Men of the Old Stone Age, their environment, life and art

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Title:
Men of the Old Stone Age, their environment, life and art
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
Osborn, Henry Fairfield
Knight, Charles R. ( Illustrator )
Christman, Erwin S. ( Illustrator )
Publisher:
Charles Scribner's Sons
Place of Publication:
New York
Publication Date:
Edition:
Second ed.

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oclc - 04065887
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iUN 27 1916'

OF /


MEN OF

THE OLD STONE AGE

THEIR ENVIRONMENT, LIFE
AND ART


HITCHCOCK LECTURES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
CALIFORNIA, 1914













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PL. I. Neanderthal man at the station of Le Moustier, overlooking the valley of the VWzre,
Dordogne. Drawing by Charles R. Knight, under the direction of the author.










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CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
1916







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MEN OF


THE OLD STONE AGE,


THEIR ENVIRONMENT, LIFE
AND ARTj




BY

HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN
SC.D. PRINCETON, HON. LL.D. TRINITY, PRINCETON, COLUMBIA, HON. D.SC. CAMBRIDGE
HON. PH.D. CHRISTIANIA
RESEARCH PROFESSOR OF ZOOLOGY, COLUMBIA UNiVERSITY
VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGIST U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, CURATOR EMERITUS OF VERTEBRATE
PALEONTOLOGY IN THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY


ILLUSTRATIONS BY
UPPER PALJEOLITHIC ARTISTS
AND
CHARLES R. KNIGHT, ERWIN S. CHRISTMAN
AND OTHERS


SECOND EDITION


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COPYI'GHT, 1915, BY
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

Published November, 1915
Reprinted, January and March, xgx6
April, x916


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DEDICATED

TO
MY DISTINGUISHED GUIDES THROUGH THE UPPER
PALEOLITHIC CAVERNS OF
THE PYRENEES, DORDOGNE, AND THE CANTABRIAN MOUNTAINS OF SPAIN
EMILE CARTAILHAC
HENRI BREUIL
HUGO OBERMAIER













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foundation of the Institut de Paleontologie humane, have been
treated in a number of works recently published by some of the
The folding map at the end of the volume exhibits the entire extent of the author's
tour.
vii




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PREFACE

THIS volume is the outcome of an ever memorable tour
through the country of the men of the Old Stone Age, guided by
three of the distinguished archeologists of France, to whom the
work is gratefully dedicated. This Paleolithic tour* of three
weeks, accompanied as it was by a constant flow of conversation
and discussion, made a very profound impression, namely, of
the very early evolution of the spirit of man, of the close relation
between early human environment and industry and the devel-
opment of mind, of the remote antiquity of the human powers of
observation, of discovery, and of invention. It appears that men
with faculties and powers like our own, but in the infancy of edu-
cation and tradition, were living in this region of Europe at least
25,000 years ago. Back of these intelligent races were others,
also of eastern origin but in earlier stages of mental development,
all pointing to the very remote ancestry of man from earlier
mental and physical stages.
Another great impression from this region is that it is the
oldest centre of human habitation of which we have a complete,
unbroken record of continuous residence from a period as remote
as 100,000 years corresponding with the dawn of human culture,
to the hamlets of the modern peasant of France of A. D. 1915.
In contrast, Egyptian, AEgean, and Mesopotamian civilizations
appear as of yesterday.
The history of this region and its people has been developed
chiefly through the genius of French archeologists, beginning
with Boucher de Perthes. The more recent discoveries, which
have come in rapid and almost bewildering succession since the




For example, I have placed the famous Piltdown man, Eoanthro-
pus, in a comparatively recent stage of geologic time, an entirely
opposite conclusion to that reached by Doctor A. Smith Wood-






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viii PREFACE

experienced archeologists of England, France, and Germany. I
refer especially to the Prehistoric Times of Lord Avebury, to the
Ancient Hunters of Professor Sollas, to Der Mensch der Vor-
zeit of Professor Obermaier, and to Die diluviale Vorzeit Deutsch-
lands of Doctor R. R. Schmidt. Thus, on receiving the in-
vitation from President Wheeler to lecture upon this subject
before the University of California, I hesitated from the feeling
that it would be difficult to say anything which had not been
already as well or better said. On further reflection, however,
I accepted the invitation with the purpose of attempting to
give this great subject a more strictly historical or chronological
treatment than it had previously received within the limits of
a popular work in our own language, also to connect the environ-
ment, the animal and human life, and the art.
This element of the time in which the various events occurred
can only be drawn from a great variety of sources, from the
simultaneous consideration of the geography, climate, plants and
animals, the mental and bodily development of the various
races, and the industries and arts which reflect the relations be-
tween the mind and the environment. In more technical terms,
I have undertaken in these lectures to make a synthesis of the
results of geology, paleontology, anthropology, and archaeology,
a correlation of environmental and of human events in the Euro-
pean Ice Age. Such a synthesis was begun many years ago in
the preparation of my Age of Mammals, but could not be com-
pleted until I had gone over the territory myself.
The attempt to place this long chapter of prehistory on a
historical basis has many dangers, of which I am fully aware. Af-
ter weighing the evidence presented by the eminent authorities
in these various branches of science, I have presented my con-
clusions in very definite and positive form rather than in vague or
general terms, believing that a positive statement has at least the
merit of being positively supported or rebutted by fresh evidence.




with wonder and admiration his detection of all the fine grada-
tions of invention which separate the flint-makers of that period.
With Professor Cartailhac I enjoyed a broad survey of the Lower






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PREFACE ix

ward, who has taken a leading part in the discovery of this famous
race and has concurred with other British geologists in placing it
in early Pleistocene times. The difference between early and late
Pleistocene times is not a matter of thousands but of hundreds of
thousands of years; if so advanced a stage as the Piltdown man
should definitely occur in the early Pleistocene, we may well
expect to discover man in the Pliocene; on the contrary, in my
opinion even in late Pliocene times man had only reached a stage
similar to the Pithecanthropus, or prehuman Trinil race of Java;
in other words, according to my view, man as such chiefly evolved
during the half million years of the Pleistocene Epoch and not
during the Pliocene.
This question is closely related to that of the antiquity of
the oldest implements shaped by the human hand. Here again
I have adopted an opinion opposed by some of the highest au-
thorities, but supported by others, namely, that the earliest of
these undoubted handiworks occur relatively late in the Pleis-
tocene, namely, about 125,00ooo years ago. Since the Piltdown
man was found in association with such implements, it is at once
seen that the two questions hang together.
This work represents the co-operation of many specialists on
a single, very complex problem. I am not in any sense an ar-
chaeologist, and in this important and highly technical field I have
relied chiefly upon the work of Hugo Obermaier and of D6chelette
in the Lower Palmolithic, and of Henri Breuil in the Upper Pa-
laolithic. Through the courtesy of Doctor Obermaier I had the
privilege of watching the exploration of the wonderful grotto of
Castillo, in northern Spain, which affords a unique and almost
complete sequence of the industries of the entire Old Stone Age.
This visit and that to the cavern of Altamira, with its wonderful
frescoed ceiling, were in themselves a liberal education in the pre-
history of man. With the Abb6 Breuil I visited all the old camp-
ing stations of Upper Paleolithic times in Dordogne and noted




