE for his
accomplishments when he was named a fellow in 1994. In
that same year he also won the best paper award from Com-
puters & Chemical Engineering for the paper by Jayakumar
and Reklaitis, "Chemical Plant Layout Via Graph Partition-
ing: Part 1. Single Level (Comp. & Chem. En., 33, 441,
1994). 1994 was a very good year for Rex since that year he
also won the ASEE Chemical Engineering Division lecture-
ship award. His award address on "Computer-Aided Design
and Operation of Batch Processes" can be found in CEE,
29, 76, (1995).
Of course, much of the real work of research is done by
graduate students. Rex has been advisor or co-advisor for 28
PhD students and 37 MS students. He currently advises or
coadvises eight PhD students and one MS student. Seven of
his past students are now professors: A. Elkamel (Kuwait
University), Carl Knopf (Louisiana State University), I.
Karimi (National University of Singapore), B.S. Lee
(Pukyong National University), E.S. Lee (Dongguk Univer-
sity, Korea), I.B. Lee (Pohang University, Korea), and G. Yi
Spring 2000

(Kynghee University, Korea).
Rex has also proved himself to be a good citizen of the
chemical engineering community. He has served as secre-
tary, vice-president, and president of CACHE and continues
to serve as a trustee of that organization. Equally active in
AIChE, particularly in the Computing and Systems Technol-
ogy (CAST) division (in which he has held all of the of-
fices), he was an elected director of AIChE until December
of 1999. He has also been an active member of the Council
for Chemical Research and has served on its governing
board. He has co-edited several volumes of conference pro-
ceedings dealing with process design, simulation, computer
graphics, and optimization. He has been Editor-in-Chief of
Computers & Chemical Engineering since 1994 and was
Co-Editor-in-Chief for the eight years before that.
In his research and professional activities, Rex has always
been a good team player. He has collaborated with a number
of past and current faculty at Purdue on papers, including
Paul Andersen, Gary Blau, Frank Doyle, Lowell Koppel,
Martin Okos, Joe Pekny, Dan Schneider, Bob Squires, Venkat
Venkatasubramanian, and Jack Woods. He has also collabo-
rated on papers and edited proceedings with a number of
well-known chemical engineering professors from other
schools, including Larry Biegler, Brice Carnahan, James F.
Davis, Tom Edgar, Ignacio Grossmann, Dave Himmelblau,
Richard Mah, David Rippin, John Seader, Jeff Siirola, Aydin
Sunol, and Doug Wilde.
While involved in this work at Purdue, Rex continues to
live the good life in West Lafayette, helping raise his two
sons and being, in Janine's words, "a wonderful father" who
takes the role very seriously-when they were much younger,
he would tell the boys wonderful stories of knights and
pirates, and take them fishing or sailing, and for family-
favorite ski trips in Colorado. George earned his bachelor's
degree in history from Purdue, his master's from Wake
Forest, and is now working on his PhD in history at North-
eastern University in Boston. Victor is a junior in electrical
engineering at Stanford University.
Sailing has remained an important part of Rex's life. For
sixteen years he participated in the famed Chicago-to-
Mackinac race and even won his class a few times in a 34-
foot Islander-but most of the time he finished in the middle
of the pack. His family, who did not race with him, would
watch the boat leave Chicago and then drive to Mackinac
Island to watch the boats arrive there. They did, however,
enjoy sailing with him in his 19-foot Lightening.
In addition to being close enough to sail on Lake Michigan,
the Lafayette area is near enough to visit family in Chicago for
the holidays. Rex remains close to his mother and sister and
has become close to Janine's large, rowdy extended family.
We are proud to have Rex Reklaitis at Purdue. He is an
honest, generous, witty colleague with high standards. Fade
out to the tune of The Wabash Far, Far Away. O

Press Release for the Open-Ended Estimation Design Project

The island of is a 100-square-mile idyllic spot located
Climate, scenery, flora, andfauna all combine to make this a
premier vacation spot for families, couples, and those just looking to get
away from it all. Abundant recreation activities are available as well as
special sightseeing opportunities.
The prime attractions of this island are the miles of scenic beaches with
soft, white sand. Breakers pound the shore continuously, making it a year-
round haven for surfers. A special locale is the capital port located on the
southwest corner of the island. Come spend a languid afternoon visiting
this spot and observe the spectacular tidal drop of 40 feet. At low tide, it
is a seashell-collector's paradise!
Don'tforget the mountains here. Active volcanoes dot the panoramic
vistas, and Mount Simone rumbles at least twice a day, spraying a
continuous lazy plume of hot gases into the clear blue sky. For the
intrepid, guided tours are made to the rim during quieter periods. Come
see the most spectacular lava formations on Earth!
Hikers can take trips deep into the heart of the island, where 800-foot
waterfalls cascade down into reflecting pools. For those enjoying less
strenuous exertions, come spend the afternoon in the hot springs that
collect into natural-rock bathing pools. For the conventional individual,
we have fresh-water baths; for those looking for something more exotic,
we have 2% natural salt baths-guaranteed to improve your skin tone and

Distribution of
Project Description
and Press Release
(week 7)

Preliminary Brainstorming
by Teams

Literature Review
by Teams

Meeting with
(week 10)

Submission of
Phase I Report
(week 11)

Return Phase I Report
with Feedback
(week 12)

Meet with
"Development Authority"
(week 13)

Submission of
Phase II Report
with Revised Phase I Report
(week 14)

Oral Presentations
with Peer Review
(week 15)

Figure 1. Organization
and timeline of the
open-ended, estimation
design project in
Spring 2000

leave you feeling healthy. After bathing, come and enjoy a massage at
the skilled hands of our staff members. And don'tforget, the cleansing
effects of a mud bath provide long-lasting therapeutic value to your skin.
Hang gliders will also find plenty of recreational opportunity. The
300-foot lovely cliffs overlooking the ocean afford prime launch
locations. The island is renowned for its steady cool breezes that provide
year-round hang-gliding opportunities.
And don't worry about bad weather when you come to visit. The sun
shines 80% of the time here, with a year-round mean temperature of
850F and low humidity. Rain, when it occurs, is a late-evening event, so
day plans are never ruined.
The island is also abundant with natural resources. Forests of
hardwood trees cover over half of the island and contain some of the
world's most exotic species of animals and birds. Colorful and extremely
rare species of birds can only be found here in the tropical forests.
Spelunkers will also find plenty to do. Mile-long caves provide an
opportunity for all levels of cave exploration, from novice to expert.
Come down and explore our known caves, or discover new ones of your
own! Maybe you will get lucky and find veins of precious metals; large
coal deposits have already been discovered.
Don't delay-contact your travel agent now.

The second and main requirement of the Phase I report is including a design equation for
each method. The left-hand side of the equation is in terms of energy or power, and the
right-hand side is in terms of the fuel or resource and other parameters that will allow for
the determination of the amount of energy or power that can be obtained. No calculations
are made, however, for the Phase I report, since the resources are not well defined at this
point in the project. Rather, the calculations and final recommendation are performed for
the Phase II submission.

Separating the development of the design equations in Phase I from the execution of the
calculations in Phase II is intentional. Students often find an equation and use it without
critical assessment. By delaying the application of the equation from the discovery or
derivation, some time will hopefully be spent on critically evaluating the usefulness and
correctness of the proposed relationship. The benefit of assessing the design equation
becomes apparent to the students when for the Phase II report they have not acquired all
the values they need to complete the calculations.

In the case of wind energy, for example, a typical textbook design equation'31 for the
power, P, is

TABLE 2 P = lpD2v3 = kD2v (1)
Lergy Methods Proposed where v is the wind velocity and D is the blade diameter of
by Students the wind turbine. The density of air, p, and efficiency, n, are

Wind Reservoir
Hot Lava Flowof water
Tidal to turbinme
Ocean Thermal
Fuel Cell
IFuel Cell r""- Work -"---" Electricity
Fossil Fuel Ture Generator E
Solar (Photovoltaic)
Hot Springs
Wave Water
Biomass Conversion ____et
Solar (Thermal) Figure 2. Example of block diagram submitted by
a student group for hydroelectric energy.

often lumped into an overall coefficient, k. The correctness
of the dependence of the power on the diameter, D2, and
velocity, v3, can quickly be established by observing that
the power from wind is related to the rate of kinetic energy
change by riAv2 / 2 and the mass flow rate, m, is equal to
pvDD2 /4.
The equation for wind energy further illustrates when
quantities can be classified as known, easily estimated, or
unknown, and thus must be determined by other means. The
density of air, for example, can be easily obtained from the
ideal gas law, and it is not crucial, for an estimate, if the
mean temperature is 65'F or 850F. The value for the diam-
eter of the windmill, on the other hand, is not necessarily
something that can be estimated, but literature sources will
typically mention a range of diameters evaluated in actual
tests. Finally, it is impossible to estimate the average wind
velocity of a location with any certainty; specific values
pertain to specific locations.
Wind energy also provides an excellent opportunity to
reinforce the usefulness of thermodynamic analysis for cal-
culating energy transformation via the first law. One student,
for example, stated that the equation for wind power is not
really an outcome of thermodynamic analysis. We then jointly
proceeded to evaluate the case of how the kinetic energy
change of a gas flowing in a pipe can be related to the shaft
work extracted; by extension, wind energy is then linked to
the conversion of kinetic energy in the "pipe" swept out by
the blades of the wind turbine. Since the wind velocity is
also not zero after passing between the blades of the wind-
mill, this point offers partial insight into why the efficiency
of wind turbines is low. 31
Other methods of generating energy13'0] have in their de-
sign equations a similarity that is of instructional value for
reinforcing the utility of the second law. Burning of fossil
fuels, nuclear power, ocean thermal energy, and geothermal
energy can all have their design equations represented by the
general form
P = rriAH (2)
where Tr is the maximum efficiency, m is the mass con-
sumption rate of the fuel, and AH is the enthalpy change of
the fuel. By casting the design equations in this common
format, the maximum efficiency of each method can also be
compared on a common basis, namely, the absolute tem-
perature of the hot reservoir, Th, and cold reservoir, T,, from
the Carnot equation: ir = 1-T / Th. While some groups
choose to use the Carnot efficiency, other teams opt to use an
empirical value for rl from reference works.
Prior to submission of the Phase I report, the students have
an opportunity to schedule a meeting with their "boss," i.e.,
the instructor. Since students seem to crave "real world"
experience, role playing with their boss provides a good
opportunity to get some. Before the meeting, the students are

reminded that their boss does not know the solution to this
project. If this were the case, the project would not have been
assigned. Furthermore, their boss does not want to solve the
problem for them; that is the responsibility of the employee.
The boss will, however, guide, encourage, direct, etc.
After submission and acceptance of the Phase I report, the
teams "fly" to the island and meet with the director of the
local development authority (the instructor), who tries to
answer any questions related specifically to the resources of
the island. It is at this meeting that location-specific informa-
tion such as wind velocity, available tidal basin, hydroelec-
tric dam height, and water volumetric flow rate are made
available to the students-but only in response to their spe-
cific questions. The link between the design equations and
known/unknown information then becomes clear. Values for
each and every variable in the design equations must be
obtained or estimated in order to be able to compute the
power. Each group is also given individualized informa-
tion-no two groups have the same amount of resources or
population. In addition, not all of the resources provided are
sufficient to meet the energy needs. By tailoring the re-
sources in this manner, groups cannot converge on the same
answer and must be comfortable (or uncomfortable) with their
own decisions. During the meeting with the local development
authority, the values of the resources requested by the students
are recorded for later use in grading the reports.
The projects are evaluated for a number of attributes. For
the Phase I report, the design equations must be sound and
the layouts of the block diagrams logical. Second, the over-
all organization of the report and writing are assessed. Gen-
erally, the Phase I reports have not been graded, but rather
feedback for improvement is provided (their boss gives feed-
back, not grades). The most common shortcoming of the
Phase I reports is a poorly formulated design equation. It is
either not in terms of a single equation, not in terms of the
primary fuel or resource (e.g., for geothermal energy, the
power is formulated in terms of the working fluid instead of in
terms of the heat available from the hot reservoir), or formu-
lated in a manner for which not all values are easily obtainable.
The format for the Phase II report is a one- or two-page
executive summary containing a specific recommendation
of how to meet the energy needs of the island. The revised
design equations are also presented along with the values
used to compute the power. The values of the energy must be
roughly correct in light of the fuel or resources specified.
Since each group has been given different values for the
resources, I calculate the available energy for the methods of
each group in a spreadsheet application. In this manner, it is
relatively straightforward to determine if each group has
correctly calculated the right order of magnitude of energy
possible from each proposed method, and it is at this level
(namely, the order of magnitude) that the correctness of the
calculations is assessed. The revised Phase I report is resub-
Chemical Engineering Education

This paper describes a simple experimental technique for
determining binary diffusion coefficients for vapor (A)-gas (B) systems in
which the vapor is generated by the evaporation of a pure
volatile liquid and the gas is air.

falls through distance dz. The volume of liquid evaporated
will be given by (a.dz). If the density of the liquid is PA and
the molecular weight is MA, the molar evaporation of A will
be equal to pA(a.dz)/MA and the rate of evaporation,
PAa.dz/ MAdt, can be related to the diffusional flux (NAz.a)
by the following equation:

NAza =Aadz (2)
MA dt
Assuming the liquid level drops very slowly and therefore
pseudo-steady-state conditions apply, NAz in Eq. (2) may be
substituted for by Eq. (1), giving

PA dz DABPt (PA P,) (3)
(PA, -PA, (3)
which can be rearranged as
z dz = C dt (4)

Equation (4) can be integrated as
fz rt
fz dz =C dt (6)

which yields
2 2
-z =Ct (7)
Equation (7) suggests that a plot of (z2 z/2 vs. t will
be linear, passing through the origin and having a slope C.
The value of DAB can therefore be calculated from the mea-
sured slope C by rearranging Eq. (5) as

PtMA(PAl -PA2)
It may be noted that pAl is the vapor pressure of liquid A at
T, and pA2 may be safely assumed to be zero as fresh air
flows over the tube.

The apparatus is quite simple. It consists of a small glass
tube of 1- to 2-cm diameter (see Figure 1), a traveling
microscope, a source of light to illuminate the liquid menis-
cus, a thermometer, and a barometer. All these components
can be easily found in any chemical engineering laboratory.

The volatile liquids selected should have high vapor pres-
sures to get meaningful results in a reasonable time period-
acetone, pentane, and hexane were tested in this study. Tests
performed in duplicate indicated that the results were repro-
ducible within the experimental accuracy.
The following procedure is recommended:
1. Fill the tube with the volatile liquid to about 0.5 to 1.0
cm from the top. Care should be taken to pipet the
liquid in the tube to avoid wetting the top empty
section of the tube with the liquid.
2. Place the tube in a stand and place the stand in an
illuminated fume-hood.
3. Note the atmospheric pressure and the temperature in
the fume hood.
4. Keep the fume hood fan off and the door fully open
(the front glass panel fully raised) to minimize any air
turbulence due to suction in the fume hood.
5. Focus the traveling microscope first at the very top of
the tube (z=0) and then at the liquid meniscus level
(z=z,), and immediately start the stopwatch.
6. Record the liquid level (z) in the tube with time to
obtain a noticeable drop in the liquid depth. This gives
the z-versus-t data.
7. Note the atmospheric pressure and the temperature in
the fume hood again.
8. Measure the liquid density at the experimental
temperature by weighing a known volume of the
9. Plot (z2 z2) / 2 versus t and obtain the experimental
diffusion coefficient from the slope of the plot as per
Eq. (8).
10. Predict the diffusion coefficient from the Hirschfelder-
Bird-Spotz correlation'21 given below and compare
with the experimental value obtained in Step 9 above.


10 -1.084-0.249 -+1 IT3/2 1-

t(rAB)2 f(kt / AB)

11. Repeat the experiment with a pedestal fan and/or fume
hood fan on, and compare the experimental diffusivity
values with those with no air circulation in the fume

Spring 2000

The results for acetone and hexane at atmospheric pres-
sure, room temperature, and with no forced air circulation
through the fume hood are plotted in Figures 2 and 3, respec-
tively, and for pentane without and with forced air flow
through the fume hood in Figure 4. As can be noted, the
plots of z2 z)/2 versus t for acetone and hexane (see
Figures 2 and 3, respectively) yield linear lines passing
through the origin with a good fit of data points (R2>0.986).
The experimental and the predicted values of diffusion coef-
ficients, calculated from the slopes of these plots and the
first line on Figure 4 for pentane (with no forced circulation
in the fume hood), and from the Hirschfelder-Bird-Spotz
correlation 2' (Eq. 9), respectively, are given in Table 1.
The results suggest that the experimental technique is
simple and gives reasonable agreement between experimen-
tal and predicted values.
The last three experiments performed with forced air flow
in the fume hood (see Table 1 and Figure 4) indicate an
increase in the apparent value of DAB, as expected. These
results reflect a very important limitation of this procedure,
i.e., for ensuring "stagnant B" conditions (to obtain a good
agreement between the experimental and the predicted val-
ues of DAB) on which the development of Eq. (7) is depen-
dent, undue air turbulence in the fume hood must be ab-
sent. Any external turbulence can affect the behavior of
the gas mixture in the tube and lead to an increase in the
mass-transfer rate.
It may be noted that for this method to work, the density of
the vapor (A) should be greater than that of air (B) so that
there are no natural convection effects in the tube. This is the
case with all common organic liquids.

1. Rate of fall in liquid level can be used to determine the
diffusion coefficient fairly accurately for vapor-gas sys-
tems where the vapor is generated by the evaporation of
a pure volatile liquid and the gas is stagnant.
2. Experimental diffusion coefficients are within 10% of
the predicted values.
3. Turbulence in the experimental area affects the preci-
sion of the results.

This laboratory provides students with the opportunity of
experiencing how elementary experimental methods can be
used to confirm what they read in the classroom. The experi-
ment is extremely simple and can be completed well within
the usual three-hour laboratory period. Since linear plots
passing through the origin are obtained, only two level read-
ings, about 20 minutes apart, are required for a direct calcu-
lation of DAB through Eqs. (7) and (8).
Spring 2000

We recommend that the class be divided into groups and
that different groups study the effects of 1) nature of compo-
nent A, i.e., study different volatile liquids; 2) degree of
turbulence in the work station (some effort can be made to
quantify the results by measuring air velocity in the fume
hood with an anemometer); 3) temperature; and 4) natural
convection effects in the evaporation tube (this can be stud-
ied with any liquid with a molecular weight lower than that
for air-water being the safest). The students should also be
asked to review the analysis of sources of error in such a
procedure provided by various workers.'681

a cross-sectional area of evaporation tube

C slope of (z2 -z)/ 2 vs. t plot
D diffusion coefficient
f function
k Boltzmann's constant
M molecular weight
NA steady-state molar flux of A in the z-direction
p pressure
R ideal gas constant
r molecular separation at collision
T absolute temperature
t time
z vertical distance
E energy of molecular attraction
P liquid density
A component A
B component B
AB components A and B
BM log-mean average for component B across the diffusion
0 initial value
t total
z in the z-direction
1 beginning of diffusion path
2 end of diffusion path
1. Perry, R.H., and C.H. Chilton, Chemical Engineers' Hand-
book, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY,
pp. 3-230 (1973)
2. Treybal, R.E., Mass-Transfer Operations, 3rd ed., McGraw-
Hill Book Company, New York, NY, pp. 28-31 (1987)
3. McCabe, W.L., and J.C. Smith, Unit Operations of Chemical
Engineering, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New
York, NY, Ch. 21 (1993)
4. Geankoplis, C.J., Transport Processes and Unit Operations,
3rd ed., Prentice Hall Book Company, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,
p.390 (1993)
5. Perry, R.H., and C.H. Chilton, Chemical Engineers' Hand-
book, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY
Table 3.8 (1973)
6. Lee, C.Y., and C.R. Wilke, Ind. Eng. Chem., 46, 2381 (1954)
7. Rao, S.S., and C.O. Bennett, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund., 5, 573
8. Pommersheim, J.M., and B.A. Ranck, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund.,
15, 246 (1977) 0

B curriculum




Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401

Computers have long been used in the teaching of
chemical engineering in order to facilitate complex
calculations required for the design and analysis of
chemical process equipment (plug-flow reactors, multistage
distillation columns, etc). The use of computer-based pro-
cess simulation using commercial software (Aspen Plus,
ProVision, Hysim, etc.) is commonplace in most modern
chemical engineering curricula. Today, the availability of
powerful molecular modeling software is adding an entirely
new vehicle for predicting the behavior of systems and pro-
cesses based on molecular-scale properties. While the prin-
ciples are not new, only recently has the computational
hardware and software become available that can bring these
tools (Gaussian, Spartan, Cerius2, etc) into the chemical
engineering classroom. The capability of combining compu-
tation with visualization presents chemical engineering edu-
cators with important new opportunities for enhanced teach-
ing and learning.

Wei'" commented on the two paradigms that shaped chemi-
cal engineering education during the 20th century. The first
of these was based on classification of processes and sys-
tems as the familiar unit-operations lexicon; this approach
dominated the early stages of chemical engineering teach-
ing. The publication of Transport Phenomena121 marked the
beginning of the second paradigm, that of the fundamental
analytical approach based on rigorous mathematical models
of physical systems. Recently, a third paradigm for chemical
engineering was proposed by Landau,1[3 that of a closer
relationship with practice and industry.
It is our opinion, however, that the third paradigm could
and should be cast in the context of better integration of the
fundamental molecular processes of chemical physics into
chemical engineering. Other educators have discussed the
importance of the microscopic viewpoint in our teaching and

research[4'5] but in today's chemical engineering curriculum
the basic atomistic concepts learned in organic and physical
chemistry are too often left to languish as soon as the spe-
cific courses dealing with these subject areas have been
completed. This is caused in large part by a lack of continu-
ity between subject matter and by poor integration in terms
of teaching of the two disciplines. Important concepts in
organic synthesis and molecular structure are rapidly forgot-
ten by third- and fourth-year chemical engineering stu-
dents, just at the time that these concepts should be ap-
plied (for example, in the process design and/or reaction
engineering courses).
At the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), we have recently
completed a top-to-bottom school-wide redesign of our un-
dergraduate curriculum. As part of this exercise, the under-
graduate chemical engineering curriculum was significantly
updated and revised. A key philosophical component in this
revision process was our desire to incorporate molecular
modeling and simulation into the chemistry and chemical
engineering course sequence in order to foster a better ap-

Robert M. Baldwin is Professor and Head of the Chemical Engineering
and Petroleum Refining Department. He received his BS and MS degrees
from Iowa State University and his PhD from the Colorado School of
Mines. His research interests include membrane separations, computa-
tional chemistry, fuels science, and catalysis.
James F. Ely is Professor of Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refin-
ing at the Colorado School of Mines. He received his BS from Butler
University and his PhD from Indiana University. His research interests
include molecular simulation and thermodynamics.
J. Douglas Way is Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering and
Petroleum Refining at the Colorado School of Mines. He received his BS,
MS, and PhD degrees from the University of Colorado at Boulder. His
research interests include novel separation processes, membrane tech-
nology, molecular simulation, and computational chemistry.
Stephen R. Daniel is Professor and Head of the Department of Chemistry
and Geochemistry at Colorado School of Mines. He received his BS, MS,
and PhD degrees in interdisciplinary chemistry/chemical engineering pro-
grams at the Colorado School of Mines. He teaches courses in organic
chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and analytical chemistry at both under-
graduate and graduate levels.
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2000
Chemical Engineering Education

as stability and reactivity.
These concepts are further elaborated during the third-
year physical chemistry sequence. Here, the students are
exposed in class to the theory and some of the mathematical
details associated with setting up and arriving at approxi-
mate solutions to the Schrodinger equation. As an example,
the Morse potential energy diagram for a diatomic molecule
is first calculated using measured spectroscopic (IR) data
from the lab, and then simulated using Spartan.

Incorporation of molecular modeling in the chemical engi-
neering curriculum was first accomplished two years ago in
our senior-level reaction engineering course. As an example
of the approach being used, an outline for one of the
computational chemistry homework problems assigned
in this class is shown in Table 1.
The problem deals with synthesis of chemical-grade etha-
nol via a S,2 nucleophilic substitution reaction in aqueous
solution. The objective of the problem is to illustrate use of
quantum mechanics and computational chemistry in order to
generate the thermochemical information required to carry
out an analysis of a simple industrial reaction. Two possible

reactions are proposed, differing only in choice of substrate:

C2H5Cl + OH- C2H5OH + C-
C2H5Br + OH- <- C2H5OH + Br
As a first step, students are asked to investigate the ther-
modynamics of the reactions. For this part of the problem,
heats of formation of all products and reactants (including
solvation energy effects) are estimated by semi-empirical
quantum chemistry methods, and the heat of reaction com-
puted in the normal fashion:
products reactants
AHR= j vjAHFJ- viAHFi (4)
J i
Calculation of the equilibrium constant requires the free
energy change for the reaction

K = exp(-AGR / RT) (5)

but if entropic effects are not important (a reasonable as-
sumption in this case)


AGO = AHR (6)

and the standard free energy change and hence the equilib-
rium constant for each reaction can be readily estimated

Example Problem in Reaction Kinetics

Synthesis of chemical-grade ethanol can be achieved by a
nucleophilic substitution reaction using hydroxide ion as the
nucleophile and a haloethane as the substrate. For this problem, we
will investigate the rates of two synthesis reactions, differing only in
the nature of the halogen atom (bromine vs. chlorine):

C2H5Cl + OH +- CH5OH + Cl-

C2H5Br + OH- <- CH5OH + Br-
The reaction takes place under aqueous conditions. Both reactions
can be assumed to follow a SN2 (substitution/nucleophilic/bimolecu-
lar) mechanism. Hence the geometry and configuration of the
transition state can be assumed to be the same for both reactions. We
wish to estimate the ratio of the rates of these two reactions.

1. Estimate the activation energies for both the forward and reverse
reactions using Spartan. This will require several assumptions
regarding the exact geometry of the transition state, namely
Assume that the nucleophile (the attacking group) and
leaving group are both attached to the same carbon atom and
are in axial positions (e.g., 1800 apart)
For S,2 reactions, trigonal bi-pyramidal geometry at the
carbon atom where the nucleophile is attacking gives a
reasonable approximation to the transition state.
To obtain the energy of the transition state, have Spartan carry
out a Semi-Empirical Transition Structure calculation using
AM 1 as the model and water (Water C-T) as the solvent.
Remember to set up the correct charge and multiplicity for your
assumed transition state. Obtain heats of formation from Spartan
for the ionic species (Semi-Empirical, Single Point Energy,

AM1, Water C-T). Obtain heats of formation for the other
reactants and products using Semi-Empirical Geometry
Optimization as the task, AMI as the model, and Water C-T as
the solvent.

2. Using data on heats of formation of the reactants and the products
from Spartan, calculate the heat of reaction for both nucleophilic
substitution reactions. Which reaction is favored if the reactions
are under thermodynamic control? Calculate the ratio of the
equilibrium constants for these two reactions at 250C.

3. Calculate the ratio of the rate of the substitution reaction for
bromoethane as the substrate to the substitution reaction when
chloroethane is the substrate in the temperature range from 25C
to 100'C. What assumptions are necessary to carry out this
calculation? Are these assumptions reasonable? Does the ratio
change with temperature? Why?

4. a) If you were going to engineer a reactor for manufacture of
chemical-grade ethanol using one of these two reactions, which
haloethane would you recommend be used and why? Are there
any important factors that you are not considering in your choice
for a substrate?'
b) Would you suggest the process be carried out at low tempera-
ture or high temperature, and why?

* You may want to consult the Chemical Marketing Reporter
(reference room, CSM library) for data that will help answer
this question. Up-to-date information on some chemicals can
also be found at and

Spring 2000 It

based on the heat of reaction. Using ratios for the two equi-
librium constants in evaluating the thermodynamic feasibil-
ity makes this assumption much less restrictive.
This analysis shows that both reactions are favorable ther-
modynamically, with a preference to chloroethane as the
substrate (larger equilibrium constant). The reactions are
also shown to be under kinetic control, hence the next step is
to see what differences may exist in the activation energies
for the two reactions.
This is accomplished by constructing a hypothetical tran-
sition state for the nucleophilic substitution reaction for both
reactions, and by using Spartan to estimate the energy of
these species. This part of the solution process draws heavily
on the student's background in organic chemistry theory
where substitution reactions are concerned.
Once the transition states for both reactions have been
constructed, values for the heats of formation of the reactive
intermediates are determined using the Transition Structure
Optimization routine (searching for a saddle point on the
reaction potential energy surface) in Spartan.

Students can include a calculation of the vibrational spec-
trum at this point in order to verify that a reasonable approxi-
mation for the transition state species has been found by this
procedure (at least one imaginary frequency that corresponds
to the reaction coordinate of interest). Animation of the
largest imaginary frequency in the calculated table of normal
mode frequencies provides convincing evidence that the re-
action coordinate of interest corresponds well to the transi-
tion state structure. Finally, the activation energies for both
reactions can be readily estimated from the semi-empirical
heats of formation as
EA = AHfTS- AH (7)

Comparison of the relative rates at any temperature, T, then
follows directly from

rc =exp[(EABr -EA,C)/RT]
r'__ t

From this process, the students find that the activation

Course Outline and Instructional Modules
Molecular Perspectives in Chemical Engineering

Learning Objectives
The class introduces students to the use of molecular-scale techniques
for the prediction of physical properties, transport properties, and
reaction energetic.

Content Summary
This class introduces modern methodologies for the estimation of
physical, transport, and reaction properties and parameters needed in
the design of chemical processes. In addition, it serves to enhance
students' molecular-scale intuition through the use of group contribu-
tion methods, molecular simulations, quantum mechanical calcula-
tions, and molecular visualization. The class begins with a review of
the microscopic world of atoms and molecules; fundamental length,
time, and energy scales are discussed. Molecular-scale forces and their
representative potentials are presented. Case studies are pursued
involving topics such as the estimation of diffusion coefficients,

Ideal Gas Properties
Vapor-Liquid Equilibria

Group Contributions
Diffusion in Polymers
Thermochemical Properties
Structure-Property Relationships
Activation Energies
Intramolecular Quantum Behavior

viscosity, and phase equilibria, as well as transition-state theory for the
estimation of rate constants in chemical reactions. Relevant experi-
mental techniques that can serve to verify the molecular-scale
calculations are covered. Significant hands-on experience in a
computer laboratory and case-study projects is emphasized.

Topics Covered
1. Computers and computer simulation in chemical engineering
2. Properties of fluids and solids; molecular structure prediction
3. Computational quantum chemistry, intramolecular properties
4. Intermolecular properties and forces
5. Intermolecular forces and configurational properties
6. Equilibrium molecular dynamics
7. Monte Carlo techniques
8. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

Simulation and text to illustrate how molecular motions give rise to ideal gas properties.
Simulation to illustrate how inter-molecular interactions affect the dynamics and VLE of

Quantum mechanical calculation of Benson groups.
Molecular dynamics simulation and visualization of nitrogen diffusion in polysiloxane.
Use of computational chemistry to estimate thermochemical properties.
Free radical polymerization of vinyl chloride to form PVC.
Use of quantum mechanics to investigate thermal cracking of ethane.
Quantum mechanics of molecules: potentials, vibrations, IR spectra, and equilibrium

Intermolecular Forces Estimation of intermolecular force using quantum chemistry.
Thermodynamics of Rare Gas Mixtures Application of molecular dynamics simulations to the estimation of mixture properties.

66 Chemical Engineering Education

Of course, Einstein's equation refers to mass, not moles. It
is worthwhile to consider exactly what is meant by mass. In
classical mechanics, mass is a measure of two attributes of a
material body:
1. The body's resistance to acceleration by external forces
("inertial mass")
2. The force the body experiences in a gravitational field
("gravitational mass")
The title of Einstein's 1905 paper121 clearly shows that he
was interested in the first concept: "Does the Inertia of a
Body Depend on its Energy Content?" (Ist die Tragheit eines
K6rpers von seinem Energienhalt abhangig?)
The product of inertial mass and velocity is the momen-
tum of a body. Newton's second law of motion can be
written as a momentum balance, relating the inertial mass
and velocity to the force exerted on the body

F d(mv) (3)
It has been customary in classical mechanics to regard the
mass of a body as a constant, independent of time or velocity
(provided the body is not losing or gaining matter). Thus, the
mass is usually taken out of the derivation in Eq. (3)
F = m = ma
Einstein challenged the usual assumption that mass is
independent of velocity. Using an argument based on the
emission of radiant energy (see the Appendix), he derived a
relationship between the kinetic energy and the inertial mass.
He concluded, "The mass of a body is a measure of its
energy content; if the energy changes by L, the mass changes
in the same sense by L/9 1020, if the energy is measured in
ergs and the mass in grams." In other words,
AE = c2Am (4)

In view of Eq. (4), would it therefore be accurate to say
that mass and energy are interconvertible in reactions? The
answer is still no. If mass and energy were interconvertible,
we would expect a negative sign to appear in the equation
AE=-c Am (?)
But the mass and energy increase or decrease together, so
AE and Am must have the same sign.
Consider once again the fission of uranium, as described
by Eq. (2). Suppose the reaction is carried out in a closed,
adiabatic container, which allows no work or heat exchange
with the surroundings. In that case, AE = 0, and Eq. (4)
yields Am = 0. The reaction occurs without any change in
the mass of the system.
What happens physically is that some of the energy stored
in the uranium nucleus is converted to kinetic energy of the
Spring 2000

fission products. The temperature of the system rises; but so
long as no energy is exchanged with the surroundings, the
overall energy of the system does not change. Therefore,
according to Eq. (4), the mass does not change.
On the other hand, suppose the thermal energy is with-
drawn from the system as it is generated by the fission
reaction. According to Eq. (4), this results in a decrease in
the mass of the system: AE < 0 implies Am < 0.
Note that it is the withdrawal of energy from the system
that causes the mass to decrease; there is no conversion of
mass to energy in the reaction itself. Indeed, if we were to
add energy to the system-such as by heating it or accelerat-
ing it-the mass would increase again.

Is mass then a form of energy? When speaking of forms of
energy, we typically mean kinetic, potential, and internal en-
ergy. The total energy of a system may be taken as the sum
If mass were simply another form of energy, we would have
to add another term to the equation
E =EK+Ep +U+mc2 (?)
This is incorrect. According to Einstein, mass is a measure
of the energy of the system, not a separate kind of energy.
Hence, it would be proper to write

m ( EK+E + U (5)
c c
Note that the mass varies with kinetic energy and therefore
with velocity. We shall return to this point later.

An oft-repeated assertion is that Einstein's special theory
of relativity modifies the principles of mass and energy
conservation. This is only half true. Consider the general
balance equation for an extensive quantity in a control volume:
(Rate of accumulation) = (net input rate) + (net generation rate)
For the energy, E, of the system, the balance equation takes
the form
dE = Y Ei + gen
dt e

where a dot over a variable indicates a rate, and the summa-
tion is taken over the boundaries of the control volume. In
thermodynamics, we recognize three ways for energy to
cross the boundaries: by heat transfer, by work interactions,
and by material flows. Therefore, the energy balance can be

dE = (Q ++mE)i +Egen (6)

Q rate of heat transfer through boundary i

preciation of the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic phenomena and a better
understanding of the importance of chemical physics in determining how molecules interact and
molecular properties molecular )< macroscopic processes
As described above, we believe that computer-aided molecular modeling can serve as the
catalyst that allows students to make and understand these connections.

The two main components of our microscopic approach to understanding macroscopic pro-
cesses are molecular modeling and molecular simulation. The distinction between these two is
somewhat arbitrary, but in our case we define molecular modeling to be the investigation of
isolated molecular assemblies (e.g., single molecules, dimers, etc.) and molecular simulation to
be the investigation of collections of interacting molecules. The primary tools used to perform
molecular modeling are ab initio and semi-empirical quantum mechanics and molecular me-
chanics,171 while molecular simulation incorporates the use of molecular dynamics and, for
example, Monte Carlo methods.[81
The primary use of molecular mechanics is to make empirical estimations of equilibrium
molecular geometry (e.g., the most energetically favorable structure) and energy by using
parameterized force fields. For homogeneous systems, molecular mechanics describes the total
energy of a molecule as the sum of a distortion energy from an "ideal" geometry of connected
atoms (E,)

E= E stretching + Ebending+ Etorsion (1)
bonds bond dihedral
angles angles
and the contribution due to non-bonded interactions (E,) that arise from van der Waals and
electrostatic interactions

E2_= E DW + Eelectrostatic (2)
E + ^ (2)
i j i j
The total energy is just E, + E,. Examples of molecular mechanics force fields are SYBYL19'
and MMFF.1'1 Depending on the nature and applicability of the force field being used to carry
out the calculation, this procedure may work well or can give rise to structures, geometries, and
hence equilibrium energies that are significantly in error. In so-called computational chemistry
programs, force field calculations are often employed to give a refined structure as a starting
point for the ab initio quantum mechanics calculations.
The second type of computation that is often used for molecular modeling directly involves
quantum mechanics, with the general mathematical relationship given by the Schr6dinger

Sh2 2
-87t N M

Today, the


of powerful



software is

adding an

entirely new

vehicle for


the behavior

of systems



based on




Eh2C N +ZNe NMe2 M i j ({R},{r)=E ({R}, {r})
8IeriN NM NM

In this equation, V is the momentum operator, m refers to a mass, Z is a charge, e is the unit measure of charge,
R denotes nuclear positions, and r denotes electronic positions. T is the quantum mechanical wave function for
the molecule, and E is the energy of the molecule. According to quantum mechanics, solution for the wave
function enables one to calculate the energy and other structural properties of a molecule.
Although this equation may be written down rather simply, it cannot be solved exactly except for the hydrogen
atom (one electron, one proton). While exact solution of this equation for polyatomic molecules is still not

Spring 2000

required. Finally, the Special Theory of Relativity is one of
the major scientific discoveries of the 20th century. It could
be argued that no scientist, engineer, or mathematician can be
truly educated without a proper understanding of this theory.

1. Brescia, Frank, et al., Fundamentals of Chemistry, Academic
Press (1966)

APPENDIX: Derivation of AE = c2Am

Consider two astronauts, Jack and Jill, riding their space
scooters far out in interstellar space. (Space scooters had not
been invented when Einstein published his derivation in 1905,
but his argument was essentially the same as what follows.)
Jack is moving away from Jill at a constant velocity v. For the
purposes of our analysis, we define two coordinate systems,
as shown in the Figure. The (x,y)-coordinate system is at-
tached to Jack and moves with him; the (x*,y*)-coordinate
system is attached to Jill. The systems are oriented so that the
x-axis and x*-axis are parallel to the direction of v.
We want to calculate the energy of Jack and his scooter. To
do so, we must specify which coordinate system we have in
mind. Relative to Jill's (x*, y*) system, Jack is moving at
speed v, giving him a kinetic energy mv2. Relative to his
own (x,y) system, Jack is not moving, so he has no kinetic
energy. In either system, Jack and his scooter have the same
internal energy. Thus, the difference between Jill's view and
Jack's view is
E* -E= mv2 (Al)
Now suppose Jack activates his laser beacon, which fires
two pulses of light. One pulse has energy L/2 and is emitted
at an angle 0 relative to the x-axis; the other also has energy
L/2, but is emitted in the opposite direction.* Jack's velocity
does not change, but the internal energy of Jack and his scooter
decreases by the sum of the energies of the light pulses
(L L)
E2- E = AE=- L+L=-L (A2)

Jill once again sees things differently. As Einstein showed
in a previous paper on relativity,3' the energies of the light
pulses appear from Jill's standpoint to be

L 1+ vcos 0
2 1 -(v /c)2

and L 1-vcos0
and ( J
2 1i(v/c)2

Therefore, Jill computes the change in Jack's energy to be

E E L l+vcosO L 1-vcos0 1
E-E=- +- -=-L
1 1 rv- _Ti7v
2 2 2 V)V


2. Einstein, A., "Does the Intertia of a Body Depend on Its Energy
Content?" (Ist die Tragheit eines Korpers von seinem
Energienhalt abhingig?), Annalen der Physik, 17 (1905)
3. Einstein, A., "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" (Zur
Elektrodynamik bewegter Kbrper), Annalen der Physik, 17
4. Okun, L.B., "The Concept of Mass," Physics Today, p. 31, June
5. Rindler, W., et al., "Letters," Physics Today, p. 13, May (1990) 0


Subtracting Eq. (A2) from Eq. (A3), we obtain

E ; -E -(E2 -Ei)=-L [2 -1

Regrouping the terms on the left-hand side of the equation yields


Referring back to Eq. (Al), we see that the left-hand side of the
equation equals the change in kinetic energy of Jack and his scooter
relative to Jill's (x*,y*) system. Moreover, Eq. (A2) shows that
-L = AE. Thus, we can rewrite Eq. (A4) as

A( my2)=AE 1 -1
l- (v /c)
Einstein made use of the approximation

71 (v + c)2

Substituting this into Eq. (A5), we obtain

A( -mv2)- AE )2

But if Jack's velocity does not change, A(- mv2)
Eq. (A6) becomes
Am = AE / c2
This is the result Einstein obtained in 1905.


v2 Am, and


Why two laser pulses? As Einstein noted, light carries momentum. If Jack fired only one pulse, it would tend to accelerate him in the
direction opposite the direction of the light. By using two equal but opposite pulses, there would be no acceleration.

Spring 2000 1I

(E -E2)- (E-E,)= -L (/)2 -1
- (v / c)

Kallenbach" diffusion cell experiment, consists of two com-
partments initially containing the same inert gas at the same
constant pressure and separated by the solid film to be tested.
At time zero, another compound is introduced in the upper
chamber and the response to this impulse is monitored in the
downstream compartment.
As part of our study, we use another configuration termed
the "traditional" time-lag experiment, which differs from the
previous one in that a vacuum is initially applied in both
compartments. Rutherford has discussed the advantages and
drawbacks of each method.51
A theoretical computation of downstream-compartment
pressure increase can be obtained starting from Fick's sec-
ond law applied between the permeable sample boundaries121

(a2C, aC

It should be stressed that Eq. (1) applies only for a constant
diffusion coefficient, which is a special case; the didactic
system selected for this study (oxygen/nitrogen/silicone rub-
ber) is in agreement with this assumption. Frisch extensively
discussed the more complex general situation of a concen-
tration-dependent diffusion coefficient."16 In this case, Eq.
(1) has to be rewritten as

S[D(c) ac=c (2)
acw at Jat
For a flat sample, the following boundary conditions can be
postulated: a film initially free from gas, the attainment of
equilibrium at the inlet gas-polymer interface according to a
Henry-type expression, and a near-zero concentration of gas
at the downstream face:

c(x,0)=0 (3a)
c(0,t)=co =SPo (3b)
c(L,t)=cL -0 (3c)

where L is the sample thickness, P0 the upstream pressure,
and S (deriving from Henry's law expression) is usually
called sorption coefficient. Again, Henry's law validity cor-
responds to a simple and special case; it is important to note
that numerous systems, especially those involving glassy
polymers (e.g., polyethyleneterephthalate used in carbon-
ated beverage packaging) show strong deviations from
Henry's law. Nevertheless, the assumption of a constant
sorption coefficient is correct for the system selected for this
Equation (1), subject to the experimental boundary condi-
tions, Eq. (3), can be integrated by Laplace transform121

(1 x\ 2co 'I ln(n7cx ( Dn2n2t )
c= co sn L exp-L 2 J (4)
n=1 L )

where n is an integer.
The net gas flowrate can be computed from the concentra-
tion profile based on the integration of Fick's first law with
respect to time. The resulting downstream pressure increase

A RTDPo SL2 2SL2 ()n+l (-Dn212t
P=t- St---+--> -+-'- -expl -T
LA VL 6S D + D n2 L2 J


When a quasi-steady-state prevails, the transient summation
terms are negligible and an asymptotic solution is reached



p Transient Quasi steady Towards
state stae equilibrium

-__-Slope a

Time lag 0

Figure 1. Schematics ofa time-lag apparatus and

for the downstream pressure P,

RTSD Po ( L2 (
PL(t)= A t (6)

This equation reveals that the pressure-time plot shows a
linear rise and allows determination of the following param-
eters (see Figure 1):


known from the intercept

known from the asymptotic slope (8)

In other words, the above analysis shows that an interpre-
tation of the early events of a time-lag experiment allows
simultaneous determination of the three main quantities char-
acterizing mass transfer: the diffusion coefficient (D), the
Henry law sorption coefficient of the gas in the solid (S), and
the product of both, usually called permeability,

p = SD (9)

Spring 2000

it according to the following instructions:

O Start thermostated bath and apply a primary vacuum in
both compartments. Attention should be paid at this stage to
the fact that the downstream side only has to be degassed in
a first step, before treating the upstream part. If not, film
disruption will occur as soon as a reverse pressure differen-
tial takes place (the sample is not supported on the upstream

SEvaluate the cell's leakage rate by closing all connec-
tions around the module (vacuum pump, gas bottles, etc.).
This is of crucial importance since any background in down-
stream pressure increase will affect data treatment. An aver-
age value of about 0.1 millibar per hour should be achiev-
able; if not, cell screws should be tightened, as well as the 0-
ring and sample positioning checked. The above value should
be kept in mind if error calculation on D or S are needed.
Nevertheless, it is negligible in regard to PDMS permeabil-
ity and experiment duration in the present case.

O A typical time-lag experiment can then be undertaken
for a given pressure and temperature. Depending on the
duration of the tutorial, 2 to 4 different pressure and/or
temperature values (typically ranging between 20 and 80C
and 0.5 to 5 bar) can be explored with pure nitrogen and
oxygen. The student is asked to assess D and S values and
check the consistency with literature data.17-91 The key im-
portance of downstream compartment volume V can be dis-
cussed at this stage (see Eq. 8); in our case, direct as well as
indirect measurements credit this chamber with a 585 cm3
volume, which fits the needs regarding gauge sensitivity, air
losses, and material permeability.

Figure 4. Example of an experimental result obtained by
the setup described in this work (downstream pressure vs.
time), including the determination of time-lag intercept
(6). Oxygen permeation through a 125-pm thick SilasticTM
film; upstream pressure 4 bar, temperature 500C, acquisi-
tion frequency 5 Hz.

O An error calculation can be optionally performed,
based on an analysis already discussed by Paul and
DiBenedettoot01 and later by Siegel and Coughlin,I"" showing
that the technique can lead to small errors in permeability
but far greater errors in the diffusion coefficient. For in-
stance, the relative error on 6 is about five times larger than
that on the slope for data collected at t 4 :

A1 5 A (10)
_0 -a
Thus, a 2% error on the slope means a 10% error on the
diffusion coefficient-which are commonly assumed values
for a single measurement. Therefore, the duration of the
time-lag experiment should be carefully considered. While
data taken at times greater than 106 will lead to sizeable
errors in diffusivity, the attainment of steady state requires
duration times around 4 .
Nevertheless, the error in steady-state slope can be greatly
minimized by simply re-evacuating the downstream cham-
ber with the feed pressure still applied to the top face of the
membrane. Reclosing the receiver valve ahead of the vacuum
pump (item 8 in Figure 3) allows measuring the steady-state
slope without bend-over problems up to a downstream pres-
sure below 1% of the feed pressure. This repeated evacua-
tion and retesting of the slope gives students an easy way to
evaluate measurement reproducibility.

O Based on the D and S values, permeability g can then
be calculated from Eq. (9). The student is asked to express
the results in Barrers, the most common permeability unit:

p(Barrerlo (273 V(cm ) L(cm)acmHgs-)
T(K) Po(cmHg) A(cm2) 76


6.7 -
6.5 -' -- ''"". ..--------
S6.3 .
6,e3 ----------,-
I 5.9
S 5.7
0.0028 0.0029 0.003 0.0031 0.0032 0.0033 0.0034 0.0035
I/Temperature ( K)
Figure 5. Example of Arrhenius plots for oxygen and nitro-
gen permeability variation with temperature through
SilasticTM film (upstream pressure 2 bar). Comparison be-
tween experimental (solid line) and literature (dashed line)

Spring 2000

In this work, the solid sample is considered as the
single mass-transfer resistance; nevertheless,
boundary-layer resistance can arise, particularly
when binary mixtures are transported through a
very permeable media; in that event, the influence of
hydrodynamic conditions on overall transfer
(concentration polarization phenomenon) is a good
indication that can be best achieved by a magnetic
Rushton turbine already existing on the setup.

The independent temperature jackets for the two
compartments also offer an opportunity to experi-
ment with the incidence of non-isothermal condi-
tions, already shown to strongly affect the observed
transfer rate of a pure organic vapor.1151

The authors gratefully acknowledge the numerous valu-
able comments of the manuscript's reviewers.

A sample surface area
a asymptote slope
c concentration
c0 upstream concentration
cL downstream concentration
D diffusion coefficient
ED.P energy of activation for diffusion (D) and permeability (P)
L sample thickness
P pressure
&g permeability
R perfect gas constant
S sorption coefficient
t time
T temperature
V downstream volume
Greek Symbols
0 time lag
AH heat of sorption

1. Cussler, E.L., Diffusion: Mass Transfer in Fluid Media,
Cambridge University Press (1984)
2. Crank, J., The Mathematics of Diffusion, Oxford Science
Publications (1975)
3. Barrer, R.M., and G. Skirrow, "Transport and Equilibrium
Phenomena in Gas-Elastomer Systems. I. Kinetic Phenom-
ena," J. of Poly. Sci., 3, 549 (1984)
4. Vieth, W.R., Diffusion In and Through Polymers. Principles
and Applications, Hanser, Oxford University Press (1991)
5. Rutherford, S.W., "Review of Time-Lag Permeation Tech-
nique as a Method for Characterization of Porous Media
and Membranes," Adsorption, 3, 283 (1997)
6. Frisch, H.L., "The Time-Lag in Diffusion I.," J. of Phys.
Chem., 62, 93 (1957)
7. Brandrup, J., and E.H. Immergut, Polymer Handbook, 3rd
ed., Wiley Interscience (1980)
8. Van Krevelen, D.W., Properties of Polymers: Their Correla-
tion with Chemical Structure, Their Numerical Estimation
Spring 2000

and Prediction from Additive Group Contributions, 3rd ed.,
Elsevier Science Edition (1990)
9. Robb, W.L., "Thin Silicone Membranes: Their Permeation
Properties and Some Applications," Annals. of New York
Acad. Sci., 146, 119 (1968)
10. Paul, D., and A.T. DiBenedetto, "Diffusion in Amorphous
Polymers," J. ofPoly. Sci., C10, 17 (1965)
11. Siegel, R.D., and R.W. Coughlin, "Errors in Diffusivity as
Deduced from Permeation Experiments with the Time-Lag
Technique," AIChE J. Symp. Series, 120, 68 (1986)
12. Barrer, R.M., and H.T. Chio, "Solution and Diffusion of
Gases and Vapors in Silicone Rubber Membranes," J. of
Poly. Sci., C10, 111 (1965)
13. Yasuda, H., and K. Rosengren, "Isobaric Measurement of
Gas Permeability of Polymers," J. of Appl. Poly. Sci., 14,
2839 (1970)
14. Jordan, S.M., and W.J. Koros, "Permeability of Pure and
Mixed Gases in Silicone Rubber at Elevated Pressures," J.
of Poly. Sci., B28, 795 (1990)
15. Hillaire, A., and E. Favre, "Isothermal and Non-Isothermal
Permeation of an Organic Vapor Through a Dense Polymer
Membrane," Ind. & Engg. Chem. Res., 38(1), 211 (1999) O

Letter to the Editor
Continued from page 167.
three undergraduates.
Used in this way, a lecture course provides a highly effec-
tive way not only for the dissemination of information but
also for capturing the interest of students. The formal lec-
tures does not provide a good format for developing prob-
lem-solving skills, for dealing with engineering design, or
even for presenting and discussing solutions to pre-assigned
Unfortunately, in many (if not most) universities the lec-
ture format has been widely misused since it has become the
universal workhorse. This may be a more serious issue in
engineering education where "design" and "problem solv-
ing" constitute a major portion of the curriculum. Neverthe-
less, within the chemical engineering curriculum, there are
many subject areas that are well-suited to the lecture ap-
proach and, in the hands of a skilled practitioner and espe-
cially if supported by appropriate tutorial sessions, this ap-
proach can be very effective. Essentially this same point is
made by Wankat and Oreovicz in Teaching Engineering.
This is one of the references cited in the present article as
showing the superiority of alternative approaches! Such a
conclusion is hardly surprising since, in any attempt at a
quantitative assessment, it would be very difficult, if not
impossible, to establish whether the apparent disadvantages
of a lecture course are really intrinsic to the format or stem
from an inappropriate application of this format. There seems
to be a clear danger that, in the current enthusiasm for "new"
instructional methods, the very real advantages (and equally
real limitations) of the lecture format will be overlooked.
Douglas M. Ruthven
University of Maine

half, and a 1-in square hole was punched in the bottom of
one half. This half was fitted into the bottom of the flue and
the burner was positioned at the center of the hole. The
rotameter was calibrated with a household gas meter
(Equipmeter S-275). For the experiments described here, air
was not premixed with natural gas before entering the burner,
so the combustion was controlled by diffusion of air.151
The emission analyzer is a COSA 6000 portable stack gas
analyzer. This measures the volume fractions of 02, CO,
NO,, and SO, using electrochemical cells. (The lifetime of
the 02 cell is the most limited, being in the range of 1-2
years; the other cells will last between 2 and 3 years.) The
analyzer pumps the gas to be sampled through the end of a
hollow metal probe (12 in long) at the tip of which is a
thermocouple (type K) for measuring the gas temperature.
The gas passes from the metal probe via flexible tubing (10
ft long) to a condensate trap clamped to the outside of the
main case containing the analytical components of the ana-
lyzer. This passage of the gas to the analyzer results in the
gas entering the train of electrochemical cells at essentially
ambient temperature.
From the measurements of gas levels and temperature, the
instrument's firmware calculates various quantities. The vol-
ume fraction of CO, and the excess air are of most concern
here. This requires the user to select the fuel type; the selec-
tion includes natural gas, propane, butane, coal, oils light no.
2 and no. 6, as well as a programmable option. Other calcu-
lated quantities include efficiency and effectiveness; these
are not considered here.
For the experiments described here, the tip of the probe
was positioned just below the center of the flue cap. Two to
four sets of data for each of six different flows of natural gas
were collected. It was important to let the rotameter setting
stabilize after changing it. The data presented here were
comfortably obtained within 3 to 4 hours; the treatment of
the data may take most students a lot longer!

Calibration of the Rotameter Volumetric flows were
measured under ambient conditions (250C and I atm) through-
out. The volumetric flow rate of natural gas, V.g, read di-
rectly from the household gas meter in units of ft3/min,
regressed against the reading of the rotameter, Vai,, in units
of L/min leads to

Vng(ft3 /min)= (0.0504 0.0005)Vair(L/min) r2 =0.987 (1)
This is transformed to

Vng(L / min)= (1.43 +0.0)Vair(L / min) (2)
What useful information can we obtain from the value of the
slope? The theory of the rotameter[6.71 applied to gases leads

Vng / Vair = Pair ng (3)
Using the density of air at 250C and 1 atm, the density of our
natural gas is 0.579 g/L under the same conditions. Methane
is usually the major component of natural gas, and its den-
sity181 under the same conditions is 0.657 g/L. Such discrep-
ancies can cause concern, but it should be realized that the
composition of natural gas is dependent on its source and
upon the life of the well from which it is extracted. For
example, the analysis of natural gas from 18 locations191 in
the U.S. yields the following ranges and median values for
the following components: CH4, 98-24%, 85%; C2H6, 70-
0%, 8%; N2, 8-0%, 1%; and CO,, 25-0%, 1%.
Stoichiometry and Material Balances The emission
analyzer provides a measure of the oxygen in the gas sample
as a volume fraction; with the ideal-gas assumption, here
and throughout, this corresponds to a mole fraction, Y2,.
From this measurement, the instrument calculates the vol-
ume fraction of carbon dioxide and the fraction of excess air.
For the complete combustion of a general hydrocarbon, CmHn,
in excess air, represented by the stoichiometric coefficient x,
the reaction is
CmHn+ 4m+n+x 02 -mCO2 +nH20+xO2 (4)
S4 2
The stoichiometry is summarized in Table 1 for various
bases, and in Table 2 the corresponding molar flows and
mole fractions in the exiting flue gas are listed.
In understanding the operation of the gas analyzer, it is
recognized that various quantities are calculated from the
measured mole fraction of oxygen; these are the mole frac-
tion of carbon dioxide and the excess air. The basic proce-
dure is to get an expression for the stoichiometric coefficient
of excess air, x, in terms of the mole fraction of oxygen (see
Table 2, Eqs. Tl and T4). Then the mole fraction of carbon
dioxide is calculated (see Table 2, Eq. T3). The fraction of
excess air is usually defined110 by

moles of moles of air required
i air fed ) -for complete combustion) 4 x
Eair- moles of air required 4m+n
(for complete combustion)

To apply the appropriate stoichiometry, two cases under
which the analyzer operates are identified. For Case 1, it is
recognized that the sample stream passes through a conden-
sate trap at room temperature. When the quantity excess air
varies from zero to a value x = xcr1i, the water produced will
condense to form liquid; this is treated as vapor and liquid in
equilibrium. Then, quantities applicable to the wet-product
stoichiometry from Tables 1 and 2 are used. Upon increasing
the excess air above xrit, there is no longer sufficient water
vapor in the product stream to maintain liquid and vapor in
equilibrium; this is Case 2, in which all the products are
gaseous, and the gaseous-product stoichiometry is applied.

Spring 2000

and it is assumed that kinetic energy and potential energy
effects are negligible.

AH=Q (11)

The flue pipe is regarded as an open system; AH is the
enthalpy change from inlet to outlet, and Q is the heat
transferred between the system and the surroundings. Be-
cause calculation of the adiabatic flame temperature, Q=O, is
standard for this system, only the bare details are given here.
Many authors 10'14] present methods for calculation of the
adiabatic flame temperatures. In calculating them here, the
molar heat capacity functions of Smith and coauthors141
were used, and Visual Basic functions for them within an
Excel spreadsheet were written. "Goal Seek" was used to
solve for the flame temperatures. The resulting adiabatic
flame temperatures and the measured flue gas tempera-
tures are plotted against the volumetric flow rate of natu-
ral gas in Figure 2.
The measured flue gas temperatures are used to calculate
Q directly; this, the net heat transferred, turns out to be
negative as heat is lost from the system, the flame and the
flue, to the surroundings. The absolute values of Q as a
function of the difference between the temperatures of exit-
ing flue gases and inlet gas temperature (considered to be the
same as the surroundings, taken to be 250C) are plotted in

Molar Flows and Mole Fractions
in the Gas Stream Leaving the Flue

Molar Flows
Gaseous-product basis
Dry-product basis
Wet-product basis

F", =F0[q+x(l+rN/o)+n/2]
Fy =Fo[q+x(1+rN/O)]
FT-Fo0[q+x(l+rNo)]/( 1-y o)

General Expressionsfor Mole Fractions
Y, = xF / FT
(4m+n + Fo
YN =1 --+ -rN/O
yco, F4 (m/x)y
YCO, = mF0 / FT =(m/ x)yo,

Mole Fractions of Water Vapor
Gaseous-product basis y HO = (n/ 2)Fo / Fa"
Dry-product basis yHo =0
Wet-product basis YH,O HO

Expressions for x, the stoichiometric coefficient of excess air, in terms of yo,
Gaseous-product basis x=(q +n/2)yo, /[-(l +rN/o)Yo
Dry-product basis x= (qxyo )/[-(l+rN/o)yo,] [T4]
Wet-product basis x=(qxyo, /[(-yo)-( +rNo)Yo]

In the Equations Above q=m+0.25(4m+n)rN/O and rN/ =79.01/20.99

Spring 2000

Figure 3. This shows that the rate at which heat is lost from
the system increases with this temperature difference in a
nonlinear way; this provides an example of the temperature
difference as the "driving force" for heat transfer.
Kinetics of NO Formation Using other electrochemical
cells, the analyzer measures volume fractions of nitric oxide,
carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide. In Figure 4, the levels
of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide are shown as a function
of the volumetric flow of natural gas; no sulfur dioxide was
detected (detection limit < 1 ppm). The level of nitric oxide
increases steadily from 6 to 65 ppm with the flow of natural
gas; in contrast the level of carbon monoxide starts off at
about 17 ppm, decreases to zero and then increases again
at the highest flow rate. It is interesting that nitric oxide is


8 .. .0 0

500 -

0 2 4 6
Natural Gas Flow, Lmin
Figure 2. The measured temperature of the exiting
flue gas ( A ) as a function of the volumetric flow of
natural gas to the burner, measured under ambient
conditions (2500C, atm). The calculated adiabatic
flame temperature (E ) and the estimated tempera-
ture under which nitric oxide is formed ( ) are



I 400-

0 400 800 1200
Temperature difference between
exit and inlet gas, OF

Figure 3. The heat loss rate from the flue as a
function of the difference between the tempera-
tures of the exiting and incoming gases.

I ----- I

; /

produced in this experiment; this is a major concern in many
industrial processest15's because of its potential for release
into the atmosphere and its subsequent contribution to the
formation of acid rain.
In contrast to the combustion of a hydrocarbon, the forma-
tion of nitric oxide from oxygen and nitrogen is endother-
N2 +02 2NO (12)
Because of this, the formation of nitric oxide is only signifi-
cant at elevated temperatures. It is instructive to use the
known equilibrium and kinetic properties of the reaction to
estimate the temperatures that must exist inside the flue.
First, the rate of generation of NO within the flue is esti-
mated; then a simplification of the known kinetics is used to
estimate the reaction temperature.
The mole fractions of the reactants are about 10,000 times
larger than the mole fraction of the product; that is, very little
of the reactants is converted to product. So the flame within
the flue may be treated as a differential reactor112 161 running
at steady state as far as the formation of nitric oxide is
concerned. Under these assumptions, the mole balance leads

FNO -FNO,-raveV 0 (13)
where FNO and FNO.O are the molar flows of nitric oxide out
and into the flue, respectively, and rve is the average rate of
generation of nitric oxide within the reactor volume, V. It is
reasonable to take FNo. = 0, and so

rave = FNo/V (14)
The molar flow of nitric oxide out of the reactor is calculated

FNO= YNoFTga (15)
where YNo is the mole fraction of nitric oxide, the measure-
ment provided by the analyzer, and FTas is the total molar
flow of gas out of the flue, given in Table 2. Strictly, the
molar flow of nitric oxide should be included, but this flow
is negligible in comparison to the combined flow of the other
species. The effective volume of the reactor is unknown, but
the internal volume of the flue available to the flame is about
1 L, and this is used as an approximation for V in the
absence of any other information. The estimated rates of
generation of nitric oxide are in the range of 0.6-3.0 x 10-6
mol L-'s'.
Now an expression for the rate of generation of nitric
oxide in terms of the concentrations of the chemical species
involved is required. Because of its importance in combus-
tion, the mechanism has received much attention; it is widely
believed that the reaction follows the Zeldovich mecha-
nism.1[517 When this mechanism (under fuel-lean conditions)
is applied to our data, it turns out that the forward reaction is



Flow of natural gas, L/min

Figure 4. Mole fractions of nitric oxide and carbon
monoxide measured in the exiting flue gas as a
function of the volumetric flow of natural gas to the
burner, measured under ambient conditions (25C,
1 atm).

dominant; the low levels of nitric oxide seen here are far
from equilibrium values, being approximately an order of
magnitude smaller than equilibrium values. An abbreviated
form of the mechanism that is sufficient to account for the
data observed is described; it is also simpler for students,
who are encountering mechanisms for the first time, to un-
derstand. This abbreviated mechanism is shown in Table 3.
From the slow steps, the rate of generation of nitric oxide
in terms of the concentration of oxygen atoms and concen-
tration of molecular nitrogen is obtained.
r=2kl[O][N2] (16)
This expression is obtained from the Zeldovich mechanism
in the limit of small concentrations of nitric oxide. To evalu-
ate this, the concentration of oxygen atoms in terms of
measured quantities is needed. This is a useful exercise in

[O]i[O2l2 -RT Ke (T) (17)

where P0 is the standard pressure of 1 bar. Taking the en-
thalpy for the dissociation of molecular oxygen to be inde-
pendent of temperature, the van't Hoff equation gives

rAHo (1 1
Keq(T)=Keq(To)exp A I -I (18)
R To T0T

where Keq(To) = exp[-AG/RT0] and To = 298 K. Finally, the
gas concentrations in terms of the quanitites measured by the
analyzer are required.
Chemical Engineering Education


--C NO
- A -CO

i I . A -. A- J A.'. I I



y = 0.00829 x
25 .W= 0.986



0 *

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Time (s)

Figure 2. Plot of (z2 z / 2 versus time for acetone
vapor diffusing through stationary air.


15 y = 0.00806 x


0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Time (s)

Figure 3. Plot of (z2 / 2 versus time for hexane
vapor diffusing through stationary air.


Time (s)

Figure 4. Plot of z2 z) / 2 versus time for pentane-
air system with varying levels of air circulation

Chemical Engineering Education

-- Fan Off
S - Fan On Slow
Fan On Fast
- Fan On Medium + Fume Hood Fan
0 /
/ C = 0.4480

0 -

C= 0.4195

C =0.05605 C 0.1680

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4501

Experimental and Predicted Values of DAn
Component B = stagnant air; PA, assumed zero

p, pA"5 Temp. Air Flow Diffusion Coefficient (10' m2/s) %
Vapor (N/m2) (N/m2) (OC) Fume Pedestal Experimental Predicted Deviation
Hood Fan

Acetone 98960 23905 20 Off Off 10.1 10.8 -6.5

Hexane 99155 16029 19 Off Off 8.6 8.1 +6.2

Pentane 100616 76500 27 Off Off 8.5 9.2 -7.6

Pentane 100616 76500 27 Off Slow 25.5

Pentane 100616 76500 27 Off Fast 63.6

Pentane 100616 76500 27 On Medium 67.9


BM classroom



Part 6. Determination of Vapor Diffusion Coefficient

Lakehead University Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1

Molecular diffusion determines the rate of most
mass-transfer operations. Determination of the dif-
fusion coefficient of the key component is very
important for predicting rates of mass transfer, and many
correlations are reported in the literature for binary and
multicomponent systems.[1-41
This paper describes a simple experimental technique for
determining binary diffusion coefficients for vapor (A)-gas
(B) systems in which the vapor is generated by the evapora-
tion of a pure volatile liquid and the gas is air. The theory is
described in many textbooks on mass transfer and unit op-
erations,[2-41 and only a brief treatment is given below for
immediate reference.
From Fick's first law of diffusion for the case of stagnant
B in a binary system, the flux of A at steady state (NAz) is
given by 21

NAz = DABPt (PA,-PA)
where DAB is the diffusion coefficient, R is the ideal gas
constant, T is the absolute temperature, z is the length of the
diffusion path, p, is the total pressure, pAl and pA2 are the
partial pressures of component A at the two extremes of
the diffusion path, and BM, is the logarithmic mean of the

Inder Nirdosh received his
BSc and MSc in chemical
engineering from Panjab
University (India) and his
PhD from Birmingham Uni-
versity (United Kingdom).
Hejoined Lakehead Univer-
sity in 1981, and his re-
search interests are in the
fields of mineral processing
and electrochemical engi-

Figure 1. The evaporation tube.

partial pressures of component B at the two ends of the
diffusion path.
Let us suppose we have a liquid in a tube (see Figure 1) of
cross-section a, and in time, dt, the liquid level in the tube

Laurie J. Garred is Pro- Malcolm Baird received
fessor of Chemical Engi- his PhD in chemical engi-
neering at Lakehead Uni- neering from Cambridge
versity. He received his University in 1960. After
BASc from the University some industrial experi-
of Toronto in engineering ence and a post-doctoral
science and his PhD in fellowship at the Univer-
chemical engineering from sity of Edinburgh, he
the University of Minnesota. joined the McMaster Uni-
His research interests in versityfacultyin 1967. His
biomedical engineering fo- research interests are liq- .
cus on mathematical mod- uid-liquid extraction, os-
eling applications in kidney failure patients main- cillatory fluid flows, and hydrodynamic modeling of
trained on dialysis. metallurgical processes.

* Address: McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7
Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2000

Chemical Engineering Education

liquid level at time t = 0 -------
liquid level at time t = t
liquid level at time t = t

Student Feedback
(Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of times similar rtpes of comments were
made in a class of 24 students, 18 of which responded.)

nations o
class (2
nations (
oo easy

Finally, the soundness of Positve Aspects NegativeAs
each group's recommenda- Oral presentations (7) Oral present
tion is strongly weighed, last day of
Since at this stage of the Open-ended nature (5) Oral present
design no method of en- Computationally easy (1) Problem ist
ergy generation is strictly Opportunity to use people
right or wrong, as long as skills (l)
sufficient energy to meet Role playing(l)
the requirements is pro- Research-oriented project (l)
vided, the recommendation
of each group reflects its evaluation as to what is most
acceptable for a resort island and balances what it sees as the
competing needs. These are most often a method that is
environmentally friendly and aesthetically pleasing. Some
groups recommend fossil-fuel power plants as being a tried
and true technology, whereas other groups select several
methods in combination. The most common recommen-
dation to date has been the use of hydroelectric energy.
The final part of the project is a ten-minute oral presenta-
tion by each team for peer review. The three grading criteria
are organization of the talk, clarity of presentation, and sound-
ness of the recommendation. The grading process for the
oral presentation is conducted in a manner to give students
exposure to an assessment practice used in industry. A five-
point scale is used, with three as the average, and the stu-
dents are told that the average of the grades that they award
must come close to this average. This is similar to many of
the merit raise systems employed in industry where the
available "pool" is a fixed percentage of the total salary bud-
get. Use of this method gives the students an opportunity to
weigh the consequences of positive and negative assessment
and combats any tendency for grade inflation by the teams.
The comments of the students regarding this project were
solicited with an anonymous questionnaire, and the results
are summarized in Table 3. The most often cited positive
aspects of the project were the oral presentations and the
open-ended nature of the project. The most negative com-
ments were also related to the oral presentations, two of
which can be remedied by better scheduling.
The most frequently cited suggestion by the students per-
tains to having more specific guidelines for the project. In
the experience of the author from seven years in industry,
expectations and formats for project presentations and results
were limited or non-existent. In general, employees were ex-
pected to develop their own presentation formats. The second
most frequently cited suggestion pertains to their wish to per-
form economic estimates. Since this course is offered rela-
tively early in the chemical engineering curriculum, well be-
fore their formal design courses with accompanying exposure
Spring 2000

in the

Give more specific guide-

to engineering economics,
this desire to perform eco-
nomic analyses seems am-
bitious on their part.


lines tor reports () An open-ended estima-
1) Require economic estimates (3) tion design project has been
(1) Give more time for project (1) developed for use in a first
thermodynamics course
taught early in the chemi-
cal engineering curriculum.
The project, which contains
a number of components
that simulate real-world experience, is designed to empha-
size simplification over complexity. A key aspect of the
project is decision making; after the values of power for the
various methods are calculated, a decision must be made,
namely, what ultimately to propose. It is this aspect of the
project that is most in line with the expectation of problem
solving in industry. The project is also structured to embody
many of the elements of critical thinking in that for each
team to make a final recommendation, the "students are
active, involved, consulting, and arguing with each other..."[21
Furthermore, several aspects of active learning, such as role
playing, writing, and presenting are used to enhance under-
standing'" and retention.1"i Finally, the project exposes the
students to the importance, breadth, and complexity of the
numerous issues surrounding the generation of energy.

1. Bonwell, Charles C., and James E. Eison, Active Learning:
Creating Excitement in the Classroom, ASHE-ERIC Higher
Education Reports, Washington, DC (1991)
2. Kurfiss, Joanne G., Critical Thinking: Theory, Research,
Practice, and Possibilities, ASHE-ERIC Higher Education
Reports, Washington, DC (1988)
3. McRae, Alexander, Janice L. Douglas, and Howard Rowland,
eds., The Energy Sourcebook, Aspen Systems Corporation,
Germantown, MD (1977)
4. Kraushaar, Jack J., and Robert A. Risten, Energy and Prob-
lems of a Technical Society, John Wiley & Sons, New York,
NY (1988)
5. Hunt, V. Daniel, Handbook of Energy Technology: Trends
and Perspectives, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York,
NY (1982)
6. Bisio, Attilio, and Sharon Boots, eds., Encyclopedia of En-
ergy Technology and the Environment, John Wiley & Sons,
New York, NY (1995)
7. Parker, Sybil P., ed., McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Energy,
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1981)
8. Considine, Douglas M., ed., Energy Technology Handbook,
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1977)
9. Howes, Ruth, and Anthony Fainberg, eds., The Energy
Sourcebook: A Guide to Technology, Resources, and Policy,
American Institute of Physics (1991)
10. Kreider, Jan F., and Frank Kreith, eds., Solar Energy Hand-
book, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1981)
11. Souza, D.A., How the Brain Learns, National Association of
Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA (1995) 0

mitted as an appendix, and
this revision is evaluated
for improvements over the
original version.






FALL 2000

Deadline is June 1, 2000

Yo,P r YNP
[02]= [P[N2]= (19)
Here, P is the pressure of the reaction, taken to be 1 atm.
Table 2, Eq. T2, contains the expression for the mole frac-
tion of nitrogen, YN,
The mole fractions in Eq. (19) should strictly be those
calculated on the basis of the gaseous-product stoichiom-
etry, as these are the conditions under which the reaction
occurs. Most data were obtained under conditions of excess
air for which x < xc,,t. So, in principle, the measured mole
fractions should be corrected to give the corresponding val-
ues on the gaseous-product basis.

(F ,t,
yi =Yi(measured for x < xrit) J i=NO,02,orN2 (20)

The smallest value of the correction factor is about 0.9; in
view of the severe assumption adopted here regarding the
reaction volume, the correction is hardly justified.
The reaction temperature is obtained by solving

r=rave or r/re =1 (21)
where r and rave are defined in Eqs. (16) and (14), respec-
tively. This equation was solved using "Goal Seek" within
an Excel Spreadsheet. If values of the kinetic parameters
typically found in the combustion literature[15'17-'91 are used,
then the abbreviated mechanism leads to the same results as
the full Zeldovich mechanism. But the enthalpy and Gibbs
Free energy data were taken from a source to which the
student is more likely to have ready access;1201 the tempera-
tures are about 100F higher with these data, and these

Mechanism for the Formation of NO from 02 and N, in th
Initial Stages Under Fuel-Lean Conditions

Step 1 02 < O + O Rapid equilibrium with equilibrium constant
Step2a O*+N2 kL N +NO Slowstep

Step 2b O +N2 -- N *+NO Slow step repeated to preserve stoichiometry
Step 3 N +N- N2 Fast step

Net reaction 02 + N, -2 NO

Data (from ref. 17) for

1 02- O

AH = +249.17 kJ / mol
AGO =+231.73kJ / mol
Step 2 kI = Aexp(-E / RT)

Enthalpy of formation at 298K
Gibbs free energy of formation at 298K
A=I x 10"lL mol 's
E = 315 kJ/mol

higher temperatures are those shown in Figure 2.

The calibration of the rotameter for the flow of natural gas
is useful because it leads the student to an understanding of
its principle of operation. The same result can be obtained by
asking the student to transform the rotameter's scale from L
air/min to L methane/min. The household gas meter used for
calibration is a quantity meter; it measures the net volume of
gas that passes through it using a displacement method,161 so
its calibration does not depend on the type of gas. To show
this, the gas meter was calibrated using the laboratory supply
of compressed air, giving

Vai (gas meter, ft3 / min)= (28.3 0.6)Vair (rotameter, L / min)

r2 =0.91 (22)
The somewhat low value of the correlation coefficient is
attributed to a dirty air supply and the age of the gas meter!
But the calibration compares favorably with the conversion,
1 ft3 28.32 L. In contrast, the calibration of the rotameter
depends on the density of the gas. By direct calibration of
our rotameter, the density of our natural gas was obtained. If
the composition of natural gas is known (e.g., by gas chro-
matography), then the student could be asked to reconcile
measured density with the measured composition.

The complete combustion of a hydrocarbon leads to three
different ways of expressing the stoichiometry; this may
seem strange to the student. This feature arises because of
the ways by which the combustion products are analyzed.
The traditional Orsat method, providing volume fractions on
a dry basis, is specific for 02, CO,, and other gases
(e.g., CO and H,). In contrast, our gas analyzer, pro-
viding volume fractions on a wet or gaseous-product
basis depending on the amount of excess air, is spe-
e cific for O,, NO, and SO2; for the levels of CO,, the
analyzer requires knowledge of the fuel's chemical
K composition. In environmental applications, it is im-
' portant to be aware of this feature when attempting to
measure levels of CO, in situations where the fuel
may be inhomogeneous, as in a waste incinerator.

The three bases upon which the stoichiometry is
described do not lead to mole fractions that differ by
very much in the application considered here. To the
practicing engineer, the attention to detail may seem
unduly fussy, but it is desirable to train students to
formulate a sound theoretical framework from which
they can make good practical assumptions and judge-
ments. This is an example of such a process. For
whichever basis is appropriate, the mass balance is
closed for the primary combustion reaction, assuming
it goes to completion. An additional exercise for the
student is the explanation of how the molar flow of air

Spring 2000




feasible, application of a series of approximations (in par-
ticular, the Hartree-Fock approximation) and the advent of
powerful desktop computers using high-speed microproces-
sors has made numerical solutions possible.[6]
A high degree of computational efficiency can be obtained
by using semi-empirical quantum mechanical methods that
consider only the valence electrons in a molecule and reduce
the number of electron-electron interactions by neglecting
"overlaps" between atomic orbitals. In addition, these
models introduce parameters that have been optimized
with experimental data.
In contrast to molecular mechanics and ab initio quantum
mechanics, molecular simulation techniques examine the
behavior of systems composed of a small collection (typi-
cally 100 to 10,000) of interacting molecules. The methods
used include molecular dynamics (in which the time evolu-
tion of the molecular system is simulated and monitored)
and Monte Carlo simulation (in which statistical methods
are used to sample states of the system according to some
pre-defined probability distribution).
The basic method used in molecular dynamics is to solve
numerically the classical equations of motion of the mol-
ecules (structured mass points) and calculate time averages
of quantities such as the configurational energy, pressure,
self-diffusion coefficients, local structure, etc. Typically, the
molecular system is simulated for picosecond time intervals,
which may involve solving the coupled differential equa-
tions of motion for several hundred thousand time-steps.
The accuracy of these simulations is governed by the
numerical techniques used and the accuracy of the interac-
tion potential(s) that govern the motion and time evolution
of the molecules in the system. For structured (polyatomic)
molecules, these potentials might include intra-molecular
vibration, rotation, and non-bonded interaction potentials as
well as non-bonded intermolecular potentials. The non-bonded
potentials are typically parameterized intermolecular potential
functions such as the Lennard-Jones or Exponential-6 models.
An advantage of molecular dynamics is that non-equilibrium
properties may be calculated with relative ease.
In Monte Carlo simulations, the energy of the molecular
system is minimized by randomly moving molecules ac-
cording to some desired probability distribution. Again, the
user must specify the potential functions, and equilibrium
properties can be calculated by statistical (rather than time)
averages. A great advantage of this method is the relative ease
with which it can be used to calculate phase equilibria.l 1]
Molecular modeling and simulation is finding widespread
applicability and increased acceptance in chemical engineer-
ing practice. Estimation of thermophysical properties has
become routine.[121
Simulation of theological properties of complex fluids has
been demonstrated by Cummings and co-workers"13,41 and

molecular simulation of water has been shown to give struc-
tural information that is more reliable than even the most
precise measurements can yield.""
In addition, use of molecular mechanics and quantum
chemistry calculations to determine orbital occupancy has
been shown to be important in understanding and design of
new materials such as catalysts," 16 sorbents,E171 and reactive
polymer membranes.1181

At CSM, students first encounter applications of molecu-
lar modeling in their sophomore-level organic chemistry
course sequence. Calculations are facilitated using Spartan,
which is a user-friendly computational quantum chemistry
software package.
Computational quantum chemistry problems are assigned
essentially as self-paced "discovery" exercises in Organic I
and II. Students first use Spartan to carry out quantum calcu-
lations in order to investigate structure/stability relationships
for typical hydrocarbons, functional groups, and reactive
intermediates (radicals, carbocations, carbenes, etc.). Most
calculations are carried out using geometry optimization at
the semi-empirical AM I* level: some calculations require ab
initio methods with higher levels of theory (3-21G)**. In
either case, the computations can be rapidly completed using
either Spartan's PC-based software or the Unix workstation
version; a total of approximately sixty licensed copies of
Spartan are available to chemical engineering students in
open computer labs on both platforms.
Spartan's ability to calculate and display electron density
and molecular orbital surfaces is exploited in the organic
course sequence where the focus is on understanding the
mechanisms of chemical reactions.
The relationships between electronic structure, molecular
orbital density, and chemical reactivity are also developed
using the visualization capabilities of the software. For ex-
ample, when studying nucleophilic substitution reactions,
the students use Spartan to compute HOMO (highest occu-
pied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied mo-
lecular orbital) surfaces for the reactants, and then relate the
electron transfer taking place in the frontier orbitals to the
observed regiochemistry and selectivity of the reaction.
For both the organic and physical chemistry sequences,
Spartan's capabilities of calculating and graphically render-
ing electron density molecular orbital surfaces greatly facili-
tates the student's understanding of the relationship be-
tween molecular properties and such important concepts
'Austin Method 1: a semi-empirical molecular orbital method.
A basis set in which each inner-shell atomic orbital is written
in terms of three Gaussian functions and each valence-shell
atomic orbital is split into two parts, written in terms of two and
one Gaussians, respectively.
Chemical Engineering Education

levels. It may be that many people in our society cannot
become philosophic thinkers in any mathematical sense.
Such people cannot become engineers, and their talents should
be developed and applied in other ways. Further, some people
can function at the philosophic level, but they may be more
effective at some other level. These people can fulfill
important and even creative roles in engineering; how-
ever, they cannot make informed judgments about the
best use of their talents until they have acquired some
skill in philosophic thinking.
Good teaching meets students at their current levels of
understanding and attempts to push them to higher levels.
This requires that instructors be able to cross readily
among levels of understanding: this is an attribute of the
ironic thinker. An obvious general rule-of-thumb is: If
the student seems perplexed or confused, the instructor
should push the discussion to a lower level of under-
standing. Equally important, but often overlooked, is the
inverse: If students seem confident and secure, then the
instructor should push the discussion to a higher level of
understanding. One of an instructor's goals is to find the
level of understanding at which students are balanced
between perplexity and confidence; at that point of cre-
ative tension, teaching is most effective and learning
most rapid. This goal is relatively easy to achieve for a
single student (a graduate student), but exceedingly diffi-
cult to achieve for a group of heterogeneous talents and
personalities (an undergraduate class).
Between, say, 1950 and about 1990, engineering educa-
tion developed along ever-increasing theoretical, mathemati-
cal, and abstract lines; that is, engineering education came to
be practiced almost completely at the philosophic level.
Such is the natural progression that mirrors cognitive evolu-
tion. But in recent years we have come to realize that solely
philosophic modes of instruction fail to help today's stu-
dents. The typical reaction has been to dilute philosophic
instruction in various ways. For example, some chemical
engineering departments have reduced the philosophic con-
tent of the curriculum by removing physical chemistry, quan-
tum mechanics, transport phenomena, or computer program-
ming. In the courses that remain, the philosophic content
has, perhaps, been diluted by over-emphasis on "practical"
applications and flowsheet design. But too much attention to
applications produces a catalog of special cases, when the
objective should be development of organizing principles
that generalize across individual situations. Further, today's
flowsheet design tends to be accomplished with the aid of
process-simulation programs; but without sufficient com-
mand of philosophic and ironic thinking, students can only
allow such exercises to devolve to syntheses of black boxes,
with issues of engineering judgment relegated to default
settings of the software. Such dilutions of philosophic in-
struction actually make matters worse:[61 not only do they

fail to develop philosophic thinking, but they also leave
students with confused and useless somatic, mythic, and
romantic understandings of technical material.
Rather than dilute the philosophic content of engineering
curricula, we should be moving in the other direction. As a
rough generalization, our goals might be to use early engi-
neering courses to solidify understandings at the somatic,
mythic, and romantic levels. But though the levels would be
emphasized, higher modes would not be neglected; some
foreshadowing of philosophic and ironic thinking must
also be done. Then, once students begin the transition to
philosophic thinking, the curriculum should develop that
thinking by being more abstract and theoretical, not less.
This is the direction of growth for individuals, cultures,
and even engineering.
Finally, we ask, is there any level of understanding beyond
ironic? I think the only proper answer is, we don't know.
Donald notes that each level of understanding incorporates a
particular mechanism for off-line processing-for getting
thoughts out of the mind so they can be more readily ma-
nipulated, dissected, and reassembled.[51 At the somatic level,
the off-line processor is the human body; at the mythic level,
it is speech; at the romantic level, it is graphics and writing;
at the level of (technical) philosophic and ironic thinking, it
is mathematics and written chains of logic. So the question
is, can we find another mechanism for out-of-mind process-
ing? Can the computer fulfill this role? I think we can only
wait and see.

It is a pleasure to thank Professor J.P. O'Connell of the
University of Virginia and Professor K. Egan of Simon
Fraser University for offering constructive criticism on an
early draft of this paper.

1. Haile, J.M., "Toward Technical Understanding: 1. Brain
Structure and Function," Chem. Eng. Ed., 31, 152 (1997)
2. Haile, J.M., "Toward Technical Understanding: 2. Elemen-
tary Levels," Chem. Eng. Ed., 31, 214 (1997)
3. Haile, J.M., "Toward Technical Understanding: 3. Advanced
Levels," Chem. Eng. Ed., 32, 30 (1998)
4. Haile, J.M., "Toward Technical Understanding: 4. A Gen-
eral Hierarchy Based on the Evolution of Cognition," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 34, 48 (2000)
5. Donald, M., Origins of the Modern Mind, Harvard Univer-
sity Press, Cambridge, MA (1991)
6. Egan, K., The Educated Mind, University of Chicago Press,
Chicago, IL (1997)
7. O'Connell, J.P., and T.C. Scott, private communication (1998)
8. Smil, V., Energies, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1999)
9. Stewart, I., "Counting the Pyramid Builders," Sci. Am.,
279(3), 98 (1998)
10. Cook, M., "The Leblanc Soda Process," Chem. Eng. Ed., 32,
11. Minsky, M., The Society of Mind, Simon and Schuster, New
York, NY (1986) 0

Spring 2000

The value of xcrit is calculated by setting the vapor-phase
mole fraction of water, on the gaseous-product basis, to its
saturation value of
YHO0 = (n / 2)(F0 / Fgas o (6at
YH,O =(n/2)(FoF. )=yt0 (6)

The solution is

( 1 n n (4m+n) (7)
S= rit = -- -- t -- -4 N/O
1+rN/io 2yHo 2 4

If the products from the combustion of methane are passed
through the condensate trap at 250C, the value of xr,, is 11.2
mol (corresponding to about 560% excess air). This value is
exceeded in the experiments described here.
The dry-product stoichiometry is important for understand-
ing the relationships between quantities measured by the gas
analyzer and those measured by the traditional Orsat analy-
sis; the mole fractions of gases in the Orsat analysis are on a
dry basis."'10] When x < xrit, then

Yo, (gas analyzer)= (l yo )yo, (Orsat) (8)

At 25C, 1-ysatO = 0.97, so the difference in the mole frac-
tions between te two methods is not great. For the other
case, when x > x,,it

Y (gas analyzer)= yo2 (Orsat) 1+ qx( +rN/ (9)
q 1 +x(l+rN/o)

The quantity q is defined in Table 2. If methane is burned in
600% excess air (just above the critical value), then

Yo, (gas analyzer)- 0.97yo, (Orsat). As the excess air increases
further, the two measures of the mole fraction get closer
In principle, the calibration of the rotameter can be used to
calculate the molar flow of fuel to the burner if the composi-
tion of the natural gas is known. To keep things simple, the
natural gas is treated as pure methane, following the usual
practice.'110 In this case, the molar flow of methane into the
burner at 250C, as a function of the rotameter setting, is

Fo(molCH4/ min)- Vi = 5.50x10-2 Vair(L /min)
This is used in calculations that follow.
The mole fractions of oxygen and carbon dioxide and the
excess air are plotted against the volumetric flow rate of
natural gas in Figure 1. As the flow of natural gas to the
burner increases, the excess air and the fraction of oxygen
decrease while the fraction of carbon dioxide increases with
the increasing flow. The largest fraction of carbon dioxide
(7%) observed here corresponds to the smallest fraction of
excess air (60%). The maximum fraction of carbon dioxide
possible is 11.7% and occurs under stoichiometric condi-
tions (no excess air); the student can deduce this from Eq.
(T3) in Table 2. The student can calculate the maximum
fractions of carbon dioxide possible for other hydrocarbons
in a similar way; a standard reference contains the values.'"'
Energy Balance The first law of thermodynamics for
steady-flow systems is applicable. There is no shaft work

Stoichiometry for the Complete Combustion of a Hydrocarbon

Molarflow into
the burner and
the flue

CmH Fo

0, 4 +x )oF

N, 4 +x JrN/oF()

Molar flow out of the flue
gaseous-product dry-product
basis basis

4m+n m+nN +4r+OF
4 +xJrN/4O 0 4 +XrN/

with liquid water as
product, wet basis


4m+n F
4- -+)jrN/,OFO


sat Fwet

1. F0 is the molar flow of hydrocarbon into the burner.
2. r No is the molar ratio of nitrogen to oxygen in air, rNo = 79.01/20.99
3. FT' is the total molar flow out of the flue.
4. ys 0 is the mole fraction of water in the vapor phase when liquid and vapor are in equilibrium.