Inese results are Drllantly set tortn m a super senes or volumes
published by the Institut de Paliontologie humaine on the founda-
tion of the Prince of Monaco; in fact, the memoirs on the art






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x PREFACE

and Upper Paleolithic stations and caverns of the Pyrenees
region and took note of his learned and spirited comments.
Here also we had the privilege of being with the party who entered
for the first time the cavern of Tuc d'Audoubert, with the Comte
de Begouen and his sons.
In the American Museum I have been greatly aided by Mr.
Nels C. Nelson, who has reviewed all the archeological notes
and greatly assisted me in the classification of the flint and bone
implements which is adopted in this volume.
In the study of the divisions, duration, and fluctuations of
climate during the Old Stone Age I have been assisted chiefly
by Doctor Chester A. Reeds, a geologist of the American Museum,
who devoted two months to bringing together in a comprehensive
and intelligible form the results of the great researches of Albrecht
Penck and Eduard Brickner embraced in the three-volume
work, Die Alpen im Eiszeitalter. The temperatures and snow-
levels of the Glacial Epoch, which is contemporaneous with the
Old Stone Age, together with the successive phases of mammalian
life which they conditioned, afford the firm basis of our chronology;
that is, we must reckon the grand divisions of past time in terms
of Glacial and Interglacial Stages; the subdivisions are recorded
in terms of the human invention and progress of the flint industry.
I have also had frequent recourse to The Great Ice Age and the
more recent Antiquity of Man in Europe of James Geikie, the
founder of the modern theory of the multiple Ice Age in Europe.
It is a unique pleasure to express my indebtedness to the
Upper Paleolithic artists of the now extinct Cr6-Magnon race,
from whose work I have sought to portray so far as possible
the mammalian and human life of the Old Stone Age. While
we owe the discovery and early interpretation of this art to a
generation of archaeologists, it has remained for the Abb6 Breuil
not only to reproduce the art with remarkable fidelity but to
firmly establish a chronology of the stages of art development.
*. .1 1*




pretation by Smith Woodward, Elliot Smith, and Arthur Keith,
become one of the causes cdlbres of anthropology. On the plac-
ing of the fragments of the skull and jaws, which have few points





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PREFACE xi

and industry of Grimaldi, Font-de-Gaume, Altamira, La Pasiega,
and the Cantabrian caves of Spain (Les Cavernes de la Region
Cantabrique), representing the combined labors of Capitan, Car-
tailhac, Verneau, Boule, Obermaier, and Breuil, mark a new epoch
in the prehistory of man in Europe. There never has been a
more fortunate union of genius, opportunity, and princely support.
In the collection of materials and illustrations from the vast
number of original papers and memoirs consulted in the prepara-
tion of this volume, as well as in the verification of the text and
proofs, I have been constantly aided by one of my research as-
sistants, Miss Christina D. Matthew, who has greatly facilitated
the work. I am indebted also to Miss Mabel R. Percy for the
preparation and final revision of the manuscript. From the
bibliography prepared by Miss Jannette M. Lucas, the reader
may find the original authority for every statement which does
not rest on my own observation or reflection.
Interest in human evolution centres chiefly in the skull and
in the brain. The slope of the forehead and the other angles,
which are so important in forming an estimate of the brain ca-
pacity, may be directly compared throughout this volume, be-
cause the profile or side view of every skull figured is placed
in exactly the same relative position, namely, on the lines es-
tablished by the anatomists of the Frankfort Convention to
conform to the natural pose of the head on the living body.
In anatomy I have especially profited by the co-operation of
my former student and present university colleague Professor
J. Howard McGregor, of Columbia, who has shown great ana-
tomical as well as artistic skill in the restoration of the heads of
the four races of Trinil, Piltdown, Neanderthal, and Cr6-Magnon.
The new reconstruction of the Piltdown head is with the aid of
casts sent to me by my friend Doctor A. Smith Woodward, of the
British Museum of Natural History. The problem of reconstruc-
tion of the Piltdown skull has. through the differences of inter-




H. F. O.
December 20, 1915.







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xii PREFACE

of contact, depends the all-important question of the size of the
brain and the character of the profile of the face and jaws. In
Professor McGregor's reconstruction different methods have been
used from those employed by the British anatomists, and ad-
vantage has been taken of an observation of Mr. A. E. Anderson
that the single canine tooth belongs in the upper and not in
the lower jaw. In these models, and in all the restorations of
men by Charles R. Knight under my direction, the controlling
principle has been to make the restoration as human as the
anatomical evidence will admit. This principle is based upon
the theory for which I believe very strong grounds may be
adduced, that all these races represent stages of advancing and
progressive development; it has seemed to me, therefore, that
in our restorations we should indicate as much alertness,
intelligence, and upward tendency as possible. Such progressive
expression may, in fact, be observed in the faces of the higher
anthropoid apes, such as the chimpanzees and orangs, when in
process of education. No doubt, our ancestors of the early
Stone Age were brutal in many respects, but the represen-
tations which have been made chiefly by French and German
artists of men with strong gorilla or chimpanzee characteristics
are, I believe, unwarranted by the anatomical remains and are
contrary to the conception which we must form of beings in the
scale of rapidly ascending intelligence.
HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN.

AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY
June 21, 1915.

In sending forth the second edition I have been able to add
the results of recent research on the jaw of the Piltdown man,
and on the presence of anthropoid apes in Europe during the
Old Stone Age.




CHAPTER II

DATE OF THE PRE-CHELLEAN INDUSTRY . . . . .. 107

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE . . . . . . ... 116
xiii







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CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION


GREEK CONCEPTIONS OF MAN'S ORIGIN .

RISE OF ANTHROPOLOGY . . . .

RISE OF ARCHAEOLOGY . . . .

GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF MAN . . .

GEOGRAPHIC CHANGES . . . .

CLIMATIC CHANGES . . . . .

MIGRATIONS OF MAMMALS . . . .


PAGE
I

3

10



. . . 34

. . . 37

. . . 42


CHAPTER I


ANCESTRY OF THE ANTHROPOID APES .

PLIOCENE CLIMATE, FORESTS, AND LIFE

TRANSITION TO THE PLEISTOCENE .

THE FIRST GLACIATION . . .

THE FIRST INTERGLACIAL STAGE .

EARLY PLEISTOCENE FAUNA . .

THE TRINIL RACE ........

EOLITHS, OR PRIMITIVE FLINTS . .

THE SECOND GLACIATION . . .

THE SECOND INTERGLACIAL STAGE .

THE HEIDELBERG RACE . . .

MIGRATIONS OF THE REINDEER . .


. . . 49

. . . 6o

. . . 62

. . . 64

. . . 66

. . . 69

. . 73

. . . 84

. . . 86

. . . 90

. . . 95

. . . IO2


THE THIRD GLACIATION . . . .. ..


. . . 0Io4




THE GRIMALDI RACE . . . . . . ... 264

ARRIVAL OF THE CRO-MAGNONS . . . . ... .269

UPPER PALOLITHIC CULTURES . . . . .... .275









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CONTENTS


THE RIVER-DRIFT STATIONS . .

PRE-CHELLEAN INDUSTRY . . . .

THE PILTDOWN RACE . . .

MAMMALIAN LIFE ..........

CHELLEAN INDUSTRY . . . .