S -600
15 ,

10 400

E 5-- 200

0 0
0 2 4 6
Natural Gas Flow, L/min

Figure 1. The measured mole frac-
tion of oxygen ( D ) in the exiting
flue gas as a function of the volu-
metric flow of natural gas to the
burner measured under ambient con-
ditions (25C, 1 atm). The quantities
calculated from measured mole frac-
tion of oxygen are the mole fraction
of carbon dioxide ( V ) and the per-
centage of excess air ( A ).

Chemical Engineering Education





University of Minnesota Duluth, MN 55812-2496

In choosing and developing experiments for undergradu-
ate laboratories, instructors often try to avoid those ex-
periments that require lengthy or sophisticated chemical
analysis, such as experiments related to environmental engi-
neering. But the development of electrochemical and in-
frared sensors has made gas analysis much easier to
This paper describes experiments based on the use of a
portable stack gas analyzer, or emission analyzer. In a sense,
the analyzer is modem technology's replacement for the
classical Orsat analysis of flue gases;m" but the analyzer does
not measure carbon dioxide levels directly, calculating
them instead from the knowledge of fuel type using basic
stoichiometry. The modern analyzer provides a relatively
quick and painless way of doing chemical analysis for a
gaseous system.
The analyzer used here costs $6,350 and was purchased
under an NSF-ILI grant.12] With the additional purchase of
other more modest components for about $250, simple com-
bustion experiments with a laboratory burner and a make-
shift flue were run. The results were used to demonstrate: 1)
the principles of a rotameter, 2) material balances based on
the measured molar flow of the fuel gas and the measured
volume fraction of oxygen in the exiting flue gases, 3)
energy balances based on the temperature of the exiting
flue gases, and 4) how the kinetics of nitric oxide forma-
tion can be used to estimate temperatures in the hottest
part of the flame.
The chemical engineering program at the University of
Minnesota, Duluth, is relatively small, with five full-time
faculty, three temporary instructors, and a graduating class
in the range of 20-30 students. Without the amenities of
larger departments (e.g., shop facilities), it is difficult to
develop experiments requiring considerable construction of
apparatus or faculty time. The experiment described here is
relatively straightforward to do-the analyzer does the hard
work. It is intended as an undergraduate experiment, how-

ever, and should not be construed as a research-level
experiment or an experiment with which to do thorough
studies of combustion.
The analyzer is self-contained in a carrying case the size of
a large brief case, so storage of the experiment's components
is not a problem. The department also offers a minor in
environmental engineering, and the intention is to use this
analyzer in a new environmental-engineering laboratory
course; other experiments for this course have been de-
scribed elsewhere.31 A group of our students used the
analyzer as part of their project in our capstone design
course and the project was successfully entered in a na-
tional competition.J4'

The apparatus comprises a section of double-walled gal-
vanized flue pipe (18 in long and 3 in wide) mounted verti-
cally with a flue cap positioned on top; these items were
purchased from a hardware store. A Veriflow burner, fitted
with an N-2 nozzle (Fisher Scientific) was positioned at the
center of the bottom opening of the flue; it was connected
via a rotameter (Cole Parmer E-32461-58), calibrated in
liters of air per minute (L air/min), to the laboratory supply
of natural gas. To obtain temperatures in the exiting flue gas
that vary with the flow of natural gas, controlled by the
rotameter, it was essential to restrict the flow of air into the
bottom of the flue. A can of suitable dimensions was cut in

Keith Lodge is Assistant Professor of Chemi-
cal Engineering at the University of Minne-
sota in Duluth. He was educated in the United
Kingdom, obtaining his BSc from the Univer-
sity of Warwick and his PhD from the Univer-
sity of Sheffield. He teaches laboratory
courses, thermodynamics, heat transfer, com-
putational methods, reactor design, and pro-
cess control. Properties of hydrophobic or-
ganic compounds are his principal research

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2000

Chemical Engineering Education

Typical oxygen permeability values in PDMS obtained by
the setup can be seen in Figure 5 where the good reproduc-
ibility of measurement is illustrated.

SFor a more physicochemical insight, undertaking
the study of the influence of temperature on sorption, diffu-
sion, and permeability can be worth the time. A simple
expression is often shown to describe correctly the results
for all three parameters:

x ( E(
X=Xexp x X =D,S,org (12)
ex RT
While the analogy to Arrhenius expression is correct for rate
parameters (leading to the often-used vocable activation en-
ergy of diffusion and activation energy of permeability), it
should be explained to students that the same is incorrect for
sorption, which is not an activated process (Es corresponds
to the heat of sorption AHs, as classically obtained by a van't
Hoff plot). The following relationship, linking the two acti-
vation energies E, and ED with AHs can be derived by using
Eqs. (9) and (12)
Ep =AHs +ED (13)
Figure 5 illustrates the good accordance between the experi-
mental and the literature values for oxygen and nitrogen

E = 7.4kJ / mol EN2 = 8.2 kJ / mol

2 =9180Barrer =7150Barrer N2
These results are satisfactory in that the oxygen permeability
is greater than the one of nitrogen and conversely for the
energies of activation. At this stage, students can be asked to
explore potential separation applications based on this pecu-
liarity, such as gas-separation membrane processes.
Typical experimental results are summarized in Table 1.
The already-discussed inaccuracies on the intercept lead to
significant errors on D values; however, D02 remains al-
ways greater than DN2, which agrees with the theory be-
cause nitrogen's kinetic diameter is larger than oxygen's.

0 The influence of upstream pressure can also be option-
ally investigated, similar to the work already addressed by
Koros and Jordan with a silicone-nitrogen system.1141

The objective of this work was to point out an easy-to-
carry-out experiment of didactical importance for the under-
standing of gas mass transfer in different solid media. The
time-lag permeation method is a flexible and powerful tech-
nique that can give both equilibrium sorptionn coefficient S)
and transport properties diffusivityy D and permeability p)

Experimental (exp) and Literature Values ([7])
for Oxygen Sorption, Diffusion, and Permeability
through PDMS for 1 Bar Upstream Pressure

T(0C) p p D D S S
exp literature exp literature exp literature
(Barrer) (Barrer) (m2's") (m's') (Pa-') (Pa')

20 454 479 1.0E-09 1.6E-09 0.34 0.31
30 492 539 7.1E-10 1.8E-09 0.53 0.31
40 574 601 1.1E-09 2.0E-09 0.41 0.30
50 605 667 1.6E-09 2.2E-09 0.29 0.30
70 696 806 2.1E-09 2.7E-09 0.25 0.30

in a single experiment; based on the setup described in this
work, we have shown that reliable and accurate data with
regard to the permeabilities of permanent gases can be ob-
tained, while estimation of D and S is achievable. We fo-
cused first on simplicity, especially regarding the data-treat-
ment aspects. We want to stress, however, that more sophis-
ticated approaches (such as those proposed in advanced mass-
transfer topics) can be equally well-proposed based on the
same setup. A few examples, listed below, show how to
open various didactical extensions.

A first possibility consists in replacing the silicone
rubber membrane with a glassy polymer. For
instance, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), which is
readily available since most overhead transparency
materials used in projectors are composed of PET;
a more permeable LexanM film, produced by
General Electric, can also be used. If carbon
dioxide is used in place of oxygen or nitrogen,
experiment duration would remain compatible with
a laboratory tutorial providing that a thin enough
film (25pm or less) is available. Investigating the
more-complex case of gas permeation through
glassy polymers is of value for the students in order
to point out polymer barrier properties.

In place of permanent gases, organic-vapors
transport could be equally well investigated, based
on the vapor generator system connected to the
module (see Figure 3); in that case, complications
arising from the non-constancy of the diffusion
coefficient with concentration can lead to complex,
but interesting, transport behavior (and thus, data
treatment). The incidence of a variable D on the
experimental time lag has been explored by
Frisch.161 Attention should be paid, however, to
explosion hazards or O-ring damage when manipu-
lating organic vapors.
Chemical Engineering Education

The objective of the laboratory tutorial described in this paper is to
show and analyze the possibilities and limitations of a time-lag ex-
periment performed according to the preceding data treatment.

The experimental apparatus we set up consists of a stainless-steel
permeation cell (see Figure 2), within which a circular
polydimethylsiloxane film purchased from Dow Coming (SilasticTM
sheeting, thickness 125 pim, diameter 8 cm, active surface area 30
cm2) is inserted. The film is mechanically supported by a brass or
Inox frit (Poral) sufficiently porous to assert that its mass-transfer
resistance is far lower than the one of the analyzed material. A
VitonTM seal ensures the airtightness of the cell and also reduces the
film surface area exposed to the gas.
An overview of the complete laboratory setup designed in our
workshop is shown in Figure 3. For the sake of convenience, a simple,
low-cost stainless-steel filter holder can be purchased (for instance,
Millipore model 4404700) and works equally well in this application.
The two compartments of the cell are connected to a vacuum pump
(Alcatel Pascal 1015 SD), while the upper one can be fed by a
permanent gas (nitrogen or oxygen) from a bottle by opening a needle
valve (Nupro ABVT 1). The upstream compartment pressure is con-
trolled by a Bourdon manometer. An active strain gauge (Edwards
ASG NW16 2000 mbar) enables downstream compartment pressure
to be monitored. The electric signal ranging from 0 to 10 volts is sent
to a digital display (Edwards ADD). Afterwards, an analog-to-digital
24-bit converter (Sigma Delta) with an integrated oscillator (Linear
Technology LTC2400) is used to allow a computerized acquisition at
a maximum frequency of 20 Hz.
A personal computer with the
Test PointTM program carries out
the analog data processing. It 6_
permits screen display of the
downstream pressure rise in mil-
libars versus time in seconds and
the information backup in a data-
extended file. This file is then 4
imported into a spreadsheet pro-
gram (such as ExcelTM) to de-
termine the diffusion and sorp-
tion coefficient. Figure 4
shows an example of the com- 2
plete pressure rise for illustra-
tive purposes.

After a short review of the
principles and the theoretical de- 8
velopment underlying the tech-
nique (see the section on
"Theory"), we ask the students
to familiarize themselves with
the equipment and then operate

Figure 2. Exploded view of the permeation cell.

Figure 3.
Overall set up:
1. Gas bottle (pure
oxygen or nitrogen)
2. Bourdon manom-
3. Thermoregulated
4. Solvent reservoir
5. Heating resistance
6. Pressure gauge and
digital display
7. Magnetic stirret
8. Pump
9. Solid sample
10. Porous support
11. Downstream
12. Thermoregulated
water flow
13. Thermoregulated
water flow
14. Computerized data

Chemical Engineering Education


Inox ring
Viton seal

Solid sample


_ -- 4. compartment

W laboratory




The Time Lag

Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Chimiques 54001 Nancy, France

Mass transfer, one of the core areas of classical
chemical engineering curricula, is most often pre-
sented to students through laboratory tutorials dedi-
cated to unit operations (e.g., distillation, gas absorption,
extraction, etc.). Laboratory tutorials aimed at a more funda-
mental approach can also be proposed, based for instance on
the study of one of the methods leading to diffusion coeffi-
cient determination in fluid phases (liquid, gases, etc)"' To
our knowledge, however, the study of a strict diffusion pro-
cess in a less conventional phase, such as a permeable solid
(polymer, adsorbent, microporous material), is seldom at-
tempted at an undergraduate level in chemical engineering
departments. In this paper, we will describe an experimental
setup that enables study of the transitory mass transfer of a
permanent gas through a permeable solid; apart from the
simplicity and rapidity arguments, this technique, currently
referred to as the time-lag method, permits us to stress either
the mass-transfer or the physical-chemistry aspect in the
solution approach proposed to the student.

The time-lag permeation technique was originally con-
ceived in 1920 by Daynes in order to study the mass transfer
through an elastomeric material.121 The method was refined
and widely used through the years by authors such as Barrer[13
and Crank,"21 and it has been applied successfully to numer-
ous materials-from catalyst particles to metals and poly-
mers-and to different sample geometries. Interest in the
time-lag technique has been sustained over the past ten years,
as shown by Vietht4] in his work on permeation through
polymer films.

A time-lag cell consists of an upper and lower chamber
separated by an initially gas-free solid sample (see Figure 1).
A permanent gas is introduced in the upstream part of the
cell at time zero; while maintaining upstream pressure con-
stant, the appearance of permeated gas is continuously moni-
tored in the lower compartment using a pressure transducer.
A significant pressure rise only occurs after a period called
the time lag. This time lag, 0, indicates the onset of a quasi-
steady-state diffusion process, which persists until the pres-
sure in the entire cell equilibrates.
Two experimental configurations can be used to perform a
time-lag experiment. The first one, called the "Wicke-

0. Dufaud received his Master's Degree in
Chemical Engineering at ENSIC Nancy
(France) and is now a PhD student in the field
of stereophotolithography.

E. Favre is a professor of chemical engineer-
ing at ENSIC Nancy (France). His major inter-
ests in research are mass transfer and mem-
brane separations.

L.M. Vincent is a research engineer at LSGC-CNRS in data acquisition
and electronic applications. (no photo available)

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2000

Chemical Engineering Education

W rate of work through boundary i
m rate of material flow through boundary i
E energy per unit mass of material

Einstein assumed that energy is conserved-it is neither
created nor destroyed. In other words, the energy generation
rate is zero:
Egen = 0 (Conservation of Energy)
This is the assumption usually made in engineering analysis;
therefore, our energy balance need not be modified to ac-
count for the effects of relativity.
We do, however, have to modify the usual engineering
mass balance:
= mi + m+gen (7)

We normally assume conservation of mass
mgen = 0 (Conservation of Mass)
Relativity changes this. Recall that the mass of a system is a
measure of its energy content. Dividing the energy balance,
Eq. (6), by c2 and assuming that energy is conserved, we obtain

1 dE Q ( w riE i)
c2 dt ( c 2 C2 2+

Each term in this equation has dimensions of mass divided
by time. Moreover, rmE / c2 = mrii = mi. Thus
dm (Q W .
= + +m
dt Y c2 cC2

This equation can be rearranged to produce

(=Qm + (8)
dt i i 2 +2

Comparing Eqs. (7) and (8) term by term, we conclude that

mgn Q WI 2 C


In other words, mass is "generated" in the system by heat
transfer and work. Of course, 1/c2 = 1 x 10 '7s2m2 is so
small that the generation rate is usually negligible in
practical problems.

According to Eq. (5), the mass varies with velocity. To
determine the velocity-dependence of mass, consider a closed,
adiabatic system initially at rest. Suppose that a force, F,
accelerates the system in such a way as to leave its potential
and internal energy unchanged. The energy balance for the
system reduces to
Substituting E = mc2 and = F v into this equation, we

d(mc = F v (9)

The mass is related to the force by the momentum balance,
Eq. (3),

F=d(mv) (3)
Substituting this into Eq. (9), we obtain
dmc2 = d(mv)
dt dt
Multiplying by 2m and rearranging yields

2 dm2 d(mv)2
dt dt
Next we integrate, noting that v = 0 at t = 0. The result is
c2(m2 m)=(mv)2

Solving for m, we obtain at last

n=Y mo (10)
m =ymo = 1_v2/ )2
V1-v / C2
In this equation, m is the inertial mass, sometimes called the
relativistic mass; and r, is the rest mass, which is the mass of
the system at v =0.* At velocities much lower than the speed of
light, y = 1 and the relativistic mass coincides with the rest
mass. This is usually the case for engineering problems.

We have seen that Eq. (1), Einstein's mass-energy equa-
tion, does not predict the interconversion of matter and en-
ergy in chemical or nuclear reactions. In fact, the constitu-
ents of matter are conserved in chemical reactions and in
many nuclear reactions. Nor are mass and energy
interconvertible. Instead, what Einstein showed was that the
mass of a body is a measure of its energy content; conse-
quently, the mass increases when the energy does. Because
energy is conserved, there is no need to change our usual
energy balance. But in some cases it may be desirable to
modify the mass balance to account for the dependence of
mass on energy.
We may well ask whether any of this matters, since chemi-
cal engineers rarely if ever encounter problems in which
relativistic effects are significant. There are at least three
reasons why it is important. First, if we are going to mention
the theory in our classes or textbooks, we should try to get it
right. Second, our students may in the future have to deal
with problems in which a sound understanding of E = mc2 is

* In recent years, the preference of many physicists has been to
define the rest mass as the mass of the system, and to drop the
subscript 0. The mass, m, then becomes independent of velocity,
which may be considered an advantage; on the other hand, the
factor y must be included explicitly in many equations. For a
lively discussion of this issue, see references 4 and 5. This paper
has adhered to the more traditional definition, in which the
mass, m, is the inertial or relativistic mass.
Chemical Engineering Education

energy for the synthesis using bromoethane as the substrate
is significantly lower, thus suggesting that the reaction will
be much faster if this compound is used as the reactant.
Finally, costs of the two reactants are compared using data
from the commodities literature.
The approach to solving this problem relies exclusively on
the use of molecular modeling to obtain information that is
not readily available from any of the standard data sources-
hence the use of quantum chemistry to estimate parameters
that are of considerable practical utility for both reactor and
process-design purposes is well illustrated.
We have recently added a new senior-level course to our
curriculum, "Molecular Perspectives in Chemical Engineer-
ing." This course presents students with a comprehensive
overview of the use of molecular modeling and simulation
techniques in several different applications, including esti-
mation of thermophysical and reaction rate data, sorption
equilibria and diffusion rates, phase equilibrium simulation,
and prediction of transport properties.
An outline for this course, including descriptions of the
computational exercises that are currently in use, is given in
Table 2. Examples of molecular modeling exercises used in
the capstone chemical engineering molecular simulation
course can also be found by accessing the CSM website at

Molecular-scale modeling has reached a level of sophisti-
cation and accuracy that makes it an essential and highly
useful tool for chemical engineers, yet the methods, capa-
bilities, and limitations of this tool are not yet well known
across the chemical engineering profession. The use of mo-
lecular-scale modeling is becoming increasingly important
in industry as researchers and product developers look for
ways to cut the costs and time associated with development
of new products.
At CSM, we have addressed this problem by incorporating
atomistic modeling methods throughout our curriculum at
the undergraduate level in both the chemistry and chemical
engineering course sequences. We believe that this approach
represents a new educational paradigm in chemical engi-
neering, and we are committed to integration of these con-
cepts across the curriculum.

1. Wei, J., Adv. Chem. Eng., 16, 51 (1991)
2. Bird, R.B., W.E. Stewart, and E.N. Lightfoot, Transport
Phenomena, Wiley & Sons, New York, NY (1960)
3. Landau, R., Chem. Eng. Prog., 52, Jan (1997)
4. Drexler, K.E., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. US, 78, 5275 (1981)
5. Gibney, K, ASEE Prism, 8(1), 23 (1998)
6. Hehre, W.J., L. Radom, P.v.R. Schleyer, and J.A. Pople, Ab
Inito Molecular Orbital Theory, Wiley & Sons, New York,
NY (1986)

Spring 2000

7. Burkert, U., and N.L. Allinger, Molecular Mechanics ACS
Monograph 177, American Chemical Society (1982)
8. Frenkel, D., and B. Smit, Understanding Molecular Simu-
lation, Academic Press (1996)
9. Clark, M., R.D. Cramer III, and N. van Opdensch, J. Comp.
Chem., 10, 982 (1989)
10. Halgren, T.A., J. Comp. Chem., 17, 490 (1996)
11. Quirke, N. Chem. Eng. Prog., Feb (1996)
12. Rowley, R.L., and J.F. Ely, Molecular Simulation, 7, 303
13. Moore, J.D., S.T. Cui, P.T. Cummings, and H.D. Cochran,
AIChE J., 43, 3260 (1997)
14. Cui, S.T., H.D. Cochran, P.T. Cummings, and S.K. Kumar,
Macromolecules, 30, 3375 (1997)
15. Chialvo, A.A., and P.T. Cummings, J. Chem. Phys., 105,
16. Hansen, E., and M. Neurock, Computers in Chem. Eng., 22,
1045 (1998)
17. Chen, N., and R.T. Yang, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 35, 4020
18. Sungpet, A., "Reactive Polymer Membranes for Olefin Sepa-
rations," PhD Thesis, Colorado School of Mines (1997) O

m letter to the editor

Dear Sir:
The article by Rugarcia, et al., titled "The Future of Chemi-
cal Engineering Education" [CEE, 34, 16, (2000)] is inter-
esting and thought provoking. However, it begins with a
caricature of a poor lecture and returns to the theme of the
inferiority of the lecture format later in the paper with the
assertion that "the superiority of alternative methods. .has
been demonstrated in thousands of empirical research stud-
ies." This view has become widely accepted among the
proponents of "new" teaching methods. At the risk of
being branded as a Luddite (probably true), I am com-
pelled to offer a modest and purely anecdotal defense of
the lecture format.
Looking back on my own experience as an undergraduate,
the classes that I most enjoyed were all formal lectures in
physics, chemistry, and even geology. These lectures were
given to large classes (sometimes several hundred students)
and I am sure that the lecturers would have been horrified at
the thought of following a course textbook or of presenting
worked examples during a lecture. What was presented was
an in-depth review stressing the fundamental principles and
the logic and coherence of our understanding of the subject.
It is perhaps ironic that the notes from several of these
courses were later published as successful textbooks! Well-
thought-out and well-rehearsed demonstration experiments,
performed by a teaching assistant, were sometimes included.
Questions, assignments, and practice examples were
handled in parallel tutorial sessions, given by either a
faculty member or a PhD student, each with no more than
Continued on page 177.

rMclass and home problems

The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collections of interesting and novel
problems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student
by presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel
home problem, are requested, as well as those that are more traditional in nature and that
elucidate difficult concepts. Manuscripts should not exceed ten double-spaced pages if possible
and should be accompanied by the originals of any figures or photographs. Please submit them to
Professor James O. Wilkes (e-mail: wilkes@engin.umich.edu), Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136.




University of Missouri Columbia, MO 65211

he project is "open-ended" when the students ask if
only one design is right, and an "estimation" will
suffice when they cannot find an exact value; the
descriptive title for the project intentionally reinforces the
expectation of this assignment for the student.The project is
a preliminary design to evaluate methods of generating elec-
tricity for a resort island. As seen in the accompanying press
release (Table 1), written in the form of an advertisement for
tourism, a tropical island abundant in leisure activities is
described; thinly veiled within the ad are various resources
that could be used to produce electrical energy.
This design effort is assigned in a first course in thermody-
namics offered by the Department of Chemical Engineering
at the University of Missouri at Columbia. All the material
typically contained in a "classical thermodynamics" course
(first law, second law, and power cycles) is covered in this
15-week semester-long course, and most of the students are
first-semester Juniors, having recently completed an intro-
ductory chemical engineering course covering material and
energy balances. Although the students are still in the begin-
ning stages of their chemical engineering coursework, this
project meets the need of providing some early design op-
portunity in the curriculum. The project also incorporates
role playing and decision making, two important elements of
active learning" and critical thinking.[2]

The overall objective of this preliminary design is to rec-
ommend methods of energy generation that meet the elec-

tricity needs of the island, with some assessment of environ-
mental and safety concerns. The methods proposed by stu-
dents to date are listed in Table 2.
Organization of the project is shown schematically in Fig-
ure 1, and the project deliverables are divided into two parts:
A Phase I written report, and a Phase II written report fol-
lowed by an oral presentation. For the Phase I report, the
students, grouped into teams of three or four, propose meth-
ods for producing electricity, for which they must provide
brief descriptions along with environmental and safety con-
siderations. Each group must also provide block diagrams
showing the relationship between the resource and the en-
ergy output. The pedagogical role of the block diagram is to
force students to contemplate the physical layout of each
energy-generation method. For hydroelectric energy, for
example, Figure 2 illustrates the relationship between the
reservoir, the turbine, and the generator. The groups typi-
cally propose one or two methods per team member, and
each method requires one to two pages to describe.
Stephen J. Lombardo received his BS de-
gree from Worcester Polytechnic Institute and
his PhD from the University of California, Ber-
keley, both in chemical engineering. He worked
for seven years in industry in the areas of
ceramic materials and ceramic processing be-
fore joining the Department of Chemical Engi-
neering at the University of Missouri-Colum-
bia in 1997.

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2000
Chemical Engineering Education

ample is qualitative, one can see the influence of the lower-
density inclusion where the wave gets held up, and one can
envision how the surface response allows a map of the
subsurface to be generated. From a mathematical viewpoint,
this example helps illustrate typical hyperbolic behavior: the
response of the interior to a change at the boundary is delayed,
but then felt at full strength once the wave reaches a given
point. Using this example in the classroom, an otherwise dry
discussion of characteristic lines for a hyperbolic equation can
become more captivating.

The use of PDEs in the undergraduate curriculum often
has mixed results: Important topics cannot be modeled with-
out PDEs. On the other hand, the simplicity of solution do-
mains for analytic problems often makes for abstract relation-
ships to real engineering problems, and the mathematical de-
tails of an analytic solution can distance students from the
original objectives.
This paper presents effective uses of modern numerical
software for solving real engineering problems at the under-
graduate level, which is an increasingly popular approach
among chemical engineering educators. The quick learning
curve for certain numerical software allows students to be-
gin exploring a model's behavior almost immediately. Class-
room time can then be used to break down conceptual
barriers associated with PDEs. It is hoped that this ap-
proach lays a better foundation and better prepares stu-
dents for later material on solution techniques, either
analytical or numerical.

The author would like to acknowledge Charles Varado
for providing the numerical code used to generate Figure 1,
and to acknowledge the anonymous reviewers for very in-
sightful comments on the original manuscript.

1. Harb, J.N., A. Jones, R.L. Rowley, and W.V. Wilding, "Use
of Computational Tools in Engineering Education," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 30(3), 145 (1997)
2. Mackenzie, J.G., and M. Allen, "Mathematical Power Tools:
Maple, Mathematica, MATLAB, and Excel," Chem. Eng.
Ed., 32(2), 156 (1998)
3. Taylor, R., and K. Atherley, "Chemical Engineering with
Maple," Chem. Eng. Ed., 29(1), 56 (1995)
4. Cutlip, M.B., and M. Shacham, Problem Solving in Chemi-
cal Engineering with Numerical Methods, Prentice Hall
5. Sinclair, J.L., "CFD Case Studies in Fluid-Particle Flow,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 32(2), 108 (1998)
6. Chapra, S.C., and R.P. Canale, Numerical Methods for En-
gineers, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill (1998)
7. Rice, R.G., and D.D. Do, Applied Mathematics and Model-
ing for Chemical Engineers, Wiley (1995)
8. Finlayson, B.A., "Problem-Centered Course in Using Multi-
media," paper 3513-02 presented at the ASEE Annual Con-

ference and Exposition, Washington, DC (1996)
9. Crandall, S.H., Engineering Analysis: A Survey of Numeri-
cal Procedures, McGraw-Hill (1956)
10. Wiggins, E.G., "Computational Fluid Dynamics on a Spread-
sheet," Comp. in Ed. J., 7(2), 7 (1997)
11. Cutlip, M.B., and M. Shacham, "The Numerical Method of
Lines for Partial Differential Equations," CACHE News, 47,
18, Fall (1998)
12. Anklam, M.R., R.K. Prud'homme, B.A. Finlayson, "Ion Ex-
change Chromatography Laboratory: Experimentation and
Numerical Modeling," Chem. Eng. Ed.,, 31(1), 26 (1997)
13. Leal, L.G., Laminar Flow and Convective Transport Pro-
cesses: Scaling Principles and Asymptotic Analysis,
Butterworth-Heinemann (1992)
14. Varnado, C., and K. Loo, Math Modeling Project for ChE
4296, LSU (1997)
15. Bennett, C.O., and J.E. Myers, Momentum, Heat, and Mass
Transfer, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill (1982)
16. Berkhout, A.J.,Applied Seismic Wave Theory, Elsevier (1987)

Continued from page 145.

The more types of assessment data collected for a specific
component (column of the matrix), the more reliable, valid,
and fair the evaluation of that component. For explanatory
notes and literature citations on the different assessment
tools, see Reference 3.

How might the scholarship of teaching be included in
tenure and promotion decisions?
Many academic institutions have begun to acknowledge
the scholarship of teaching as a valid component of tenure
and promotion (T/P) applications. An approach being taken
by several of these institutions is to allow faculty members
to allocate variable percentages of their total effort to teach-
ing, research, and service, with minimum percentages being
specified for each area. If more than a certain percentage is
allocated to teaching, educational scholarship must be in-
cluded in the faculty member's activities and a teaching
portfolio containing a subset of the items in Table 1 must be
included in the T/P dossier. A review committee assigns
separate numerical performance ratings to each of the three
areas and weights the ratings by the specified percentages to
calculate a composite rating, which provides the basis for the
decision on tenure or promotion.
For ratings of the scholarship of teaching to be reliable and
valid, the evaluating department should take the following
[ Formulate and announce an assessment and evaluation
plan. Decide which items listed in Table 1 will be collected in
the teaching portfolio, taking into account both institutional
guidelines and considerations specific to the department.
Choose a system to rate each of the items in the portfolio (e.g.,
rate each item on a scale from 0 to 10), weighting factors for
each item, and weighted scores that serve as criteria for ad-
Chemical Engineering Education

1 ., --., .r.-.. n I-' -




Length (cm)

Figure 2. Geometry of 1/16 of flow region in heat exchanger
(top); z-direction (perpendicular to page) velocity contours



-0.3 240
1 12 14 1.6 1.8 2 22 2.4 26
Length (cm)
0 4 200

-0o 1


L e ng th (cm ) 1 0



j-0 2

-0. .
1 12 1.4 18 1,8 2 22 2,4 26
Length (cm)

Figure 3. Snapshots of temperature profiles during tran-
sient heating (t=7 sec, t=2.4 min, and t=12 min).


imposed during specification of the PDE.

Figure 2 shows how the annulus geometry (1/16 of the entire
domain) is defined using various simple geometric shapes and
shows contours of the z-direction velocity (i.e., velocity is perpen-
dicular to the page). The contours have not been assigned numeri-
cal values in this figure because the velocity depends on one's
specific choice of viscosity and pressure gradient. Their shape
remains fixed, however.

Integration of the velocity profile to determine flowrate gives a
fanning friction factor f=19.5/Re, whereas students typically ob-
tain values between f=20/Re and f=25/Re in the experiment (using
an effective area approach). When quantitative analysis is used,
one can introduce the students to issues of numerical accuracy.
Grid refinement is trivial in MATLAB, requiring only the click of a
button for successive refinements of the FEM mesh. Using various
levels of grid refinement in this example (the standard mesh followed
by two successive refinements), one obtains the following values for
the friction factor: 20.12/Re, 19.65/Re, and 19.52/Re.

Returning to Figure 1, one can see the velocity profile for the
entire annular region, where the lighter shading indicates higher
velocities. While numerical solution over the entire annular region
is less efficient than breaking it along lines of symmetry, the
resulting graphic is more appealing than Figure 2. Figure 1 was
taken directly from two students' homework;1 14 they were able to
work the problem after only a short tour of MATLAB during one
of the class periods. (The students used inches rather than cm,
causing the discrepancy of scale with Figure 2.)

Example 2
Transient and Steady Heat Transfer in a
Finned Heat Exchanger

While the heat exchanger described in Example 1 is not used for
heat-transfer experiments at LSU, the concept of heat transfer
from a fin is both important and readily amenable to visualization.

0 2 a- 240

Length (cm)
0 1
0 220

-02 200

0 1 1.2 1 4 1,6 1 8 2 2.2 2.4 2'6
Length (m) 160


1 1'2 1'4 1"0 1 6 2 2!2 2!4 2'6
Length (cm)
Figure 4. Steady temperature profiles for high (top) and low (bottom)
fin-side heat transfer coefficients.

Chemical Engineering Education

class session held in the de- 1.5
apartment computer lab. In
1999, it was introduced via a
step-by-step instruction set 1
handed out to the students,
thus requiring no class time. .
The use of software should
not de-emphasize the impor-
tance of teaching analytic and 0 0
numerical techniques for solv-
ing PDEs. Instead it should al-
low us to embrace the introduc- 0
tion of PDEs at the undergradu-
ate level (if their use enhances 1
the fundamentals being taught)
and encourage exploration and
critical thinking early on. -1.5 -1 -0.
Three examples are given
below. These were chosen to Figure 1. Velocity map in er
illustrate a number of points. from undergrads
First, they are indicative of the
types of problems easily solved by MATLAB (most impor-
tantly, those with arbitrarily complex boundary geometries).
Second, one each of an elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic
equation are shown. Third, and most important, they typify
problems where the student clearly understands the engi-
neering relevance and the manner in which their models can
be used in design. This last aspect becomes especially
effective when a model can be tied to an experiment, as
is shown in Example 1, or, for instance, in reference 12.
The MATLAB scripts for these examples can be found
on the web at education.htm>

( SExample 1
Steady Laminar Flow in a Finned Heat Exchanger

For parallel laminar flow through a duct, the Navier-Stokes
equations reduce to Poisson's equation (a scalar equation
since there is only one velocity component). This example is
for flow in the annulus of a heat exchanger in LSU's ChE
measurements laboratory. This example was of particular
interest to students in the math modeling class because many
of them had used this apparatus for a pressure-drop-versus-
flowrate experiment in which they calculated the friction
factor for the annular region. Additionally, the complex ge-
ometry in the annulus makes the problem an excellent candi-
date for solution using MATLAB.
The annular space in the heat exchanger is contained be-
tween r = 1.05 inches (OD of inner pipe) and r = 2.469 (ID of
outer pipe). It contains 16 symmetrically placed fins of width
1/32 inch and length 1/2 inch, as shown in Figure 1. Symme-
try allows the solution to be performed in either 1/16 of the
Spring 2000


0.5 1 1.5

tire heat-exchanger domain taken
late students' solution.

duces to Poisson's equation

V2u=-G/ p (2)
Zero-velocity boundary conditions are used along all sur-
faces of the heat exchanger. Depending on how the FEM
domain is chosen, lines of symmetry are likely to arise, in
which case symmetry boundary conditions (n-Vu=0) are
also used. In MATLAB, the elliptic equation is written as

-div[c*grad(u)]+a*u=f (3)

where 'div' and 'grad' are the divergence and gradient op-
erators, respectively. Hence, one would specify c=l, a=0,
and f=G/g to perform the calculation. The solution using
MATLAB's PDE Toolbox involves four steps:

1. Map the domain using the GUI. (The geometry can be drawn
crudely using the mouse, and then refined by double-clicking
on the various polygons to type in precise vertex positions.)
2. Select the governing equation and boundary conditions. The
GUI contains a radio-button interface that allows the user to
specify the type of equations and boundary conditions along
with values of parameters.
3. Solve the problem. After step two, the solution consists of
clicking two buttons: one to generate and refine the FEM
mesh and the second to solve the problem. A wide range of
graphical output is available.
4. Quantitative analysis. This last step requires slightly more
user experience since the command-line interface must be
used. For instance, values of velocity at each node in the mesh
are contained in an array that can be exported to the
MATLAB workspace. There are a series of 'pdetool'
commands that can then be used to perform interpolation,
integration, etc. Integration is used to calculate volumetric
flowrate as a function of the pressure gradient that was

domain (boundaries along the
centerlines of two neighbor-
ing fins) or 1/32 of the do-
main (one boundary along a
fin and one along a fluid line
of symmetry). We show the
former approach below.
For unidirectional flow, the
Navier-Stokes equations re-
duce to113]

au g (I
p = G(t)+ V2u (1

where u is the velocity in the
direction of flow, G(t) is the
pressure gradient in this di-
rection, and V2 is the
Laplacian for the two direc-
tions orthogonal to flow.
Hence, for a steady flow, G is
constant and the equation re-

Conceptual barriers are never clear-cut, and they of c
depend on background, learning style, and ability. B1
will attempt to generalize a set of hurdles that stand bet
more easily conceptualized physical behavior and the
spending mathematics. An example is the categorizati
PDEs; the mathematical definitions of parabolic versus
perbolic PDEs probably seem abstract at first, but expla
the analogy to the synonymous heat and wave equ
makes this classification more tangible.
This development of strong ties between analogous r
cal and mathematical behavior provides a basis for bre
down conceptual barriers. Emphasis is placed on the b
ior of general classes of PDEs, with concrete examples
to illustrate these ties. It is hoped that the foundation
comfort level that can be achieved by this approach offsc
'risk' of sending the students headlong into numerical
tions (without much knowledge of the associated technic
No single list of conceptual barriers is comprehe
Table 1 shows a list of topics that are addressed sequer
by the author during a three-week section covering I
The first couple of points are general, but the latter p
the list applies to second-order PDEs, for two reasons.
many second-order equations can be packaged neatl.
elliptic, hyperbolic, and parabolic
categories, which aids in general-
izing behavior. Second, these are
the types of equations amenable
to solution in MATLAB's PDE
Toolbox, which was an essential Topic used toaddre.
part of the approach. conceptualbarrier
The in-class overview of second- Independent and
dependent varial
order PDEs was taken largely from
Crandall,591 who does an excellent Picturing the sol
job of tying qualitative behavior of
the equations to quantitative math-
ematics (numerical and analytic). Second-order P
The approach promotes picturing a
PDE as a family of surfaces, the
correct surface being pinned down Equilibrium ver!
by the appropriate boundary and ini- propagation
tial conditions. Crandall explains the
difference between equilibrium
problems and propagation problems,
which ties in nicely to a discussion
of the characteristic curves for para-
bolic and hyperbolic equations.

Effective use of a math model re- methods
quires, of course, a solution. In the Stability and
past, a significant time investment numerical diffuse
was required to introduce analytic

solution techniques and the problems were more often than
course not restricted to one spatial dimension. From a numerical
ut we perspective, innovative ideas have been presented for pro-
ween gramming solutions to PDEs at an introductory level,""'"]
orre but these too are dimensionally restrictive. In contrast, mod-
on of ern numerical software gives the student more flexibility
s hy- with respect to the type of problems that can be solved
ining and the way in which they can be explored.
nations Software such as MATLAB's PDE Toolbox allows two-
dimensional problems of arbitrary geometry to be set up and
)hysi- solved in a matter of minutes. In MATLAB, the system
making geometry is entered using a graphical user interface (GUI)
ehav- that strongly resembles familiar drawing programs. Equa-
used tions and boundary conditions are chosen from radio-button
n and menus, and clicking with the mouse results in mesh
ets the discretization, solution by the finite element method, and a
solu- wide range of three-dimensional color graphical output. Nu-
lues). medical output is only slightly harder to manipulate, requir-
nsive. ing a review of MATLAB's built-in 'pdetool' scripts. The
PDE toolbox can be used at an introductory level without
i'DE. extensive knowledge of the basic MATLAB software.
art of Hence, the time spent in familiarizing students with the
S software can be kept relatively small. In 1997, the PDE
S toolbox was introduced to the students during a single-
y into

Synopsis of Conceptual Topics Discussed During Classtime
During the PDE Section of a Modeling Course.

Chemical Engineering Education

Synopsis of the classroom discussion
Use a 'familiar' equation to emphasize independent/dependent and how
they define a PDE.
An ODE describes a family of curves; one or more boundary conditions
pin down the curve of interest.
Similarly, many PDEs can be pictured as a surface, pinned at the edges.

)Es These are categorized as elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic. It helps to
understand physical behavior associated with each in the form of Poisson's
equation, the heat equation, and the wave equation.

Elliptic equations describe equilibrium or 'jury' problems'll-the boundaries
(which are fixed on all sides) wholly dictate the shape of the interior.
Propagation problems have an open boundary. The surface evolves with time,
pinned on the sides by boundary conditions and at the front by initial conditions.
Characteristic lines are sudden changes in the slope of the surface (like creases),
brought about by changes in boundary conditions.
Parabolic equations have one characteristic line; changes at the boundary are
propagated instantly but weakly into the interior.
Hyperbolic equations have two characteristic lines. Changes at the boundary are
propagated into the interior at full strength but at a finite speed.
There are analogous characteristic lines for the finite difference method. These
partly dictate step size in propagation problems.
When using numerical solutions, we must be wary of errors inherent to the solu-
tion technique. Many of these stability issues relate to the form of the governing


dustrial revolution. This leads to a description of socio-
economic conditions prevailing in Europe in the early 1800s,
and, in particular, to a discussion of Joule's careful, system-
atic, extended, experimental studies of the relations between
heat and work. We could describe Joule's paddle-wheel
experiments, which illustrated the equivalence of heat and
work and led to an identification of internal energy. We
would emphasize that these crucial experiments discredited
the caloric theory of heat and laid the foundations for articu-

or apartments, etc. The educational advantage here comes
when students can see and touch objects, and they attempt to
represent relations among those objects abstractly on paper.

At the philosophic level, our first goal is to find those
unifying generalizations that connect the things and con-
cepts encountered at the somatic, mythic, and romantic lev-
els: the stories, the devices and equipment, the many con-

lation of the principal of
conservation of energy.
Another instructive story
is that of the Haber-Bosch
process for the catalytic for-
mation of ammonia from its
elements under high tem-
peratures and pressures.
That process was first used
to make nitric acid for ex-
plosives and thereby en-
hanced Germany's ability to
prosecute World War I, but
after WWII, it made pos-
sible large-scale production
of fertilizers that sustain the
world's growing popula-
tions. Thus, we have an ex-
ample of the common di-
lemma of technology being
used and misused. But in
the context of energy usage,
this story illustrates one way
in which technologies
evolve: the fundamentals of
the Haber-Bosch process are
unchanged, but improve-
ments have reduced the en-
ergy costs of the process by
more than an order of mag-
nitude-from 380 MJ/kg of
NH3 in 1930 to 35 MJ/kg in
1990.18' Many important


Engineering Engineering
Education Practice

Transference Extension


Concrete Concrete
Situation Situation

Figure 1. Understandings of abstractions develop in a bot-
tom-up strategy from concrete situations to abstract con-
cepts; thus, in helping students learn new concepts, we
should start with concrete and specific examples and move
toward abstract generalizations. We apply abstractions in a
top-down fashion, however, from abstract notion to concrete
situation. Thus, in helping students learn to solve problems,
we should teach them to identify the generalized concept
that applies and then to proceed deductively to their par-
ticular situation.

chemicals have histories that can be exploited to appeal to
students' romantic understandings; another example is the
story of the Leblanc soda process, nicely told by Cook.1o01
Still another aspect of romantic understanding is embed-
ded in the graphical representations of physical objects and
processes-plots, schematic diagrams, and flowsheets. An
effective initial exposure to these tools is to confront stu-
dents with objects and have them create schematics: cooling
cycles in refrigerators or room air conditioners, the cooling-
water cycle on an automotive engine, the steam cycle at a
power generating plant, the water lines through their houses

cepts, the transformations
among concepts, the ex-
tremes, etc. The cognitive
hierarchy guides us in how
this is to be done. We em-
phasize that we do not, at
this point, confront students
with the answer-the gen-
eralized energy balance.
Rather, we proceed system-
atically from concrete situ-
ation to abstract generaliza-
tion, following the left leg
in Figure 1. Our second goal
is to help students develop
the ability to use the gener-
alized energy balance,
which is represented by the
right leg in the Figure. Thus,
our pedagogical goal is dis-
tinct from the practical one.
We might start a philo-
sophic discussion of energy
with equations that define
individual energy forms,
such as mechanical work,
electrical work, and changes
in kinetic and potential en-
ergies. Then students would
exercise those definitions by
applying them to relatively
simple situations: a) esti-
mate the speed of a crescent

wrench as it hits the ground after a free fall from the top of a
30-foot distillation tower; b) estimate the work performed by
an adiabatic air compressor; c) estimate the heat required to
raise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 20C to 100C.
(a) Concrete Situation To start the progression on the
left in Figure 1, we choose one of the concrete situations that
the students have already encountered; a possibility is the
compression of a gas in an insulated piston-cylinder appa-
ratus. Many choices are legitimate here, so long as the
one chosen arises from a situation for which students
have strong visual images.