CHELLEAN GEOGRAPHY . . . .

PALOLITHIC STATIONS OF GERMANY . .

ACHEULEAN INDUSTRY . . . .

THE USE OF FIRE . ..........

ACHEULEAN INDUSTRY . . . .

THE SECOND PERIOD OF ARID CLIMATE .

LATE ACHEULEAN IMPLEMENTS . . .

THE NEANDERTHAL RACE OF KRAPINA .


PAGE
* 119

. 126


S . . 130

. . . . 144

. . . 148

. . . 154

. . . 159

. . . 161

. . 165

. . 166

. . 173

. . 177

. . . 181


CHAPTER HI


CLOSE OF THE THIRD INTERGLACIAL . .

THE FOURTH GLACIAL STAGE . . .

ARCTIC TUNDRA LIFE . . . .

ENVIRONMENT OF THE NEANDERTHAL RACE .

MAMMALS HUNTED BY THE NEANDERTHALS

CAVE LIFE . . . . . .

THE NEANDERTHAL RACE . . . .

MOUSTERIAN INDUSTRY . . . .

DISAPPEARANCE OF THE NEANDERTHAL .


. . . 86

. . . 88

. . . 190

. . . 196

. . . 202

. . . 211

. . . 214

. . . 244

. . . 256


CHAPTER IV


OPENING OF THE UPPER PALEOLITHIC .




EXTENT OF THE MAGDALENIAN CULTURE . . . ... .434

DECLINE OF THE MAGDALENIAN CULTURE . . . ... .449

CRO-MAGNON DESCENDANTS . . . . . .... 451








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CONTENTS


UPPER PALAEOLITHC RACES

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

MAMMALIAN LIFE ....

THE CRa-MAGNON RACE .

BURIAL CUSTOMS . .

AURIGNACIAN INDUSTRY .

THE BIRTH OF ART . .

ORIGIN OF THE SOLUTREAN C

HUMAN FOSSILS ....

THE BRUNN RACE . .

SOLUTREAN INDUSTRY .

SOLUTREAN ART . .


PAGE
. . . . . 278

. . . . . 279

. . . . . . 284

. . . . . 289

. . . . . 303

. . . . . 305

. . . . . 315

ULTURE . . . . . 330

. . . . . 333

. . . . . 334

. . . . . 338

. . . . . 347


CHAPTER V


ORIGIN OF THE MAGDALENIA1

MAGDALENIAN CULTURE

MAGDALENIAN CLIMATE .

MAMMALIAN LIFE . .

HUMAN FOSSILS ....

MAGDALENIAN INDUSTRY

UPPER PALEOLITHIC ART .

MAGDALENIAN ENGRAVINGS

MAGDALENIAN PAINTING

ART IN THE CAVERNS .

POLYCHROME PAINTING .

MAGDALENIAN SCULPTURE


N CULTURE ......... 351

. . . . 354

. . . . . . 360

. . . . . 364

. . . . . 376

. . . . . 382

. . . . . . 392

. . . . . 396

. . . . . 408

. . . . . . 409

. . . . . . 414

. . . . . . 427




BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . .. 513
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . 533









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CONTENTS


CHAPTER VI


CLOSE OF THE OLD STONE AGE .

INVASION OF NEW RACES . .

MAS D'AZIL ........

FiRE-EN-TARDENOIS . . .

AZILIAN-TARDENOISIAN CULTURE

MAMMALIAN LIFE ......

AZILIAN-TARDENOISIAN INDUSTRY

THE BURIALS AT OFNET . .

THE NEW RACES ......

ANCESTRY OF EUROPEAN RACES

TRANSITION TO THE NEOLITHIC

NEOLITHIC CULTURE . . .

NEOLITHIC FAUNA ......

PREHISTORIC AND HISTORIC RACES (

CONCLUSIONS .......


PAGI
. . . . . 456

. . . . . . 459
. . . . . 457

. . . . . 459

. . . . . . 465

. . . . . 466

. . . . . 468

. . . . . 470

. . . . . .. 475

. . . . .. 479

. . . . . 489

. . . . . 493

. . . . . 496

......... .... 498

OF EUROPE . . .. 499

. . . . . .. o501


APPENDIX

LUCRETIUS AND BOSSUET ON THE EARLY EVOLUTION OF MAN
HORACE ON THE EARLY EVOLUTION OF MAN . . .
XESCHYLUS ON THE EARLY EVOLUTION OF MAN . . .
'UROCHS' OR 'AUEROCHS' AND WISENTT' . . .
THE CR6-MAGNONS OF THE CANARY ISLANDS . . .


VI. THE LENGTH OF POSTGLACIAL TIME AND THE ANTIQUITY OF
THE AURIGNACIAN CULTURE . . . . .
VII. THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES OF ANTHROPOID APES AND
SUPPOSED ANCESTORS OF MAN IN INDIA . . .
VIII. ANTHROPOID APES DISCOVERED BY CARTHAGINIAN NAVIGATORS
IX. THE LOWER JAW OF THE PILTDOWN MAN REFERRED TO AN
AT"TTT PinI-fV


503
504
505
505
506


510


511
511


rii




14. Chronological chart-Great events of the Glacial Epoch . .. 41
15. Zoogeographic map . . . . . . ... 45
16. The gibbon ........ ..... ..... 50
xvii







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ILLUSTRATIONS


Plate I. Neanderthal man at the grotto of Le Moustier (in lint)
Frontispiece
PAGE
Plate II. Discovery sites of the type specimens of human and pre-
human races (in color) . . . ... .facing 19
Plate III. Pithecanthropus, the ape-man of Java . . ... 87
Plate IV. The Piltdown man . . . . . . .. 145
Plate V. The Neanderthal man of La Chapelle-aux-Saints . . 203
Plate VI. The 'Old Man of Cr6-Magnon' . . . . .. 273
Plate VII. Cr6-Magnon artists in the cavern of Font-de-Gaume (in
tint) ....... ........ facing 358
Plate VIII. Bison painted by Palmolithic artists in the cavern of Alta-
mira (in color) . . . . .. facing 414
FIG.
I. Modern, Palaolithic, and chimpanzee skulls compared . . 8
2. Skull and brain of Pithecanthropus, the ape-man of Java . 9
3. Three great types of flint implements . . . . .. i
4. Evolution of the lance-point . . . . . .. 15
5. Map-Type stations of Paleolithic cultures . . . .. 16
6. Section-Terraces of the River Inn near Scharding . . .. 25

7. Section-Terraces of the River Rhine above Basle ... . 26
8. Section-Terraces of the River Thames near London .... 28
9. Magdalenian loess station of Aggsbach in Lower Austria . 29
io. Section of the site of the Neanderthal cave . . . . 31
ii. Sections showing the formation of the typical limestone cavern 32
12. Map-Europe in the period of maximum continental elevation 35

13. Section showing snow-lines and sea-levels of the Glacial Epoch 37




45. Section of the Heidelberg discovery site . . . ... 96
46. The sand-pit at Mauer, discovery site of the Heidelberg man . 97
47. The Heidelberg jaw . . . . . . . 98








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xviii ILLUSTRATIONS

7n. PAGE
17. The orang ..... . . . ....... 51
18. The chimpanzee, walking ............. 52
i9. The chimpanzee, sitting . .. ....... .. 53
20. The gorilla . . . . . . . 55
21. Median sections of the heads of a young gorilla and of a man .. 56
22. Side view of a human brain of high type . . .... 57
23. Outlines of typical human and prehuman brains (side view) . 58
24. Outlines of typical human and prehuman brains (top view) . 59
25. Map-Europe during the Second Glacial Stage . . . 65
26. The musk-ox ................. . 66
27. The giant deer (Megaceros) . . . . . ... 68
28. The sabre-tooth tiger (Macharodus) . . . . . 70
29. Restoration of Pithecanthropus, the Java ape-man . . .. 73
30. Discovery site of Pithecanthropus . . . . ... 74
31. Section of the volcano of Lawoe and the valley of the Solo River 75
32. Map-Solo River and discovery site of Pithecanthropus . . 75
33. Section of the Pithecanthropus discovery site . . ... 76
34. Skull-top of Pithecanthropus, top and side views ...... 77
35. Head of chimpanzee, front and side views . . . ... 78
36. Restoration of Pithecanthropus skull, side view . . ... 79
37. Restoration of Pithecanthropus skull, three views ..... 8o
38. Pithecanthropus, the Java ape-man, side view . . . 81

39. Pithecanthropus, the Java ape-man, front view . . ... 82
40. Side view of a human brain of high type . . . .. 83
41. Outlines of human and prehuman brains, side and top views 84
42. The hippopotamus and the southern mammoth . . ... 92
43. Merck's rhinoceros and the straight-tusked elephant . .. 93
44. Map-Geographic distribution of Merck's rhinoceros, the hippo-
potamus, and the straight-tusked elephant ... .. 94




76. Small Chellean implements . . . . . . . 153
77. Map-Palaolithic stations of Germany . . . ... 6o
78. Entrance to the grotto of Castillo . . . . ... .163







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ILLUSTRATIONS xix

FO. PAGE
48. Jaws of an Eskimo, of an orang, and of Heidelberg (side view) 99
49. Jaws of an Eskimo, of an orang, and of Heidelberg (top view) oo
5o. Restoration of Heidelberg man . . . . . ... . o

51. Map-Europe during the Third Glacial Stage ...... 105
52. Chronological chart of the last third of the Glacial Epoch . o8
53. Map-Pre-Chellean and Chellean stations . . . ... 1o9
54. Map-Europe during the Third Glacial Stage ..... . io
55. Excavation at Chelles-sur-Marne . . . . .. 111
56. Map-Western Europe during the Third Interglacial Stage . 16
57. Three terraces on the Connecticut River . . . ... 120
58. Four forms of the Chellean coup de poing ...... 121
59. Section-Terraces on the Somme at St. Acheul . . .. .122
6o. Very primitive palaoliths from Piltdown . . . ... .127
61. Pre-Chellean coups de poing from St. Acheul . . ... 128
62. Pre-Chellean gratloir or planing tool from St. Acheul ..... 129
63. Discovery site of the Piltdown skull . . . . .. 131
64. Section of the Piltdown discovery site . . . . . 133
65.. Primitive worked flint found near the Piltdown skull ... 134
66. Eoliths found in or near the Piltdown site . . . ... .135
67. Piltdown skull and skull of South African Bushman .... .136
68. Restoration of the Piltdown skull, three views . . .. 137
69. Section of the Piltdown skull, showing the brain ...... 140

70. Brain outlines of the Piltdown man, of a chimpanzee, and of mod-
ern man, compared . . . . . .. .140

71. The Piltdown man, side view . . . . . . 142
72. The Piltdown man, front view . . . . . ... .143
73. Map-Pre-Chellean and Chellean stations . . . ... .149
74. Section-Middle and high terraces on the Somme at St. Acheul 150
75. Excavation on the high terrace at St. Acheul . . . .. 151




.-J. A-1 J ^us tubaJu* *7I& U v vauA T * . * . I

ro8. The skull known as Spy I, side view . . . . .. .220

Iog. Discovery site of La Chapelle-aux-Saints . . . ... 222









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xx ILLUSTRATIONS

no. PAGE
79. Section-archeologic layers of the grotto of Castillo ... . 64
80. Map-Acheulean stations . . . . . . .. 167

81. Late Acheulean station of La Micoque in Dordogne ... 168
82. Method of 'flaking' flint . . . . . . ... .169

83. Method of 'chipping' flint . . . . . ... 17

84. The fracture of flint . . . . . . 171
85. Large Acheulean implements . . . . . ... .173
86. Map-Valleys of the Dordogne and the Garonne . . .. .175

87. The valley of the Vzere . . . . . . ... 176
88. Acheulean implements, large and small . . . ... 178

89. A Levallois flake . . . . . . . .. 179

90. The grotto of Krapina . . . . . 81

91. Section-Valley of the Krapinica River and grotto of Krapina 182
92. Section-The grotto of Krapina . . . . ... .183

93. Skull from Krapina, side view . . . . . .. 184
94. Map-Europe during the Fourth Glacial Stage ...... .189

95. The woolly rhinoceros and the woolly mammoth . . .. .190
96. Typical tundra fauna . . . . . . . .. 193

97. Map-Palmolithic stations of Germany . . . ... .195
98. The type station of Le Moustier . . . . ... .197
99. Excavations at Le Moustier . . . . . ... x98

ioo. The Mousterian cavern of Wildkirchli . . . ... 20oo

ioi. Entrance to the grotto of Sirgenstein . . . . . 201

102. The woolly mammoth and his hunters . . . ... .208

Io3. The woolly rhinoceros. . . . . . . .. .210

104. Map-Distribution of Pre-Neanderthaloids and Neanderthaloids 214

xo5. The Gibraltar skull, front view . . . . . . 215

Io6. Section of the Neanderthal discovery site . . . ... .216
-n rT'k 1 -oorA-fthl al cl ll .-11 .; i. r -.-




135. Map-Distribution of Upper Palmolithic human fossils . . 279

136. Chronological chart of the last third of the Glacial Epoch . 28

137. 'Tectiforms' from Font-de-Gaume . . . . . 283







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ILLUSTRATIONS xxi

no. PAGE
IIo. Entrance to the grotto of La Chapelle-aux-Saints . . .. .223
iii. The skull from La Chapelle-aux-Saints, three views ... .224
112. Human teeth of Neanderthaloid type from La Cotte de St. Brelade 225

113. Skulls of a chimpanzee, of La Chapelle-aux-Saints, and of a modern
Frenchman, side view . . . . . . .. .227
114. Outlines of the Gibraltar skull and of a modern Australian skull 228
xx5. Skull of La Chapelle-aux-Saints compared with one of high modern
type, side view . . . . . . . . 230
ix6. Skulls of a chimpanzee, of La Chapelle-aux-Saints, and of a modern
Frenchman, top view . . . . . . .. 231