Chemical Engineering Education

K learning


Part 5. General Hierarchy Applied to

Engineering Education*

Clemson University Clemson, SC 29634-0909

n the first papers in this series, I presented a special
hierarchy of technical understandings -3] based on my
experience in trying to help students learn and informed
by our current knowledge of the structure and function of the
human brain. In the previous paper,141 I showed how the
special hierarchy is related to a more general hierarchy
developed by Donald151 and, independently, by Egan.'61 In
discussing the general hierarchy, I adopted Egan's nomen-
clature, which identifies five levels of human understand-
ings: somatic, mythic, romantic, philosophic, and ironic.
Each level corresponds to a specific mode for getting thoughts
out of the mind and into forms by which they can be dis-
sected, analyzed, and reassembled. To recapitulate, the so-
matic level includes tactile learning, mythic corresponds to
oral learning, romantic involves graphics and written learn-
ing, philosophic refers to learning by formal reasoning, and
the ironic level encompasses exceptions, limitations, and
learning by modeling.
It is the philosophic level that encompasses the basic cog-
nitive skills required of engineers; these include use of for-
mal logic, mathematical reasoning, critical thinking, and
problem solving. But the special and general hierarchical
models are both integrative; that is, progression to a higher
level requires the individual to master skills and reorganize
knowledge gained at lower levels. Consequently, students
cannot develop facility with philosophic activities until they
have mastered lower-level cognitive skills.
In this paper we illustrate how the five cognitive levels can
be used to guide teaching and learning activities appropriate
for engineering students. To do so, we apply each level to

* Part 1, "Brain Structure and Function," CEE, 31(3), 152
(1997); Part 2, "Elementary Levels," CEE, 31(4), 214 (1997); Part
3, "Advanced Levels," CEE, 32(1), 30 (1998); Part 4, "A General
Hierarchy Based on the Evolution of Cognition," CEE, 34(1), 48

the concept of energy. As noted previously,1" energy is
already a highly abstract concept characteristic of those em-
ployed at a philosophic level of understanding; however, the
word energy is common in daily discourse and, therefore, it
is familiar to students. Nevertheless, freshman and sopho-
more engineering students generally have only vague no-
tions of the concept, and often confuse energy with force and
pressure. For these reasons, energy is a good concept for
showing how the hierarchy could be applied.
We emphasize that the suggestions here are fragmentary
and superficial; they are intended only to offer a flavor of the
kinds of activities that could be pursued. Note that our goals
are not so much to develop, say, somatic and mythic modes
of technical understanding, but rather to appeal to such
modes for understanding a particular concept.


At the most basic level, our objectives are to help students
obtain a "physical feel" for kinds and quantities of energy.
For example, we might have students try to increase the
temperature of water in a bowl by using a hand-driven egg
beater. Or we might have them manually compress air in a
piston-cylinder device, such as a large medical syringe. To
test whether energy is extensive, students could measure
the time required for a 500-watt microwave oven to bring
a cup of water to boil; then they could repeat the heating
using two cups.
More elaborately, we could invert a bicycle, attach a fric-
tion-driven electric generator to the rear wheel, and run an

J.M. Haile, Professor of Chemical Engineering at Clemson University, is
the author of Molecular Dynamics Simulation, published by John Wiley &
Sons in 1992 and is the 1998 recipient of the Corcoran Award for the
Chemical Engineering Division of ASEE.

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2000

Chemical Engineering Education

close-distance interaction model (CDI) is in-
cluded in the particle-particle collision analy-
sis, which considers the liquid interstitial ef-
fects between colliding particles. The follow-
ing presents representative results for a single
bubble rising and particle entrainment by a
single bubble in a liquid-solid fluidized bed
under ambient conditions and multi-bubbles
rising in a liquid-solid fluidized bed under
high-pressure conditions.
The behavior of a single bubble rising in a
liquid-solid fluidized bed suspension under
ambient conditions is simulated in Figure 16.
One thousand particles with a density of 2,500
kg/m3 and a diameter of 1.0 mm are used as
the solid phase. An aqueous glycerin solution
(80 wt%) is used as the liquid phase. The
superficial liquid velocity is 5 mm/s, yielding
a solids holdup of 0.44. It can be seen that the
bubble is of spherical-cap shape rising recti-
linearly. Also shown in the figure are photo-
graphs of a single bubble rising in a liquid-solid
fluidized bed obtained experimentally under the
same operating conditions as those of the simu-
lation. As shown in the figure, the simulated
and experimental results of the bubble-rise ve-
locity and the bubble shape generally agree.
Figure 17 shows the simulated results of
particle entrainment by a bubble from the bed


(a)t to

o o .

(c) = t+0.4s

Figure 16.

Simulation and
results of a
single bubble
rising in a
fluidized bed.

Figure 17.

results of a
emerging from
the surface of a
fluidized bed.

o co~ 0.]

- _t 2 3 -.-_
(b) t = t+ 0.2s


(d) = to+0.6 s

Figure 19. Simulated velocity vector fields of fluids for
the conditions given in Figure 18.
Chemical Engineering Education

1000 1000
frame 1 frame 3

oo :.
.. ..6. .,.' ..0 6.00
000 6.0 0.00 6.0
1000 10.00
frame 2 frame 4

0006000 .6'
600 6,00 "
0.00 60 000 60

(a)= t o

. f '4 t t .s .

(c) t = to+ 0.4 s

(b) t =t,+ 0.2 s

4 : '...

( t) : -0 :

Figure 18. Simulation results of multi-bubble rising in a
liquid-solid fluidized bed at a pressure of 17.3 MPa
(Es=0.17; dP=0.5 mm; pp=1,500kg/m3; db=4.0mm).

tion varies within the wake; lower solids con-
centration regions were observed immediately
beneath the bubble base and around the vor-
tex center, while higher concentration regions
occurred around the vortices and especially
in the regions where the two vortices interact.
U Bed Contraction When gas is intro-
duced to a liquid-solid fluidized bed of small
particles (see Figure 9a), contraction instead
of expansion of the bed occurs (Figure 9b).
An increasing gas flow rate causes further
contraction up to a critical gas-flow rate be-
yond which the bed expands (Figure 9c).1'2I
Considerable research has been conducted to Figure 8. B
study the unique bed-expansion characteris- Tsuchiya a
tics in three-phase fluidization and showed a) Photogra
that bed contraction can be attributed to the glass bead
behavior of the bubble wake. Phenomeno- b) Schemat
logically, bed-contraction phenomena could
be explained by the presence of a solids-
containing wake, which allows some liquid flow to bypass
the liquid-solid fluidized region at a higher velocity. This
bypass of liquid reduces the liquid velocity in the liquid-
solid fluidized region, thus contributing to the bed con-
traction. Further increase in the gas velocity increases
the gas holdup (or gas volume fraction) in the bed, lead-
ing to the bed expansion.
U Bubble Coalescence An important clue to the mecha-
nism of bubble coalescence can be obtained through obser-
vation of rise patterns of successive bubbles. Figure 10 pre-
sents photographs representing the bubble-rise paths ob-
served in two-dimensional water-fluidized bed of 460-gm
glass beads (Figure 10a) and 1.5-mm acetate particles (Fig-


+ Vortex center
Solids flow

ubble wake phenomena in a liquid-solid fluidized bed (from
nd Fan;i111 reproduced with permission).
iph of a circular-cap bubble and its wake in a water-774 pm
luidized bed.
ic interpretation of the wake flow.

ure 10b) at a given bubble formation frequency fb. As shown
in the figure, the alternate shedding of the bubble wake
yields a series of vortices that establish a staggered, snake-
like liquid flow pattern downstream relative to the bubble;
the central regions of the shed vortices appear as bright
spots. The staggered liquid stream emanating from the lead-
ing bubble enhances the zigzag motion of the trailing bubble
regardless of particle properties.
The figure demonstrates a bubble-pairing process for two
different conditions. In Figure 10a, three bubbles initially
rise with equal bubble spacing. As time elapses, the first and
second bubbles are paired, with the second bubble being
profoundly elongated. These two bubbles eventually collide.

bed region ,.



SLiquid U,,

/ Gas

- Liquid
Freeboard _
region -fSolid
re.-on .-."_I disengagement
. .
i ~ .--- BuDrDle

fluidized H -Solid -liuid
bed region fluidization

region < Gas Ug
region Liquid U,

0 0

1 1U

Gas velocity, Ugo

Figure 9. Bed contraction phenomena in gas-liquid-solid fluidization.
a) Liquid-solid fluidized bed at U,o.
b) Gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed at U,, and small Ugo.
c) Variation of height of bed expansion with gas velocity in a gas-liquid-solid fluidized bed.
Chemical Engineering Education



1 I

bubble-rise velocity becomes significantly higher than the
interstitial-gas velocity (i.e., Um / amf), the cloud size be-
comes so thin that most of the gas circulates inside the
bubble. When the interstitial-gas velocity is greater than the
bubble-rise velocity, it yields a "cloudless" bubble in which
the emulsion phase gas flows through the bubble phase,
as shown in Figure 3b. This gas through-flow in the
bubble is also known as invisible bubble flow, which is
distinguishable from visible bubble flow. Bubbles in
Group D particle fluidized beds are typically character-
ized by cloudless bubbles.
To describe the complex particle and gas flows around the
bubble in the fluidized beds described above, we introduce
the model of Davidson and Harrison5s because of its funda-
mental importance and relative simplicity. The model em-
ploys the following key assumptions:

1. The bubble is solids-free and spherical, and has a
constant internal pressure.
2. The emulsion phase is a pseudocontinuum, an
incompressible and inviscid single fluid with an
apparent density of pp(l -amf)+pamf.

With these assumptions, the velocity and pressure distribu-
tions of the "fluid" in a uniform potential flow field around a
bubble, as portrayed in Figure 5, can be given ast15

Upf -Ub 1- r3 hos

Vpf Ubl+ 2 sin9 (1)


Ppf =Ppfl a rPpf J
pf ppf 2 cos6 (2)

where the subscripts "pf' and "oo" represent the pseudofluid
and the undisturbed conditions, respectively, Ub, is the rise
velocity of an isolated bubble, and Rb is the bubble radius.
The pressure far away from the rising bubble in a fluidized
bed can be approximated at minimum fluidization. Thus, Eq.
(2) becomes

Ppf Ppf o-(Pp-p)(l mf)g r- cos (3)

Figure 6 shows a good comparison between the measured
dynamic pressure and the calculated results based on Eq. (3).
The profile indicates that there is a local high-pressure re-
gion near the bubble nose and a local low-pressure region
around the bubble base, i.e., the wake region. The low pres-
sure in the wake region promotes pressure-induced bubble
coalescence in the bed.

Figure 4. An NO2 bubble rising in a two-dimensional
ballotini bed showing the cloud region of the bubble (from
Rowe;'41 reproduced with permission).

Figure 5. Potential flow around a spherical bubble in a
two-dimensional projection (from Davidson and
Chemical Engineering Education

Award Lecture.

Chemical Engineering Division, ASEE
1999 Union Carbide Award Lecture



Part 2. Teaching Examples*

The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210

In Part 1 of this lecture, I discussed the general
educational issues concerning particle technology,
with specific emphasis onfluidization and fluid-
particle systems. In this part I will discuss some
pertinent materials pertaining to fluidization and fluid-
particle systems that could readily be integrated into
existing required chemical engineering course
materials. These materials, each introduced to students
for a specific purpose, cover both gas-solid and gas-
liquid-solid fluidization systems. In addition, I will
discuss relevant commercial codes that are available
for students to learn about the computation offluid-
particle systems. Some representative results marking
the state-of-the-art efforts in computational fluid
dynamics offluidization will also be given.

L.-S. Fan is Distinguished University Professor and Chairman of the
Department of Chemical Engineering at The Ohio State University. His
expertise is in fluidization and multiphase flow, powder technology,
and particulates reaction engineering. Professor Fan is the U.S. editor of
Powder Technology and a consulting editor of the AIChE Journal and
the International Journal of Multiphase Flow. He has authored or co-
authored three books, including Principles of Gas-Solid Flows (with
Chao Zhu; Cambridge University Press, 1998).
Professor Fan is the principal inventor (with R. Agnihotri) of a
patented process, "OSCAR," for flue gas cleaning in coal combustion
and is the Project Director for the OSCAR commercial demonstration,
funded at $8.5 million as Ohio Clean Coal Technology, currently taking
place at Ohio McCracken power plant on The Ohio State University
He has served as thesis advisor for two BS, twenty-nine MS, and
forty-two PhD students at Ohio State, and is a Fellow of the American
Association for the Advancement of Science and the AIChE.
* Part 1 of this Award Lecture appeared in the Winter '00 issue of
Chemical Engineering Education (CEE, 34(1), p. 40, 2000).

It is ideal to encompass both the two-phase and three-
phase systems in the teaching of fluidization as these two
systems behave significantly differently. Salient subjects con-
cerning gas-solid fluidization and gas-liquid-solid fluidiza-
tion are given below.

Flow surrounding a bubble, two-phase theory.
and flow segregation introduced so students will be
familiar with the use of proper assumptions for
developing theories that capture the dominant
behavior features.

Gas-solid fluidization phenomena are strongly dependent
on the physical properties of the solid particles employed.
Therefore, it would be appropriate to introduce the classifi-
cation of fluidized particles to the student. Particles are
classified into four groups (i.e., Groups A, B, C, and D)
based on their fluidization behavior. This classification,
known as Geldart's classification,11 is shown in Figure 1,
where particles are classified in terms of the density differ-
ence between the particles and the gas, (pp-p), and the
average particle diameter, dp. Figure 1 was obtained empiri-
cally and has been widely adopted in the fundamental re-
search and design of gas-solid fluidized beds. Group C
comprises small cohesive particles (dp < 20 ptm). Group
A particles, with a typical size range of 30 to 100 |tm, are
readily fluidized. For Group B particle fluidization, there
exists no maximum stable bubble size. Group D com-
prises coarse particles (dp > 1 mm), which are commonly
Chemical Engineering Education

ISpecial Feature Section

will be rewarded in tangible ways, and inadequate teach-
ing will be penalized. We will return to this point in the
last paper in this series.


Few engineering schools explicitly prepare their gradu-
ate students to teach, and new professors consequently
join faculties equipped with a PhD in their discipline but
no background in pedagogy. Also, most colleges and
universities have few criteria to screen prospective can-
didates for their teaching ability; much of the emphasis
in hiring is on perceived potential as a researcher. Candi-
dates often give seminars on their research, and if they
can give a passable performance and can answer a few
questions without complete intellectual collapse, then
their teaching skills are judged "good enough." As time
passes, some of those hired become good teachers by
instinct and others learn their craft by years of trial-and-
error effort, but some never rise above mediocrity or worse.
Teaching is a complex craft, but the skills required to
do it effectively can be taught. In this paper we have
outlined the elements of an effective engineering faculty
development program. To recapitulate, we advocate a
program that includes a subset of teaching improvement
workshops, courses, seminars, mentorships and partner-
ships, learning communities and consultation with cam-
pus teaching experts. Graduate courses in college teach-
ing should be provided for those students who think they
might be interested in academic careers. The faculty
development coordinator should maintain resources for
self-study, including books, journals, multimedia re-
sources and guides to useful Web sites. Such a program
should enable a far greater percentage of new faculty
hires to become highly effective in 1-2 years-i.e., to
become what Robert Boice has termed "quick start-
ers"-instead of the 4-5 years required by most of the
new faculty members Boice studied.
Table 4 invites reflections on the options for teaching
improvement presented in this paper.


We have described many options for new instructors
to learn the craft of teaching, including courses, work-
shops and seminars on teaching, professional society con-
ferences, mentorships, and working with teaching consult-
ants. Faculty members should take advantage of as many
of these opportunities as possible rather than relying on
trial-and-error for mastering the craft of teaching.

We thank Chris Knapper, Queen's University,

Reflection and Self-Rating

Rate the ideas
Already Would Might Not my
do work work style

Draw on others
Take a course on effective teaching
Attend workshops on teaching
Ask for a mentor
Partner with a colleague to improve teaching
Work with a teaching consultant
Be videotaped in class

Self study
Read books about effective teaching
Read articles in education journals
Watch videotapes about effective teaching
Browse education-related Web sites

Keep up to date
Join the American Society for Engineering Education
Read at least one education journal each month
Subscribe to an education-related listserver
Attend an education conference

Pass on your knowledge
Give a workshop or seminar on effective teaching
Serve as a mentor to a new instructor or graduate student
Give a conference presentation and/or write a paper about
a teaching method you have tried.
Teach a course on effective teaching

0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

Kingston; Alan Blizzard and Dale Roy, McMaster University;
Susan Ambrose, Carnegie Mellon University; Rich Noble, Univer-
sity of Colorado; and Phil Wankat, Purdue University, for their
comments and suggestions.

1. Bert, R., "What Do Assistant Professors Want?" ASEE Prism, pp.
24-27, May-June (1999)
2. Rugarcia, A., R.M. Felder, D.R. Woods, and J.E. Stice, "The Future
of Engineering Education. I. A Vision for a New Century," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 34(1), 16 (2000)
3. Felder, R.M., D.R. Woods, J.E. Stice, and A. Rugarcia, "The Future
of Engineering Education. II. Teaching Methods that Work," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 34(1), 26 (2000)
4. Woods, D.R., R.M. Felder, A. Rugarcia, and J.E. Stice, "The Future
of Engineering Education. III. Developing Critical Skills," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 34(2), 108 (2000)
5. Hereford, S.M., and J.E. Stice, "A Course in College Teaching in
Engineering and Science," Annual Conference of ASEE, Iowa State
University, Ames. June 25-28 (1973)
6. Wankat, P.C., and F.S. Oreovicz, "Teaching Prospective Faculty
Members About Teaching: A Graduate Engineering Course," Eng.
Ed., p. 85, Nov. (1984)
7. Information about the Engineering Education Scholars Workshops
is available on-line at
8. Davidson, C.I., and S.A. Ambrose, The New Professor's Handbook: A

Chemical Engineering Education

(special Feature Section

faculty members serving as mentors to their junior colleague
Assessment of learning is becoming an increasingly i
portant topic in engineering education as the day approach
when the outcomes-based Engineering Criteria 2000 1
comes the accreditation standard for all U.S. engineer
departments.1461 Besides the usual midterm and final exat
nations, classroom assessment techniques (CATs) can
used to monitor what students are learning and what c<
fuses them. Angelo and Cross'471 describe a variety of CA
that can be used to assess learning and student attitude
and Boud1481 offers ideas for help-
ing students to self-assess their
own learning.
Journals and Newsletters U
ASEE Prism is the news journal
and The Journal of Engineering Site
Education (JEE) the research jour- World Lecture Hall
nal of the American Society for Engineering Education. Prism con- NEEDS-National Eng
tains Washington updates, feature System articles on current issues and re- Resources in Engineerii
Felder's Web site) cent developments in engineering Felder's Web site<
education, and a column on teach-
Deliberations on Teachi
ing methods written by Wankat and Education (London Guil
Oreovicz, the authors of Teaching Engineering.1311 JEE contains ar- Collaborative Learning
tides on instructional methods and (National Institute of Sci
programs as well as reviews of re- cent books of interest to engineer- Field-Tested Learning
ing professors. Both journals come (National Institute of Sci
with membership in the ASEE.
Computer-Based Teach
Other journals containing useful (University of Newcastle
articles for college teachers include The Journal of College Science Taking Your Course O0
Teaching, College Teaching, (North Carolina State Un
Change, Journal on Excellence in
College Teaching, the AAHE Bul- Problem-Based Learnii
Solving Program (McM
letin (published by the American Association for Higher Education), For Your Consideratio
and Studies in Higher Education. <,,,,,,,,,,. ..,,, ..,,
Several education journals such as
Chemical Engineering Education Mount Allison Universi
and, in Spanish, Educaci6n Quimica and Revista del IMIQ, fo-
cus on issues related to specific Links to a Better Educa
branches of engineering. Newsletters that offer teaching
tips and summaries of recent books University of Guelph
include The Teaching Professor,1491 The National Teaching and Learn-
ing Forum,5so0 and Cooperative University of Technolog
[5]i Learning and College Teaching. 124

Electronic and Videotape Resources U A substantial
and rapidly growing collection of resources for instructors
can be found on the World Wide Web. Table 2 lists sites
particularly relevant to engineering education. The sites
contain class materials (including multimedia resources),
teaching and assessment guides, handouts for students,
and links to still more sites.

A growing number of listservers provide rich opportuni-
ties for interaction with colleagues seeking to improve their
teaching. Table 3 lists several of them.

Useful Web Sites for Engineering Educators

ineering Education Delivery
ng and Science Education (Richard

ing and Learning in Higher
dhall University)
tions/ >
ence Education)
e/CL1/CL/clhome.asp >
Assessment Guide
ence Education)
ing and Learning Links
ig and the McMaster Problem-
aster University)
n (University of North Carolina)
i,j. il,,It >

ty Teaching and Learning Page

alsa/linkstoa.htm >

c.html >

gy, Sydney (Australia)

Lecture notes and multimedia resources for
courses in many fields, including engineering.
Multimedia resources for a vast collection of
Articles, "Random Thoughts" columns from
Chemical Engineering Education, student
handouts, software tutorials.
Material on collaborative learning, assessment
of learning and teaching, and engineering
Practical suggestions, anecdotes, research
citations, and an extensive annotated biblio-
graphy on cooperative learning.
Techniques, resources, and references
on assessment of learning in science, mathematics,
engineering, and technology.
Large collection of links to sites that deal with
applied and theoretical aspects of instructional
Suggestions and resources for course delivery via
the World Wide Web and other electronic media.

Techniques and instructional resources for
both programs.

Short monographs on topics such as active
learning, writing to learn, teaching large lecture
classes, and assessment of teaching and learning.
Listings of education-related conferences and
links to other sites sorted by topic (collaborative
learning, learning styles, technology, etc.).
Handouts for students on learning and problem-
solving skills, taking tests, critical thinking,
technical writing, time management, teamwork,
learning styles, creativity, and many other topics.
Suggestions, on-line assessment tools, and links
to sites that deal with learning styles, teaching
portfolios, copyright laws, and course design
Survival guide for new teachers, evaluating
teaching and courses, teaching portfolios.

Chemical Engineering Education

(Special Feature Section

ing like a baby again. I am very much in your debt."
It is worth noting that the new faculty members who
attended the Summer Seminar from 1980 through 1984 re-
ceived an extra week's salary. This stipend was a powerful
incentive to participate. Many said something like, "I came
for the money-and I'm glad I did!" In 1985 the prices of oil
and beef went down the drain, and the economy of the State
of Texas suffered to an extent that the Uni-
versity was no longer able to provide the
extra salary money. Attendance at later Sum- Wi
mer Seminars suffered, but by this time the exceptfc
administrators had heard a lot of positive teacher
things from those of their faculty who had teacher
attended, and so the Seminar's good reputa- A few of
tion was established. It is still held each sum- to have
mer, and department chairs and deans still ability t
recommend that their new people attend, stude
Several years after the inception of the Sum- facilitate
mer Seminar, members of the regular faculty and high
began to ask if they could attend it. This was develop
not felt to be a good idea, so instead a second [but] m
program called the Seminar for Experienced acqu
Faculty was initiated at a more sophisticated and in t
level.1'6 It was held in January during the of ny p
week before registration for the spring se- training,
mester, and also lasted three days. The first the w
year the number of participants was modest, teach
but those attending were very enthusiastic. In also nev
the third year, 170 experienced faculty mem- any t
bers attended. taugJ
At North Carolina State University, three- Th
day faculty workshops have been offered an- qu
nually in the College of Engineering since t
1986 by Richard Felder and faculty col- Pof
leagues. The workshop content is similar to
that described previously for the National Ef-
fective Teaching Institute. Felder, et al.,'171 describe the
workshop and offer tips for getting engineering faculty to
attend such workshops and making them effective. The sug-
gestions include having both engineering expertise and peda-
gogical expertise on the presenting staff (sometimes the
same individuals can fill both roles but this situation is rare),
emphasizing practical applications and putting learning theory
and research in a supporting role, and drawing examples
primarily from engineering courses.
At the Universidad Iberoamericana in Puebla, Mexico, an
eight-hour teaching workshop is presented to all beginning
professors, the School of Engineering offers workshops on
teaching development in a yearly summer program, and the
Department of Teaching Development offers courses and
workshops for Mexican and Latin American institutions. A
series of seven seminars on academic careers given to chemi-

5s CO
s to
o m?
'e le
he a
ay t
er r
t th
is is

cal engineering students at Carnegie Mellon University is
described by Ko.i8'

In most skilled professions, novices are mentored by expe-
rienced practitioners who provide guidance and constructive
feedback on the novices' initial efforts. This process can cut
years off the learning curve normally required
for unmentored novices to reach an accept-
ire able level of effectiveness at a skilled profes-
no one sion. Doctors, psychologists, lawyers, pre-col-
ollege lege teachers, and practitioners of every type
teach! of craft are routinely inducted into their pro-
m seem fessions with the aid of such guidance. As
innate noted previously, the only skilled profession
motivate that does not routinely provide mentoring is
and college teaching.
warning Felder"91 describes a mentoring program in
'el skill the Chemical Engineering Department at North
nlt... Carolina State University where each new fac-
never ulty member is assigned a research mentor
it,... and a teaching mentor. The teaching men-
'bsence tor-who should be an excellent teacher with
gogical a desire to serve in that capacity-and the
y teach new professor co-teach a course in the latter's
heir first semester. The mentor initially takes most
(who of the responsibility for planning lectures, class
received activities, assignments, tests, and conducting
ling) classes; the mentee observes and takes notes;
iem. and the two discuss the class at a weekly
a debriefing meeting. As the semester
ie way progresses, the mentee gradually takes more
a responsibility for the instruction and the men-
. tor becomes more of an observer, refraining
from intervening in class if the mentee gets
into difficulty and troubleshooting the prob-
lem at the next debriefing. Next semester, the mentee teaches
a course and the mentor functions only as an occasional
observer in class and consultant at periodic (but not neces-
sarily weekly) debriefings. The mentor also makes an effort
to introduce the mentee to faculty colleagues with related
interests, both locally and at professional conferences. After
the first year, the formal mentorship terminates and the mentee
joins the normal teaching rotation.
A similar mentoring approach called peer counseling was
pioneered by Roger Beck of the University of Alberta and
has spread to campuses throughout Canada. Still another
approach to teaching improvement involves partnerships in
which two faculty colleagues visit each other's classrooms
and offer feedback and suggestions.[20,211
Some institutions have programs wherein faculty mem-
bers provide mentoring in teaching to graduate students con-
Chemical Engineering Education

Special Feature Section

sity of Texas at Austin on improving teaching skills.'1 The
following topics are covered in a typical one-semester offer-
1. Introduction and overview (1 period)
2. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory (2 periods)
3. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (2 periods)
4. Instructional design (1 period)
5. Writing instructional objectives (2 periods)
6. Production of overhead transparencies (1 period)
7. Microteaching: short videotaped presentations by class
members (4 to 5 periods for a class of about 15)
8. Testing and grading (3 periods)
9. Student characteristics (1 period)
10. Teaching by lecture (1 period)
11. Teaching by discussion (1 period)
12. Learning theory (2 periods)
13. Microteaching H (4 to 5 periods)
14. Theories of Jean Piaget (1 period)
15. Individualized instruction (2 periods)
16. Teaching problem solving: analytical thinking (3 periods)
17. Teaching problem solving: creativity (1 period)
18. Where the teaching jobs are (1 period)
19. Summary of the course; evaluation (1 period)
Stice suggests that anyone who has the interest and several
years of teaching experience can teach such a course. Those
who feel apprehensive about the first few offerings can team
up with someone from the College of Education-which is
what Stice did-or the Instructional Development Center.
Teaching the course will provide a real learning experience
for the instructors (as teaching courses always does). After a
few semesters the engineering professor should be able to go
it on his/her own, although if the course is going well there is
a lot to be said for continuing to present as a team. The prime
recommendation is to keep the class small-say, below 15-
primarily because the microteaching exercises (topics 7 and
13) take too long when the class size increases.
Since the early 1980s, Phil Wankat and Frank Oreovicz
have offered a 2- to 3-credit course on college teaching in
the School of Engineering at Purdue University.161 Their
general outline follows:
Part L Methods and procedures
1. What works
2. Efficiency and effectiveness
3. Taxonomy and objectives
4. ABET and accreditation
5. Problem solving and creativity
6. Obtaining an academic position
7. Teaching methods: lecture, cooperative groups,
discussion, teaching with technology, mastery and
Personalized System of Instruction (PSI), laboratories,
8. Graduate mentoring

9. Testing and grading, cheating and discipline
10. Evaluation of teaching
Part II. The student
1. Piaget, Jung, and Perry
2. How people learn
3. Motivation
Part III. Redesign of engineering education
1. Web page project
2. Case study: ideal graduate program
3. Project: ideal undergraduate program

At McMaster University, North Carolina State Univer-
sity, and other campuses, the campus Instructional Devel-
opment Center offers courses to graduate students thinking
about going into teaching and to interested faculty. Attendance
by engineering graduate students is generally low unless some-
one in the school of engineering vigorously champions the
courses and encourages graduate students to attend them.

Workshops and seminars lasting anywhere from an hour
to a week are far more common than academic courses as
vehicles for teaching about teaching. These programs may
be external to any campus (e.g., professional society confer-
ence workshops), campus-wide, engineering-specific, or de-
The National Science Foundation sponsors the Engineer-
ing Education Scholars Programs (EESP),17' week-long sum-
mer workshops at Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford
University, and the University of Wisconsin that examine all
facets of academic careers. The EESPs are for engineering
graduate students and relatively new faculty members, with
30-40 applicants accepted for each offering. Nationally known
engineering educators give presentations, and the program at
Carnegie Mellon University uses the excellent book by
Davidson and Ambrose181 as a required text. Table 1 summa-
rizes the topical outlines of recent offerings. In the summer
of 1999, the University of Wisconsin presented the Science
and Engineering Education Scholars Program to new fac-
ulty members and graduate students in science.
The National Effective Teaching Institute [NETI] is a three-
day workshop given to faculty members in engineering and
engineering technology under the auspices of the American
Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), with some fund-
ing from industry.19"" Beginning in 1991, the NETI has been
given every year immediately preceding the annual ASEE
Meeting in June. The topics include learning styles and
teaching styles, planning a course (including writing instruc-
tional objectives) and getting it off to a good start, effective
lecturing, active and cooperative learning, testing and grad-
ing, helping students develop problem-solving and critical
and creative thinking skills, dealing with student problems
Chemical Engineering Education

Special Feature Section
,, ,.,,,,,....- ... f , ,_ , . .^. ._ _ _

Higher levels (6-9) involve the development of commit-
ment to an internally-based system of values. Most entering
college students can be found on Levels 2 or 3, and relatively
few attain Level 5 by the time they graduate.
Students being asked to function at a level higher than
their current level are likely to be under a great deal of stress,
especially if the two levels are not adjacent. Their reactions
to this stress account for much of the resistance and occa-
sional hostility instructors often encounter when they begin
to use student-centered teaching methods like cooperative
and problem-based learning.[66'811 If students learn strategies
for managing the stress associated with the transition to
student-centered instruction, they may be better able to deal
with the stressful professional and personal situations they
will inevitably encounter later in their lives.
Strong justification for helping students learn to cope with
change is the all-too-common situation wherein a well-in-
tentioned faculty member hears about problem-based or co-
operative learning and simply launches students into it, with
little or no explanation or preparation. The outcomes of such
experiments often include student anger and frustration, pe-
titions to the department head, and terrible student ratings.
One can hardly blame instructors in this situation for going
back to more conventional teaching, to the ultimate detri-
ment of their students. When students are helped to prepare
for change, it may not eliminate their unhappiness about it
but they are likely to tolerate it long enough to begin to see
the benefits.
The first six of the eight basic activities described previ-
ously apply to the development of change-management skills.
In addition,
In class or in your office, tell students about the stages of
reaction to stressful change. People who find themselves in
highly stressful situations may go through some or all of the
stages that have been associated with the grieving process:
shock, denial, strong emotions, resistance and withdrawal,
acceptance, struggle, better understanding, and integra-
tion.[66'81' Students undergoing this process may find it help-
ful to know how the process works, and more to the point,
that it eventually ends. You might also take a few minutes to
elaborate on how the students can use the same stage model
to help them manage other stressful situations such as death
of a friend or relation or the loss of a job. Doing so is another
way to demonstrate concern about their careers and lives
beyond the confines of the classroom, which is one of the
hallmarks of effective teaching.'31
When using student-centered instruction, acknowledge
to the students that it may be stressful to some of them but
make it clear that you are doing it for good reasons. If
possible, get them to come up with benefits themselves. For
Spring 2000

In this course we will be using extensive cooperative
learning, following the rules and procedures in the syllabus
that we just outlined. Hundreds of research studies have
shown that this approach leads to some real benefits for
students. Form groups of three and make a list of what those
benefits might be. Then I'll tell you what the research shows
and we'll see how many of them you get. "
*Run a workshop on the management of change.14'7]

Transmitting knowledge is the easiest part of teaching;
far more challenging is the task of equipping students with
the critical skills they will need to succeed as professionals
and responsible members of society. The following strate-
gies have been recommended to help achieve this goal:
1. Identify the skills you wish your students to develop and
communicate their importance to the students.
2. Use research, not personal intuition, to identify the
target skills. Share some of the research with the
3. Make explicit the implicit behavior associated with
successful application of the skills.
4. Provide extensive practice in the application of the
skills, using carefully structured activities. Provide
prompt constructive feedback on the students' efforts.
5. Encourage monitoring.
6. Encourage reflection.
7. Grade the process, not just the product.
8. Use a standard assessment andfeedbackform.
Additional suggestions have also been given that apply
specifically to the development of problem-solving, writing,
teamwork, self-assessment, lifelong learning, and change-
management skills.

Focusing lectures, assignments, and tests entirely on tech-
nical course content and expecting students to develop criti-
cal process skills automatically is an ineffective strategy.
Instructors who wish to help students develop problem-solv-
ing, communication, teamwork, self-assessment, and other
process skills should explicitly identify their target skills and
adopt proven instructional strategies that promote those skills.
We suggest that you reflect on the strategies listed in Table 2
and rate their potential applicability to your teaching.

We are grateful to Heather Sheardown (McMaster Univer-
sity), Antonio Rocha (Instituto Technol6gico de Celaya),
Robert Hudgins (University of Waterloo), Inder Nirdosh
(Lakehead University), John O'Connell (University of Vir-

TABLE 2: Reflection on and Self-Rating of Skill Development Strategies

Already Should Might Not My
Do this Work Work Style
Problem solving skill
Value the skill: make it an explicit outcome of your course 0 0 O 0
Hand out research evidence for the skill 0 0 0 0
Make implicit behavior explicit: list goals and criteria 0 0 0 0
Use student reflection and monitoring 0 0 0 0
Grade (mark) the problem-solving process 0 0 O 0
Use standard assessment and feedback forms 0 0 O 0
Solve some problems in depth 0 0 O O
Use a common strategy for problem solving 0 0 0 0
Other 0 0 0 0
Communication skill
Value the skill: make it an explicit outcome of your course 0 0 0 0
Hand out research evidence for the skill 0 0 0 0
Make implicit behavior explicit: list goals and criteria 0 0 0 0
Use student reflection and monitoring 0 0 0 0
Grade the communication process 0 0 0 0
Use standard assessment and feedback forms 0 0 0 0
Require in-class writing 0 0 0 0
Other_0 0 0 0
Team skill
Value the skill: make it an explicit outcome of your course 0 0 O 0
Hand out research evidence for the skill 0 0 0 0
Make implicit behavior explicit: list goals and criteria 0 0 0 0
Use student reflection and monitoring 0 0 0 0
Grade the teamwork process 0 0 0 0
Use standard assessment and feedback forms 0 0 0 0
Assign a chairperson for every meeting 0 0 0 0
Start with a "norms" meeting 0 0 0 0
Other 0 O 0 0

Self-assessment skill
Value the skill: make it an explicit outcome of your course 0 0 0 0
Hand out research evidence for the skill 0 0 0 0
Make implicit behavior explicit: list goals and criteria 0 0 0 0
Use student reflection and monitoring 0 0 O 0
Grade the self-assessment process 0 0 0 0
Use standard assessment and feedback forms 0 0 0 0
Require resume writing 0 0 0 0
Other 0 0 0 0
Lifelong learning skill
Value the skill: make it an explicit outcome of your course 0 0 0 0
Hand out research evidence for the skill 0 0 0 0
Make implicit behavior explicit: list goals and criteria 0 0 0 0
Use student reflection and monitoring 0 0 0 0
Grade the process 0 0 0 0
Use standard assessment and feedback forms 0 0 0 0
Use structured cooperative learning groups 0 0 0 0
Use guided decision-making 0 0 0 0
Use small group, self-directed, self-assessed PBL 0 0 0 0
Other 0 0 0 0
Change management skill
Value the skill: make it an explicit outcome of your course 0 0 0 0
Hand out research evidence for the skill 0 0 0 0
Make implicit behavior explicit: list goals and criteria 0 0 0 0
Use student reflection and monitoring 0 0 0 0
Use the grieving-process model 0 0 0 0
Use the Perry inventory to guide students 0 0 0 0
List new opportunities afforded by the change 0 0 0 0
Run a change management workshop 0 0 0 0
Other_0 0 0 0

14 Chemical Engineering Education




Overcoming Conceptual and Computational Barriers

Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803

Introducing partial differential equations (PDEs) in the
undergraduate engineering curriculum can be frustrat-
ing for both students and instructors. Many students
gain a dislike of differential equations before the core engi-
neering curriculum even begins. As engineering instructors,
we then face a number of challenging problems. We must
help the students overcome conceptual barriers associated
with the math and help them envision the physical phenom-
ena being described. Additionally, we must devise models
for which we can obtain solutions in limited timeframes
(i.e., class time or homework time). This latter constraint is
imposed by computational barriers, which often restrict us
to overly simplistic problems that have limited engineering
relevance. Although these computational issues have been a
stumbling block in the past, modern numerical packages
prove to be very accessible, even to the undergraduate
student, and have been shown to improve learning in a
number of ways.le g l]
This paper describes an instructional framework that was
used for incorporating computational tools into a relatively
short section on PDEs during an undergraduate modeling
course. The rationale is that by allowing the students to
jump headlong into the solution of real engineering prob-
lems, the emphasis in the classroom can change. Attention
can be diverted away from arduous mathematical details
(for the moment) and focused on broader conceptual issues
such as the general behavior of classes of equations, or using
a model for design considerations. This approach has a
number of advantages. The students' concurrent, hands-on
solution of problems is a powerful method for illustrating
fundamentals (that otherwise seem abstract). More time can
be committed to model development and general behavior
(which remain with students longer than the details of solu-
tion techniques). And, the ability to solve real engineering
problems illustrates to the students the true power of
mathematical modeling.

A number of computational packages are available and
appropriate for undergraduate education. Mathcad, Maple,
Mathematica, MATLAB, and Polymath are all common in
chemical engineering education.1-41 Fluent is especially ef-
fective for CFD applications.15' We focus on MATLAB in
this paper, largely because of its unique PDE Toolbox. At
LSU, MATLAB is provided to the students via the
department's PC network. (An academic unit can provide
MATLAB on a number of PCs without a large investment
by purchasing a classroom kit.) Additionally, Mathworks
has recently released a student version of MATLAB (which
is the professional version plus popular toolkits) that helps
students who wish to work at home.
In the remainder of this paper we will discuss the context
for this approach and one possible strategy for breaking
down conceptual barriers in the classroom. At the end, three
example problems will be solved using MATLAB, illustrat-
ing the type of modeling exercises that can be assigned to
complement conceptual discussions in the classroom.

The ideas and examples described here were developed as
part of a senior-level math-modeling course at LSU, which
is described below. When beginning the PDE section of the
course, it was helpful to consider the contexts in which our

Karsten E. Thompson is an assistant profes-
sor of chemical engineering at Louisiana State
University, where he has been since 1996. He
received his BS degree from the University of
Colorado and his PhD from the University of
Michigan. He teaches courses in numerical
methods, math modeling, and transport phe-
nomena. His research interests include flow in
porous media, numerical methods, and fluid

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2000
Chemical Engineering Education

One of an instructor's goals is to find the level of understanding at which
students are balanced between perplexity and confidence; at that point of
creative tension, teaching is most effective and learning most rapid.

however, the inverse procedure is counterproductive and
should be avoided. That is, we accomplish little when we
introduce abstract generalizations (such as the generalized
energy balance) and models (such as Raoult's law) before
somatic, mythic, and romantic contexts have been estab-
lished for those generalizations and models.
At this point, kind Reader, you might indulge in the fol-
lowing reflective exercise. Pick a course you have taught
recently; can you identify the cognitive level at which you
did most of the teaching? For example, if most of the instruc-
tion took the form of anecdotes based on your industrial
experience, then you were functioning at the mythic level
with appeals to the somatic. If the instruction depended
heavily on students reading the text, technical reports, re-
search journals, and on their making and interpreting plots,
schematic diagrams, and flowsheets, then you were working
at the romantic level. If the instruction emphasized deriva-
tions, problem solving, and calculations, then you were at
the philosophic level. If the instruction involved liberal doses
of all of these, plus efforts to sensitize students to the uses
and limitations of models, then you were teaching at the
ironic level.
Any of these approaches may be right or wrong, effective
or not, depending on the situation-that is, depending on
what your students needed at the time. So now ask yourself,
why did you choose to instruct at the level you did? Was the
choice made implicitly for your own convenience and com-
fort, or was it made explicitly to address the needs of the
students? What was the outcome of your work? If the stu-
dents were generally frustrated, then your teaching level
failed to match their needs. If the students were generally
happy, comfortable, and secure, then your efforts probably
were limited to reinforcing their current levels of under-
standing. If the students were apprehensive but stimulated,
then they were probably growing toward higher levels. (If
only the reality were as simple and clear-cut as these ideal-
ized comments imply.)

As an individual grows through levels of understanding,
lower-level understandings are not lost or displaced; rather,
they are reorganized and subsumed into high levels. Never-
theless, there is a loss associated with each transition;'61 for
example, the admonition to "be objective" means to strip
away mythic and romantic associations, such as emotion and
anecdotal evidence, and reason logically.15 But if the basic
somatic and mythic understandings are not lost, what is?
Part of the process of solidifying understandings at one level

includes the creating of mental scaffolding that will support
the transition to the next level.3' Once the transition is com-
plete, the scaffolding collapses. But some people become
attached to the scaffolding and experience a sense of loss
when it collapses. Such is the nature of mental growth.
How much understanding does an individual need at one
level before he can move to the next? The answer must be
that it depends on the individual and the extent of his earlier
experience with understandings at that level. For example,
we conjecture that an individual who has developed somatic
understandings of some concepts will find it easier to de-
velop somatic understandings of other concepts. The situa-
tion must be much like the learning of a foreign language (or
a computer language), which is made easier if the indi-
vidual has already learned another. In higher education,
we appeal to somatic, mythic, and romantic modes of
thinking to solidify the foundations for philosophic and
ironic understandings. Successful generalization (con-
crete to abstract) and extension (abstract to concrete)
depend on facility with manipulating objects and con-
cepts at somatic and mythic levels.
To illustrate let us consider the value of somatic thinking.
Marvin Minskyi'11 asks why we insist on thingifying abstrac-
tions. It can only be because thingifications help our think-
ing. Thus, we think about energy as a thing, even though
most forms of energy are abstract mathematical functions
and are not objects at all. We do this so we can draw fruitful
analogies between energy and mass: mass can flow into and
out of systems, so can the energy-thing; mass is conserved,
so is the energy-thing; mass is a resource whose use incurs
cost, so is the energy-thing. The power of such analogies is
so well accepted that we take it for granted. But our familiar-
ity with such analogies must not blind us to the significance
of the achievement nor to the difficulty students have in
accepting such analogies and using them.
In recent years, engineering educators have renewed em-
phasis on the development of oral (mythic) and written (ro-
mantic) communication skills. But, according to the cogni-
tive hierarchy, these skills are valuable not merely for com-
munication; rather, they are important because they support
subsequent development of understandings at the philosophic
level. Further, the hierarchy asserts that oral skills develop
before written skills; this reverses the order employed at
many institutions, where oral skills are addressed late in
curricula and after written skills have been exercised.
Students come to us at many different levels of under-
standing, and our obligation is to help them grow to higher
Chemical Engineering Education

(b) Conceptualization We now lead the students to
identify the concept associated with the concrete example.
We ask, what is it we, as engineers, are likely to want to
know about the compression? Presumably, the amount of
effort required. That effort is conceptualized by a particular
form of energy-the work; here it is adiabatic work, because
the apparatus is insulated. Note that because of the ground-
work laid by the earlier somatic, mythic, and romantic exer-
cises, the students should be able to participate actively in
this discussion. Inversely, if those lower-level understand-
ings have been ignored and instruction starts here at the
philosophic level, then many students will be immediately
overwhelmed. Once students have recognized work as the
appropriate concept, we then have them calculate values for
the adiabatic work under various sets of parameters applied
to the piston-cylinder device.
(c) Transference At this stage we want students to
apply the concept of adiabatic work to situations other than
the piston-cylinder apparatus. For example, we could pose
problems involving adiabatic compressors, adiabatic turbines,
and adiabatic pumps. The objective is for students to recognize
that all such problems belong to the same conceptual class.
(d) Generalization Now we come to the difficult stage
at which we generalize away from the special case of adia-
batic work processes. Thus, we first relax the adiabatic con-
straint and consider workfree heat transfer situations; then
we introduce processes involving both work and heat trans-
fer. We emphasize the extent to which these situations are
conceptually the same as, but practically different than, the
adiabatic work processes considered earlier. Then we con-
sider steady-flow processes, with the introduction of flow
work and the possibilities of changes in kinetic and potential
energy. Finally, we end with a completely abstract conse-
quence: the general energy balance, which applies to any
process. This establishes the important connection among
the various forms of energy; that is, this step relates the
principal features of the energy landscape as identified at
the romantic level.
Our second goal is to help students learn how to use the
general energy balance; our strategy is now top-down, as on
the right in Figure 1. Thus, we want students to appreciate
that any situation they encounter is a special case, but we
attack that special case by starting with the completely gen-
eral energy balance and identifying the assumptions that are
appropriate to the situation at hand. Thus, we would exercise
the general energy balance applied to such situations as
adiabatic processes on closed systems, to workfree processes
on closed systems, and to steady-state processes on open
systems. The latter would include illustrations of the special
forms known as the mechanical energy balance and
Bernoulli's equation. The concrete applications would in-
clude heat duties for heat exchangers, sizing of pumps, tur-
bines, and compressors, analyses for thermal efficiencies,

etc. These kinds of activities are addressed in modern text-
books and many current learning strategies, so they need
little attention here.

To develop ironic understanding of energy, we would
revisit the assumptions and limitations that pertain to the
equations used at the philosophic level. For example, most
calculations of mechanical work can be done only for ideal-
ized processes in which the driving forces are differential.
For real processes, in which the driving forces are finite, we
need an efficiency, obtained either from measurement or by
estimation. To calculate changes in internal energy and en-
thalpy, we often need an equation of state that models the
PVT behavior of the working fluids. Many texts restrict such
calculations to the ideal-gas model, but students must be
introduced to more realistic models, and they must be in-
structed in the engineering task of selecting a model that is
appropriate to their problem. Thus we must confront issues
associated with model processes and model substances. For
example, we may be able to perform an exact analytic calcu-
lation of the required heat duty for a heat exchanger design,
under the presumptions of particular model processes and
model substances. However, such exact calculations are still
approximate to the degree that the assumed models fail to
represent the real situation. Students often have difficulty in
reconciling how an approximate answer can be obtained
from an exact calculation.

For purposes of clarity, the suggestions in the foregoing
sections were presented in a linear progression that builds
from somatic to ironic. In practice, however, instructors of
college students need not-indeed, should not-proceed in
such a linear fashion. Of course, somatic activities should
generally be performed well before philosophic activities,
but this does not mean we should avoid somatic and mythic
digressions in an otherwise largely philosophic lecture. For
example, continuing with energy as the focal point, the list-
ing of types of energy (romantic) could be done as soon as
students acknowledge that energy comes in many forms
(response to the mythic binary). Calculation of the velocity
of the falling crescent wrench (philosophic) could be embel-
lished with the observation that the answer is independent of
mass, so the velocity would be the same for a manhole cover
or a pocket watch; this harks back to the tale of Galileo and
the Leaning Tower of Pisa (a romantic reference). The dis-
cussion could be further extended by noting that the terminal
velocity is independent of mass only when the air resistance
is negligible; thus, we have done a model calculation that
yields an approximate answer (ironic).
It is appropriate and beneficial to include somatic, mythic,
and romantic allusions in a largely philosophic presentation;

Spring 2000

electric circuit from the generator to a light bulb.71 Students
would then be asked to keep the bulb burning by cranking
the pedals by hand. If we add a voltmeter and ammeter to the
circuit, students could determine the amount of power they
generate. Such exercises need be only semi-quantitative, for
the intent is to help students connect physical
effort to measurable changes in temperature,
volume, and current flow.

At the most basic somatic level, students
confront physical situations and devices; at a
higher level, we try to appeal to their somatic
experiences without further direct contact.
Such attempts might take the form of simple
questions requiring modest computations. For
example, if the cost of electricity is $0.1 per
kilowatt-hour, how much does it cost to burn
a 100-watt light bulb for one hour? The en-
ergy density of a typical gasoline is about 45
MJ/kg; if your car gets 25 mpg, estimate the
amount of energy (kJ) your car uses per mile.
The energy density of ethanol is 30 MJ/kg;
estimate the amount of energy (kJ) in a 750-
ml bottle of white wine that is 12% alcohol
by volume.181 The key here is to contrive ques-
tions that make contact with situations that
are familiar to students, else the somatic ad-
vantage is lost.

An important binary alternative that is fun-
damental to any study of energy is this: Does
energy come in only one form, or are there
many forms? If there are many, can we con-
vert among them? Can the students cite ex-

amples of conversions in both directions between two forms?
For example, electric motors convert electrical energy to
mechanical, while electric generators convert mechanical
energy to electrical. Similarly, solar cells convert radiant
energy to electrical, while light bulbs convert electrical
energy to radiant.
Are some conversions between energy forms easier than
others? Do some conversions occur naturally? Are some
conversions undesirable so that we seek to prevent or
restrict them? Are some forms primarily for energy stor-
age? These can lead to such questions as: What common
devices are used to store energy? What is the defining
characteristic of a machine? Is there a distinction be-
tween a motor and an engine?
One way to exercise the oral and narrative components of
mythic understanding is to discuss with students old miscon-
ceptions about energy and forms of energy. Examples in-
clude the ancient idea that fire is an element, or, in an
updated version, that heat is a thing ("caloric") that is con-
Spring 2000

... the spei
models ar
is, progress
master ski
at lower i
students c
develop f
with philo
they h
level cog

served. Other common misconceptions surround the distinc-
tions between quantity of heat and the intensity of heat; thus,
it is a difference in intensity (temperature), not quantity, that
drives heat transfer. More subtle confusions are attached to
the possibilities of changing temperature without heat trans-
fer and transferring heat without a tempera-
ture difference.
As another exercise of the oral compo-
Snent, each student could be asked to give a
al three-minute presentation on the origin, ety-
hical mology, and historical significance of one
e both piece of energy-related jargon. Appropriate
e; that words could include energy itself, horse-
ion to a power, Btu, watt, Joule, kinetic, potential,
'evel efficiency, and friction.
lls and To identify the principal features on the
nize energy landscape, we can have students list
gained various forms of energy: kinetic, potential,
levels. chemical, nuclear, radiant, electrical, mag-
ently, netic, heat, work, etc. Can these be distrib-
annot uted among certain categories? Students
facility should also list kinds of molecular energies:
sophic kinetic, potential from intermolecular forces,
until electronic, and nuclear.
ave To exercise the narrative component of
lower- romantic understanding, students could be
asked to contrive a chain of conversions; for
example, living plants convert radiant en-
ergy to chemical, people eat plants to con-
vert chemical energy to other forms of
chemical energy, human muscles convert
the stored chemical energy to mechanic energy, the
muscles might crank a hand generator that converts me-
chanical energy to electrical, and the generator might be
wired to a light, which converts electrical energy back to
To identify extremes, we would offer students numerical
examples of situations involving large amounts of energy:
the potential energy behind the Hoover Dam, the energy
required to launch a Saturn V rocket, the energy consumed
by all automobiles in the U.S. in one year. At the other
extreme, we might cite the energy required by one light-
emitting diode (LED), the amount to depress one key on a
keyboard, or the amount used by a hummingbird during five
minutes of flight.181
To appeal to human interests and motivations, we could
start by working out an estimate of the energy-hence, man-
years of effort-required to construct one of the Great Pyra-
mids of Egypt.191 Then we could note that the desire to
replace man-power with machine-power motivated the in

surface. As seen in the figure, particles are drawn from the
upper surface of the suspension into the freeboard of the bed
through the wake behind the bubble; and particle-containing
vortices are shed from the wake in the freeboard, consistent
with the experimental observation shown in Figure 11. Fig-
ure 18 shows the rising of four bubbles in a liquid-solid
fluidized bed with a solids holdup Es of 0.17 and a pressure
of 17.3 MPa. The corresponding velocity vector fields of
fluids are shown in Figure 19. As can be seen from the
figure, the four bubbles are not rising at the same velocity
even though their initial conditions are the same. Clearly,
complex interactions among gas bubbles, liquid, and solid
particles result in nonuniformity of the flow field shown in
Figure 19, yielding uneven rise characteristics of the bubbles.

I would like to conclude my lecture with the following
Multiphasefluidization is a subject of importance to
chemical engineering education as it encompasses the
fundamental physics that govern multiphase fluid and
particle mechanics and their interactions. Furthermore,
interest in the subject is heightened because of its
significant industrial applications.
For gas-solid fluidization, topics of most relevance
include, for low-velocity fluidization, particle and
bubble dynamics, bed stability, bubble-phase and
emulsion-phase interaction, and two-phase theory. For
high-velocity gas-solid fluidization, the core topics are
particle segregation and clustering. For gas-liquid-solid
fluidization, the bubble-wake dynamics is key to the
fundamental characterization of transport phenomena.
In gas-solid or gas-liquid-solid fluidization, the particle
property, which is an important operating variable,
affects the fluidization regimes and their transitions.
The computationalfluid dynamics approach has
provided a viable means for flow system and chemical
reactor characterization. Although available commer-
cial codes may not always yield accurate predictions,
the familiarity of students with these computational tools
would fortify their capability of understanding complex
multiphase fluidization systems.

This lecture is dedicated to the memory of Professor Shao-
Lee Soo of the University of Illinois, Urbana. I benefited
from Prof. John Davidson's lecture on fluidization seven
years ago when I was on sabbatical at Cambridge Univer-
sity, in which he demonstrated the simple slug-rising device
that I duplicated, shown in Figure 2. I am indebted to Prof.
Jack Zakin and my research group members, Dr. Jianping
Zhang, Mr. D.-J. Lee, Mr. Brian McLain, Mr. Will Peng,
and Mr. Guoqiang Yang, who have provided constructive
Spring 2000

feedback in the preparation of this lecture material.

1. Geldart, D., "Types of Gas Fluidization," Powder Tech., 7,
2. Anderson, T.B., and R. Jackson, "A Fluid Mechanical De-
scription of Fluidized Beds: Stability of the State of Uniform
Fluidization," I&EC Fund., 7, 12 (1968)
3. Kunii, D., and 0. Levenspiel, Fluidization Engineering, 2nd
ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, MA (1991)
4. Rowe, P.N., "Experimental Properties of Bubbles," in Flu-
idization, J.F. Davison and D. Harrison, eds., Academic
Press, New York, NY (1971)
5. Davison, J.F., and D. Harrison, Fluidized Particles, Cam-
bridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (1963)
6. Reuter, H., "Druckverteilung um Blasen im Gas-Feststoff-
Fliefbett," Chem-Ing.-Tech., 35, 98 (1963)
7. Reuter, H., "Mechanismus der Blasen im Gas-Feststoff-
FlieBbett," Chem-Ing.-Tech., 35, 219 (1963)
8. Stewart, P.S.B., "Isolated Bubbles in Fluidized Beds: Theory
and Experiments," Trans. Instn. Chem. Engrs., 46, T60(1968)
9. Toomey, R.D., and H.F. Johnstone, "Gaseous Fluidization of
Solid Particles," Chem. Eng. Prog., 48, 220 (1952)
10. Fan, L.-S., and K. Tsuchiya, Bubble Wake Dynamics in
Liquids and Liquid-Solid Suspensions, Butterworth-
Heinemann, Boston, MA (1990)
11. Tsuchiya, K., and L.-S. Fan, "Near-Wake Structure of a
Single Gas Bubble in a Two-Dimensional Liquid-Solid Flu-
idized Bed: Vortex Shedding and Wake Size Variation,"
Chem. Eng. Sci., 43, 1167 (1988)
12. Massimilla, L., N. Majuri, and P. Signorini,
"Sull'assorbimento di Gas in Sistema: Solido-Liquido,
Fluidizzato," La Ricerca Scientifica, 29, 1934 (1959)
13. Tsuchiya, K., T. Miyahara, and L.-S. Fan, "Visualization of
Bubble-Wake Interactions for a Stream of Bubbles in a
Two-Dimensional Liquid-Solid Fluidized Bed," Int. J.
Multiphase Flow, 15, 35 (1989)
14. Tsuchiya, K., G.-H. Song, W.-T. Tang, and L.-S. Fan, "Par-
ticle Drift Induced by a Bubble in a Liquid-Solid Fluidized
Bed with Low-Density Particles,"AIChE J., 38, 1847 (1992)
15. Tsutsumi, A., J.-Y. Nieh, and L.-S. Fan, "Role of the Bubble
Wake in Fine Particle Production of Calcium Carbonate in
Bubble Column Systems," I&EC Res., 30, 2328 (1991)
16. Arters, D.C., K. Tsuchiya, and L.-S. Fan, "Solid-Liquid Mass
Transfer in the Wake Region Behind a Single Bubble in a
Liquid-Solid Fluidized Bed," in Fluidization VI, J.R. Grace,
L.W. Shemilt, and M.A. Bergougnou, eds., Engineering Foun-
dation, pp. 507-514 (1989)
17. Sinclair, J.L., and R. Jackson, "Gas-Particle Flow in a Verti-
cal Pipe with Particle-Particle Interactions," AIChE J., 35,
18. Hoomans, B.P.B., J.A.M. Kuipers, W.J. Briels, and W.P.M.
van Swaaij, "Discrete Particle Simulation of Bubble and
Slug Formation in a Two-Dimensional Gas-Fluidized Bed:
A Hard Sphere Approach," Chem. Eng. Sci., 51, 99 (1996)
19. Joseph, D.D., "Interrogation of Numerical Simulation for
Modeling of Flow Induced Microstructure," ASME FED,
189,31 (1994)
20. Jenkins, J.T., and S.B. Savage, "A Theory for the Rapid
Flow of Identical, Smooth, Nearly Elastic, Spherical Par-
ticles," J. Fluid Mech., 130, 187 (1983)
21. Sinclair, J.L., "CFD Case Studies in Fluid-Particle Flow,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 31, 108 (1998)
22. Li, Y., J. Zhang, and L.-S. Fan, "Numerical Simulation of
Gas-Liquid-Solid Fluidization Systems Using a Combined
CFD-DPM-VOF Method: Bubble Wake Behavior," Chem.
Eng. Sci., 54, 5101 (1999) 0

] Liquid-Solid Mass Transfer Mass transfer from the
liquid to the surface of the solid, and hence the reaction rate,
are governed, apart from the activity of the solid, by the local
flow patterns of the liquid relative to the solid. Due to the
unique flow structures associated with the liquid in the wake
and the presence of solid particles in this region, it is of
interest to examine the interaction between a solid particle
and a bubble wake and its effect on liquid-solid mass trans-
fer. The instantaneous value of the mass transfer coefficient,
k, for a single particle in a two-dimensional liquid-solid
fluidized bed, subjected to the disturbance of a single rising
gas bubble, can be measured by an electrochemical method
using tethered particles. The method measures the limiting
current and thereby allows evaluation of k. Visualization
techniques can be employed to track the particle in relation
to the bubble and bubble wake. Synchronization of the mass-
transfer data acquisition with the video record allows a his-
tory of the local mass transfer to be analyzed."16
Figure 14 shows the liquid-solid mass-transfer behavior
interactions of a particle with the bubble and the primary
wake. The axes in the figures are linked such that informa-
tion regarding the mass transfer coefficient, event time, and
particle position with respect to dimensionless bubble coor-
dinates can be cross-referenced. The mass transfer coeffi-
cient is expressed in terms of k/k0, where ko is the liquid-
solid mass transfer coefficient under liquid-solid fluidization
conditions at the same liquid velocity. The most salient
feature is that the interaction of the particle with the wake
region produces substantial increases in the mass transfer
coefficient. It can be seen in the figure that a twofold in-
crease in mass transfer results when a particle traveling
directly underneath and along with the bubble is ejected
from the primary wake through the cross flow. The free
shear layer formed at the bubble edge is also found to pro-
duce significant increases in mass transfer. Lesser increases
are seen when the particle is exposed to a shear layer not
strong enough to pull the particle into the flow.


Computation is an area of great importance. Students should
be kept abreast of the current approach in computation for
particulate systems. In the following, a general background
on the basic methods of particulate flow computation is
introduced and is followed by an example of a state-of-the-art
computational problem that my research group is tackling.
General Background The computational fluid dynam-
ics approach has provided considerable insight into the dy-
namic behavior of multiphase systems. The Euler-Euler,1171
Euler-Lagrange,[18' and direct"91 numerical simulations are
three widely used approaches for particulate-system compu-
tation. In the Euler-Euler method, the individual phases are
treated as pseudo-continuous fluids, each being governed by
Spring 2000

the conservation laws expressed in terms of volume/time or
ensemble-averaged properties. The conservation equations
are closed by constitutive relations that could be obtained
from empirical relationships, or theories. The dynamic mo-
tion of solid particles, especially for collision-dominated
shear flows of solid particles, is often simulated using ki-
netic theory121' in which theoretical analogies between the
gas molecule and solid particles are applied. In the Lagrangian
approach, the discrete particles are treated as a group of
point masses with their position, velocity, and other quanti-
ties being tracked based on the motion equation of indi-
vidual particles. The dispersed phase can exchange momen-
tum, mass, and energy with the fluid phase. In the dispersed
phase, particle-particle collision dynamics characterize the
particle-particle interactions. In direct numerical simulation,
the fluid flow could be solved by using finite difference/
volume/element discretization of the Navier-Stokes equa-
tions, or the lattice-Boltzmann, or Lagrangian multiplier
method. Direct numerical simulations require no empirical
constitutive equations and could provide detailed informa-
tion about flow surrounding individual particles.
The Euler-Euler and Euler-Lagrange approaches have been
incorporated in many commercial software packages. Fluent
(by Fluent, Inc.), CFX (by AEA Technology), Flow3D (by
Flow Science, Inc.), and CFDLIB (by Los Alamos National
Lab) are some of the common packages used in academia
and industry for chemical process applications. The results
for a simulation of the bubble formation process in a gas-
solid fluidized bed using Fluent 4.47 are shown in Figure 15.
In this example, the Euler-Euler two-fluid approach is used
to solve the gas and solid flow in a fluidized bed. The
rectangular domain is 0.4 m wide by 0.6 m high and is filled
halfway with a fluidized bed. The particle diameter used is
0.5 mm with a density of 2610 kg/m3. Air is used as the gas
phase, which has a density of 2.3 kg/m3 and a viscosity of 1.7
x 10 kg/m-s. Initially, the bed has a uniform vertical air
flow of 0.284 m/s introduced from the lower boundary.
When a simulation is started, a vertical air jet is injected
from the lower center of the fludized bed. The orifice width
of the air jet is 0.03 m. The bubble size is seen to increase
significantly with time. Similar results were presented ear-
lier by Sinclair"'2 using Fluent 4.32.

Examples of State-Of-The-Art Computation My re-
search group has been engaged in computation code devel-
opment for simulation of the gas-liquid-solid fluidization
systems.'22' The discrete-phase approach is employed with
the volume-averaged method, the discrete-particle method
(DPM), and the volume-of-fluid method (VOF) used to ac-
count for the flow of liquid, solid, and gas phases, respec-
tively. A bubble-induced force model (BIF), a continuum
surface force model (CSF), and Newton's third law are
applied to account for the couplings of particle-bubble (gas),
gas-liquid, and particle-liquid interactions, respectively. A

A typical "catching up" process is shown in Figure 10b and
demonstrates the acceleration of the trailing bubble toward a
leading bubble due to the presence of the wake of the leading
bubble, which results in bubble pairing and the eventual
collision of the pair.
U Particle Entrainment The primary wake of a rising
bubble and the resulting drift of particles above the upper
free surface of a two-dimensional liquid-solid fluidized bed
of calcium alginate particles are observed as shown in Fig-
ure 11 (next page) (inverse funnel shape). In the photograph,
the extent (effective height) of particle carryover through the
drift appears to be as significant as that via the bubble wake.
The particles carried above the surface are discharged from
the wake via wake shedding and are then settled down along
with the drift particles as a result of gravitational force. As
the freeboard region of a three-phase fluidized bed is based
primarily on the particle disengagement behavior from the
bubble wake, understanding the wake-shedding behavior
allows an accurate design of the freeboard region of a three-
phase fluidized bed.
U Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate Figure 12 (next
page) shows a CO, bubble and its wake after injection of 100

0 10cm

Figure 10. Bubble pairing followed by bubble collision for
successive bubbles in two-dimensional water-solid fluid-
ized beds (from Tsuchiya, et al.;I13 reproduced with per-
a) GB460: b=2.8 cm; f,=3.1 s-'; Reb=9180
b) AT1500: b=2.0 cm; fb=3.0 s-1; Reb=4040
Spring 2000

bubbles. It is observed that at the early stage of carbonation,
the bubble wake is clearly visible as a smoky region, reveal-
ing the formation of fine CaCO3 particles. The smoky region
is observed in the primary wake, which rises at the same
speed as the rising bubble. More fine particles are produced
in the wake region than in the bulk region. After injecting
100 bubbles, large "fluffy" aggregates are formed in the bulk
region, and the wake region can be distinguished from the
particle or aggregate size behind the bubble, as can be seen
in the figure. The fluffy aggregates are of loosely packed
particles that are easily broken down into smaller fragments
by the vortical motion in the bubble wake. Significant changes
in the morphology of the fine crystals and in the size distri-
bution of the agglomerates that occur in the wake were
observed only during the early stages of the reaction.

U Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer The mass transfer of gas
bubbles is strongly influenced by the bubble- and wake-flow
behavior. The solute is carried by the flow on the roof of the
bubble along the boundary of the wake and is separated into
two regions-within the primary wake region by the wake
vortex and outside the wake region by the shedding vortex.
The solute that flows into the wake is carried back to the
bubble base. The shed vortex carrying the solute generates
an external concentration vortex and eventually diffuses into
the bulk flow. In addition to the convective diffusion by the
liquid-solid flow, there is slow molecular diffusion of solute
from the vortex sheet into the vortex center in the wake and
from the wake surface into the bulk flow, but these contribu-
tions are negligible compared to convective diffusion.
The variations of the mass transfer patterns around bubbles
with respect to time are given in Figure 13 (next page). It
shows the circular-cap ozone-oxygen bubble and its wake
rising in a starch-iodine-water, 0.46-mm glass-bead fluid-
ized bed. As the bubble begins to rise, the reacted ozone
molecules are carried from the edge of the bubble by the
vortex sheet, and the wake underneath the circular-cap bubble
is gradually saturated with ozone molecules. It can be seen
that the shape of the bubble plus the wake is approximately
circular. The zigzag trail behind the bubble is formed in the
bulk of the liquid phase as a result of the vortex shedding. It
is interesting to note that there is no trace of ozone molecules
on the surface of the bubble roof since the reacted molecules
are swept by the liquid flow. As a consequence, the convec-
tive diffusion induced by potential flow plays an important
role in the mass-transfer mechanism on the bubble roof. As
the bubble rises further, the wake (filled completely with gas
molecules) starts to shed vortices. As shown in the figure,
alternate sheddings are observed in low bed expansion con-
ditions of the liquid-solid fluidized media. The shed vorti-
ces elongate their shape and the gas molecules begin to
diffuse out from the center of the vortices into the bulk
liquid by molecular diffusion, especially in the case of
high bed expansion.

The macroscopic behavior of a fluidized bed can be de-
scribed using the two-phase theory of fluidization.[91 This
theory considers the bed to be divided into two phases, i.e.,
the bubble phase and the emulsion phase, as shown in Figure
7, with a corresponding division of superficial gas flow in
the bed to each of the two phases, i.e., Uem to the emulsion
phase and bUbb to the bubble phase, where ab is the
volume fraction of bubbles in the bed, and Ubb is the average
bubble-rise velocity in the bed. Many analyses of transport
phenomena of a bubbling fluidized bed are made based on
this simple two-phase theory. The two-phase theory concept
is also extended to describe the macroscopic flow behavior
of high-velocity fluidization in which the core-annular flow
structure prevails in the column. In fluidization, particle
collisions and particle-turbulence interaction yield a dense,
wavy, clustering solids layer in the wall region and dilute
solids in the core region. The core region and wall region can
be treated as two interpenetrating phases in the analysis of
this flow behavior.

+3 Experimental data
.. (Reuter, 1963a, b)
7 1


.... ~Wake

S-2 -

S -3

0 +1
Dimensionless pressure difference

Figure 6. Pressure distribution in the vicinity of a rising
three-dimensional bubble with a comparison of the
experimental data by Reuter6'7] and the Davidson-
Harrison model prediction (from Stewart'8).
Spring 2000

Phenomena of bubble wake dynamics in
liquid-solid suspensions introduced so students
will understand the importance of identification of the
governing factors underlying complex phenomena

A large number of liquid-solid fluidized beds are operated
in the presence of gas bubbles. In both reactive and non-
reactive systems, gas bubbles play an essential role in deter-
mining the behavior or performance of the bed. For ex-
ample, gas bubbles are usually a source of reactant gas
species whose transport phenomena often depend on the
fluid flow around the bubble; gas bubbles induce intimate
liquid/solids mixing; and in a three-phase fluidized bed, gas
bubbles are responsible for solids entrainment to the free-
board and bed contraction. It has been specifically recog-
nized that the bubble wake located immediately underneath
the bubble base is the dominating factor contributing to bed
performance. It is, thus, of primary importance for students
to understand the fluid dynamic behavior of the bubble wake
and its interaction with the bubbles so that they will be
vested with sound, fundamental knowledge in their efforts
toward modeling, simulation, and design of such particulate
reactor systems.
In the following, the bubble wake structure in a liquid-
solid suspensionlI"' is introduced, followed by experimental
evidence highlighting the important role of the bubble wake
in process systems.
] Bubble Wake Structure Figure 8a shows a photograph
of a relatively large two-dimensional nitrogen bubble rising
through a water-774 jim glass bead fluidized bed at Reb
(=bUb/v, based on bubble breadth, b) of 8150. The sche-
matic diagram shown in Figure 8b indicates two regions: the
primary wake region includes two vortices-on the right-
hand side is well-established circulatory motion, and on the
left-hand side the vortex is just forming. Outside the primary
wake region, there exists a slightly deformed, large vortex
that is isolated by streams of external flow across the wake
from right to left. As seen in the figure, the solids concentra-

Bubble Emulsion
phase phase

abUbb UIe


Figure 7. Gas flow distribution in the bed
based on the two-phase theory.

processed by spouting.
We would then demonstrate to the student the rise
of a bubble or slug in a dense gas-solid suspension
using a simple known experiment that involves plac-
ing fine particles (FCC, Group A particles) in a sealed

4000 Spoutable
2000 Sandlike
S1000 A

100d m
Figure 1. Geldart's classification of fluidized

tube. The tube is 58 cm long and 87% full of particles. As shown in
Figure 2, when the tube is flipped upside down a slug rises in the
tube (Figure 2a). When the slug exits to the top of the tube, it leaves
behind a dense particle bed (Figure 2b) that has a height higher than
the packed condition of the particles (Figure 2c). The physical
implication from comparing Figures 2b and 2c is that a bed of fine
particles can be expanded by gas to an extended height without the
formation of bubbles. This would lead to a discussion of the onset
of bubbling.
Bubbles are formed as a result of the inherent instability of gas-
solid systems. The instability of a gas-solid fluidized bed is charac-
terized by fast growth in local voidage in response to a system
perturbation. Because of the instability in the bed, the local voidage
usually grows rapidly into a shape resembling a bubble. Although it
is not always true, the initiation of the instability is usually per-
ceived as the onset of bubbling, which marks the transition from
particulate fluidization to bubbling fluidization. The theoretical ex-
planation of the physical origin and prediction of the onset of the
instability of gas-solid fluidized beds has been attempted.12] Efforts

Figure 2. Simple fluidization experiments: (a) slugging regime, (b) particulate
fluidization regime, and (c) packed-bed regime.

) . ...A Gas through flow

Circulating cloud. ,--


Figure 3. Bubble configurations and gas-flow patterns around a bubble in
gas-solid fluidized beds. (a) Fast bubble (clouded bubble)Ub > Uf /mf; (b)
Slow bubble (cloudless bubble) Ub < Umf / Cmf.
Spring 2000

have focused on the primary forces be-
hind the stability among interparticle con-
tact forces, particle-fluid interaction forces,
and particle-particle interaction via par-
ticle velocity fluctuation.
Fluidization of fine particles (Group A
particles) without the formation of bubbles
is known to be in the particulate fluidiza-
tion regime. For large and/or heavy par-
ticles (i.e., Group B or D particles), par-
ticulate fluidization does not exist. That is,
the onset of bubbling coincides with that of
minimum fluidization of the packed bed.
Most bubbles in gas-solid fluidized beds
are of spherical cap or ellipsoidal cap shape.
Configurations of two basic types of
bubbles, fast bubble (clouded bubble) and
slow bubble (cloudless bubble)'31 are sche-
matically depicted in Figure 3. The cloud
is the region established by the gas that
circulates in a closed loop between the
bubble and its surroundings. The cloud
phase can be visualized with the aid of a
color tracer gas bubble. For example, when
a dark brown NO2 bubble is injected into
the bed (see Figure 4), the light brown
color surrounding the bubble represents the
cloud region.'14 When the bubble-rise ve-
locity is higher than the interstitial-gas ve-
locity, a "clouded" bubble forms in which
the circulatory flow of gas takes place be-
tween the bubble and the cloud, as shown
in Figure 3a. The cloud size decreases as
the bubble-rise velocity increases. As the


a b c



:~ i:


Future of Engineering Education

Guide to Teaching and Research in Engineering and Science,
Anker Publishing Co., Boston, MA (1994)
9. "NETI Always Draws A Crowd," ASEE Prism, p. 36, Dec.
10. More information about the National Effective Teaching In-
stitute can be obtained at lockers users fifelder public INETI.html>
11. Information about ASEE meetings and conferences can be
obtained at
12. Information about FIE conferences can be obtained at Ifairway.ecn.purdue.edu / -fiel>
13. Culver, R.S., "The ERM Workshop Catalog: Faculty Develop-
ment Workshops for Engineering/Technology Faculty,"
Binghamton University, Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902-
6000, .
14. Stice, J.E., "A Model for Teaching New Teachers How to
Teach," Eng. Ed., 75(2), 83 (1984)
15. Lewis, K.G., M.D. Svinicki, and J.E. Stice, "Filling the Gap:
Introducing New Faculty to the Basics of Teaching," J. Staff,
Prog. & Org. Dev., 31, 16 (1985)
16. Lewis, K.G., M.D. Svinicki, and J.E. Stice, "A Conference on
Teaching for Experienced Faculty," J. Staff, Prog. & Org.
Dev., 35,137 (1989)
17. Felder, R.M., R. Leonard, and R.L. Porter, "Oh God, Not
Another Teaching Workshop," Eng. Ed., 79(6), 622 (1989)
18. Ko, E.I., "A Seminar Series on Academic Careers for Chemi-
cal Engineering Students," Chem. Eng. Ed., 29(4), 230 (1995)
19. Felder, R.M., "Teaching Teachers to Teach: The Case for
Mentoring" Chem. Eng. Ed., 27(3), 176 (1993). Available on-
line at fielder /public /Columns Mentoring.html>
20. Katz, J., and M. Henry, Turning Professors into Teachers: A
New Approach to Faculty Development and Student Learn-
ing, American Council on Education, New York (1988)
21. American Association for Higher Education, "Peer Review of
Teaching Project," PeerReview.htm>
22. Noble, R.D., personal communication (1999)
23. Beaudoin, S.P., and R.M. Felder, "Preparing the Professori-
ate: A Study in Mentorship," J. Grad. Tchng. Asst. Dev., 4(3),
24. Kaufman, D.B., R.M. Felder, and H. Fuller, "Accounting for
Individual Effort in Cooperative Learning Teams," J. Engr.
Ed., in press
25. Boice, R., The New Faculty Member. Jossey-Bass, San Fran-
cisco, CA (1992)
26. Brent, R., R.M. Felder, D. Hirt, D. Switzer, and S. Holzer, "A
Model Program for Promoting Effective Teaching in Colleges
of Engineering," 1999 ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings,
ASEE, June (1999)
27. Boyer, E.L., Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Pro-
fessoriate. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teach-
ing, Princeton, NJ (1990)
28. Woods, D.R., and S.D. Ormerod, Networking: How to Enrich
Your Life and Get Things Done, Pfeiffer and Co., San Diego,
CA (1993)
29. University of Massachusetts, "The Clinic's Teaching Improve-
ment Process: Some Working Materials" and "Clinic to Im-
prove Teaching: Second Annual Report." The Clinic to Im-
prove University Teaching, School of Education, University
of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (1974)
30. McKeachie, W.J., Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and
Theory for College and University Teachers, 10th ed. Houghton
Mifflin, Boston, MA (1999)
31. Wankat, P., and F.S. Oreovicz, Teaching Engineering,
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1993). Available on-line at

32. Brown. G., and M. Atkins, Effective Teaching in Higher Edu-
cation, Methuen, London, UK (1988)
33. Ramsden, P., Learning to Teach in Higher Education,
Routledge, London, UK (1992)
34. Newble, D., and R. Cannon, A Handbook for Teachers in
Universities and Colleges, 3rd ed., Kogan Page, London, UK
35. Reis, R., Tomorrow's Professor, IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ
36. Eble, K., The Craft of Teaching, 2nd ed., Jossey-Bass, San
Francisco, CA (1994)
37. Elbow, P., Embracing Contraries, Oxford University Press,
New York, NY (1987)
38. Lowman, J., Mastering the Techniques of Teaching, 2nd ed.,
Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA (1995)
39. Palmer, P.J., The Courage to Teach: Exploring the Inner
Landscape of a Teacher's Life. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco,
CA (1998)
40. Johnson, D.W., R.T. Johnson, and K.A. Smith, Active Learn-
ing: Cooperation in the College Classroom, 2nd ed., Interaction
Book Co., Edina, MN (1998)
41. Woods, D.R., Problem-Based Learning: How To Gain the Most
from PBL. Woods, Waterdown (1994). Distributed by
McMaster University Bookstore, Hamilton, ON, along with
the companion books, Problem-Based Learning: Helping Your
Students Gain the Most from PBL and Problem-Based Learn-
ing: Resources to Gain the Most from PBL. Chapters from the
latter two books are available on-line at chemeng.mcmaster.ca /innovl.htm>
42. Rugarcia, A., La Formaci6n de Ingenieros. Universidad
Iberoamericano, Puebla, Mexico (1997)
43. Schoenfeld, A.C., and R. Magnan, Mentor in a Manual: Climb-
ing the Academic Ladder to Tenure, 2nd ed., Magna Publica-
tions, Madison, WI (1994)
44. Whicker, M.L., J.J. Kronenfeld, and R.A. Strickland, Getting
Tenure, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA (1996)
45. Gmelch, W.H., Coping with Faculty Stress, Sage Publica-
tions, London, UK (1993)
46. Details about EC 2000 are provided on the ABET Web site:
. See also R.M. Felder, "ABET Crite-
ria 2000: An Exercise in Engineering Problem Solving." Chem.
Eng. Ed., 32(2), 126 (1998)
47. Angelo, T.A., and K.P. Cross, Classroom Assessment Tech-
niques: A Handbook for College Teaching, 2nd ed., Jossey-
Bass, San Francisco, CA (1993)
48. Boud, D., Enhancing Learning Through Self-assessment,
Kogan-Page, London, UK (1995)
49. Weimer, M.E., ed., The Teaching Professor, Magna Publica-
tions. For information about subscribing, see www.magnapubs.com>.
50. Rhem, J., ed., National Teaching and Learning Forum, Oryx
Press. For information about subscribing, see www.oryxpress.com>.
51. Millis, B., ed., Cooperative Learning and College Teaching,
New Forums Press, P.O. Box 876, Stillwater, OK 74076
52. National Technological University, "NTU National Engineer-
ing Faculty Forum Series,"
53. Teaching Matters (videotapes) and Survival Guide for New
Teachers at UTS, The University of Technology, Sydney,
54. Critical Incident Videotapes. Learning and Teaching Centre,
The University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
55. Woods, D.R., The MPS SDL Program (videotape). Chemical
Engineering Department, McMaster University, Hamilton,
ON, Canada (1993) 3

Spring 2000

Future of Engineering Education

The National Technological University regularly offers
seminars on education-related topics over satellite links to
campuses around the country, and also makes available vid-
eotapes of past programs.1521 Some topics that have been
presented include cooperative learning (Karl Smith and Ri-
chard Felder), programs for minorities (Ray Landis), learning
styles (Felder), and women in engineering (Eleanor Baum).

The University of Technology at Sydney makes available
excellent videotapes on four topics-"Lectures," "Tutori-
als," "Practicals," and "Assessment"-and a support text
called Survival Guide for New Teachers.1531 The University
of Victoria offers a series of "Critical Incident Videotapes,"
brief scenarios of typical class problems that provide focal
points for discussion.1541 For example, the ten critical inci-
dents on Tape 1 include one that deals with a student at one
level of intellectual development trying to write an essay
that calls for thinking at a higher level, and another that
involves students complaining to the instructor that the class
lacks structure. Woods has produced a videotape on self-
directed learning that can be obtained by request.551' Margarita
Sanchez of the Instituto Tecnol6gico y Estidios Superiores
de Monterrey (ITESM) offers satellite-linked courses on
problem solving.

Beginning in 2001, engineering departments seeking ac-
creditation will have to show that they are equipping their
graduates with a specified array of skills and that they have
established a program to assess the levels of these skills and
remedy any deficiencies revealed by the assessment.1461 Quali-
tative changes in the content and delivery of engineering
courses along the lines outlined in the first and second pa-
pers of this series will be required to attain the desired
learning outcomes. To implement these changes, most engi-
neering professors will have to be educated in the new in-
structional methods, as opposed to the relative few who have
been motivated to learn about them in the past.
A model engineering faculty development program is be-
ing developed by the Southeastern University and College
Coalition for Engineering Education (SUCCEED) and imple-
mented at the eight Coalition campuses.1261 The core of the
program is a broad variety of learning opportunities and
resources for faculty members and graduate students. Op-
portunities may include courses on teaching, workshops and
seminars, mentorships and partnerships, learning communi-
ties, and individual consulting with instructional develop-

Education-Related Listservers

Organization or Theme Information E-mail Address
Alternative and collaborative learning
Alternative learning approaches
Association for Higher Education aahesgit@list.cren.net

Adult education network aednet@pulsar.acast.nova.edu
Ass'n. for the Study of Higher Education
Problem solving and creativity, learning The approach of Tony Buzan to
learning, memory, and creativity
Cooperative Learning
"Subscribe CL firstname lastname"
Learning Styles
Higher Education Processes
Problem-based Learning
PBL-LIST. Monash University,
Australia SUB PBL-LIST yfname ylname"
Center for Faculty Development University of Arizona
Exploring the way we educate
Prof. and Organizational Development
Society for Teaching and Learning in stlhe-L@unb.ca
Higher Education (Canada)
sub STLHE-L yfname ylname"
Continuous Quality Improvement CQI-L@mr.net

Spring 2000

ment personnel. Some of these
programs are open to all faculty
members and others are de-
signed specifically for faculty
members in their first two years
of teaching. Programs for gradu-
ate students include courses on
teaching, workshops and semi-
nars, and mentorships. Some of
the graduate student programs
are designed for teaching assis-
tants and others for students con-
templating academic careers.
Resources for self-study are also
provided as part of the program,
including books, journals, vid-
eotapes, and guides to useful Web
sites. Program facilitators should
collectively have expertise in both
pedagogy and engineering.
An essential component of a
successful faculty development
program is strong institutional
support. An adequate budget is
of course a necessary condition.
Beyond that, academic admin-
istrators should convey a clear
expectation that the faculty will
be good teachers, good teaching

Future of Engineering Education )

templating academic careers. The University of Colorado
has an advanced TA requirement for all PhD students that is
typically fulfilled in the third year of graduate study.[22'
Typically, the student prepares and presents several video-
taped lectures, prepares and grades homework and test ques-
tions, holds office hours, and teaches a recitation section if
one is offered for the course, and the instructor provides
feedback and guidance at weekly meetings. In the "Prepar-
ing the Professoriate" program at North Carolina State Uni-
versity, a faculty mentor and graduate student mentee may
work together on a course (as at Colorado) or on a classroom
research study.123'241
An important requirement for a mentorship program is for
department heads and deans to recognize that effective
mentoring takes a certain amount of skill and a great deal of
time. Several hours of mentor training should be provided
by campus instructional development staff or experienced
mentors, and all mentors should be compensated in some
manner for their efforts.

The most common-and arguably the most effective-
way for new members of a professional organization to learn
the ropes and adapt to the local culture is informal network-
ing with experienced colleagues. Unfortunately, many new
faculty members are introverted and wait in their offices for
their more experienced colleagues to come to them. It does
not always happen, and it is least likely to happen to women
and minority faculty in engineering, who may have the great-
est need for such support.
In The New Faculty Member,t251 Robert Boice reports on
studies he has conducted of the early careers of many profes-
sors. Boice found that about 13% of his subjects were "quick
starters" who reached high levels of research productivity
and teaching effectiveness in their first 1-2 years on facul-
ties, as opposed to the 4-5 years required by most new
faculty members. Prominent among the factors that differen-
tiated quick starters from their more numerous counterparts
was that the quick starters spent between two and four hours
per week networking with faculty colleagues-going to lunch
or for a cup of coffee with them or visiting them in their
offices-and talking about research and teaching. Boice
strongly recommends that new faculty members force them-
selves to engage in such activities and that department admin-
istrators and senior faculty members frequently initiate conver-
sations with new colleagues in their first year.
Other vehicles for teaching-related networking are cam-
pus learning communities,126"27] in which groups of faculty
members meet periodically to talk about teaching-related
topics or to read and discuss selected references on teaching,
and meetings of professional societies like the American
Society for Engineering Education. Other organizations that
Spring 2000

sponsor conferences on teaching and learning include the
American Educational Research Association, International
Society for Exploring Teaching Alternatives, National Sci-
ence Teacher's Association, and the Canadian organization
called Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Educa-
tion. Woods and Ormerod1281 offer additional ideas about
networking and its importance.

Analyzing a videotape of a lecture with the help of a
teaching consultant is an effective (albeit sometimes hum-
bling) first step toward teaching improvement. The Clinic to
Improve University Teaching of the University of Massa-
chusetts developed the following structured approach to class-
room videotaping that can be implemented either with a
consultant or alone.1291 Before the class, make a list of six
questions you have about your lecturing and write down
your guesses at the answers. Have the class videotaped and
ask the class members to complete a traditional student
evaluation form. Complete the same form yourself twice-
once based on how you felt the class went and once based on
how you guess the students rated the experience. Then watch
a replay of the videotape and analyze it in the context of your
six questions. Compare the student evaluations with your
two sets of responses and identify five strengths and two
areas to work on. This process works best if you go through
the process with a consultant, but it is still useful if you do it
alone. Much can be learned even without the videotaping.

Books U McKeachie's Teaching Tips30i is probably the
best known general reference on college teaching. Now in its
10' edition, it offers suggestions on every aspect of teaching
and cites research supporting the suggestions. An excellent
reference that applies specifically to technical disciplines is
Wankat and Oreovicz's Teaching Engineering, 31 which re-
cently became available on the World Wide Web; other
books discuss the attributes of effective college teaching and
teachers irrespective of discipline.'32-391 Some references sur-
vey the theory and practice of the instructional models dis-
cussed in References 3 and 4 that have repeatedly been
shown to promote learning and skill development. Johnson,
et al.,[40] do this for cooperative learning, and Woods[411 does
it for problem-based learning. For Mexican and Latin Ameri-
can educators, Rugarcia's book, La Formaci6n de
Ingenieros,1421 is recommended.
Several references are written specifically for faculty mem-
bers new to the profession, including books by Davidson and
Ambrose,'"1 Schoenfeld and Magnan,'431 Whicker, et al.,144
Gmelch,[451 and the previously mentioned work of Boice1251
on the characteristics of "quick starters." The last reference
may be particularly useful to department heads and senior

Future ofEngineering Education )

and problem students, and managing the stresses associated
with academic careers. Deans of engineering and engineer-
ing technology are invited every January to nominate up to
two of their faculty members to attend the NETI. Nomina-
tions are accepted on a first-come-first-served basis, and the
enrollment is closed at 50. Since 1991,472 faculty members
from 157 different institutions have participated.
One-day and half-day workshops on education-related
topics are generally offered before, during, or after the an-
nual ASEE meeting in Junel'" and the Frontiers in Education
(FIE) Conference in October or November.1121 Educational
workshops are also offered by the American Institute of
Chemical Engineers, the Mexican Institute of Chemical En-
gineers, and other professional societies. Every five years

the Chemical Engineering Division of the ASEE sponsors a
week-long "summer school" for chemical engineering fac-
ulty that offers a rich set of workshops on effective teaching
in general and on teaching specific topics.
The Educational Research and Methods Division of the
ASEE has compiled a list of its members who present work-
shops on campuses around the country.1"1 The list includes
workshop topics and fees.
Many universities offer workshops and seminars on dif-
ferent aspects of academic careers or specifically on teach-
ing. Some are open to all faculty members and some are
designed specifically for new faculty members and/or gradu-
ate students. The paragraphs that follow describe several
programs of this type.