117. Diagram comparing eleven races of fossil and living men . . 233
118. Section of the skull of La Chapelle-aux-Saints, showing the brain. 235
119. Brain outlines of La Chapelle-aux-Saints, of a chimpanzee, and of
modern man, compared . . . . . ... .235
12o. Brains of Lower and Upper Paleolithic races, top and side views 236
121. Skeleton of La Chapelle-aux-Saints . . . . ... .238
122. Thigh-bones of the Trinil, Neanderthal, Cr6-Magnon, and modern
races . . . . . . . . . . 240
123. The Neanderthal man of La Chapelle-aux-Saints, side view . 242
124. The Neanderthal man of La Chapelle-aux-Saints, front view 2. 243
125. Map-Mousterian stations . . . . . . . 245
126. The Mousterian cave of Horos de la Pefia . . ... 246
I27. Outlook from the cave of Hornos de la Pefia . . ... 247
128. Typical Mousterian 'points' from Le Moustier ...... 250
129. Mousterian 'points' and scrapers . . . . ... 251

13o. Late Mousterian implements . . . . . .. 255
131. Entrance to the Grotte du Prince near Mentone ...... 262
132. Section of the Grotte des Enfants . . . . ... .265
33. The Grimaldi skeletons . . . . . . .. 267
134. Skull of the Grimaldi youth, front and side views . . .. .268




163. The rock shelter of Laussel on the Beune . . . . 326
164. Section of the industrial layers at Laussel . . . ... .327
065. Bas-relief of a woman from Laussel . . . . ... 328








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ILLUSTRATIONS


Ino.
138. Map-Distribution of the reindeer, mammoth, and woolly rhi-
noceros . . . . . . . . .

139. Section of the grotto of Aurignac . . . . . .
140. Section of the grotto of Cr6-Magnon . . . . .
141. Skull of Ci6-Magnon type from the Grotte des Enfants . .
, 142. Head showing the method of restoration used by J. H. McGregor .
143. The rock shelter of Laugerie Haute, Dordogne . . . .
144. Skeleton of La Chapelle-aux-Saints and skeleton of Cr6-Magnon
type from the Grotte des Enfants, compared . . . .

145. Sections of normal and platycnaemic tibias . . . . .
146. The 'Old Man of Cr6-Magnon,' side view . . . . .
147. The 'Old Man of Cr6-Magnon,' front view . . . .
148. Brain outlines of Combe-Capelle, of a chimpanzee, and of modern
man, compared . . . . . . . .
149. Evolution of the burin, early Aurignacian to late Solutrean . .

15o. Typical Aurignacian graltoirs, or scrapers . . . . .
151. Evolution of the Aurignacian 'point' . . . . .

152. Prototypes of the Solutrean 'laurel-leaf point' . . . .

153. Map-Aurignacian stations . . . . . . .

154. Outlook from the cavern of Pindal . . . . . .

155. Mammoth painted in the cavern of Pindal . . . .

156. Primitive paintings of animals from Font-de-Gaume . . .

157. Woolly rhinoceros painted in the cavern of Font-de-Gaume . .

158. Carved female figurine from the Grottes de Grimaldi .. ..

159. Female figurine in limestone from Willendorf . . . .
i60. Female figurine in soapstone from the Grottes de Grimaldi . .

x61. Superposed engravings of rhinoceros and mammoth from Le Tri-
lobite . . . . . . . . . .

162. Silhouettes of hands from Gargas . . . . . .




195. Bone needles from Lacave . . . . . . . 391
196. Map-Paleolithic art stations of Dordogne, the Pyrenees, and the
Cantabrian Mountains . . . . . .. 394








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ILLUSTRATIONS xxiii

nIO. PAGZ
166. Bas-relief of a man from Laussel . . . . ... 329
x67. Map-Solutrean stations . . . . . . ... 331
x68. The skull known as Brtnn I, discovered at BrUnn, Moravia . 335
169. Solutrean 'laurel-leaf points' . . . . . .. 339

17o. The type station of Solutr6 . . . . . ... .342
17i. Excavations at Solutr6 . . . . . . ... .343
172. Typical Solutrean implements . . . ... . . 346
173. Mammoth sculptured on ivory, from Piedmost, Moravia . .. 349
174. Engraved and painted bison from Niaux . . . ... 353
175. Decorated sagaies or javelin points of bone . . ... 354
176. Horse's head engraved on a fragment of bone, from Brassempouy 355
177. Painting of a wolf, from Font-de-Gaume . . . ... .356
178. Crude sculpture of the ibex, from Mas d'Azil . . ... .357
179. Decorated bdtons de commandment . . . . . .359
i8o. Chronological chart of the last third of the Glacial epoch . .362
181. Engraved and painted reindeer from Font-de-Gaume . .. .365
182. Four types of horse frequent in Upper Paleolithic times . .367

183. Horse of Celtic type, painted on the ceiling of Altamira . .. 368
184. Four chamois heads engraved on reindeer horn, from Gourdan 369
185. Typical alpine fauna . . . . . . .. .371
186. Typical steppe fauna . . . . . . . .374
187. Ptarmigan or grouse carved in bone, from Mas d'Azil .... .375
x88. The rock shelter of Laugerie Basse, Dordogne ...... 377
x89. Human skull-tops cut into bowls, from Placard ...... 379
xio. Male and female skulls of Cr6-Magnon type, from Obercassel 381
191. The type station of La Madeleine . . . . ... 383
192. Magdalenian flint implements . . . . . ... 386
193. Magdalenian bone harpoons . . . . . ... .387
. s- Qnalanl.n fnt blarlon w1ith rfant!lll ta46 aA.. -




224. example or superpositon 1o paintings, irom ronL-ae-uaume 421
225. Entrance to the cavern of Altamira . . . . .. 422

226. Plan of paintings on the ceiling of Altamira . . ... .423








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xxiv ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG. PAGE
197. Primitive engravings of the mammoth from Combarelles . . 397
198. Preliminary engraving of painted mammoth from Font-de-Gaume. 397
199. Charging mammoth engraved on ivory, from La Madeleine 398
200. Human grotesques from Marsoulas, Altamira, and Combarelles 399
201. Entrance to the cavern of Combarelles, Dordogne . . . 400
202. Engraved cave-bear, from Combarelles . . . . . 401
203. Magdalenian stone lamp, from La Mouthe . . . ... 40o
204. Entrance to the cavern of La Pasiega . ... . . .. 402
205. Engraved bison from Marsoulas . . . ... .. 403
206. Herd of horses engraved on a slab of stone, from Chaffaud . 404
207. Herd of reindeer engraved on an eagle radius, from La Mairie .405
208. Stag and salmon engraved on an antler, from Lorthet ... 406
209. Engraved lioness and horses, from Font-de-Gaume . . . 407
210. Painted horse of Celtic type, from Castillo . . . . 408
211. Galloping horse of steppe type, from Font-de-Gaume . .. .408
212. Entrance to the cavern of Niaux . . . . . . 4o0
213. Engraved horse with heavy winter coat, from Niaux .... 4Io
214. Professor Emile Cartailhac at the entrance of Le Portel . .. 41
215. Engraved horse and reindeer, from La Mairie ...... 412
216. Engraved reindeer, cave-bear, and two horses, from La Mairie 413
217. Engraved wild cattle, from La Mairie . . . . . 413
218. Preliminary etched outline of bison from Font-de-Gaume . . 414
219. Entrance to the cavern of Font-de-Gaume . . . ... .415
220. Map of the cavern of Font-de-Gaume . . . ... 416
221. Narrow passage known as the 'Rubicon,' Font-de-Gaume . 417
222. Plan showing reindeer and procession of bison, Font-de-Gaume .. 419