University of

Sunday Get acquainted

Monday Goals; retention;
options for teaching;
improving teaching;
collaborative learning

Carnegie Mellon

Prior knowledge
assessment; introductions:
challenge of change

Goals; retention;
understanding student
needs; diversity;
processes in learning


Goals; problem-based
learning activity; activity:
Why am I a professor?
academic roles-teaching,
research, administration
Trends in engineering
education; how students
learn-diversity and learning
styles; NSF programs

Tuesday Academic careers; Systematic course design; Lecturing; problem-based
finding mentors; problem-based learning; learning; instructional
seeking tenure; writing balancing teaching, technology
grant proposals; research, and administration;
climbing the academic assessment of learning;
ladder; departmental active learning; accounting
tours for student workloads
Wednesday Course design; Course design; mentoring Videotape participant
assessing student and supervising graduate presentations with
performance students; videotape feedback; course design
participant presentations
with feedback
Thursday Innovative teaching Getting research funding; Balance in an academic
options (overview and NSF programs; the future career; stress and time
parallel workshops); of engineering education; management; getting
panel-young faculty instructional technology tenure; networking and
reflect from the trenches staying current

Friday NSF programs; parti-
cipant exchange of
materials developed;
share materials

Ethics; workshop

Participant presentations;
workshop evaluation;

Saturday Diversity; workshop
This table shows workshop outlines for one recent year; the programs at each institu-
tion vary from year to year. All programs also include "open" times, which might be free
times, planned social events, concerts, banquets, or sports events.

Spring 2000

At the University of Texas, a unique
approach for new faculty is the three-day
Summer Seminar, initiated in August
1980 by Jim Stice and his colleagues in
the campus-wide Center for Teaching
Effectiveness.114'51 All new hires are in-
vited to attend by their department chairs
and the Provost. The presenters-all UT
faculty members and administrators (in-
cluding the president)-discuss a variety
of topics, including learning and teach-
ing styles, instructional objectives, writ-
ing a syllabus, testing and grading, stu-
dent characteristics, important university
rules and regulations, research activities
and resources, and what to do on the first
day/week of class. Attendance ranges
from 60 to 90 each year. Participants
have reported that when they arrived at
the seminar they felt like strangers, and
by the end they felt they were members
of the academic community. The semi-
nar wasn't really planned with this result
in mind-it was a real bonus! The unso-
licited remarks of one participant are wor-
thy of etching in marble: "After 30 years
I am changing my career. I never ex-
pected to be a college teacher, and I've
been worried about what in the world to
do with my students. I didn't know what
to expect from them, I didn't know what
they expected from me, and I had no idea
how to conduct a class. Lately I've had
stomach problems, and I haven't had a
good night's sleep in three weeks. Then I
came to your seminar, and now I know
what I'm going to do, and I have some
ideas about how to do it-and I'm sleep-

Engineering Education Scholars Program Workshops*

Future of Engineering Education )

Kogan Page, London (1995)
38. "Evidence-Based Target Skills for Self-Assessment,"
McMaster University. Available for viewing and download-
ing at
39. Longworth, N., and W.K. Davies, Lifelong Learning, Kogan
Page, London (1993)
40. Perry, Jr., W.G., Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Develop-
ment in the College Years, Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
New York, NY (1968)
41. Knowles, M., Self-Directed Learning, Follett Publishing
Co., Chicago, IL (1975)
42. Tough, A.M., "Major Learning Efforts: Recent Research and
Future Directions," Adult Ed., 28(4), 250 (1978)
43. Barrows, H.S., and R. Tamblyn, Problem-Based Learning:
An Approach to Medical Education, Springer, New York,
NY (1980)
44. Albanese, M.A., and S. Mitchell, "Problem-Based Learning:
A Review of the Literature on its Outcomes and Implemen-
tation Issues," Academic Medicine, 68, 52 (1993)
45. Vernon, D.T.A., and R.L. Blake, "Does Problem-Based Learn-
ing Work? A Meta-Analysis of Evaluative Research," Aca-
demic Medicine, 68, 550 (1993)
46. Nooman, Z.G., H.G. Schmidt and E.S. Ezzat, Innovations in
Medical Education: An Evaluation of its Present Status,
Chapters 1 to 7, Springer, New York, NY (1990)
47. "Evidence-Based Target Skills for Lifetime Learning Skills,"
McMaster University. Available for viewing and download-
ing at

48. Westberg, G.E., Good Grief, Fortress Press, Philadelphia,
PA (1971)
49. Bridges, W., Managing Transitions, Addison Wesley, Read-
ing, MA (1991)
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(1996) 0

Special Feature Section

ginia), Tom Regan (University of Maryland), and Wallace
Whiting (University of Nevada-Reno) for helpful reviews of
this paper. In addition, we thank Suzanne Kresta (University
of Alberta) and Inder Nirdosh (Lakehead University) for
their helpful reviews of Part 2 of the series, and we apologize
for inadvertently omitting their names from the acknowledg-
ments in that paper.

1. Rugarcia, A., R.M. Felder, D.R. Woods, and J.E. Stice, "The
Future of Engineering Education. I. A Vision for a New
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. See also R.M. Felder, "ABET Cri-
teria 2000: An Exercise in Engineering Problem Solving,"
Chem. Eng. Ed, 32(2), 126 (1998)
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Crowe, T.W. Hoffman, J.D. Wright, P.A. Taylor, K.A.
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dent Performance and Retention. IV: Instructional Methods
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Solving through Cooperative Grouping. Part 1: Group ver-
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zona State University, Tempe, AZ. Available on-line at / / www. eas.asu.edu I -asufc / teaminginfo / teams. html>
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26. Reiff, J.D., "In-Course Writing Workshop in a Program of
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ing," in The Science of Writing, C.M. Levy and S. Ransdell,
eds., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ (1996)
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McMaster University. Available for viewing and download-
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29. Locke, E.N., "Goal Setting and Task Performance, 1969-
1980," Psychological Bulletin, 90a, 125 (1981)
30. Fisher, B.A., Small-Group Decision Making, 2nd ed.,
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1980)
31. Whetten, D.A., and K.S. Cameron, Developing Management
Skills, Scott, Foresman and Co., Glenview, IL (1984)
32. Reddy, W.B., Intervention Skills: Process Consultation for
Small Groups and Teams, Pfeiffer and Co., San Diego, CA
33. Hoffman, R.L., E. Harburg and N.R.F. Maier, "Differences
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University. Available for viewing and downloading at

37. Boud, D., Enhancing Learning through Self-Assessment,
Chemical Engineering Education

Future of Engineering Education )

lifelong learning skills they are developing. Illustrative stu-
dent reflections and self-assessments are available,[71 as are
more examples of how to move gradually into a full PBL
model.!51" This approach has been used successfully in engi-
neering, science, and pharmacy education.E4.71-731
Extensive evaluation of small-group, self-
directed, self-assessed, interdependent (coop-
erative) problem-based learning has been re- In cont
ported for medical schools.44-461 National PBL i
Board Medical Examination scores earned by
students in such programs were compared problem
with scores earned by students in conven- before t
tional programs. The experimental group have a
scored lower on the exams testing basic sci- knowlei
ence, while the opposite result was observed to soil
for the exams testing medical problem solv- inductil
ing. The differences were statistically signifi- simu
cant. The students who participated in a PBL re,
program exhibited a greater tendency to adopt enviroi
a deep (as opposed to surface or rote) ap- students
proach to learning,'74-771 a greater mastery of
interpersonal and lifelong learning skills, and a probe
greater satisfaction with the learning experi- procee
ence. Positive program evaluations of the out who
McMaster Problem Solving program in engi- to kno
neering141 and of the Guided Decision-Mak- hypothe,
ing Model'"1I have also been reported; how- literalt
ever, the role of PBL in attaining these out- search tl
comes could not be easily determined be- to exi
cause the programs studied involved multi- related.
faceted skill development efforts. acqui

Change-Management Skills mo
People inevitably encounter unexpected and experin
stressful changes in their lives, but successful discov
people are able to cope with the changes in finally
such a way that they emerge with renewed or pr
even greater strength in performance, self-
confidence, and interpersonal relationships,
even if they initially experience losses in these
domains. Stressful changes that students might experience
include leaving home for the first time, being exposed to
unaccustomed intellectual challenges, being thrust into a
student-centered learning environment in which the instruc-
tor can no longer be counted on to supply all required knowl-
edge, and making the transition from an academic world to
the professional world.
Perry's Model of Intellectual Development140'6778,791 (or an
equivalent model such as King and Kitchener's Model of
Reflective Judgments80l) provides a good framework for help-
ing students cope with the expectations of the new learning
Spring 2000

m is
ve i
ve o
t th
re c

environment. According to William Perry, a Harvard psy-
chologist, college students progress through some or (in rare
cases) all of the following stages of development.
Level 2 (Dualism). Every point of view is either right or
wrong. All knowledge is known and obtainable from in-
structors and texts, and the student's task is
to absorb what the instructor presents and
w n demonstrate having done so by repeating it
he back. Confusion occurs if the text and the
ed, the instructor do not agree. Dualists want facts
s posed and formulas and don't like theories or ab-
itudents stract models, open-ended questions, or ac-
ired the tive or cooperative learning.
needed Level 3 (Multiplicity). Most information
t. This is known, but there are some fuzzy areas
ordering with questions that have no answers yet but
;s the eventually will. The instructor's dual role is
rch to convey the known answers and to teach
ent: the students how to obtain the others. Students
gin with start using supporting evidence to resolve
and then issues rather than relying completely on what
figure authorities say, but they count preconcep-
eyfigre tions and prejudices as acceptable evidence,
ey ee and once they have reached a solution they
create have little inclination to examine alterna-
read the tives. Open-ended questions and coopera-
and/or tive learning are still resented, especially if
Veb, talk they have too much of an effect on grades.
s with
swit Level 4 (Transition to relativism). Some
,wledge, knowledge is known but some is not and
critical probably never will be. Students feel that
Through almost everything is a matter of opinion and
ing, that their answers are as good as the
ting and instructor's. The instructor's task is to present
tg, and known information and to serve as a role
lve the model that can be discounted. Independent
Im. thought is valued, even if it is not substanti-
ated by evidence, and good grades should be
given to students who think for themselves,
even if they are wrong.
SLevel 5 (Relativism). Knowledge and values depend on
context and individual perspective rather than being exter-
nally and objectively based, as Level 2-4 students believe
them to be. Using real evidence to reach and support conclu-
sions becomes habitual and not just something professors
want them to do. Different knowledge is needed and differ-
ent answers are correct in different contexts; there is no
absolute truth. The student's task is to identify the context
and to choose the best answers for that context, with the
instructor serving as a resource. Students at this level are
comfortable with corrective feedback.

Special Feature Section

your implementation of cooperative learning.[' 6

Self-Assessment Skills
In addition to the basic eight activities,
*Have the students write resumes. Although workshop
activities can develop self-assessment skills, a concrete ac-
tivity such as writing a resume is an excellent way to put
the skill to practical use.
Include self-assessment as part of what you do to help
develop any other skill. Combine writing, reflection, and
self-assessment by requiring students to submit their analy-
sis of evidence of skill mastery gathered from classwork and
other applications of the skills. Examples of such reports are
available on-line.171 Data show that self-assessment tends to
correlate with external assessments of skill mastery. 7'51.651

Lifelong Learning Skills and
Problem-Based Learning
The learning process may be broken down into the follow-
ing tasks:1661
Sense problem or need
Identify learning issues
Create learning goals and assessment criteria
Select resources
Carry out the learning activities
Design a process to assess the learning
Do the assessment
Reflect on the learning process

In traditional instruction, the student is responsible only
for the fifth of these tasks (learning activities), the last task
(reflection) is usually omitted, and the instructor takes re-
sponsibility for the remaining tasks. Lifelong learners, on
the other hand, take some responsibility for performing all of
the tasks themselves.
One approach is to focus one of the eight tasks on lifelong
learning. For example, cooperative groups could be asked to
"identify the learning issues" in a problem. Another more
ambitious option is to convert "reporting back" to "teach-
ing. When students have completed an independent study
or a research project, they typically report back by giving a
speech. The class listens with varying degrees of interest.
The dynamics change if the student teaches the material to a
small group. The audience listens intently and asks ques-
tions, because now each of them is expected to learn the
material being presented. The student speaker becomes the
teacher. He/she learns and applies the ideas offered in Part 2
of this series[31 and receives the benefits of those that will be
presented subsequently in Part 4 (how to train the teachers).
Perhaps the most ambitious option for promoting the

development of skills in most of the tasks is called problem-
based learning (PBL). 47'66'671 Problems and projects can be
incorporated into a course in a variety of ways. At one
extreme is the traditional approach in which problems are
given at the end of each text chapter and homework is
assigned after the professor has lectured on the subject. The
role of the problems is to help students deepen their under-
standing of previously-acquired knowledge. In contrast, when
PBL is used, the problem is posed before the students have
acquired the knowledge needed to solve it. This inductive
ordering simulates the research environment: the students
begin with a problem and then proceed to figure out what
they need to know, create hypotheses, read the literature
and/or search the Web, talk to experts with related knowl-
edge, acquire critical information through modeling, experi-
menting and discovering, and finally solve the problem. The
approach may be applied in any educational setting includ-
ing lecture classes, laboratory courses, and design courses.'681
Once a problem has been posed, different instructional
methods may be used to facilitate the subsequent learning
process-lecturing, instructor-facilitated discussion,151 guided
decision-making,'8-'10 or cooperative learning.[3'11,13161 As part
of the problem-solving process, student groups can be as-
signed to complete any of the learning tasks listed above,
either in or out of class. In the latter case, three approaches
can be adopted to help the groups stay on track and to
monitor their progress: (1) give the groups written feedback
after each task, (2) assign a tutor or teaching assistant to each
group, or (3) create fully autonomous, self-assessed
"tutorless" groups.
Guided decision-making'181s- is a model for the first op-
tion. The instructor anticipates how groups might handle
each learning task and creates written feedback to guide the
process. This approach was designed to allow one instructor
to manage many groups at a time. It has been used success-
fully in the teaching of engineering design at the University
of West Virginia[681 and of pharmacy at Purdue Univer-
sity."69' Option #2-assigning a tutor to each group of four to
seven students-has been used extensively in the health
Option #3 is used when a tutor cannot be provided for each
group (a common situation in engineering) and/or when the
goal is to move students away from dependence on the
instructor toward independence and interdependence. Each
group is trained and empowered with process skills (de-
scribed previously in this paper); the groups monitor and
self-assess their work; and the instructor establishes condi-
tions to aid the groups in self-management.[7'701 The instruc-
tor should select a technical topic that would normally be
"lectured" on for about three weeks, and use PBL to address
it instead. The instructor's role is to create the environment,
monitor the students' progress, and help them reflect on the
Chemical Engineering Education

CSpecial Feature Section
from the World Wide Web.l7'5,
4. Provide extensive practice in the application of the
skills, using carefully structured activities, and provide
prompt constructive feedback on the students' efforts using

There is a temptation for
instructors to select their own
terminology for problem-solving
strategies in their courses. This temptation
should be resisted.... being exposed to
different problem-solving terminology
in different courses is a source
of confusion to students.

evidence-based targets. People acquire skills most effec-
tively through practice and feedback. No matter how many
times students may see a skill demonstrated, they rarely
master it until they attempt it and receive guidance in how to
improve their performance after each attempt.
5. Encourage monitoring. Monitoring is the metacognitive
process of keeping track of, regulating, and controlling a
mental process, considering past, present and planned men-
tal actions. As students are working, ask them to pause
periodically and write responses to questions that force them
to deepen their problem-solving approach and improve their
understanding. For example,
Why am I doing this?
What really is the problem?
What are the constraints?
If I was unsuccessful, what did I learn?
Am I finished with this stage?
What options do I have? Which is most likely to
Can I write down these ideas?
Can I use charts, graphs or equations to represent the
> If I had a value of...... how would that help me in
solving the problem?
Can I check this result?
> Have I spent enough time defining the problem?
What other kinds of problems can I solve now that I
have solved this one correctly?
Schoenfeld1521 has shown the importance of monitoring in
the development of problem-solving skills.
6. Encourage reflection. Reflection is the metacognitive
process of thinking about past actions. For each problem the
students solve, each communication they write or team task
they accomplish, periodically ask them to write reflections

on how they approached the task. For example, Kimbell, et
al.,1231 report that occasionally asking students to stop the
problem-solving process and describe what they are doing
improves the problem solving and the quality of the product.
For example, students may be asked to respond to questions
such as "What did you do?" and "What did you learn about
problem solving?" Schon,153' Chamberlain,'541 Brookfield,1551
and Woods and Sheardown[56' also highlight the importance
of reflecting.
7. Grade the process, not just the product. For some as-
signments, grade only the problem-solving process, the team
process, or the prewriting process. Grade the reflections,
using the target skills (e.g., those listed in Table 1) as the
criteria. Some specific examples are available for problem
solvingl571 and teamwork.135'
8. Use a standard assessment and feedback form. Depart-
mental instructors should decide on criteria, and the same
assessment and feedback forms should be used across the

In addition to the eight basic activities,
Use a standard research-basedproblem-solving strategy
across several (and ideally, all) courses in an instructional
program. There is a temptation for instructors to select their
own terminology for problem-solving strategies in their
courses. This temptation should be resisted. Only a few of
more than 150 published strategies are based on research,
and being exposed to different problem-solving terminology
in different courses is a source of confusion to students.
Select an evidence-based strategy such as the six-stage
McMaster Problem Solving Strategy: Engage, Define the
Stated Problem, Explore, Plan, Do It, and Look Back.'581
Solve some problems in depth. If you would normally
work through four problems in a given period of time, take
the same amount of time to solve just one problem and hand
out illustrative solutions for the other three. Enrich the expe-
rience for the students when you work out the problem: for
example, purposely make wrong assumptions so that they
eventually realize that "this is not working out." Take time
to explore questions like "What went wrong?" "What have
we learned?" "Now what?" Ask the students to carry out
some of the problem-solving tasks, individually or in small
groups. Anonymously display on transparencies students'
attempts to carry out specific steps such as identifying the
system, defining the problem, drawing a diagram, and creat-
ing symbols for unknowns.
Help students make connections between the problem
statement, the identification of required technical knowl-
edge, and the problem solution. For example, "We have just
solved problem 5.6. Identify the key words in the problem
Chemical Engineering Education

Special Feature Section




Donald R. Woods McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7
Richard M. Felder North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695
Armando Rugarcia Iberoamericana University, Puebla, Mexico
James E. Stice University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712

In the first paper in this seriesi'" we proposed that our
goals as engineering educators should include equip-
ping our students with problem-solving, communica-
tion, teamwork, self-assessment, change management, and
lifelong learning skills. These goals are consistent with
ABET Engineering Criteria 2000,121 currently a consider-
ation of great importance in the United States and (we pre-
dict) in other countries in the near future. In the second
paper131 we described a variety of instructional methods that
have been shown to improve student learning. In this paper
we will consider the application of some of those methods to
the development of the desired skills.
Process skills are "soft" skills used in the application of
knowledge. The degree to which students develop these
skills determines how they solve problems, write reports,
function in teams, self-assess and do performance reviews of
others, go about learning new knowledge, and manage stress
when they have to cope with change. Many instructors intu-
itively believe that process skills are important, but most are
unaware of the fundamental research that provides a founda-
tion for developing the skills, so their efforts to help their
students acquire the skills may consequently be less effec-
tive than they might wish.4'51
Fostering the development of skills in students is chal-
lenging, to say the least. Process skills-which have to do
with attitudes and values as much as knowledge-are par-
ticularly challenging in that they are hard to explicitly de-
fine, let alone to develop and assess. We might sense that a
team is not working well, for example, but how do we make
that intuitive judgment quantitative? How might we provide
feedback that is helpful to the team members? How can we
develop our students' confidence in their teamwork skills?
Research done over the past 30 years offers answers to
these questions. In this paper, we will suggest research-

backed methods that will help students to develop critical
skills and the confidence to apply them. As was the case for
the instructional methods discussed in Part 2,13 all of the
suggestions given in this paper are relevant to engineering
education, can be implemented within the context of the
ordinary engineering classroom, use methods that most en-
gineering professors feel comfortable with, are consistent
with modern theories of learning, and have been tried and
found effective by more than one educator.
Research suggests that the development of any skill is
best facilitated by giving students practice and not by simply
talking about or demonstrating what to do.1"1 The instructor's

Donald R. Woods is a professor of chemical engineering at McMaster
University. He is a graduate of Queen's University and the University of
Wisconsin. He joined the faculty at McMaster University in 1964 after
working in industry, and has served as Department Chair and as Director of
the Engineering and Management program there. His teaching and re-
search interests are in surface phenomena, plant design, cost estimation,
and developing problem-solving skills.
Richard M. Felder is Hoechst Celanese Professor (Emeritus) of Chemical
Engineering at North Carolina State University. He received his BChE from
City College of New York and his PhD from Princeton. He has presented
courses on chemical engineering principles, reactor design, process opti-
mization, and effective teaching to various American and foreign industries
and institutions. He is coauthor of the text Elementary Principles of Chemi-
cal Processes (Wiley, 2000).
James Stice is Bob R. Dorsey Professor of Engineering (Emeritus) at the
University of Texas at Austin. He received his BS degree from the Univer-
sity of Arkansas and his MS and PhD degrees from Illinois Institute of
Technology, all in chemical engineering. He has taught chemical engineer-
ing for 44 years at the University of Arkansas, Illinois Tech, the University
of Texas, and the University of Wyoming. At UT he was the director of the
Bureau of Engineering Teaching Center and initiated the campus-wide
Center for Teaching Effectiveness, which he directed for 16 years.
Armando Rugarcia graduated from the Universidad Iberoamericana (UIA)
in 1970 and went on to earn his MS in chemical engineering from the
University of Wisconsin in 1973 and his Doctorate in Education from West
Virginia University in 1985. He has been a full-time professor of engineer-
ing at UIA since 1974 and was chair of the Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment there from 1975 to 1980. He was also Director of the Center for
Teaching Effectiveness at UIA from 1980 until 1986. He has written four
books on education, one on process engineering, and more than 130

0 Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2000

Chemical Engineering Education

unique programs and research projects, and informally due
to the diverse set of industries in the Edmonton area. The
program that has the largest single impact on ensuring indus-
trial interaction with the undergraduate students is the Stollery
Executive-in-Residence program. It is used to bring practic-
ing engineers from a variety of industries into the depart-
ment to provide guidance to student groups working on their
design projects; it usually requires a commitment of ap-
proximately two weeks of the practicing engineer's time,
spread over an academic term. Further, the Stollery visitors
usually bring design projects from their own companies with
them. The visiting engineers are also invited to give special
lectures in other courses, where they provide context for the
course subject matter.
At the graduate level, a large and growing number of
research projects enjoy the partnership of local companies.
These often require graduate students to spend extended
stretches of time in company labs or at plant sites. This trend
toward industrial participation in the training of graduate
students seems to be of interest to local industries and is
expected to expand.


The second main function of the department is research,
which has focused on adding to the chemical engineering
knowledge base and addressing problems of the process
industries, with particular emphasis on Western Canadian
industries. The oil and gas industries in Western Canada
strongly influenced the areas of research in the department
during the 1950s and 1960s. Establishment of world-scale
petrochemical facilities in Alberta in the 1970s and 1980s
influenced the direction of applied research, and the increas-
ing importance of the synthetic crude production in the 1980s
and 1990s opened up exciting new areas for application of
chemical engineering fundamentals. Construction of mod-
ern pulp mills and newsprint facilities in the 1990s added
another dimension to the department's applied research.
Funding for research comes from external sources: in the
1998-99 fiscal year, funding obtained by the academic staff,
excluding central overhead charges, exceeded $4.5 million
(Cdn); about 65% of the funds came from federal and pro-
vincial government agencies, and the remaining 35% came
from industry. Five of the main areas of chemical engineer-
ing research are briefly described below.

Catalytic Reaction Engineering Catalysis and reaction engi-
neering research has been done in the department since the 1950s
when investigation of selective hydrocarbon oxidation and Claus
catalysis were started. Claus catalysis for the conversion of hydro-
gen sulfide to elemental sulfur is still of great importance since
most of Alberta's natural gas contains hydrogen sulfide. These
studies not only resulted in significant improvements in sulfur
recovery, but also resulted in the development of techniques (such
as infrared methods) for examination of fundamental processes

occurring on the surfaces of heterogeneous catalysts. Understand-
ing the behavior of these catalysts led to the application of hydro-
phobic supported metal catalysts, which are finding applications in
new processes such as the production of hydrogen peroxide and for
the removal of organic compounds from contaminated aqueous
streams. These catalysts are also well suited for catalytic distilla-
tion for water-containing systems. Current catalytic reaction engi-
neering projects include: catalysts for environmental applications
(both liquid and air), development of catalytic distillation pro-
cesses, heavy-oil upgrading catalysts, and olefin polymerization
catalysts (Ziegler-Natta and single-site catalysts). Departmental
facilities for catalytic studies include various catalyst characteriza-
tion equipment chemisorptionn and physisorption, x-ray diffrac-
tion, scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, and infrared
spectroscopy) as well as numerous reactors, including a continuous
high-pressure system for studying hydrocracking of bitumen and a
reactor system for catalytic olefin polymerization in the gas phase.
Computer Process Control With the establishment of the Data
Acquisition and Control and Simulation (DACS) Centre in the
department in 1968, research in computer process control became
one of the main research areas in the department. Each one of the
many workstations in the center today has much more computa-
tional power than the IBM 1800 housed in the original DACS
Centre, but the general aim of today's research is the same as that
of three decades ago (i.e., development of techniques that allow
computers to be used for improving the efficiency and reliability of
industrial process operations). Research areas have broadened over
the years from the more traditional process control and identifica-
tion to include process monitoring and the application of multivari-
ate statistics, controller-performance assessment, artificial intelli-
gence, process-fault diagnosis, and process optimization. The size
of the process-control research group has grown commensurate
with the broadening of the research scope. The computer process-
control research facilities include a network of computers (Unix
workstations and personal computers) and experimental equipment,
including pilot-scale reactors, distillation columns, and other small
Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena The study of
multiphase flow and flow in porous media, with emphasis on oil
pipe lines and crude oil reservoirs, were major topics of research in
the department from the 1940s to the 1970s. In the 1970s and
subsequent decades, research shifted to experimentation and mod-
eling of complex flows with applications to the transport processes
encountered in the processing of oil sands. The work included
modeling of complex processes used in the extraction of bitumen
from sand, as well as experimentation necessary to increase under-
standing of the chemistry and physics that govern the processes in
the liberation of the bitumen from the surface of the sand and
subsequent processing of the bitumen. Research in this area con-
tributed significantly to the improvement of commercial processes
for the economic production of synthetic crude from the Alberta oil
sands. Syncrude Canada Ltd., the largest producer of synthetic
crude (225,000 bbls per day in 1999) has recognized these major
contributions and co-sponsors, with the Natural Science and Engi-
neering Research Council of Canada) two industrial research chairs
in the department. Research in this area is moving from the con-
tinuum to the molecular level. Current projects include measure-
ment of interfacial properties of individual drops in emulsions,
interactions between bitumen droplets using a microcollider appa-
Chemical Engineering Education

sophomores completed their first year of engineering at the
UofA; the remaining one-third are transfer students from
junior colleges and transfers from other programs. A total of
299 undergraduate students are registered in
chemical engineering in the 1999-2000 aca-
demic year. The number of graduate students Te
has also increased significantly, from about
75 in 1996 to 110 in 1999; on the average, 40 c
to 45% of graduate students are PhD students prince
and the remainder is enrolled in a variety of appli
master's programs. The department also hosts Al
a large number of postdoctoral fellows, re- ind
search associates, and visiting faculty; cur-
rently 29 postdoctoral fellows, 22 research O
associates, and 5 visiting professors reside in main f
the department, the de
The current academic staff consists of 24
chemical engineering and 10 materials engi- undei
neering faculty; 16 of these 34 have been hired stud
within the past five years, and there are four choo
academic vacancies to be filled within the next
three years. The department also employs 20 variety
permanent support staff: three machinists and and
two electronics technicians who run the de- 01
partmental machine and instrument shops and
custom-build and repair equipment for under-
graduate and research laboratories; two com-
puting and network specialists who keep the computing,
data acquisition, and network systems functioning; four labo-
ratory technologists who assist with the undergraduate labo-
ratories and operate special facilities such as the departmen-
tal scanning electron microscope; and the remaining support
staff provide the clerical and administrative support neces-
sary for smooth operation of the department.
The staff, graduate students, researchers, and some of the
classrooms are housed in the Chemical and Materials Engi-
neering Building. This 8-story, 184,000-ft2 building was built
in 1968, and currently over 80% of its space is occupied by
the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering,
which will be the sole occupant of the building after an
Electrical and Computer Engineering Research Facility is
completed in 2001. Although the building is over thirty
years old, it has been well maintained and the laboratory
space is of excellent quality. Much of the large-scale separa-
tion equipment and high-pressure reactor facilities were con-
structed in the departmental machine and instrument shops.
These two shops, along with the interfacing expertise of our
computer staff, have contributed significantly to the success
of our experimental research programs.

Teaching chemical engineering principles with applica-
tions to Alberta's industries is one of the main functions of


the department, and undergraduate students can choose from
a variety of program and delivery options. Three degrees are
offered: a BSc in Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engi-
neering (Computer Process Control), and Ma-
terials Engineering-all of which can be com-
ing pleted in the traditional mode (eight aca-
demic semesters) or the co-operative educa-
!cal tion program (eight academic semesters plus
's with twenty months of engineering work experi-
Ons to ence interspersed with the academic terms).
a 's Approximately one-third of the students are
ies is pursuing the regular route to their engineer-
e ing degree and two-thirds are pursuing the
thco-operative route. All the programs are ac-
tions of credited by the Canadian Engineering Ac-
tment, creditation Board.
I Undergraduate students usually enter the
idluate chemical engineering programs after a com-
s can mon first year of study, summarized in Table
m a 1. First-year engineering students are placed
in specific programs of study according to a
program quota for each program, based on their indi-
ivery cated preferences and grades. In March of
NS. each year, the first-year engineering students
select three programs of study in which they
are interested, ranking their choices in order
of preference. Then, based on each student's
GPA and the quota for the various programs, the Faculty of
Engineering assigns students to specific programs of study.
The yearly entrance quotas for the chemical engineering
programs currently total 90 students and will be expanding
to 100 students within the next two years. Of the approxi-
mately 90 students per year that have been admitted to
chemical engineering programs during the last several
years, almost all have indicated chemical engineering as
their "first" choice.
As shown in Table 2, the traditional chemical engineering
program is similar to many programs across North America.
The key exception is the emphasis placed on both chemical
engineering laboratories and process design. The chemical
engineering laboratories consist of three separate courses,
which serve the dual purposes of providing the students with
hands-on experience with pilot-scale chemical engineering
processes (e.g., heat exchangers, distillation columns, fluid-
ized bed systems, etc.) and report writing. The design stream
includes courses in engineering economics and finance, as
well as two single-semester process design courses. The
engineering economics and first design course provide each
student with a solid foundation to complete the second de-
sign course, which is project based. In this final design course,
each student group, involving three or four students, chooses a
separate design project drawn from local industries.
The CPC program is a blend of chemical engineering
Chemical Engineering Education

S, department





Chemical & Materials Engineering uutaing

University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6

C chemical engineering has played a key role in the
development of Canada's oil and gas and associated
petrochemical industries, and chemical engineering
at the University of Alberta (UofA) has been an integral part
of the growth of the petrochemical industry in western
Canada. The UofA is located in Edmonton, capital city of
the Province of Alberta. The western part of the province is
part of the majestic Canadian Rockies The Continental
Divide makes up a significant part of the western border
between Alberta and British Columbia. The southeastern
part of the province is part of the Canadian Prairies, while
the north is part of Canada's extensive boreal forest. To the
south, Alberta borders on Montana-Big Sky Country.
Alberta also has a lot of "big sky"; there are more hours of
sunshine per year than in any other part of Canada.
Oil and natural gas fields are found throughout the great
sedimentary basin from the Alberta foothills in the west to
the prairies in the east. Heavy oil and oil sand deposits,
which contain more hydrocarbons than the Middle East, are
located north and east of Edmonton. The discovery of oil in

the 1940s and the beginning of large-scale commercial de-
velopment of the oil sands in the 1970s had major impacts
on chemical engineering education in Alberta. The evolution
and current state of the chemical engineering program, with
some gazing into the future, make up the heart of this article.

The UofA opened for classes in 1908, about three years
after the western part of the Northwest Territories of Canada
became the Province of Alberta. The UofA campus is lo-
cated on the south bank of the North Saskatchewan River,
which flows through the center of Edmonton. The first An-
nual Calendar of the university described this site on the
riverbank, 200 feet above the river, as a "beautiful wooded
park, which lends itself splendidly to an architectural scheme
suitable for university purposes." Today the campus is sur-
rounded by the city of 700,000 inhabitants. Despite the tre-
mendous growth of Edmonton, the river valley that runs
through the center of the city is largely an undeveloped,
beautiful park. As the city has grown, so has UofA. The

@ Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2000

Chemical Engineering Education

i 11 ii 11 r

Rex's first love-competing in the
Chicago-to-Mackinac race, with his uncle
aboard in 1979 (top photo, left)
and again in 1980 in much rougher waters
(bottom photo, left)...

...and his
second love-
skiing, here
with Janine on
the slopes in
Colorado, in

they moved to Crown Point, Indiana, which is essentially
halfway between Chicago and Lafayette.

The eleven years in Crown Point were most productive for
Rex. He drove the hour to Purdue three days a week on
Interstate 1-65, without a doubt one of the flattest and most
boring highways east of the Mississippi. He survived the
drive by listening to classical music and opera selections on
the car stereo as he planned the day's events in the morning
and processed them as he returned home in the evening. The
other two days he spent working at home on his books and
other research. With few interruptions at home he became
very prolific, especially since he watches very little televi-
sion and only occasionally sees a movie. Little did he
know then that administrative duties would eventually
reduce his research output.

Living near Lake Michigan also provided more time for
sailing and put Rex and Janine close to the Chicago Lyric
Opera. The family still purchases season tickets for the op-
era. Shakespeare forms another of his abiding interests.

Rex and Janine's oldest son, George, was born in 1974 and
their youngest, Victor, in 1979. At Crown Point, Janine's
grandmother and Rex's uncle lived with them and helped
raise the two boys, giving the boys the experience and ad-
vantages of an extended family. The family moved back to
West Lafayette in 1983.
At Purdue, Rex progressed steadily up the ladder, being
promoted to associate professor in 1976 and full professor in
1980 while he was on sabbatical as a Senior Fulbright Lec-
turer at Vilnius State University and the Lithuanian Acad-
emy of Science in Vilnius, Lithuania (which was then an
unwilling part of the USSR). Realizing Rex's special quali-
ties, in 1985, Dean Henry Yang persuaded him to become
the Assistant Dean of Engineering at Purdue.
In addition to his other duties, Rex was appointed as
Interim Head of the School of Chemical Engineering in
August of 1987 when Professor Ron Andres stepped down
as Head. The School then prepared to start a new Purdue
tradition-a long internal/external search for a new Head.

Chemical Engineering Education


Oe, classroom



New Mexico State University Las Cruces, NM 88003

Perhaps the most famous equation of physics is
Einstein's mass-energy relation

E=mc2 (1)
Although this equation is well known, it is often misunder-
stood to mean that matter is converted to energy (or vice
versa) in reactions; that matter is a form of energy; and that
the principle of energy conservation must be modified. Con-
sider, for example, the following excerpt from a general
chemistry text: 11
Regardless of the classification used-physical reaction,
phase change, ordinary chemical change, chemical change,
nuclear reaction-changes in matter involve the change of
matter to energy if the reaction evolves energy, and the
change of energy to matter if the reaction absorbs energy.
Energy and matter are thus interchangeable. The scope of
the conservation principle is therefore enlarged to include
energy as a form of matter or matter as a form of energy....
The convertibility of matter and energy is described by the
equation E = mc2, predicted by Albert Einstein in 1905....
As we shall see, Eq. (1) does not say that matter and energy
are interchangeable, or that matter is a form of energy. Nor
does it extend the principle of conservation of energy.

One difficulty with the foregoing quote is an ambiguity over
the meaning of the word matter. There are at least two
common ways to measure the quantity of matter in a body:
by its mass, or by the numbers of elementary particles it
contains. The latter is usually expressed in moles.
It is easy to show that the constituents of matter are not
created or destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions. For
example, hydrogen and oxygen react according to the

H2 +^02 -> H20

On the left side of the equation we find two moles of
hydrogen and one mole of oxygen; the same is true of the

other side. There is no conversion of matter into energy,
or vice versa.
What about nuclear reactions? Consider one of the fission
reactions that may occur when a neutron is absorbed by
235 U+ 1 142 91 I (2)
92U+n- 56Ba+36Kr +3n (2)
A count of the protons, electrons, and neutrons before and
after the reaction shows no change:

92 protons
92 electrons
144 neutrons

92 protons
92 electrons
144 neutrons

Once again we have an example in which the constituents of
matter are conserved in an exothermic reaction. There is no
conversion of matter into energy.
To be sure, there are processes in which matter can be
created or destroyed. In the reaction between an electron and
a positron, for example, both particles are annihilated and
two photons are formed:

e- +e+ 2y
Nevertheless, we conclude that it is not generally true that
matter is converted to energy (or energy into matter) in
reactions. If matter is measured by the moles of atoms or
nucleons present, the quantity of matter is unchanged in all
chemical reactions and in many nuclear reactions.

Paul K. Andersen is Associate Professor of
Chemical Engineering at New Mexico State
University. He received his BS from Brigham
Young University and his PhD from the Uni-
versity of California at Berkeley, both in chemi-
cal engineering. His research interests include
electrochemical engineering and process simu-
lation. He is author of Just Enough Unix
(McGraw-Hill, 2000) and coauthor of Essen-
tial C (Oxford, 1995).

Copyright ChE Division of ASEE 2000
Chemical Engineering Education

4 Figure 11. .
Entrainment of
particles by ,
bubble wake ,' ..
and drift , .,
induced by a ,
rising bubble
(from Tsuchiya, et -
alroJ' reproduced with :
permission of the
American Institute of
Chemical Engineers, B
1992 AIChE).

Figure 12. 00 0
Precipitation of .
CaCO, par-
ticles from a
rising CO,
bubble (from .
Tsutsumi, et al.P'
reproduced with
A Figure 13.
4 Figure 14. 03 bubble rising in a KI-starch
Instantaneous local solution and 0.46-mm glass-bead
liquid-solid mass fluidized bed.
transfer coefficients -
in the wake region ii
and the effects of vor- I
tices on the primary:
wake (from Arters, et al.;'i-/
reproduced with permission).
x vertical downward dis-
t:=28s tancefrom the bubble :
at 2.rc base
7 8 y horizontal right-handi
distance from the cen- ..
b(-) ter of the bubble base
b bubble breadth
r UB absolute bubble rise
S laying velocity
in near wake Reb bubble Reynolds FLUIDIZED BED TWO-FLUID APPROACH
Number based on the Volumerr
number based on Max = 1 000E00 Mm = 4 000E-01
----- -bubble breadth

V Figure 15.
Simulation results of bubble
formation in a gas-solid
fluidized bed using Fluent.

Fuet 447
Fluentk Inc


Business Correspondence. Aug. 1, 1925- Aug. 31, 1925
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000147/00146
Finding Guide: A Guide to the Thomas E. Will Papers
 Material Information
Title: Business Correspondence. Aug. 1, 1925- Aug. 31, 1925
Series Title: Business Correspondence
Physical Description: Archival
Publication Date: Aug. 1, 1925- Aug. 31, 1925
Physical Location:
Box: 12
Folder: Business Correspondence
Subjects / Keywords: Everglades (Fla.)
Okeechobee, Lake (Fla.)
Okeelanta (Fla.)
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: AA00000147:00146

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, ...


Office of

Dr. T. H. Harer".

Fom BI551


S-sar1*t, evr


"- .

ug-., ,9.
2 ., 2

r. hen. "ill,-

Dear sir, I recd your plan t9 try to do something

toward settl]In up the Ohaltnts pist.

I own NE-.ITJ- 4U- Sest I -Twp 45- Ranre 36- acres TO.
7 "" *-- --*-
and town let. Texes,assements, etc,etc, aell-aJLf to date.

I do not wish to put any thin in your way vP accomplish

ing your abject, so thinAthat yoe will be willin, to tell

me about the. price th'at would Be aeepyt&-be.

Your terms a'e setisfactory to me.

Yours truly,

f ~ r

r i
"-L .( -1, '

-. ..y




C-w1I'ITAL STOCK $ 50,000.00



August 4 1925

Mr. Thos. E. Will

Dear Sir:-

We have a deed from S.J.Yohn to be delivered to you

upon payment of $400.00 Our instructions are that you are to

bear all the expenses concerning this transaction.

Yours Truly
Collection Dept.


Lake Worth, Fla.
August 4, 1925.

Thomas E. Will,

229 Bryam Ave.,

Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.

Dear Dr. Will:

Replying to your letter of August first, will

state that I also took the matter up with Mrs. McCullough and

also asked Mr. Bryant to take it up with Mr. L'Engelle of

Jacksonvilleto see if he could not inauce Mr. L'Engelle to take

this case at once and enter the proper proceedings necessary to

stop any further proceedings of the officers in disposing of

any of the Okeelanta corporation property. I would suggest, Doctor,

that you write Mr. F. E. Bryant, 110 South Dearborn St., Chicago,

Illinois, asking him to get in communication with Mr. L'Engelle

also offering your suggestion about taking the same action as was

formerly taken to' file a new injunction in orcer that we will have

itthat they will not dispose of any of this land.

I expect to leave here about the lbth of this month

for a four to six weeks vacation. Any action taken prior to that

time I will be able to participate in.

Since ely yours,



I ROOMS 1011, 1012 AND 1013
CINCINNATI, OHIO August 5th,-1925.

Dr. Thomas ". Will,
229 Bryan Ave.,
Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.

My Dear Mr. Will:-

I have been on the point of writing you a number
of times to express my further appreciation of the aid .you gave
me while in Florida last winter with reference to the 'verglades"
proposition I had up, but hoping against hope, that the matter
would right itself and that I could send you some affirmative good
news, has delayed me.

After the gentlemen whom I told you of got back to Cincin-
nati, I took the matter up, and while one of them was in favor of
going ahead with the project as outlined by us while I was in Florida,
the other was non-committal. About the first of June they began to
get offers from some folks you know of in Miami, and finally got an
offer of ;42.00 an acre for. the 42,000 acres, and put up a fairly large
sum of money as Iarnest Money, with a ninety days option, which has
not yet expired.

If you are coming to Cincinnati this summer, I would like
to have you stop off and be my guest for a day or two. I probably
will go to Miami in Septe er, as-there are some people here who
seem to think that small apartment houses would be a good investment
in Miami or vicinity, and they want me to look into the matter for
them. The investment would not be an extensive one but would be
sufficient to justify my running down there and looking over the
situation. If you have any l~4s which you thihk are suitable on
which to erect a two-story building containing two four room flats
on each floor (as this is what my friends seem to think are the most
desirable) I will be pleased to hear from you. If you have had suffi-
cient experience in the matter to know what size fl.ts are most in
demaad, I would be glad to have this informaTfon. The people I
represent had in mind having one bed room, with an in-a-door bed in
the living room, this giving two bed rooms in the apartment if desired.

With kind regards to Mrs. Will, believe me

V truly yours

/ P' i! tr'Q -_ ,

Form 1207A
Patrons should mark an X oppola lE FIE
site the class of service desired IID
Send the following message, subject to the terms on back hereof, which are hereby agreed to
\ T" ~19 *


Street and No. ("-=%Z")po

I \ .- II

^-^'r ^ i~ L\


To gujrid ni.inri t mistake ...r .I.. .. l i t. h i-. i r ..i ,i ar?.sof Ehorildl crjrd r it r. pi: ii'] l .,t Is, t,-,gr phr I hr P t.ikl. to ite rriEgrCL'i.c: oil.- for comparison. For this,
one-half thi unrt. p. ar.l.d message r*ir. I re..., I .n dl isr.n L rl t. b.rh. r l.i ndiciitd u I.. l thlii .I ar unr.c., i.-i.l r,,.:-:acc and [... .I fr as such, in consideration
wher.of it i.- a,:i.-d b.-tween'hl. :r ni i. ] : .. r.u . ., "r I hle.l s
1 Tbh- ortnp.U' shal r.ut L.. i blr I ",r .,il.iL. -. c. r J, i'. ,. it r tr.itr.sL ,ni d i r r.r dri irv :.r i .r .i- o: rh. -: ir. .. rl '.r transmission at the unre-
pe taled-n... ia, e r .- .r voen the iu.... Ijr. b..i ,r- d c i r1. ni.. r .:. .r ir.-ri| ..ir d.'la%.i In rI ..' ri l., n ror -I. r% . r lo r .- .r...f a r. n !.. r .:.i .. l f...-
Ira .si iu t ih, r- r.r: '.J-i-.r:. r i r:L t. .. ',. .i he .h d r 'hey r in v. Cr tI." Laict ;.. d. Lil rt:. 'rl." .ii .,l. .; u:., D..r ,i iJ;> e I ...r j.. : :lnr i-,iJ uJl.i,.I.I in rTupr H.
ia tb b -.: rir.Tkm l' of tI n r : -..r r rorri i! t Ir-L. I coroli.'ure Lr, ~rC :
2. In .0 ,rrei nt Lt,-..r, ari i :. ,l i..-jr 1.,: Itable- I r.)r d r. l: c Ia :,r 1 ~1. h, l d or d la in th, ri n.i,-;;L, n r .l.hl.l :r, .. r I 1t L.i- r..in-delivery, of any message, whether
*ns.r ,l the ,erIcer 1... itss, r, .n r .-r r i ; .. br, it 1 ih. Il .i : .i i r'.'f .hr. L ri il d .. i r .!I i 1 -.i.-.I.nin ca..- nl. 5c ;.. 1, .J.'.'m.r.1 to be valued, unless a greater value
i. r iire. in wrrlire h.. IL,. senc.-r I ...'.t :, [',: t ,i ',,. i... iC. ii :. ri L. rr trd r. i. r rr r.;..i -..r. -ir,. .I, r Il i r..- .:.Ji l -ig.. r'c-. is paid or agreed to be paid, and an
3adil il ih I t .r '. r. ri one- i r .: .: _-1. p. .r 1. .l r. r. r r-i i.t 1 In. ; ... J. I . i.. :I rl v. .. .J t i -.u d,'. i.-'l r
3 T h,.. ..r :.prp r., Is here '. n % ,j. t h.: _,:nit rl ih,. 4 nl-.r. %r ti ut lca tI.t: I t,:. i'orl- .1 T. .,., r... ?. :i.. .,. r i h: Ih r Lr a., In, :l h. r company when necessary to reach its
*4. M. :_, -, i ll I l-..: .- Ir..3 Itr. .i Ir 1 .a .r,:. ,L, rI,. f. i r.,. --mr.ip.,'- office in ton nr f '.onin p,,p,.(t:...r. ..r 1.- sr.i * it in one mile of such office in other cities
e.r .-..ns ft. r. I ',h :. i,rrn ,, ...,n.[ ir, .1,. 1 ,.- ar .l i k i nm k,: d..iA ..r,, but will, u,' h-., t liil.,li. *i ti e --r..l. r r ;iia L a- his agent and at his expense, endeav
or to cc..ntr i ( '.r L.r.' r'.. r -, -i. I. .r .r ,blhi price.
5 No r. :Pc...r.I I. 1 ii i .. :. I r. .vn,,iy concerning Cm- g. lnridl .. h ...- ,re accepted at one of its transmitting offices; and if a message is sent to sucl
offi e bv -r e, .-i iL .-- .,-.~ '- messengers, he acts for that purpose ,,- i,. ;r cr' :. h ..ln r
C. Th '..ri-,,: . not be liable for damages or statutory Ip ii-Inv. In ,nr r . h.'re the claim is not presented in writing within sixty days after the message is
filed wih t it,.- r'.- ,n. I.- r irnsmission.
7. Ir *. :c ..-:. it.. i any action I.. th. ,omrrn..' i recover the tolls for any message or messages the prompt and correct transmission and delivery thereof
steb ll b,? pr. -u,,, ., ,sil,,.. r -,. rebuttal by i ,-,i r nt t r -.-
5 Sr.', I t i in- cr.... ning the transmission of messages under the classes of messages enumerated below shall apply to messages in each of such respective classes
10 addill' in o .11ll i r r. -,.i ; terms.
N N., muIluc. LI iL.. company is authorized to vary th:(i.:, -:.-:i-.: THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY

A fIll-ratir expedited service.
Accepti-d ,.p to 2:00 A.M. at reduced rates to be sent during the
night and delivered wt earlier than the morning of thb. i-l.cuin.- busi-
ne-s day.
Night Messages may at the option of the T. 1l'rap.h Company be
mailed at destination to the addressees, and the C-'miip:,n. shall be
deemrln to b ir.- iJ.-riir-r:'. its obligation in such c--- w.'ilth respect
to dr-liverry by mjiling such Night Messages at drstin.iio:.n, postage
SA deferred day service at rates lower than ti e t andard tele-rajni
rale; a; follows: One and one-half times ttr. -t.i dard N.h t L. tl
rate for the tranni lli.- ,n of 50 words or less and onr-f'ifb of tbh initial
rates for each additional 10 words or less.
In furhcer considemrtz,.-n of th1- r..lJui-.. ral. fo:r thi. s-pecial Da'.
Letter ervioe. the fill.,.. in.e -rre ,.iil r:-rmni n ajdditiuon to tboh.- nu-
merated above' ar.? ,:i.lv .zrie'd t.:,
A. Day Lett-r- ni,' I.- f..! f.,r r.J.1'd fv the T,-legraphr Co.nmpnn- a
a deferred r-rvi.e ainl tL-: trai-mi.ii-.i.u audJ Iri-hi :r:, u-f -u.i Da.'
Letters is. in all respi,'ti, fulb,:rdintLe to the priority of trannU-Lai-:.n
and dcli.erv -if re"iIlar telc.raini:.
R. Da, Letti-ri 5.Ill ble .rtrl.:-n in plain Eanliah. Code langurage
s Rnot perinnsibl..
c. -This Day Letter is received subject to the express understand-

ing and agreement that the Company does not undertake that a
Day Letter shall be delivered on the day of its date absolutely, and
at all events; but that the Company's obligation in this respect is
subject to the condition that there shall remain sufficient time for
the transmission and delivery of such Day Letter on the day of ir-
date during regular office hours, subject to the :-rrirrit, .. f the trans-
mission of regular telegrams under the condition n, r n-. above.
No employee of the Company is authorized to vary the foregoing.

Accepted up to 2:00 A.M. for delivery on the morning of the en-
suing business .la., -i rates still lower than standard night message
rates, as follow-: Ti.e standard telegram rate for 10 words shall be
h -ir:-,i for the transmission of 50 words or less, and one-fifth of
such standard'telegram rate for 10 words shall be charged for each
additional 10 words or less.
Tn further con-id'.rati.-n of fin r,.li.]i' r il. rfr fi- s-p. :-i.ia Nichb
Letter s:-r.lic th fAull.-im. spr i.l tcrTr itn .,ddihti to thore- r-nii-
erurirtd above arc hrebh,' agr-_.. to.
A. Nibht Lette-r m.iy at th:- -rpltion of thr- TeleraphC Compari.
be mulded at d': -tint. -, t.: the -:.'airi. n- ind tih Coimpanv Nh ill
be deemed to bahv dic'haroi:-rC r ,blbrati: n in S ch i cases with r.-
speit tI, di lI :-er, by m-iitJbun ueh Nicht Lctters -.t d .stiintio'n, p ?i-
age pre'paid.
B. Njlht Li-tter: shnll be written in pllin En.glih. Code lan _-,.*
Ls not permizs~bl.
No employee of the Compao y ia authori&d to vary the foregoina.

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oure touoo--ldoat in the U.porEc artdost .o you soe tir-ro is -.tlo.eo. vo, .-k, for,
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Aug. 8, 1925

Okeelanta Settlement Co.,
Thos. E. Will, Gen, Igr.
Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.



Referring to your circular communication
Settle or Sell wish to say that I am the owner of
LotjgP, block,.l, Okeelanta, and the West of
North west j of North West j of Sec. 17, township 44
South, Range 34 east, formerly Palm Beach County.
I have owned this land since 1912, but on account o
the unsatisfactory condition in the Everglades and
the drainage promised I quit saying t;xes and I am
delinquent four or five years a as I am not
familiar with the la*s of Florida with reference to
redegming,-ox-tax title I do not whether my redemption
period has expired. I will be glad tgsell this
property but as I do not know what T' is worth I
would be pleased to receive an offer.

Yours very truly,





CAPITAL AND SURPLUS, $35,000.00 -T. *

Westbrook, Minn. "' "


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August 10th, 1925.

Mr. lilliam J. Turner,
Southwold Station,
Ontario, Canada.
iy dear Ar. Turners-
On finding your letter at the bank, I completed the
esle of your twenty sore tract in section two (2) 46-56, and cent
/ abstract to t'e:.t Pnlm Bleach to be brought up to date. They tell"e
there this will. t:k;: two months. All of us regret this, but cannot
help it.
Enoloseo fd findmy folder, "Bettle or Sell". I trust
the study a this may interest you and your friends to list with ua
your traots in section 54, at a reasonable prioe1 as you have done
;:lth your twenty aIore tract.
'. fow of us hvoe struggled along frnd Geeperatoly to
build up that country; ?nid I, for one, hve. never quit. But we need
all thu help wv, cn gLot from the absent own r .
Very truly your.,

18 .:'ct i'ourth Btreet,
01o"lnnati, Ohioe

d:ea7 doar r. 2oland:-
Yours of the bth rooolved, I 'd h.:'.rd tJhb tr'LOt
wcs *cobpbly ool2d Iat *.Q42.00 0a lniaE no-.-r are Uoo:-imEnflding -'.00.00
-.:d rmore.
I -:hoAld hnv beon ;1.,'.8 to holp you oa the dovelopmont
line. It meinn much for owners, buyers ,r.d the lpblio.
I do not o:pcot to be ini Ci.ci.alti eoon, but shutll
bo glad to see you hea.s I oan holyp ,yo fi.ind the low p:'io: lote, I
think. I mnTut writ yoi rfain Kaouut the seI o-CI the flte.s
,inioel yours,

.~- .. .~.

Myr E. ? alsoaahoider
*networth, 3,.
11y dear airi-

Your off'r of S t-SE-STI, eoa. 1, ?p. 4, R. 35; ten
uoree; at $260.00 ( ,2.00 pcr aore) aaoetpl. Plea~o follow solli
'31annk fbz enoloaed and make deed to.-= Hnd oblige.

You're very Lruly,

I r


Aug et 10th, 19i .


August 10th, 1928.

MIBs Mary E. Norton,
311 Oak Street,
RookforA, Ill.

Dear Madam:-

Your letter at hand, I appreciate your situation.
inolosed find brief statement of the oase. Please give us desorip-
tion of traat; fill and sign Selligl Blnnk; and, if title canii b
eivon, and land is not too far away, we will probably buy-it.

- .

Very truly yours,



August 10th, 1926.

Ur H a Harper,
Spariee Nevada.

SDewr Sirt-

Your of the fnd insat received. "-noloseed tatoment
will help you fti the priee. Please use Selling Blank.
Voie truly yours,




August 10th, 19286

MlesJ Ethel deok Pioratorff,
Antlooh, Ill.
Dear Madamz.

of faota.

Your reply received,

Enolosed find briof statement

The tas_~turtiona must be looked into. It ruy pre-
vent sale. Further, your tract il pretty far acok.
However, if I find title can be delivered, nd you
can give as a reasonable price we shall probBly buy the tract.

Very truly yours,




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The-atealty Investment Company
August 11, 1925.

Mr. Thos. E. Will,
Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.

Dear Mr. Will:

The writer has been advised by a friend in Florida

that you could give me some information as to the valyu of a small

tract of ten acres belonging to me, described as follows:

NW 1/4 of SW 1/4 of SE 1/4 of Sec --w 46 R E.
and also lot 20, block 14, townsite of OkeelanTa,
Recorded Dec. .14, 1912, book 35 of Records Deeds, P.418.

There are several years delinquent taxes due, which

amount I am now trying to ascertain from Fred Fenno at W. Palm Beach.

Any information you can give will be greatly appreciated.

Fraternally yturs,




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Aug. 14, 1928.
Mr. Thorns *.. ;ill,
63 1. 4, 2nd. se.,
Minami, 1i.:
Deur MrW. Will:*
You have no doubt seen .r.r, Branham and learned from hl$
'about the crown Land lenses held by the Bahama cuban Lumber Company
which applies to all of the ,nine land on baco, ndros and Grand Bahama.
The le ,e applies only to the cutting of timber and after the trees are
out the Land pteoflEIWt ma.
n _Little baco wht4I lies to the northweoot of cret .aoO
at4 oeampr I t t~ t 10,000 upGae wa.e not included in the above long
tor.m l ae.Letcaure t thti it..t most of thiP ipl'nad was leased to an
tnklish si ~1Lop. .yW-'ioh has been allowed to lapse. i have nlrer.dy
o~nrmunio:ten with the loverrment and now await their reply, he Crown
hold ubout 8700 aores und the balance is owned by 12 or 15 private
owners, I hardly think it policy however beo communiu~te with them
until we have somo idea of the overncrent'n attitude, W;hat do you
think? ^ }
Duck I have secured an rio for 30 Woys for
ten nounde (10.) on tise ay which meisur'p abou 90 aorese The oony
of the agreement enclo ed showed that if required qn additional 30 days
may be h' d for nn jddlrl ional O10. Mr. Pkhder is r~llinp to 80ocert one
half of the rurchuF'e rice and to a.llo/"the billan e to remain on
mortgR e for one yonrr ',t 6:'. I am todl by T:r, rnha that ,.uck fay
comprisees bout 90 a ros cinu th-t th ,Litfthouse reservation at the
south e.eot end mraPur~e 2 acres, l'owevor in oor ing to un ,rrnemr.nt as
to nrice "r. Pinder mnd hove e4i'an arbitrary oreane of 78, .whach
multiplied by 13., comes to 10,. o0 lightly rnder 5000 This Cay
is a bout three.qu.:rt ra of a mi)'e from Checrokee tound which eu a white
settlement. In Jast, praction a y in all of the u(ttl,.irrnte on baoo
the whitOes :re puci in the majority,
\. ch kee Soun jintrict I am in conmriunic-.tion ":ith
some people who om Wmtornf1-nt on thc east co. :t lying to the -eat ,f
this vettlr.ment. f we L:r' 'euoc.jesful we sh,.uld ie up an j8 ile
etretoh of be:ch running bWck over a rCang- of dil s, he depth will
rve Re gebout a u rtr o a mile. e should be able to secure tnis
acre ,e tit about 3O. to t2~, per nacre, Thre is ier.o r.me :icrcaRe to
the north of th i border nf on the ,'YL ..r .hAch we \re nlMnning to tie
up leo. a trr ing to i.ke thin nlice better tharn \5000 cres, crown
Loand in this vi inity e ?ine farcr-t .nri t,'v'rciorc. r-J oy clt'-"ed to
the k-h.mri ..utub Lumbr iorr ."any.
1Hope l'own J.Ilctriot.'we hvc, already 1 id pine to nc-
quire ncre.:e i thi vicinity, If we are .'ble to I k un acrou;e here
with th;,t '.ccuru i ,.herokee .;ound jietrict we ill lae courr'd the
choice p, rte of\ r :/.t baco.

Adjt:cenit .ye ,.ie -ro not ov.:rlooking thlis f1atture and ho'e
to curee our sh-re .t li;.t. :urchaeoe will h~vo to be from nriv. te
ovIcirE ;. the .ov m~ant are not inclined to ln-:re an Indivinual more
th n Jrin. c-y at a tinme.
TO ccorm1lish thr:-o thin,:P ,'ee will rc;'luire r'.noy with whichh
to bind b r:'inG us t r pi3onle are ttlr ,uFbly educ:',.,,.d on th1ut
point. If you Wbr vo iion iinj; in writing, the c(ll;r i v ry ant to
double his rice in 24 hours* ho only vay to ha1iIlo th.)- io to rlip
thM .i rn 11 ;inmL,.nt ,nd '^ t -t1i6 (i',tuIC to ';.- yr _lhilc in th t
mood. .o will o100 require suffioi::nt to cover ex inore irnvolv.d,
I will do my p. rt in cubntributing, my tine nri kno *.l. ,;e of local
condlitions I expoct ;r, Brunh.m on Ltho uei n uvian -onmr'y .;nd truth t
you h v,.. p'rviuo'1 hin with ?ufficicnt money to memCt our requirements.
ith kiindert ruij ru'e for :r* uarrieon nd y.urcolf, I an,

Y:-Uru faithfully,



F. R. RAE & CO.

Aug. 14, 1925.

Mr. Thomas E. Will,
63 N. E. 2nd. Ave.,
Miami, Fl.

Dear Mr. Will:-
You have no doubt seen Ir. Brahham and learned from hii
about the Crown Land leases held by the Bahama Cuban Lumber Company
which applies to all of the pine land on Abaco, Andros and Grand Bahama.
The lease applies only to the cutting of timber and after the trees are
p cut the land reverts to the Crown.
Little Abaco which lies to the northwest of Great Abaco
and comprises about 10,000 acres was not included in the above long
term lbase because at that time most of this island was leased to an
English sisal company which has been allowed to lapse. I have already
communicated with the Government and now await their reply. The Crown
hold about 8700 acres and the balance is owned by 12 or 15 private
owners. I hardly think it policy however to communicate with them
until we have some idea of the Government's attitude. What do you
Duck Cay. I have secured an option for 30 days for
ten pounds (L10.) on this Cay which measures about 90 acres. The copy
of the agreement enclosed shows that if required an additional 30 days
may be had for an additional L10. Mr. Pinder is willing to accept one
half of the purchase price and to allow the balance to remain on
mortgage for one year at 6%. I am told by Mr. Aranha that Duck Cay
comprises about 90 acres and that the Lighthouse reservation at the
south east end measures 2 acres. However in coming to an agreement as
to price Mr. Pinder and I have set an arbitrary acreage of 78, which
multiplied by /13., comes to J1014. on slightly under $5000. This Cay
is about three-quarters of a mile from Cherokee Sound which is a white
settlement. In fact, practically in all of the settlements on Abaco
the whites are much in the majority.
Cherokee Sound District. I am in communication with
Some people who own water-front on the east coast lying to the west of
this settlement. If we. are successful we should tie up an 8 mile
stretch of beach running back over a range of hills. The depth will
average about a quarter of a mile. We should be able to secure this
acreage at about $20. to $25. per acre. There is also some acreage to
the north of this bordering on the water which we are planning to tie
up also. Am trying to make this slice better than 5000 acres. Crown
Land in this vicinity is pine forest and therefore already leased to
the Bahama Cuban Lumber Company.
Hope Town District.We have already laid plans to ac-
quire acreage in this vicinity. If we are able to link up acreage here
with that secured in Cherokee Sound District we will have secured the
choice parts of Great Abaco.

1 -

-- u


F. R. RAE & CO.


Adjacent Cays We are not overlooking this feature and hope
to secure our share at least. Purchases will have to be from private
owners as the Government are not inclined to lease an individual more
than one cay at a time.
To accomplish these things we will require money with which
to bind bargains as these people are throughly educated on that
point. If you have nothing in writing, the seller is very apt to
double his price in 24 hours. The only way to handle them is to slip
them a small amount and get their signatures to paper while in that
mood. We will also require sufficient to cover expenses involved.
I will do my part in contributing my time and knowledge of local
conditions. I expect Mr. Branham on the Nassauvian Monday and trust
you have provided him with sufficient money to meet our requirements.
with kindest regards for Mr. Garrison and yourself, I am,


- -

' LEGRAI "____ ___

would mark an X oppo-
,ass ol service desired:







Form I

Send the following message, subject to the terms on back hereof, which are hereby agreed to

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ro guard .Saain: mi.ralEs or nr days, the sender of a mrmsIase should nrdpr i repePPird ihat in, t'. r.plrcd I.rt .'i It. (e riciniir-: IT,.. r m ,ir .,... r,r tr
one-hall the untr.p- ti. .1 mnl : ..n ge rAi: is charged in add-iu-.ai I'il..: h ri.w indicatled on ilt fa-.:, t.,i- it, iiitr ', .rit. ,J mI. L.r- ..i d p-' i.-1 I:.r .uv Is lI in .I u I I ,, II .: -,
wheriol It .i gr d bit : rn ib.- Er. r ,.;r of the message ari.l il-ri (c:ii .pi r- :s foln i
I Th.hc, mp'io sh'ill n.-, L'r liable for mistakes ir .J- 1I2 in ti,. irtan mirstno r di.-liv'i r or for or-,- I. lh -r.. .of j i r .- n ci. rc. .c'.l f,-.r tric..i.ii,.:.nr hi ..- ur. r
persted-mesa~ee rate b. sond th.e ;- m f five hundred d.ilir:. n .. r rri t c r l m:r elay t r!, rr .r | [...D ...r drl..:r. ..r r L.,i 1..1. .- .I -4, 51y ,.,.hi. : rr' iI I i
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in the orkinc t ir r: r.::. r,:r l...r rr *r. in cipher .r ot. ur _rr. .tai n
2. In an, .,:.t ..'ii i. -:.rmpo ;. ll not be :.abl' f,-r dJrrma.:i fr msrise or elas.r in th,. transmission or delivery, or for II rn..u-o-l.: lii. ri. .ai any message, whether
eau'ied by 'tie nclic:r-. : .i I ~;.r. anti -:.r otherwise, be n.l ibe um .,f r- .thou-win .,ll ir s 'i vhichbamount each message is d. ..n.. I. 1. ......J, unless a greater value
is ttcd n writing t, tihe -:nder thereof at the time tl, r,:.ar'in ,h'r. t-,r i riin,-,,-. -ind unless the repeated-message rates paid or agreed to be paid, and an
addmiin. l .:bire- eq- il i.. .:.ne-tenth of one per cent of n t r i rri oi h, r r,-tti ti .n .11 .- .... i,..., r..- dollars.
3. tie ,:.iipn:. pn, i he reby made the agent of the ,nJer, "a ihli o I b to i .-r.J rri- rn-. e.- ,... r ih r- I :- of any other company when necessary to reach its
I MNN =.ic', iii Lr d..ivered free within one-ha'f m&il# of t f_ r rm n,. l,:,r tiol rn> i.4f 5,000 population or less, and within one mile of such office in othtr :6i'A
or iton B .r,r..I th:; ..I lin.t, the company does not un-. r'al.e 1.. ma .- Jcldelsi.:r i t -, ia iitniut liability, at the sender's request, as his agent and at his expense, (ei.dt Jii
or to r a-itri.-t [I-.r hri. I-r :.u-'h delivery at a reasonable r-I. e.
5 N. r. r,**iriil,,hL. attaches to this company c.-. ri' nirn m-- .A--i rjlj e ~4.r- n cepted at one of its transmitting offices; and if a message is sent to such
offi.~e, by onI :.i- it.. cmpar mp~ssne-ers. he acts for th-,' r- rry. "', -, ,- r~ .h | r
6 TI. .-pinpat I il1 n l.. I..: ; I.: for damages or iAIt)r p-.- i .s, iny.-~. r -r the claim is not presented in writing within sixty days after the message is
filed v.iitt, tl, .':.ir n', f-r transmission. '. -
7. i it uI .-.. I ilta in any action by the company\ t.. r.:. rt i. n n i: or messages the prompt and correct transmission and delivery thereof
shall be pr. -m.srn. .-urt.j..E to 1 rebuttal by competent evil r ..
SSpe.-ial t- [rr., c.,- .-rrIin it..-' ransnussion of sI... ,. .J. t ,r l'li...I.,l mi. ., numerated below shall apply to messages in each of such respective classes
in addit o to all the i--'.r.-".r: r.-rmi
9. No implAs-.. citl ic.naip.cy is authorized to vary the foregoing. THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY

A full-rate expedited service.
Accepted up t-. 2:)00 l *r. at reduced rates to be sent during the
night and delivered not, earlier .han the morning of the ensuing blisi-
ness day.
Night \lM .are; miy at the option of the Telegraph Company be
mailed at destinati-in tto the addressees, and the Company shall be
deemed to ha.'p ldii-harged its obligation in such cases with respect
to d.'ehveri by mailing such Night Messages at destination, postage
A deferred day :,- rvice at rates lower than the standard telegram
rates as3 fIlloiw: One and one-half times the standard Night Letter
rate for the transini-tio)n of 50 words or less and one-fifth of the initial
rates for each additional 10 words or less.
In further con-iic:lraron of the reduced rate for this special Day
Letter servIc, tiie f.-li..xving special terms in addition to those enu-
merated ab.-.'e ar.3 h-icby agreed to:
A. Da-, I.etter- nmy, be forwarded by the Telegraph Company as
a defe.rre-d -.r -Ie and the transmission and delivery of such Day
Letters is, in all repe. ts, subordinate to the priority of transmission
and delivery of regular telegrams.
r Day Letters shall be written in plain English. Code language
c Th I Day Letter i received ubet to theepres u td-
c. The Day Letter ia received subject to the express understand-

ing and narceuient that the Company does not undertake that a
Day Letter shall be delivered on the day of its date absolutely, and
at all evenS but that the C.m.np-ilny'_ obli-;.-i-n in this respect i
jI-.]j. L h... Ithe ,...r lili.n:o il_, t Ij...,. L- il i n.m .u s~ lf, .. -., tti-. i'. .
the t lrti:mrnz.::ir anlI .1.-Ilv. rv ,f i~s'l I .i-.' Letter on the day of its
date dujrin: rcT-ldir ,-iffi': I jr. Itr bj s,.-.-t t., the priority of the trans-
mE-'iLrn if r-:-..llr trli:ram.z uindirr tl- the ..n litions named above.
No employee of three C'cmpLny is auth.-.ri :'. to vary the foregoing.

Accepted up to 2:00 A.M. for delivery on the morning of the en-
suing business day, at rates still lower than standard night message
rates, as- follows: The standard telegram rate for 10 words shall be
charged for the transmission of 50 words or less, and one-fifth of
such standard telegram rate for 10 words shall be charged for each
additional 10 words or less.
In further consideration of the reduced rates for this -spri Iu Night
Letter service, the following special-terms in addition to those enu-
merated above are hereby agreed to:
A. Night Letters may at the option of the Telegraph Company
be mailed at destination to the addressees, and the C..inl,.' shall
be deemed to have discharged its obligation in such -ic '. \wlth re-
spect to delivery by mailing such Night Letters at destination, post-
age prepaid.
B. Night Letters shall be written in plain English. Code language
.is not permissible.
No emplkyec of the Cqompany i4 authoriaed to vy the fore igeig

if none of these three symbols If none of these three symbols
Appears the check (nmber afterthe check number of appears afterthe check numberr of
words) this is a telegram. Other- words) this is a telegram. Other-
wisits characterlsindicated bythe wiseits characterisindicated bythe
symbol appearing after the check. NEWCOMB CARLTON. PRESIDENT GEORGE W. E. ATKINS. FIRST VICE-PrEBIDIT symbol appearing after the check.
The filing time as shown in the date line on full-rate telegrams and day letters, and the time of receipt at destination as shown on all messages, is STANDARD TIME.
Received at

37MZ, RX 48 NL










837A AUG 16


F. R. RAE &8 CO.

SAug. 15, 1925.
Mr. Thomas E. Will,
63 N. E. 2nd. Ave.,

Dear Mr. Will:-

I suppose you have had quite a talk with Mr. Branham
about Harbour Island and its possibilities etc., and also our reason
for deciding to alter our plans about the trip to Abaco. I am going
to write you in a separ$ e letter about abaco.

Harbour Island and the Northern end of Eleuthera look
very encouraging and well worthy of consideration.

Harbour Island has always been foremost among the out
islands due largely to its wonderful land locked harbour and ex-
cellent bathing beach. It is also much nearer and can be reached
in small boats as one can travel over comparatively shallow white water.

We are now trying to acquire from tne Government a small
tract which they own to the North of Dunmore Town, and also certain
other small~ tracts from private owners.

There are several cays in the vicinity which I am trying
to secure. So far I have only been able to get an exclusive listing
on one called "Meek's Patch which lies between Royal Island recently
purchased by a Pr. Ellis and Eleuthera.

I am enclosing a copy of the listing as you might be
able to dispose of it fo ..even a better price than adams is asking.

I nope to hear from you through :.r. Britnham who
should be over this way again next week.

Kindest regards to Mr. Garrison pnd yourself, I am,

Sincerely yours

-. - ..- ..- .w* r .- .. . T



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August 15,1925

Ur Alva Hoae,
':211 Dcan Stre-et
V'oocDAtock, Ill1

Dear Sir:

YLour of L_.c 10th rocolvod.
explain morj f.ully.

Enoolsureo s "vill

Kindly consider the service no rwaq rondi:r
you through our offorts if you retain your lot.

I su.gost uiAt you ad this and' make
por acro the prico of ,your tract.

Very truly. yours,

r1 -f -


* .Suterland. M.D., President and Medical Supt.
_F. Rocke, Purchasing Agent

N. H. Druillard Sanitarum Receivins Matron
M Bessie DeGraw, Secretary and Treasurer

Rural Educational Association
Lessee of the
Nashville Agricultural Normal Institute
Madison Rural Sanitarium
Madison, Tennessee
Near Nashville
August 16, 1925

Nashville, Tennessee

Walnut 1789 R

Mr. Thomas will,
Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

Dear 1!r. Will:

At various times during the past years I have had
correspondence with you over property belonging to the
Commins Estate. This property consists of twelve acres in -
PE-lm Beach County, primarily belonging to Fruit'?eFt Association.

The trustees of the Commins Estate have recently
sold this property to a corporation, and it is necessary for the' (r
trustees to clear uo the title of this property. --

You were looking after the tag.s of the whole trac4
of which the 12 acres is a pal.tt. F6oa time we paid our
share of the taxes to youbut we have paid-_otxes for the
last two or three years.

Will you kindly advise me the presentstatus of
this matter and how to proceed to get the abstract for this
tract. I will appreciate a letter from you a your earliest

Thanking you in anticipation, I am


Dictated but not read

Your very truly,


Trustee John M.Comm-ins Estate


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Auguat 18,1925

Mr, Tlho B,, Poland,
7!18 East ''ouvtU Street,
Cincinnmafi, Ohio.

1ty dour ir. Polandl

Another word on tho housing q ostion
in thi p section. This issue is becoming aoute, INow,
in Lmiiu,'sau:o0 tleo coat is jom full and visitors aro
unable to find holator, in canos of any kind. A story
in a oooent audordalo Inpor, with special editorial,
sailors: that the situation nl beoo oin scandalous.

IowJ, vhat I could vjish is that people
lio yours, with n umbors and capital raised to thio nth
pqTTr,p migft pour into this country, and provide some
s at of docont sheltor for the rmultitudos that threaten
tk' imindate this territory a little lator as tho
7L.sislsippi has inundatod adjoining torritory.

It is not so much a question viothor
tho i.uildings sall bo O- all or large., 'jLoy should bo
multipliod almost out of reason, and supplomontod with
tonts that should malo tho Dixio Highway, from Palm Beach
to Iiami, look lilie tie coping ground of an arvxy

lovw, an prono to do, I am looking at
this question from t11 starnpoint of tho gonoral wvol'aro
rather tlan that of ay private intersoat. I have no lots
dovrn laro to soll, though I could find nomc, and tiould
not roi~fso a cormiasion if it cam001 y 'oy.

But that is not the proposition. PFoilios,
with aick babioe, should not be roosting in oars out doors
all night long, and starting back homo thio Knext day curaing
South Florida,

Donut forgot that the prices of lots in
all thooe touas are up wheor the buzzards fly. If I woro
landling it I would dodgo those prices. I would Ibunt up
cheaper land outside the tolno,, possibly along the Dixie
I:Lih ay, but, proforably back, Last or at of that, maybe
a quarter or mhlf nilo or noro. I rould build oonfortable
d70oll!ing placos for individuals and fanilieos at costs away
bolow/ those involved in building on Cit- lots, and tmt
money saved would go, in part, into providing superior accom-
raodations, adxl moro abundant, and in telling the world thraoua

IUr Poland:

through sensible advertising.

No trouble to got tenants, iMay .'of these
have carss If suitable oar shelters are izrnished,
and decent roads connect these dwellings .Utl tho
Dizieo the tenants wivl got back and forthi; and they
will fill your housoaand keeoop them full trbtlve months
in the years

Now, as to utilities current tan .be had for
electric light, voters can be supplied from v tlls, es-
pecially dug, and septic tanks can take care Of the

I have purposely r.ae this -gonoral ataUd have
cut out all the real estate that I mar do r bi t tornrd
solving, with your help, a screaming public prol Alem

Don't "Stand upon the order of your c ading",
but come as quickly as possible,and help get thi,V Job

Cordially yours,

~.: :
~~ ~,?:
-. ~i ;

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August 18,1925

Z. Livingston Llorria,
453k3 Viest norris,
Alhbtt.r, Calif.

Doaai 61ra

YSours of tbo 19rth, with selling bla#k, recevod.
I onoloco data that may e nmattero mrwe plain*

Your oi'f r of tract and lot for 0500.00 is anooPed
unlos-I you i.ant to f tAin "ao lot and soll the tfnot fo

TIn oithOer case plaoo notify -,- and ~ olIoi Woa e-
..l7Jy insiatuctions on. Oolling Blas,"u

Vory truly yours,


- *---~'.~K.* .4-r~rc~&~r-*.~&.. -'--~.--~- -

..1- -' ~ L




Anuust 18,1925

Mir. J.LE. Villa,
Vostbrook, UHimn
My doar Sir:
I tcham you for yoau' favor of the 8th inste,
I noto that your tract is protty far back which detracts
from its valIue
Again thoe tcax sit. nation nay provo serious.
I oncloao dalta basod on severe 1overglados expol'r
ionooj ulmo, roxcanmondatIon t r.t yot saol -.f1ra1 tract and
Icop your lot.
I bollovo rofloction rwill iproas you with the
forco of this if the situation is evor to bo savod,
I suggost the price of 85.00 per ac r for
your tract, :with lot oai'ttode


In caso you acoopt,I. Ull look aIl th tax altun

Vory truly yours,


-- 7. -.~- L; *~~~; .*~... 7- -- .77.- *7. !..* ~j- ;i -t: .~i*- -.

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AIg4at 19,1925

Mi'. Horman B, Valklr,
J51 South Stret,
ITeDark!, IT.J.
IJDAs ::r. .'alkor:

In your letter of July ist, I was plo..led
to observe how closoly, once more, our ideas agroeoi-'is
tims an the poultry business

True, I do not profess eXport mnoulodgo on
this line Hlowovorw I ou-ht to pooaeso a degree of such
nowlodgo on the conquest of the tvorcl~des.

For yowars, I .avo boon couvinood that one
of the boat lines, ospoctally for t o Lmn of ordinary :oonea
coolkin- to L!ake his giving in tiat corantry is the poultry

aio flverglados conbino a list of extraordinary
advantage fzo that occupation, inaludingl climate, opporn
tunitios and facilit'oo for chlap aid abundant food produc-
tion, froodom from animal and insoot -posts ( this ~ill excito
tlV durioion of aome, but uith reJolawition mad civilization,
tl-o point wIll be Gound ioll taLon ), abundant market on tho
coast and tlroufiout t.z.o country and the 1o rld ( this because
of our position as a World Conter, and the tronendous trans-
portation facilities, partlkr preoont and portly crooping our
rvay ), a the opportunity always affordod by a clean table
to start rilht, and march straiiitL to the goal,

ITo ono lmovr, bottor than I mhat .o havo not
jot obtained all those t i gas lut I i:now 1o can obtain thacn
and, if our unparalled rogion over enjoys tiho fbost of a
squaro doal, and the trouat nt that should bo accorded even
a dooert, vwo wi3ll Omior ti world aonothlig.ie

SAgai1n, you klco i I avc alv;:a stood for Oyston-
ization, oranl ation and all tih co-oporatilon t. o piiartois in-
volvod will3 eta-d for and aro sufficiently civilzsod to uoe.

;luch that wo oaoulL. ha had ton years argo has
not corno .et. I havo 1 n., been convincod th. t.t i old, anti-
1vovgrlados war mho' nover boon abandoned, but lan boon prosecuted
covertly vionn not oponlyl and tiat "thI iC thli ruaaon things
have drarr;oed.,


lMr. Valkor:

But there iu a moving on the face of the atores hitch
points toward victory, whichh may :-o faster than we
mi f.t expect

For example I havo mhd long conforencs, by in-
vitation, wilthl millionaires ulio have shov-n a profound
inter st in going right I to the Okeelanta Conntry, and
opening their barrels, -nd doing tihe noodful things

I may see one of these again noon. If he still
scoLca in the right fra-io of rpind, I want to talk to him
alonCe -oe line of your laut Ictter,

UThotheor you are Theeping in touch with gladoe itters
I do not mlowv. The ordinary pr~4. does not help us much, It
represents the coast; and tLhe one thing that interests this
section--its paran-ount isouc-- ins til3ing tLi:: tourists and
oclling tnca sand and surashinte. By the side of this ovory-
tLin: oelso palace and silrvels. *.once :.veurlados now., ba-ing
Evo Llaccso real estate ncxa, could hardly be expectcc to rc-
coive at'L motion.

-llorover, as an antouiidinrg exceptions, noto the..
tliali Herald for last Saturday,. front page, full column,
pointing out hou the dairy inOustry on the coast has been
dostroyed by high prices of foods a-id lians; hov our friend,
County Agent Rainey, has risen to the occasion, inter stixnr
a syndicate, bought a big tract from the Weainsylvania Sugar
Coipa-y, arranged to R C I A I II the laid.

This r claN1aition-not their M-ner, overlasting,
crazy, "Drainage" scheme-- is uhat I have boon ca:aigning
for a long timo. L-t misans ditching, in;g, thuro.ring excoos
uator out ail necessary water in, and protecting tIeC arqa
a-aianst floods, drouttts, frosts and fires, aLd so protecting
tlhc sottla;ont as to insure actual living and farn-in condi-

Zie Rainey group, it soros, uill actually do this,
rloen they will provide roads, cut up the t-act into faoms
of nu:ltablb size and ad-it thIo farmers vwith reasonable anour-
a*i'o of success,

This is ;,.hat oioui.g to be done in our Ukeelanta
section; and, once in offoct, v.1ill rzor than reallzc our fon-.
dost hdrcaLs, I ma workinC for it :i'-]t all r !!~ight.t

I hald fthis all ouxl:ed out a year ago for the
Davic district, but it was systematically and agr essively
strangled to death by tei invisible 1ov;irnii:eni,

Am glad you still ave sound lots at hivorsido,
If you want to sell your cir.ty ,-ncr s on the Iiianl Canal, I
might help you do it.

Enclosed in statonont of your Fruitcrost account.
-'T-r" Cordially yours,

_ _~~ ~~

4 : 4

Aulnuat 10,1925

iir-, :.,Q Ciazfoe
12a05 (Giai.unty BESl-g,
G3I1 .Iollyurood 3 lv'l,
Los AAglos, Cali'f

Dom.* Sir:

Yours of thI 1Ut lIt cotvud.,
taklu liattioro woE cloar.

?Eniolo.ur3ea za

Till youtc;nlay t'jAuie old tiract .ior.J CoaCUd. ylow
t"i:.oy a w: kbovring ao-i sl:;;s of life.

I ta exortink; 1jrsuo"iS to r-aviivr tflu OIC;olant&
Country, ttLU soGldiU; co-opcration fllom thei old iiylarau.

My proposal thaut tio xWoycr o:ll 12i.n tovt,to
ncourruao dcvoJme.ojunt, irnd hiold Ihis lota to dorivo bono-
fit trsf3?oi, I-o t'-o slralotC aind chion-rpont plan I lauww
hiiorolry tiz old nbuyor can; otill win from his uinproitc."Lulo
bll'c>uJt ,o:ite

If intorosted vrito aild I will 1o-k int-o rnur?
taxt uituat ion.

Veor. tn'uly yours,

3-86-07- 8-01

=r. ./ia3mi

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A- u n t 19,1025

Hr., j*;,

d **M

uU :. alf yo-.' tIracit of ton acron, rnL -:0ly
II 9 '-'* **' C. hoacctio:'. 9-WAI-?.. ric o1?

.eL-' 'Cr *' .c'i C -:.'. .1 ;u tl).0 ll21ioa inui.cacc .

r* -":: 1 "i 3r
0 U'lr~n


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Ir. Ea1 l 11eech,
Atlantic, la.

LJoar Tir, Beoch:

I have your lottor of th1o 1th, and thank
you for the spirit it rnnifusts.

&l.b iriatcroat prJopoition, let 110 aayI-haa
i'ror:. the boGit.?.ii{;, bvun u.ig.n,

It :rou out of ta c.hle 7v ,rglr.do tanulo a i'ov of0
us Ihaid Li-arcay clicove~.'aj T1r 191j, -1K LIoLLr).t in "xU ftX' as
p oJ.b'Lo to solve tl'e pwr,.lctmL.

Xt wa dflhoront Br~c other Evergilado prmopot--
t1onu in r~esuDot to itu ..a.-lica fkoatf i -CLo- it ,:.;'L-:a pl
lay--o-at :;..t [..Sl j :..U 3 of ,.rrc;..' .i.:f } village co :uritty.

It wac c.il'':,urcxu; In thz:t t I nvoidodu th:u i.uunl,
oc.och-foibyhmstn;lf p:Ltua i co'n L ouLiiod Luo./ou 1U ai llo;-'-lu into
v o-olI-ratt.vO ... .au:. :.-_: C.t. ..c: r .c raitt,.al
ir-toroots of :.1. cout-~Uinor1.

.'alIn, it '.:.. fai-knt :Li its cu'i.ti .v out of
the 'rivaltt itW fit foaat- c, I :.;:~t.:d.-l ibQ olatoly to accept
a profit, or ovn a cozmliusion, fo t~L.c o:J.o of lthe litr.L'O
oxoeptlng only a mnll salary, \ hich for theo -m-Lt :x~, has
niuvoar boon paid,

This uamsua l f. .:_ul.!ul 2.,; ...:-. ,;.,, 7.,-ar
by the fact that while othuir, st-.'iaomdil< :i ,. cc~pL:t k..:- loauvl
;iT0:-lboon li ouJit for 01.00 or 2.00 per acro, but wuro selling
for i;G0500 'pern acre, I had boutlit our section for :10,.00 por
aooe mid ua1s sOcliir', 4., por nc3?x ae lddinG a aiall
BlA tovir iln up XtlC. .

But for thU i ploiL:.a wlich fncud all Llvorrloudo
attcrits rit dh oe dayB, \wo rto uncloubtodly havo mad.o a
narked succoo- years ago, for oulr1 plan was vnctly cupo'ior to
any other,

IIowcvor, \vo faced the common ignortuice re:rdil-
Ing u dcs of uindlinU, te raw Iland, rmiacl1 ioiy adapted -ip ou"
needs, tho orops that would grow, and the nothods of tiurnin .- v
thorm into cosh. '


+pr, Earl Boech:

In addition, we faced the towering difficulties resulting
from lack of reclamation and transportation- a lack which
still contiraes, and in some respects is norse than over,

These factors nearly ruined us. We might easily
have been closed out long ago by the State for non-payment
of moneys due them; but they appreciated our motive ard spirit
and have shorn us great leniency,

Our crisis came in 1920 with the great flood. At
that time, ve were prosperiig and had large crops planted,
But the flood destroyed practically everything, and a inamp in
freir,t rates took v hat thu flood spared.

'Then,. or the first time, I found myself ombarressed
to pay taxeo, whether on -w land ori on Section 27. To oeet the
crisis I borrowed $.12U00.00 frl ~ bank at ton lor cent iltorest,
and !orrtgaged uy otwn boot lacndl. T oit of this i.onoy went to pay
ruitcrarst taes. 'This nmo tat; has not yot been lifted, and
still thiratens to awallot1 up" iy boat prooorty.

In aoiltio n, 'it boi c impoL~72lblo tto (bo-nl1'or more
tbrsaafter; -hencb both my ovel lands end Secblon 2Y, araw badly
behind on the taxoal and, at ti th im'l it is possible th holder
of the tax cortificato uray apply for u tax deod on the whole of
thio :lorthulJt cighty acre tCact iz: SoCtioni 2.

'- re:Lacivo t U.s : tnaao vwifl ost ,'I70o,00,, his
sum I au exp1cti2\; to rv-. .. b'y, nil :.:'g 'outM of my o'n land. I
ccrta!nly Cdo "ot Siritnd eo sce a tar 'looed i ued, although, I
5Tm no hinT,12 tI>. Toy tia a o *"-,r

To"Florida propporlty h1a poduOncod li, tle
c2ect, .-:z y'tr, i .: ', 3., .i.tz t4Xa slctiori, .'atcr asain stands/
on our ladE our act.tei:ie'.-i', n1..: r..:rn alr-st dosntroyeto .n -
ninetoon people now live i. theK. vast area ro the I i1sborough /
VWst into lHendry County, euad lfom tihe Custard Apple south into
Dro'mrd. Seventeen of tLose aru in Okoolarta, .ni Lc-o of these
nm, leave.

Insofaran thia oirlief of uoi.u..itoia I..jj roach
us I desire greatly to improve it by cleaning up these old debts,
taxes, intorosts and what not, and getting matters finally squared
up; and this I eXpoet to &b,

In the case of .,action 27, we face rn-otlor diffi-
culty, namely the deed situation. As the result of the unusual
plan on which tlhe land uas originally handleded a responasbility
Tas placed on all thUe -oborb to aid in selling the entire section
S and holpleg-pay for it.