223. Plan showing preliminary engraving and painting of the procession
of mammoths, superposed on drawings of bison, reindeer, and
horses . . . . . . . . . 420




254. Burial nest of six skulls, from the grotto of Ofnet . . .. .477
255. Brachycephalic and dolichocephalic skulls from Ofnet . . 478

256. Broad-headed skull of Grenelle ........... 482








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ILLUSTRATIONS xxv

1no. PAGI
227. The ceiling of Altamira . . . . . . .424
228. Painting of female bison lying down, from Altamira .... .425
229. Royal stag engraved on the ceiling of Altamira ...... 426
230. Statuette of a mammoth carved in reindeer horn, from Bruniquel 427
231. Entrance to the cavern of Tuc d'Audoubert . . . . 428
232. Engraved head of a reindeer from Tuc d'Audoubert .... .429
233. Two bison, male and female, modelled in clay, from Tuc d'Audou-
bert ..................... 430
234. Horse carved in high relief, from Cap Blanc . . ... 431
235. Horse head carved on a reindeer antler, from Mas d'Azil . . 432
236. Statuette of horse carved in ivory, from Les Espelugues . . 432
237. Woman's head carved in ivory, from Brassempouy . . . 433
238. Map-Magdalenian stations . . . . . .. 435
239. Necklace of marine shells, from Cr6-Magnon . . ... .437
240. Map-Paleolithic stations of Germany . . . ... 439
24x. Reindeer engraved around a piece of reindeer antler, from Kess-
lerloch . . . . . . . 441
242. Entrance to the grotto of Kesslerloch . . . ... .444
243. The rock shelter of Schweizersbild . . . . .. 445

244. The open loess station of Aggsbach . . . . .. 448
245. Saiga antelope carved on a bone dart-thrower, from Mas d'Azil. 449
246. Western entrance to the cavern of Mas d'Azil . . .. 460
247. Azilian harpoons of stag horn . . . . . ... .462
248. Azilian galets colorids, or painted pebbles . . . .. 464
249. Tardenoisian flints . . . . . . . ... .467
250. Map-Azilian-Tardenoisian stations . . . . .. 471
251. Azilian stone implements . . . . . . ... .473
252. Double-rowed Azilian harpoons of stag horn, from Oban . . 474
253. Section-Archeologic layers in the grotto of Ofnet . . . 476















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xxvi ILLUSTRATIONS

In. PAGE
257. Entrance to the grotto of Furfooz on the Lesse ...... .482
258. Section of the grotto of Furfooz . . . . ... 483
259. One of the type skulls of the Furfooz race . . ... .483
260. Restoration of the man of Grenelle . . . . .. 484
261. Implements and decorations from Maglemose ...... 487
262. Ancestry of the Pre-Neolithic races. .. . . . .491
263. Stages in the manufacture of the Neolithic stone ax ... 493
264. Stone hatchet from Campigny . . . . . .. 494
265. Stone pick from Campigny .... . . . . .494
266. Restoration of the Neolithic man of Spiennes . . ... .495
267. Stag hunt, painting from the rock shelter of Alpera . . .. .497
268. Map-Distribution of the types of recent man in western Europe 499

Map of Paleolithic Tour. ... . folded at the end of the volume











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MEN OF


THE OLD STONE


AGE













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*Lucretius was born 95 B. C. His poem was completed before 53 B. C. In the
opening lines of Book III he attributes all his philosophy and science to the Greeks.
See Appendix, Note I.
1






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MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE


INTRODUCTION

GREEK CONCEPTIONS OF MAN'S ORIGIN RISE OF ANTHROPOLOGY,
OF ARCHROLOGY, OF THE GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF MAN-TIME
DIVISIONS OF THE GLACIAL EPOCH GEOGRAPHIC, CLIMATIC, AND
LIFE PERIODS OF THE OLD STONE AGE

THE anticipation of nature by Lucretius* in his philosophical
poem, De Rerum Natura, accords in a broad and remarkable way
with our present knowledge of the prehistory of man:

"Things throughout proceed
In firm, undevious order, and maintain,
To nature true, their fixt generic stamp.
Yet man's first sons, as o'er the fields they trod,
Reared from the hardy earth, were hardier far;
Strong built with ampler bones, with muscles nerved
Broad and substantial; to the power of heat,
Of cold, of varying viands, and disease,
Each hour superior; the wild lives of beasts
Leading, while many a lustre o'er them rolled.
Nor crooked plough-share knew they, nor to drive,
Deep through the soil, the rich-returning spade;
Nor how the tender seedling to re-plant,
Nor from the fruit-tree prune the withered branch.

"Nor knew they yet the crackling blaze t'excite,
Or clothe their limbs with furs, or savage hides.
But groves concealed them, woods, and hollow hills;
And, when rude rains, or bitter blasts o'erpowered,
Low bushy shrubs their squalid members wrapped.




missile stones, his repair to caverns, his contests with the lion
*Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, metrical version by J. M. Good. Bohn's
Classical Library, London, 189o.







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S MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

"And in their keen rapidity of hand
And foot confiding, oft the savage train
With missile stones they hunted, or the force
Of clubs enormous; many a tribe they felled,
Yet some in caves shunned, cautious; where, at night,
Thronged they, like bristly swine; their naked limbs
With herbs and leaves entwining. Nought of fear
Urged them to quit the darkness, and recall,
With clamorous cries, the sunshine and the day:
But sound they sunk in deep, oblivious sleep,
Till o'er the mountains blushed the roseate dawn.

"This ne'er distressed them, but the fear alone
Some ruthless monster might their dreams molest,
The foamy boar, or lion, from their caves
Drive them aghast beneath the midnight shade,
And seize their leaf-wrought couches for themselves.

"Yet then scarce more of mortal race than now
Left the sweet lustre of the liquid day.
Some doubtless, oft the prowling monsters gaunt
Grasped in their jaws, abrupt; whence, through the groves,
The woods, the mountains, they vociferous groaned,
Destined thus living to a living tomb.

"Yet when, at length, rude huts they first devised,
And fires, and garments; and, in union sweet,
Man wedded woman, the pure joys indulged
Of chaste connubial love, and children rose,
The rough barbarians softened. The warm hearth
Their frames so melted they no more could bear,
As erst, th' uncovered skies; the nuptial bed
Broke their wild vigor, and the fond caress
Of prattling children from the bosom chased
Their stern ferocious manners." *

This is a picture of many phases in the life of primitive man:
his powerful frame, his ignorance of agriculture, his dependence
on the fruits and animal products of the earth, his discovery of
fire and of clothing, his chase of wild beasts with clubs and




and theories see Osborn, 1894.x, pp. 130-9; also Butler, 1911.1, pp. 74-172.
II Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, known as the Chevalier de Lamarck (b.
i744, d. 1829). For a summary of the views of Lamarck see Osborn, 1894.1, pp. i52-
18i; also Butler, 1911.1, pp. 235-314, an excellent presentation of Lamarck's opinions.






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GREEK CONCEPTIONS OF MAN'S ORIGIN 3

and the boar, his invention of rude huts and dwellings, the soft-
ening of his nature through the sweet influence of family life and
of children, all these are veritable stages in our prehistoric devel-
opment. The influence of Greek thought is also reflected in the
Satires of Horace,* and the Greek conception of the natural
history of man, voiced by AEschylust as early as the fifth cen-
tury B. C., prevailed widely before the Christian era, when it
gradually gave way to the Mosaic conception of special creation,
which spread all over western Europe.

RISE OF MODERN ANTHROPOLOGY
As the idea of the natural history of man again arose, during
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, it came not so much
from previous sources as from the dawning science of compara-
tive anatomy. From the year 1597, when a Portuguese sailor's
account of an animal resembling the chimpanzee was embodied
in Filippo Pigafetta's Description of the Kingdom of the Congo, the
many points of likeness between the anthropoid apes and man
were treated both in satire and caricature and in serious anatom-
ical comparison as evidence of kinship.
The first French evolutionist, Buffon,$ observed in 1749:
"The first truth that makes itself apparent on serious study of
nature is one that man may perhaps find humiliating; it is
this-that he, too, must take his place in the ranks of animals,
being, as he is, an animal in every material point." Buffon's
convictions were held in check by clerical and official influences,
yet from his study of the orang in 1766 we can entertain no doubt
of his belief that men and apes are descended from common
ancestors.
The second French evolutionist, Lamarck, I in 1809 boldly
Horace was born 65 B. C., and his Satires are attributed to the years 35-29 B. C.
See Appendix, Note II.
t Eschylus was born 525 B. C. See Appendix, Note III.
+ r- --~ T -,l;. T -1-rj 'R f l, ,\ -T~ A T SQ\) V-t* --a _rf ifn nnn




each chapter is a list giving the author, date, and reference number for every citation.
A full list of all the works cited, including those from which illustrations have been
taken, together with complete references, will be found in the bibliography at the end
of the book.






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4 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

proclaimed the descent of man from the anthropoid apes, point-
ing out their close anatomical resemblances combined with in-
feriority both in bodily and mental capacity. In the evolution
of man Lamarck perceived the great importance of the erect
position, which is only occasionally assumed by the apes; also
that children pass gradually from the quadrumanous to the
upright position, and thus repeat the history of their ancestors.
Man's origin is traced as follows: A race of quadrumanous apes
gradually acquires the upright position in walking, with a corre-
sponding modification of the limbs, and of the relation of the
head and face to the back-bone. Such a race, having mastered
all the other animals, spreads out over the world. It checks the
increase of the races nearest itself and, spreading in all directions,
begins to lead a social life, develops the power of speech and the
communication of ideas. It develops also new requirements,
one after another, which lead to industrial pursuits and to the
gradual perfection of its powers. Eventually this pre-eminent
race, having acquired absolute supremacy, comes to be widely
different from even the most perfect of the lower animals.
The period following the latest publication of Lamarck's'*
remarkable speculations in the year 1822, was distinguished by
the earliest discoveries of the industry of the caveman in southern
France in 1828, and in Belgium, near Liege, in 1833; discoveries
which afforded the first scientific proof of the geologic antiquity
of man and laid the foundations of the science of archeology.
The earliest recognition of an entirely extinct race of men was
that which was called the 'Neanderthal,' found, in 1856, near
Disseldorf, and immediately recognized by Schaaffhausen2 as a
primitive race of low cerebral development and of uncommon
bodily strength.
Darwin in the Origin of Species,3 which appeared in 1858,'
did not discuss the question of human descent, but indicated

References are indicated by numbers only throughout the text. At the close of




very high antiquity, such as the famous one at Neanderthal, are
well-developed and capacious." It was the relatively large brain
capacity which turned Darwin's attention away from a type






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RISE OF ANTHROPOLOGY

the belief that light would be thrown by his theory on the origin
of man and his history.
It appears that Lamarck's doctrine in the Philosophie Zoolo-
gique (I8o9)4 made a profound impression on the mind of Lyell,
who was the first to treat the descent of man in a broad way
from the standpoint of comparative anatomy and of geologic
age. In his great work of 1863, The Geological Evidences of the
Antiquity of Man, Lyell cited Huxley's estimate of the Neander-
thal skull as more primitive than that of the Australian but of
surprisingly large cranial capacity. He concludes with the no-
table statement: "The direct bearing of the ape-like character
of the Neanderthal skull on Lamarck's doctrine of progressive
development and transmutation . consists in this, that the
newly observed deviation from a normal standard of human
structure is not in a casual or random direction, but just what
might have been anticipated if the laws of variation were such as
the transmutationists require. For if we conceive the cranium
to be very ancient, it exemplifies a less advanced stage of pro-
gressive development and improvement."'
Lyell followed this by an exhaustive review of all the then
existing evidence in favor of the great geological age of man,
considering the 'river-drift,' the loesss,' and the loam deposits,
and the relations of man to the divisions of the Glacial Epoch.
Referring to what is now known as the Lower Palaolithic of
St. Acheul and the Upper Paleolithic of Aurignac, he says that
they were doubtless separated by a vast interval of time, when
we consider that the flint implements of St. Acheul belong either
to the Post-Pliocene or early Pleistocene time, or the 'older
drift.'
It is singular that in the Descent of Man, published in 1871,6
eight years after the appearance of Lyell's great work, Charles
Darwin made only passing mention of the Neanderthal race, as
follows: "Nevertheless, it must be admitted that some skulls of




Darwin theory was the absence ot those missing links which,
theoretically, should be found connecting man with the anthro-
poid apes, for at that time the Neanderthal race was not recog-






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6 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

which has furnished most powerful support to his theory of
human descent. In the two hundred pages which Darwin de-
votes to the descent of man, he treats especially the evidences
presented in comparative anatomy and comparative psychology,
as well as the evidence afforded by the comparison of the lower
and higher races of man. As regards the "birthplace and an-
tiquity of man,"' he observes:
". .In each great region of the world the living mammals
are closely related to the extinct species of the same region. It
is therefore probable that Africa was formerly inhabited by ex-
tinct apes closely allied to the gorilla and chimpanzee; and as
these two species are now man's nearest allies, it is somewhat
more probable that our early progenitors lived on the African
continentt than elsewhere. But it is useless to speculate on this
subject; for two or three anthropomorphous apes, one the
Dryopithecus of Lartet, nearly as large as a man, and closely
allied to Hylobates, existed in Europe during the Miocene Age;
and since so remote a period the earth has certainly undergone
many great revolutions, and there has been ample time for
migration on the largest scale.
"At the period and place, whenever and wherever it was,
when man first lost his hairy covering, he probably inhabited a
hot country; a circumstance favorable for the frugivorous diet
on which, judging from analogy, he subsisted. We are far from
knowing how long ago it was when man first diverged from the
catarrhine stock; but it may have occurred at an epoch as re-
mote as the Eocene Period; for that the higher apes had diverged
from the lower apes as early as the Upper Miocene Period is
shown by the existence of the Dryopithecus."
With this speculation of Darwin the reader should compare
the state of our knowledge to-day regarding the descent of man,
as presented in the first and last chapters of this volume.
The most telling argument against the Lamarck-Lyell-




distinguished just two forms, namely, the short (round or four-
cornered) which I named brachycephalic, and the long, oval, or
dolichocephalic. In the former there is little or no difference









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RISE OF ANTHROPOLOGY


nized as such. Between 1848 and 1914 successive discoveries
have been made of a series of human fossils belonging to inter-
mediate races: some of these are now recognized as missing
links between the existing human species, Homo sapiens, and the
anthropoid apes; and others as the earliest known forms of
Homo sapiens:


Locality


Gibraltar.
Neanderthal, near Diissel-
dorf.
La Naulette, Belgium.
Furfooz, Belgium.
Cr6-Magnon, Dordogne.