This is found in clmane 4th of your contract,~ "Def
In this you find that a deed could be issued to no one buyer
until the entire section is paid for; wrhoroupon all buyers wmond ,

* -Pag4-6

Lr. Earl Beoch:
receive their deeds simultaneously. This was the only fair
way. however since our difficulties, It virtually blocks
the sale of samll tracts; and necessitates our making a largo
sale from v-tich enough money any be raised to enable us to
finish paying the State; and vhen we deed to one, daed to all.
This Northiest eighty is the best place to begin,
because practically all ofit is for sale, it represents a
practically contiguous, and therefore, attractive tract, and
-with other lands adjacent oaw for sale, 'Xuld enable us to
pay our State debt, and give deeds.
If, however, we began selling on the plan of pay-i
Lig profits to owners, this Dould block our paying t above
debts and issuing the deeds; and would therefore leave us in
the vory predicament from "which we muist escape.
Since I have rg psed myself, to accept ~p of-
its out of this section, I think it but fair that buyeAuUishc
have suffered none of -the hardships of the pionoerin" should d
Sbe eqaally~..iboral, and if any profit is realized, after paying I
tho debts, it should go towards puaiang thl-e sattloment and de-
vclopment AAich from the begi.-ning we have endeavored to do.
Sono of our numbers* ga ving impatient, and b ing
quite unwilling to do their orS part by aiding in pitching sales,
or otherwise solving the financial problem, have insisted on
having their principal sums, paid for tracts, refunded. In
aOceitions some have asked interest, rvhil oth. r E-sve agreed to
foreoo inter et*
It is qni; a possible it may ba found boat to clear
|up this entire matter in this very way; nataely, by Aaising such
|finrZl as Tn can by c-.'.loc; a- th cn rofundiL~ to 'tC :..ambers what
ticy Lave paid. In thiI ws0o shIauld endeavor to s.:e that they
received -not only principal, but six per cent interest during -
the time their money has been out of'Cteir possession*
This done we might make a fresh start; and, with ,
such monoys as were derived from re-aales cropping, or other-
inso proceed on the lines of our original plan, to rnake this a
model settlement and development proposition.
In tho li0t of tJ e above you can understand how
this natter of yours should be handled. You and I have a
tk~ar, you lmoug as have 'r, Ulbrich and I, for selling on a
precise lines indicated ilrn last letters to both of you. To
the amounts there indicated as coming to you, I should be willing,.
provided this did not vjjste our coatzatc to concede six per v
.cent interest on your moneys paid for -and And plowing for the
entisrfLtimx3 this money hk.s been out of your hands.
Hoping th1 1 uill"be satisfactory to both of you-
and it goes farther thsa the contract provides~- I remain
Vory trUly your, 3
I II I II I I I I '" ,

August 19,1925

L2". J.. 13VreC,
ioluobcoi, t.DJ

Doar Sy3 s

Yours of 12i 1i3th at hand. If yer varl
oa3l 1 J lopatplg o you1 taraat I (call Cti5i'lti Ito

ocuhile tlesc eo. wi-loz' cGa3X'ully ry prvo-
pocal rvgradinij oetlling 1i.not oInd ecpiLf; lot, lIdAn
I foel rlU l ilp you aind ci. cneo:r-mod.

Veoy tr4yi' your,



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Aug-wt 21,1925

ilb. John L eblalcgol,
Box 2756
Clara, Linaao a .

Donr S.ir

I iarnkI you "or yo'rzur Selling BlantL: form
duly fillcid iad airtod. o aro aocntg a.
vpropea1t.eon Us thict reo LAtiuated: E of lTM of SL;
of eoction 13, ToRnuLip 47, aoiit liano 34 Enat,
S in .Falm Beaph County; Price :.'00300 petormar Te'it
es found on nollwi: "olnnk.-

As to &Olcolanta Ift, ploaso #oe ut a U u quit-
clulm.i dued oCna Uis t Lh C I1. .111 Msee l.utzlhor it can be
r-cdco:-od, Givo us a i/:rra it.' ded on tho ton aoro

-aollou inutluci-einu on"UcilinG BlanI", -anai
-7 1 1
I wil do likeolsce.

r 1"-' a'>'

2\ fir)^.^*^i /.'ah

* . : s ., .. N..s .

Auiust 21,1925

::r, S.J. Yolm,
Iinsrdalo, Ill,
i,.i .r *-,

lonar -r. Yobn:
I ai IloueC. to notity you that I
lavo settle with ti'< bean: fosr yosur tract #428,
havo recolvcd-dood, naidl have arr'ian d at tho bankl
to nend you your i0iO.00, v.wiich v.ilfl l,robably ioach
you ong with this.
.m ao'rrj- It io r oko lo ii; to lieftllo
yo' r tract, lit "Bettur late t.otn nora,."

Corodally yours,

TP 11D/ 7



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f T W9iTH, TEXAS..


Dr.Thos E. Will.,
Ft.a.uderdale Fla.
Dear Er. will:-

I have been trying to loQgae in Floxlda
for ten years but some-how have never been able to make
My wiCe is going down there some time in
October, witli friends, overland and since there has been
such a decided change in the last few years I am more
anLious than ever tc locate__there. Since I know of no one
better able to enlighten me than your good self I am
going to impose on you for some information.

In what line of business do you think one,
could succeed with the proper amount of energy and capa-
bilities that is, in a small way financially?

What, do you consider, the best towns?

I am qualified along the following lines:

Cotton grading and classing, Ccttoigins,
Shipping, Accounting, railroading, some bro4Srage experience,
Cotton and Stock exchange work and a general knowledge of
business including realR g tate since I have built several
houses in a speculative way.

W Vuld you say there were any openigs along
th above lines for a salaried man and if so would you
mind giving me a line on them.

I could probably make a change some time
during October.

Any information you can furnish me would
surely be appreciated and if I get down there I will most
assuredly look you up. Stamp enclosed.

SDid you get my better of sever-
._ / ero SAncerelsy e a s -aso?.


-'- -, I
your NAME JtA!g
,: ADDRESS. -J^r '-^(Sa" i t~ e^~
tinl' RAC( Lc 'U. "i

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90 I'-Lo-^ /^ ^t^ '% ^ j^^o-^ j^. "

August 22p1925

**isms t0rr E. carton
#311 Oak Struot,
Rockfordv fl1w

Dear Madam:
Your reo ent favor at hat. I Iorw your '
friend lr, Gecr vero well, I thini1c he has sold all
of his Evorglado land after experiencing some of the
troubles I have .gone -t'ooutx he is safely not of
the woods .

FPor me uand practically all of the old
BrPtamt and GrQenwood buyors, there s still plonty to

Please bserve that XI occupy a c'~ally
differen~solition from that of the mrepo(~a olative
bt~2W o rnLjay buy your tract, and pa-PLnore than I
Tvould do* but remamboy that he will do absolutely
nothing i3o the region but boost p.icos, and ~ake
it far more.Sjffiouit for0 axibody else to take 'hold,
at, tbo higher prioe levol, and do the neaeuSaoa thlincl3o.

3y woork, from th;r beginning has boon to
help malko the roeion fit for hfaanP~ habtation, and
Senableo tile buyrs to realize their hopes asd rbilioU ns
of a dozen yeras ago. a-t

S-And I aI still workinrL on tiis litine
hl w Por the prbsont o ran who areo willinEf to
h'elp with the devolorPont rsolling at prices we c m
: pa, and then to enjoy the profits Wihih rill follow
right development I have formulated the 1prbloal onclo rod;
namely,"Koep Xo3uy Lot, DBt So11 Your Tract!, 2.o spoculaa-
tor is offerinM any such proposal as thi.*

Very truly yours,

S r-. ,
. ..... .. . . ,



8/22/25. ^e pf ^ & -

Okeelanta Settlement Co., /
Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

Dear sir;
*, I received your circular relative to
the Everglades. I have been somewhat,interested
in selling my land there.

I have twenty (20) acres description as
follows; E- SEi-SE-, section33, township 47,
range 35 located in Palm Beach County. /

I did not fill out your blank because
I am not sure that I will sell. I should be
pleased to hear from as to what the value of
this land is according to your opinion, and
any further information which you feel will
be of interest to me.

Very truly yours,


*'" "* " *1 0 N

i !

August 208nd,195
':r., Alvin I. I3hal,
Hotel itonaandto,
roaodvlny Slth Jtrou;t,
:ow York City

YoueS of tho 1Oth inzstac rc .7cv .
In all ry uttlrancos alnd efartS ainoe .1909, I
" tlirj I have c ad it pretty oliar tlhat rly \lorr.loudes objoot
is not to heap up opeculativo p-rof t for 'saeli, for b)rokersu,
for old o:'.nora or Rlnyonic lo.e

nereo 1i 1' ol!..t... po;?armE, still vr nrich

1-- 12o holy) sorl0c thof) toweri:3, ovor-pr3' ont, ovor-prosait,;,
vor. gsola-2da prul~m, m htal it possible 'or people to live civ.
1slio& livoo in o Everglodoo, ouic. :urintain thsaoolvoo tairo by
thoir labor.
2-- -o builr? a Ciuty at Okeelant-.,

- o OCave to arud for its 48"GO rI : tiul o'nerfI t.o Gift :,nd piro-
poIlrt r\now o-rthi pzob:.ly nabou t 000 1, 00 000.
t"it-Wn'.l'7 auchI a rn-;..':' m.'1ieo a' O :
.'n *otlo- YI.o-d.n cfi'orts, on t3.ds co.ait, and factt:'. up, in-
campqarably.La Iosa xvortLyr. ailxUportax;t., people are ConstL.tly &un3l
incontinontly p-ou ; out ll!onu,

Dut, o.i tVo rograwis abovC, I 0oo3:, aid frwo tu ', 1isa=TninT havo
lcik. d, i vain, "o rio- t of th1e old T vorgladesa iDayoo, for Rid, ooa-
fort, co-opczoation or a npatVy.*

F roa~.i thn a I have .r cc..i: .e. Iproso1y as c:oh holp wa froLu t
rots, rab'iat aL'd .raccoons .h'it cointlitut t;h cioef, pr ooout; popu-
lanticn -f o' ? cormx)i towli:a O'~eloun;ta. '

To Uto0s pooplo 0 ucO s a -roqa as hbovo is, pa'unAtly of
not tole s.liUa.ost aignl.f l. ncul uWa mZ fiftoou-yoar ,.Iattle, of to
Visldomlrn'a in th Soricgnl :otiy aw uId tu Aroutwllo 110pua, an.id ambitionas, is t.Jorth oxactly~

Ia' hlo" can "SuL1 out al a profit, :ivorglacdoe IILd flvo.-glado's
will. firoa tlhat laoment, be oriovor forgotonp anti YvLoevor I'ino tChou
the ubrlgoat profit tly Aill hail as tlwl3s dclivu-ro.


S* ; '

'IA :- ;.


4- A.


W arnw "a w pur 4U gano

varet sther O es oatL I. to mXs the NreuPlasef
W4 peiani a ffit uMhas t' aI, oUan emotobpt.

brgI yo um an apt p ws ple b meeb mat
ycrqrLxwagaxa or to swmglasao wiotiatlio

F bor r ear tb Irted t h

:ed at the sm7 mz bl a p smwtB uptjd
dfi"elo -l-t z S Xe ffmaIflt tmc *Bad propowl A*

*tt aby P1thUL mqd qpso tSM if*u trxisndIa. *

V. trl yu- ,*

* ,;': '


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,: I.,a

ht Message
Night Leatter
II no class of service is desig-
Iatrd the telegram will be trans-
mitted as a fast day message.

August kS21902

i1it ?2.Ic 8trt!t
1.0 ( .:i 3..o.-,,, if
.:L .C'<._ L / tion U3ar' tLoalt IUcoativo o- ] .r.y fiT'? t'rTity 3riur1
5. h.-:ifty fivo J.oJL.I rU-;-r .arc t'mU rath.i'n lot it*nA d'!a Iic
* .L;c>- '.iL.:.. ~. L .tl~--i ... ,..iLia:'l .:.nl a-..*t itd .'-,thll C s8eC 3VJ *,i
.i-. lon t1 .Pi" :0Aias t-;o yoF, .L 1I.t Al ;it Lit ri'
202: 1 v Je t .ll

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llY~il[ Wl1Oi IIILI fIi

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- '-- - - '-1


August ~a*1925

Ers E tbal Bok Pierstorff,
Antlooh, IM,
Don ds
I thank yu for Selling Blank &%3 r fled.
Yao offer us your trawt in Section 17, Tonslfhip 46 Soath
S1ange 516 EBast at a00.e00 with tames patA tansA 1918
alo, yarur lot #M in Block 860, OIeelana, at 01.00001
taxo paid a aboe ee
We will see whether yor pxzportty has boon
finally lano s thin XoiAne a-t of texas, If not we VJl1
/ o laaa your taat for .00 bitt aue tf that e
the ILSL In acoaanoe it Our analoned g jmiad, l '
'TradrTtnt ump Ywr Lot, 9o
In this way you can sblae in Zte benefits of
the dvoalopmeat we hopo to .:akm
Ploate study earweia3y Selling Blank enclosed,
and follw ti e ending deed and abatract to Ia ITaational
Bank, rtf-Ayerdadlo, FTlorida.
On Its rooelpt 1 v-4l deposit binder. Yaw papers
wil be safe in the lank, and bandy for use In closing traneuma
I wur propftvy has been fg~tlted, tih paorpn
| will boe truurnd to youn
"Slme all theso thing camtsbum time, I iunoat
that yca so n deed and abstract 4t aaUne

Ivory tnalt yvm3n,




balst & .,4 l'

iP iy

1k* RS.2 SBayasM,
Delavuen, rVOg,

9y dear S1ir

arai* lXt0? oftm tho
filled outm reeoovet1

tau ofetw us 'siant
45, fxange 36 Eaat, ten &atx,

toan oCes,3

lot s, locka 1, Ouoelanta,

Lot 5, Bloank 1,

219the 'th gj2ing m I

346, seo Ibn aso,
at 4= 1 a"&o,

em B ootto 17, ormaajp 46, Bongo 3 Y-*
rs wool0 also,

*430~Q 2~btal iCObLD.CO

All this ve accept*
I enclose our statement fegtsa aelliang feat
i& KXooping Lot* If p91 snad tprefea to do 1t1mg we Uill
take the tinrt e apr at 0450.00 Total,

Since tUfs is required to cloae thise mattors
I maggost that ym rsemead carefullU owu SEoling Blank (Igeo 4)
nmd follow it emwat3yt ase1ing daeds and a absretazts at aOXo,
to FIrt Natlonal Bak, tFort w4aulrdale, Flor3da*

'I m1l
I have daLw so,

deposit binm and hare bank wvi yom that

As to land v&es one eno ue gves an ia dea
To tUhi I add t1o following figures, horwiz prices, per anro,
at Wtclh, tracts h av boon offered uae
5B.e0 Se3n1m-Q0-868-aieSm5- 9265-03B3 92 6-80.40.

pha1nirng ypt foubr yuoar xrL| and trusting ywc
may profit foa lthe on, struggle we ve made, anu dae tay-
ing to roemta, far Everslados suc ess, I rmaisn

Vory truly yopurl,
T86EI 88,, -90*91
B E 117 / I B K 7 -. -. -"



3 ~p- p~

August B4,198B

.Ur' V,o7r, other
Olioeolmita, fae
d &sPr a'otche, nots
Your letter ooolvod d o yur ow card laJt

I note to vator caditians, and zrga t thal aa
atrooc uam, an unoWalod ftro.
As to th Evoxrladoe in Gmnorol-
The Pioneer, buidor, sotttlc r dovoloporg t~
belper of cnWr kind, or in- ay r it Vay, \iiotor wproent or ab-
swnt, nxrits the fulloat ooxnilditlion&
'dE moe' omervio lo, unui7aUottic, utrsJol pfi,
Intorootod only In roaping an "foUXnod LKnore nt" procmuood ly
tbo toil Caid oamrifoo of othora, stands on a difforont footing.
For elatoon yoar I I ao dono all thnt Lurtal
man could do to carvo tfw Evcrgladon conuce allmou~Cy alrrny frc
mly 5witationr, Individual a1u fmiancoal.

lty object has bwen not to pilot up epooulativo
profits oithloa for ryoolf, or for otihoro, but to l-Ilp saso o:f to
Evorclldon a fit honm foe ian.
Anm thin is n y objuot now.

Ltr progmm tVa amii UiS
1.- Wb help solvo t-e pgysiaol probloit, secure reolaantlion and
tans-portat4oan, 3o an Imn to tfar tiw land, and to aoettio it on
a sznAlble, civilized plan.
2- To -ULid a City at Glcoolanta, nolu3&ng t-he old tornalte,
3- To anvo for Its rigstful oirnior, Cth 4800 buryrru, the Gift
Larndl In oocurity; \~doh for thelom In April, 1912, I as mn active
I am no ln orknln, uspoclally] le o. rdalso thu aboantoeo ornwd land
available for use; 8- o intc-ac t real c.&volopopzo,4-. To aocMaulate
a funxl vuith vhAtah to do cr own part in paying oVf my Ls r vergindc dobte,
and uayIngy tiLe couat work.


- .~- -i-~Cd


And still a objoct is not to enriah opoculatorvor
idlE ovre#r but to fit the lm1i for habitation, and use, nd fill
it \3ith necososful, g.oui .rous, p~odl ors.

In this w/oirfs-- a cci x=a offarCt i1 t1jI IhoUUst intoafnt
of al. conoaodz-m~- I naturally xpootod, at tho bogin dYmr a roanuro
of co-oportion fra the otiOes xhaoo intozrcts ,'.ro iontAioel trith
lduaKo aid aOt&I s outcwr.

'i rieorio o lsnn t1au6.t no tho viaridt of t3iB hope. Dorping
t$ii; gmhalleont 3isfaear- amoni i-z1ih youM aQ.o a lu"'j4l( O oeti- tCiL a1o(j
LiajoWity of tLoae people iiave t1a fin fur rofro.i oven lifting
a f1inx'or Wo iAolp InZ arWr vy 1vanuftevo

RoaliingG their locko of iorinatiln I hlavo apont valuar.
ble tifl, and u)aid labor in pzopa irg atatoa:nta AoE their atudyg

Of OtOseW, I ConcloO tluoo3; T0o "Lgat Tribea' Iawolm"a
(tix uticicon) ac'*d "rn 1 1
IDxalnaftion rill show that eov'ry oIn of thoao 1.oolI
atr'ai th- toiJrtwr t1Lo pronLtIon of t10e ;cwXn31 i iolfaro of tU1o 400.

In addition., I ha z'n hInxilmodE of"dollare torth of
arvetrfain u ii ~i a pessl to arousno thoee ;'op1lo

0. 10 of the o aUvcrtioo ouutf twuatod directly of tho

Again, barriLn tho very OuLllust UnaIbor, thono ooamunxi-
cations iot iflth th a ;1 o co onido0aation as thio addiCrood to theo t rld
boatss oi' t)o3 orgL.clnrdos julo,

They oll uboolutoy flat.

So far an t1one old TiWyora havo rocoGisod, at allth 3
exiatncoo of thE OT1oolo..lta, pion'xz*n, tii:3 rcoonfaltion I3ao uiuaoly
jooan cor?:Lclv to ,oquaoot fo fo riCor- ioT*o:-auton o'.,: t2.~oi-- ix -.onai
invost-into and for arasint nce Oin the :apol ) iblo task of uollinc
thoLir ralote, acattored tzfato$

.at slat, Od fo A o f0rcst teOo, t3hC opipXrtunity lIo
cow to Gell aoca oXf Uoac tractsa aML1 rvr fioo filled c tlUi thoixu
requontl; to Uto ilti fol.lii~ a r at last,, boin usod. I w a sindg
U)lu enaro to ;-. Xj El3 a.) 12S..ot.30

TliU ia but a continuation oif oy i;xtoonu-Joar effort,
to Got tri Upper EvorGlado country osttlod and Crvolopod.

IT ag object were to .am nonoyJ f roculr.tlon, I Laow
of oUijr f"icidsC foa.r MoWro atI tictv tlhan thiu.

S a Om ~oposir Uitat those bls e11Dll tholiO tracta "
to lolp Coivloplaent, "Aril toop theio lots a tclmt thy uO chalue ln
tl profbitu of devoloicaxnt,

I I I --


Sany. of thos e cors are Interestod itjlly In
apoca.ation, aed care to look sad listen I oai slhow th a
a pure am' simple speculative opportunity far anpcrior to that
afforded by theiL old Brerglacloe rvestmnt.
u to- Farultorest-
Becan iaoe tho delays cho to Intolsrablo coixltiows
till on and became of the d'.vd station, Intcwzilled by those
delay ansd tbe noa-oo-operati onf FztuAtorant o-opentto Lienn ,
tbo colling of individual trantos La not boon pZaCtisaI
Xntoad a uffsitclot e m -met be raised, es by/ ai le,
large aalo, to out tco log Jam pr tihe State aRa4 tax off Icala
and anablo aur nrustoo to Isoe dooda.
You la w the offort ne rade about t ue years atJoo
to clear te Sorlnabst oghOty, noll it; and, nith the procooda,
start thin oettleintt novcnent,
You did your bot,s So did a few other Still other,
bo07vor, and as usual, blocked -and ditched the laolo ..fforts They
would do nothItcI not even aucopt equally donlrablo. tract oaloctiore
In it2o nao action, In ezsasgo, and .tlins nako tarailabo a ooatlsi-
ous tnaot, lhidh might Interest a buyer
Mhon I offered Frltoaroot rmabersa Incluian tUtae,
onch of y ovn aonst valuable land, on t 1e Iai Ceaal, .as a giaft) if
theoy 0muld oomoporate by turning thiA lemd into cash viAothor by
buyi a solling It adt pay off Itie anditooat oblati~ns rith
tho prooooda.
They 3neo to uaoe tlier oa bmxiahave their own treasurerW ,
and, tinu ki, send the money tlhCoolvos to the ,State offlolals ad
havo dooda Iasued, that our Paultcreat 2putee might rem-isC ta I to
thL buyers. In all of ftis I ona to help to the utmoat of r abilityl
To this coxamna atian, I ciM not oven rocoivo a reply.
Da fflod agli, 5I tannod r~ attention to ot ntty real
estate, cutidtl the ruvorYlBado; hnping to ean, tliothly, by arld for
rgsolf, the nocesnar sun, pay all tlho F]tltoroat bill, nut of ry
own pcc3S a md got t3he doeds Issued*
I have oarine tlThi san, arXl nuch orm, but luve rnt been
ablo i b colloot It. Iori I am anitndin out thi settlee or Bell" piom

Ginc cmoat of t~io old bwaroa tll nevwor Bottlo thoro
rcscla t'don ax :'es or.40tation oare nadle porfeooiIeim anafse
or b ; is a 'a t better that thq
a ii hold t ro iml out of ~uo t ottlore outo
'irAe i ffa ot t C y iltpi In a measure to put thun the
Fult-reat prop sition, %# not, I shall try still othor waoes



nidtula .toroIt. I would ifpove upon tAls by a&-l ing i silx
poA coait ajrntixnnau in mw contract, ald have it oavor tho iufl
pori&g; tdnlr3L w irz1ct l2am uy trule s Wpiivod of hin 1:anqr.
Ljc ovtwy ol;lawr jwopoal naei, todato, I n this tb-
j Ot, -hxitu, to owald paoobaiiLy be re u d bly saml though this
need -'n.; kill
Xvon for t i spr toeo t~ue rwxajy twI yuet Lar-O to bwo
r h. sld, i In aiming Ith I xrltnoes tenw.ioa tii.sat o rast look
to L.zaolt a one tau t iL U I1 (X n LiOiL .4
I mkuAt add ttiatlatpijng all tda period -oi t4Aalanad
notirlt.ainaijLng our liatr Ir onu iblou, u~ hav ecu av io rLa
ohb sation oof ;ootitu towr l J to Inturnal uoLaproi ont Doamto
ik- :my-u GAirc Qthy Ua;il t.. my" ttin, ahau tivy .rwboon o duailosQ
caitad iun liEU :na Vacholt
l1 uW corrueponiknteo* hoscvor, AtI u. c r't'Luo9
aeie tiCK 3JltS L OSt %yZatiWltay, OaWL rsu;itost fipPOsitLL to bE l1teCnt

JoWn Lt.10, I u W boaJg; ozL3Uh a3vocusealy tionrjog

SUI l rurvi uittie n ouveat1, 0uLl, f" aootmloloac leutr is to
allabonane; Ieo at loelate, of teidh Iwo bovon road to t;o itoma l
aLyroaronont to nard
82- I have acGain taken tip 'iAtIL thu county oorIn lisowr. to iUitto
of opmoni' vp our r GlaZ.oocr'et road; wO. vith mood povpout., this
tlmo, w.lt- a now a.vti friadlyl -y ugian);or, oX En10 c33a 3
Ieal3~iI, filly, tAint j1oxarknta itt IUWOxuf.lo Zhow
lIaCGrdArlo Gsal is larEdd-,ld- of ithich fact I baro rx;ittot o.th
CGoverzr idth nlly WU ighte Ll thAU Be3glaUde*Boulf it Bay vood
is uraafllr tuposasmhlee
train and. aga*.pin I aio souglpt to briwu ronaio to
Oklsoalatal and each t#ie, lm av boon oreatod, o 1it 7g by Utto
road situation, byg the flood, or both*
A fer wookn n inca I roaohnod thO tEntyimUlilo- Da'ri
vli a un investor, v4th fl4000*00 to invest. In fratlho a friMend
of mins, and of the Erverglaes, urgoci ldm to L: with me to olc.elants.
As BEn aul SBa ILmow, we wore turned back by tho ditcher
-outting acros*a tbo road bolow Glodovioewl nd I lost r ianvostor.
Ololaa onl _h .alxobe utobd il~= ~ i



Do you again idahI to con to to t coastt Living coAts
hoes oro vury higNh an CoMper can tootity but I will try agafe
to Ivancou SJoUti Corx you :i yjuf i'.Uaivo3 jand I q.11 rb it rith
ploraav-ti L.dZ4 *o La 3j boat *.4 ip a.il.ut;.j

/ sor&iaoly yaurs,





.ugust 24,1925.

Mr. Those. W. Willy
229 Bryan Ave.,
Ft. Laud-rdale,

D-ar Mr. Will:-

I have your favors of the 10th and 18th inst.

Unless something unforseen occurs I will leave

for Florida around september lst.

I would like to have your I.iami business address,

if possible, before I leave.

Tp will probably s:eind two weksl in the vicinity

of Miami and if you can suggest reasonable accommodations,

not necessarily in :Iiami, I will be very grateful to you.

I Believ" m-,

/ 7ry, truly 7yo0u



Augnat T4,1901

Mr. V. Roth, :'....-: '
Okeolanta, Fla.
y& dear Brother Roth:
Your letter received todaqi and your ardd last
I note the water co andtions ad regard them as
atrocious, and uncalled for.
As to tiot Eer'ladea in general*-
: 'Theb Pioneer, builder, settler, developers the
helper of any kind, or in any right way, vnZlieer present or ab-
sent, meritB the fullest considerations
The mere owner idle, unisympathetio, unhelpful,
interested only in reaping and rUearned inorement" produced by
the toil and sacrifice of others, stands on a different footing.
For sixteen years Z have done all that mortal
maan oould do to serve thi Evergladee cause, allowing always foi
my limitations, individual and financial.

ay object has been not to pile up speoulative
profits either for myself, or for others, but to help make of the
Evergladea a fit home for mane
And? this is my object nOiw

My program was and 1its
1-- wo help solve the physical problems, secure reclamation and
transportation, learn how to farm the larnd and to settle it on,
a sensible, civilized plan,
*-- To build a City at Okeelanta, including the 14, tovrnsite,
3-- To save for its rightful. owners, the 48600 buyers, the Gift
Land; in securing. hiioh for them, in April, 1912, I was an active
I am now working especially, 1 -TE make the absentee- owned land
available for use; 8-- To interest real cbvcloperan-3-- To aooun~late
a fund with which to do my own part in paying off my Evorgladea doubtsa
and pushing this great work.

V.W.R. / *
'/ ,!

,, And still my object is not to enrich speculators,or
idle ovanel, but to fit the land for habitation, and use, and fill
it with A~coessfuls, prosperouA, produceers.
In this work-- a common effort in the highest interest
or: eal1 cqpcoerned-- I naturally expected, at the beginning, a measure
iof aeqope action from the other vltose interests wore identical with
mine; and'often greater.
/ : Experience has taught me the vanity of this hope. Barring
the smallest number-- among which you are a notable one-- the huge
majority of these people have, thus far refrained from oven lifting
f 1fine to help in any wy whatever
I i Realizing their lack of information I have spent valua-'
le tiime and unpaid labor, in preparing statements for their study.

/ Of these, I enclose threoj The "Lgat Tribes ,"Burelkn",
t/he 4dasheen) aend "Corn"
/ i Examination will show that every one of these looks
strail htl toward the promotion of the general.welfare of the 4860.

an addition, I hwae run hundreds of: dollars vorth of
advertise ng In the press, to arouse these peopld4
n i Some of t hse advertise ents treated directly of the

Again, barring the very s.mlleat number, those cormaiuni-
cations met with the same consideration as tho addressed to the wild
beasts of ithe Everglades -Junglo
S- They fell absolutely flat.
So far as these old buyer have recognized, at all the
oxiattico 6f the Okeelanta pioneers, this recognition has umuliy
been confined to requests for frthzer information on their personal
investments and for assistance in the impossible task of selling
their remote, scattered tracts
At last, and for the first time' the opportunity has
Some to sell some of these tracts and am files filled with their
requests to do this selling are at last, being used I an asking
thu owners to nnrae their' own prices.

This is but a continuation of myl sixteen-year effort,
to get the Upper Everglade country settled and developed.

If my object were to make money f9 speculation, I know
of other fields far more attractive than this.

I am proposinG that these buyers "Sell their tracts",
to help development, And keep their lots", that they may share in
the profits of development.


If any of these owners are interested wholly in
speculation, and care to look and listen, I can show them
a pl-re and simpl~ speculative opportunity far supo:ior to that
afforded by thoir old rverglade invostrment.

As to P2uitorest--
Becaase of the delays due to Intolerable conditions
still on, and booause of the d.-ed situation, intensified by these-
delays and the non-co-operation of Pruitcrest "Co-operative Men".,
the selling'of individual tracts :as not boon practieable-.

Instead, a sufficient sum must be raised, as by/single,
large sale, to cut tahe log jam, pay the State and tax officials,
and eniblo our Trusteo to issuc deeds.

You 7niow the effort w.o made about thl oo ryoar since
to cloar the Southeast eightys sell it; and, with th:1 proceeds,
start this settlement movlDnent.

You did your best,' So did a few others. Still otheres
however, and as usual, blocked ~aid ditched the :h olo effort. They
would do not'-hinrg not oven accept equally desirable tracts clsovihore
in the sian sootion, in excha-ne, and thus I ake available a contigu-
ous tract, lwhch might intei'et a buyer.

Then I offered F r.itcrest members, inclucOinr thise,
much of r;- ovi rnost valuable land, on the !lain Canal, as a giftjif
they wvoud co-operate by turning t1his land into cash,. '.hethor by
buyin:; or soiling it, and pay off the Fruitcrcst obligations with
the proceeds.

They were to use their ovi~ bumkhave their own treasurer,
and, thu lhim, send the money themselves to the State officials, and
have deeds issued that our Fruitcrest Trustee might re-isoue them to
the buyers. In all of this I was to help to the utmost of y ability.

To this communication, I did not even rccuive a ieply,
Baffled again, I turned my attention to ordinary real
estate, outside the Everglades; hoping to earn, thereby, by and for
zysolf, the nocossary sumi pay all the Fruitcrost bills out of my
own pocleo and get the deeds issued.

I have' earned thin wsm, and much more, but have not boon
able to collect it. Now I an sending out this "Settle or Sell" pro-
posal .

Since most of the old buyers will never settle th1roc
though reclamation and transportation are made perfect,an eo mako
croom for possible. j~sttlo and developers tt is far better that thq
aell than hold the land out of use, keeping settlers out,

This effort ya help, in a measure, to put thrx the
Fxuitorest proposition, not, I shall try still other ways.



Whoever elae has quit, or may quit, I have not,
If the large sum necessary can not be gotten to-
\ gether eoon enough for the abovo, the alternative would be you
SI plan of "Refunding."
This, you recall, meant return of principal only
without interest, I would improve upon this by adding the six
per cent mentioned in our contract, add have it cover the full
period during which the buyer were deprived of his mo-ey.
L14e every other proposal made, todate, on this sub.'
ject, this, tU. would probably be refusaod by samae thouGh this
need not kill It.
Even for thispurpose, the roney will yet have to be
raised; and, in raising it experience teaches that I must look
to myself aloneI and this I am doing.
I must add thatduring all this period of trial,and
notwithstanding our water troubles, we have incurred a great
obligation of gratitude toward the Internal Improvement Board.
For years past, they might at any time, had they been so disposed,ko*4
crashed us like an eggshell.
All my corrospondonco, however with their office,
shows the fullest sympathy, and greatest disposition to be lenient
and helpful,
Meanwhile, I am doing other necessary thinga
1- I have written several, full fact-loaded letters to
Tallahassee; tof at least, of which have been read to the Iaternal
Improvement Board.
2-- I have again taken up with the county comnassioners the matter
of opening up our Gladecrest road and with good prospect, this
time, with a new and friendly engineer, of success,
I realize, fully, that Okeelanta is marooned, The
Lauderdale Canal is blocked-. of which fact I have written the
Governor with all my might-.. and the Beleglade-South Bay road
is usually impassable.
Again and again I have sought to bring rescue to
Okcolanta; and, each, time, have been defeated, either by the
road situation, by* the floods, or both,
A few weeks since I reached the !wenty-Mile- Bend
with an investor, with $75,000.00 to invest, His father, a friend
of mine, and of the Everglades, urged him to go with me to Okeelanta,

As Ben and San know, we were turned back by the ditcher
cutting across the road below Gladeview; and I lost my Investor,



Do you again wish to come to the coast? Living costs
here aro very hlgh, as Copper can testify; but I will try again
to find something for you if you desirel ad I will cb it with
pleasure ar to the best of ny ability.

Cordlally your.



1;)'. Thea .JC.Wili,

Aug., 24-25.

Settle or sell well and gooeu Sell yours and your
brotherA in Okeelanta?

Ve demand our deeds to our holdings in f.C. as soon as possible.
When can you deliver same? If you cannot Aeliver our Aeeds we will
let the court deliver same. You have been playing long enough with
our money as the time is ripe for a settlement at presents this
speculating with other Comrades funds has dragged on long enough.

Yours truly,



Dear air:-





Westbrook, Minn.

Aug. 24, 1925.

Okeelanta Settlement Co.,
229 Bryan Ave.
Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.


In reply to your letter of the
18th, with reference to my land in Florida de-
scribed in my letter of the 8th, will say that I
will accent twenty five dollars per acre for this
' land. If thissale""n be made I will send you the
abstract on request.

Yours very truly,

4 --

J. E. V.

(ii., (A



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~e~c~le~ ~,~i C

o-, I

August 20,1925

,ort o.w1m TG

-I ai l.fl to hiavo your :letbtez, of
te S21st, a i tt av.l itio fra~ tle dalay in a-aiwicr
:iL4; 0or1aor lotVor9

Thc onsc roat, Cl.jrantf, all-absorbing
:.l.ozret oa ":-.i. Co:.at, L, th .i.o Gu.;-,, i &n "t *'.'. ;
of ta il ndii.; LJ.L o( uOiiXv..,'iia arji ou;ocially ucull-

b-iT:.: c'heed in t Lld3 ay5, n ::.' i Ort s tiad: izi a & .rv,':l
"o ez ,:,_

tavkT Ti ojColl-.c3 i'.xs:'t.aea 'vegt.2'.vl alu lov
e1:0 tt3 bot!l bt *hl Ctu.ci:.I 'ovsrw-Llovs fo? i-r -ive
constatous yoarso, inclli;. .' I ': im.; bc.uoun fvo'e inkto
thIo sam game Erjalf, and avo lea-.led orxm of th' poa-ts.

One of Alho rio;t pl;lto.taint is Ithe abSo1ito
iesoaioCly o2 ihavtLc BCJLCJ L-oolUj r.e L if.3aDu 010 iwatsa the ';.hIzl-oora,
to aS, fo>r t U, a punrl &auali;;ng t.O wlith a 3i-.?*:: of YP.osa
intozoc'.4 with rarYo \4i ...Ia.-am.

I bave eafn ftor'ltvua PBan Eti tpla'u ir finWcrn
ta t23o past trolvoe iow3.uIa liko ivor iatr ta a: Mine foar
this owa rzasona

Ons tio orS-: haum d, with on a] f J ti-n-
Stand ollaru a .man vitnh o:.dinary judgment, but mawo Qano mu
to r e and hoxiust 4a0ro, can nao iaCO ay at, an

The eooret Is this- with the help of
y-ar adv3.ser, flre, a xbr-?Oa1li not too bfL -for yomr opoiflas.
tieo iftid. ie .en lay doraa to tamcount reoqucirod on t.e basgoln
in the aBlare o6f a .binder, aad vait a little \tile-amaybo a
fton weoles maybe till the following days. hon re-coll at on
advance running oainywthosGo Sfrom a Ancadrate praoLt to a absurdly
largeG omne

, - 2/ r

7 -
Pag '2~: I

If, in additikn n qne wants to puih 3118
traot as by ndvo.ti.ls. od 0'eve*,n a little implovr.t --
tbhoug- vry fewn ever think Af' doing cither- yea t ay
hasten the prosoas and incl i4so ~lte profit

I have been din ovq4rng bargains ever cinco
I fi0ot tiod up ry tliti palc in the jo torgitc li i oSl.T
I hcvr t tinuld be icliac .rithin a ;?cn 3rable tio,
LL .hit h.1-. nto yet b'i en. 1 v.n rcilamattion or roaui,
SLO.L1 I 'a ;o:.',rtain l. 1i U- t.3A -ahas peaa iiuan:i.JiL_ I
tav'. virtually rutied ioup *ying to got Wthco iuprove-
r-ts uiol in the back 'o -n uto y hilc if '.Ai the ibasinoi
of oth r puopi tlu biso e Ma oo a orof taxea paid.
Still I hiave a oiavo 4iri o en.ike the bW a
In Janrza-y, 101O, tsiela adlrdale ouit4 not
lhav boitn :.'oun .Ltntji t iuroacospe) a..A carlcih warll.-ltI
1u lk.C it co~' ai,. tot'L:.. tola a 'a1.ijn"gton 1eC. audiUnco
it ..uiuld vocorac a Cfity uaVd guve I UV reasons it~r. iti i
1no1i bttco.git one at an n ctous-n.ding tvite.

T'h1i Pollolio-irj, stri'er, i shen the Cota;i.t ui.au
au O'Ru-d as a diormmaijl. (1911), x IuI o0a1 ageJn, looled
*. ..gL uJ.Li L..d p p..dicttd. ot-.lat thl:p L;uast VrIaU tulu Detch
to wiai.i ; would be b#lt coliud To iwY tAli \ot iuan boon
so fasr aconylisahed and in stricji. r, foraisard at oucf- a
prodigious gait6 that ovriybyqy srcal t ei ti'u Li'itl. o4j the
prediction of fourteon rearp ago.
Iore rusccntly I sctz-jn ly ciX c'f at W:ion.
to cXirtaLif tractor or' lanl i ia-god people to buy tewzi
or Lhlp me buy thocma H =i Ci e soras 1Ctat:
ln- Price W76700 pero acako, in fifLcjn c zcntlt at lb* 7-
per c.cro, I
2- a-rico SG.00 par ac'iac a aonth aagvo V7SOpOGcr. ac.e,
3-- Lt fall a tract qt QICx .uI .130 po.- acrc for ?7l0ich
I found buytrsas now probably $1,000 per are or rpntre
S.rorGer.gldon Lawctio ni, LiU. I urgId people to Lay 7it
2it00 Id 350,00 'rx aur:i no V:1100X) pea acreC or :i101 o.
5-Tho troeaondoun dev 4opmntm around Deerfi0lde- about two
years ego I worked !on tl4sc area with all ry xirt, :'. ron
vcrj mUch of thc bact cottniC boe IjuLt auouunL QO1,oo por
acroE HNow the groat 111ner Dovelopment-mone of the roat
traencndaBs, probably, this coast 1has everr bad ins riding
formarton a -pjrt o-t tihe tract rrLth sales of C1,OOD,000
per wook, rAhile other parts are being Recal Estated" with
a vengeance and lt3h huge P ifofits. BI t rW khy kiltilp7 details?


SNow here iw your a e to makea See your
f;SrO ctih lave money, v hotber little or reach, oellf
Them, ani you will be telling thom the trtth, tat
/ real uutate apecatition herm la own of the sureot
E things zoesaenting big prmoits that the vcrld has volr
Seen /

A.ak tham to en it rt a portion of 'their t la
S1,th yet rind l.'t you Core. hre aZo mido tid J a i C. jr Yi
in'o v-lu cait'distanolv .Taanahs8 Ga Ot'~dn.
Sis eeay m sy"orfay 1 falling ofa a log," Dv-ry*-
bodtjZ s dolmn it", p rvidod only bo ha a little mLoney.
I,"30 or tire years a t cold ra cluzghtAor a little old
Laudexdale lot for tO 00, YA5ion ooaaft two rc1ke ago, s4u
ro-sold for '2,000, rropoo n tIlT al t roa 4 .-tatc. oi-fAceu
ant? talk about teaofr z..2cy.-3titca t 1- tib )25,00, iG*0030,
pr vary rnch-. iorre O C3lc-s, r.aito ?o id proti-z; uaci UVrO'yF
body ita can crormpre ta fritr a little muoney Larc atioing
It into the -round so:iar-rlcare aitai nd aivdlally or, ;xwtto'r,
Bettor co2llcctivoly bocxubs, thei ltrgor' th1 mton#
thx liottcr3 the tb7 aulnd tIe ii lor Utli Er V olt" of r'ofit,

isBa Mty samutd cu er froml a. 1 ol9 >vc)'lade oeintatatF
ast9 stuck on tjo anuk em1d i int. t I$ w a ll the a o;
and tr'ile IZ don t zegrfot 1livil-:g inSolatod nraaoeelf on U1e
Poz'l-adoe altqr I ioald junt as oasiy haove beooa a tmillaen-
airo if I 2hfC put my ihror;ladcc rsY)21uy Xinto Tast Coaut 'rnr2
lots, and juat lonfod araouimd nxs "t7atchlwd tnr Qrot,',p into
rthat I a:a hopLng z pDart altholga starting in
hare "Broke" is to cot a little of Nis mowraey pay off
thoo EvetrglAdo oblegtioni ruxil then go utp oinu1j MhOLtG#
and put tbsm ry el2d oaigts prQogaama

Coacally yaz'c,/

T.3 '

SAu gut 26,1935

MLasin loma.e A. Gravoa,
85 Center 3tsroot,
ITevl.on, n sanc*

"oar HIlsa Gxroms:
I 3!-ve ya3? selling blaxk for tmaot 37,
in Section 1.44-4 5, at C00,OO.* I ae.esmn ti l
inoltulon vyan old 0(lXr.ani a lot iHo* 8 in D?.ook 140.

S accept yo'rz' offtero tmti bank irill -Uo
yom. that I lihe depositoC binder. as per Belling Blank.

If the e0nolouod muggoStion s relying
oolliag tract 6nd fleplnu lot should interest yov-,amxxl
you care to cledut o5.00 on account of the lot, you
arny (o a1sB otfiVoriio, I an'LrDLX r to lot will bU ia-
cludcd In tIo deod4 an usual,

please nod your d1oed ada abstract :roaiptly
to iLsct "atioCl Eatfir, -_rt -"nlerdale, F.orilda, and I
will pit tao matter t'uo z,. Our shstract offca osrn
ovoar-rrioLC andl badly bohlinr2, ha Awer,.

Vo'w taaly youzr,



209-212 LAW EXCHANGE /'

August 26th, 1925.

Dr. Thomas E. Will
P. 0. Box 275
Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.

Dear Dr. Will:-
Okeelanta Assn.

Your favor of the 6th instant is before me.
In view of the fact that your Comrittee has been
unable to obtain assurances from those interested
necessary for the protection of counsel in brinfinf
litigation, I do not feel that I can be of any
service. It is regrettable I think that the
parties at interest do not appreciate the extra-
ordinary efforts which were made in their behalf by
].Js. McCullough, you and others, but I do not feel
that this office can undertake litigation of this
difficulty and uncertainty unless a sufficient number
of those who are interested ere willing to make
adequate arrangements to finance the litigation.
IFor these reasons I do not see how I can be of any
further service.

With personal regards and best wishes, I am,

Faithfully yours,

L/F /

Copy to:

:r s .Laura V.McCull-edgh
306 C. St., N.W.
Washington, D. C.

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