Spy, Belgium.

Trinil River, Java.

Krapina, Austria-Hungary.

Grimaldi grotto, Mentone.

Heidelberg.

La Chapelle, Correze.

Le Moustier, Dordogne.


La Ferrassie I, Dordogne.
La Ferrassie II, Dordogne.

La Quina II, Charente.

Piltdown, Sussex.


Character of Remains


Well-preserved skull.
Skullcap, etc.

Fragment of lower jaw.
Two skulls.
Three skeletons and frag-
ments of two others.
Two crania and skeletons.

Skullcap and femur.

Fragments of at least ten
individuals.
Two skeletons.

Lower jaw with teeth.

Skeleton.

Almost complete skeleton,
greater part of which was
in bad state of preservation
Fragments of skeleton.
Fragments of skeleton, fe-
male.
Fragments of skeleton, sup-
posed female.
Portions of skull and jaw.


Obercassel, near Bonn, Ger- Two skeletons, male and fe-
many. male.


Race


Neanderthal.
Type of Neanderthal
race.
Neanderthal race.
Type of Furfooz race.
Type of Crd-Ma-
gnon race.
Spy type of Nean-
derthal race.
Type of Pithecan-
thropus race.
Krapina type of Ne-
anderthal race.
Type of Grimaldi
race.
Type of Homo heidel-
bergensis.
Mousterian type of
Neanderthal race.
Neanderthal.


Neanderthal.
Neanderthal.

Neanderthal.

Typeof Eoanhropus,
the 'dawn man.'
Cr6-Magnon.


In his classic lecture of 1844, On the Form of the Head in Dif-
ferent Peoples, Anders Retzius laid the foundation of the mod-
em study of the skull.8 Referring to his original publication,
he says: "In the system of classification which I devised, I have


Year


1848
1856

1866
1867
1868

1887

1891

1899

1901

1907

xio8

1908


1909
1910

1911

1911

1914




of the different portions of the brain, and of approximately
estimating the cubic capacity of the brain from the more or
less complete measurements of the skull.


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8 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

between the length and breadth of the skull; in the latter there
is a notable difference." The expression of this primary distinc-
tion between races is called the cephalic index, and it is deter-
mined as follows:
Breadth of skull X ioo + length of skull.

In this sense the primitive men of the Old Stone Age were
mostly dolichocephalicc,' that is, the breadth of the skull was


FIG. I. Outline of a modern brachycephalic
skull (fine dots), superposed upon a doli-
chocephalic skull (dashes), superposed upon
a chimpanzee skull (line).
g. glabella or median prominence between
the eyebrows.
i. inion-external occipital protuberance.
g-i. glabella-inion line.
Vertical line from g-i to top of skull in-
dicates the height of the brain-case.
Modified after Schwalbe.


in general less than 75 per
cent of the length, as in the
existing Australians, Kaffirs,
Zulus, Eskimos, and Fijians.
But some of the Palaeolithic
races were 'mesaticephalic';
that is, the breadth was be-
tween 75 per cent and 80 per
cent of the length, as in the
existing Chinese and Polyne-
sians. The third or 'brach-
ycephalic' type is the excep-
tion among Palaeolithic skulls,
in which the breadth is over 80
per cent of the length, as in the
Malays, Burmese, American
Indians, and Andamanese.
The cephalic index, how-
ever, tells us little of the po-


sition of the skull as a brain-case in the ascending or descending
scale, and following the elaborate systems of skull measurements
which were built up by Retzius9 and Broca,10 and based chiefly
on the outside characters of the skull, came the modern system of
Schwalbe, which has been devised especially to measure the
skull with reference to the all-important criterion of the size




Homo sapiens, with extreme retreating forehead........... 72.3
Homo neanderthalensis, with the least retreating forehead. 70
Homo neanderthalensis, with the most retreating forehead. 57.5
Pithecanthropus erectus (Trinil race) .................... 52.5
Highest anthropoid apes............. ................. " 56






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RISE OF ANTHROPOLOGY 9

Among these measurements are the slope of the forehead,
the height of the median portion of the skullcap, and the ratio
between the upper portion of the cranial chamber and the lower
portion. In brief, the seven principal measures which Schwalbe
now employs are chiefly expressions of diameters which corre-
spond with the number of cubic centimetres occupied by the
brain as a whole.
In this manner Schwalbe" confirms Boule's estimates of the
variations in the cubic capacity of the brain in different members
of the Neanderthal race as follows:
Neanderthal race--La Chapelle.. 1620 c.cm.
S-Neanderthal.. 140S --
S-La Quina.....1367 "
" -Gibraltar..... 1296

Thus the variations between the
largest known brain in one mem-
ber of the Neanderthal race, the
male skull of La Chapelle, and
the smallest brain of the same
race, the supposed female skull
of Gibraltar, is 324 c.cm., a FIG. 2. The skull and brain-case, showing
the low, retreating forehead, prominent
range similar to that which we supraorbital ridges, and small brain
find in the existing species of capacity, of Pithecanthropus, the Java
man (Homo sapiens). ape-man, as restored by J. H. McGregor.
man (Homo sapiens).
As another test for the classification of primitive skulls, we
may select the well-known frontal angle of Broca, as modified by
Schwalbe, for measuring the retreating forehead. The angle is
measured by drawing a line along the forehead upward from the
bony ridge between the eyebrows, with a horizontal line carried
from the glabella to the inion at the back of the skull. The
various primitive races are arranged as follows:
PER CENT
Homo sapiens, with an average forehead..................frontal angle 90




ology are: Cartailhac,12 La France Prihistorique; D6chelette," Manuel d'Archdologie,
T. I; Reinach," Catalogue du Musie de St.-Germain: Alluvions et Cavernes; Schmidt,'6
Die diluviale Vorzeit Deutschlands; Avebury," Prehistoric Times.
t The Cannstatt skull and Cannstatt race are now regarded as Neolithic, and there-
fore not contemporary with the mammoth or the cave-bear.






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10 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

For instance, this illustrates the fact that in the Trinil race
the forehead is actually lower than in some of the highest an-
thropoid apes; that in the Neanderthal race the forehead is
more retreating than in any of the existing human races of
Homo sapiens.

ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE OLD STONE AGE *

The proofs of the prehistory of man arose afresh, and from
an entirely new source, in the beginning of the eighteenth cen-
tury through discoveries in Germany, by which the Greek an-
ticipations of a stone age were verified. For a century and a
half the great animal life of the diluvial world had aroused the
wonder and speculation of the early naturalists. In 1750
Eccardus17 of Braunschweig advanced the first steps toward
prehistoric chronology, in expressing the opinion that the human
race first lived in a period in which stone served as the only
weapon and tool, and that this was followed by a bronze and
then by an iron period of human culture. As early as 1700 a
human skull was discovered at Cannstatt and was believed to
be of a period as ancient as the mammoth and the cave-bear. t
France, favored beyond all other countries by the men of
the Old Stone Age, was destined to become the classic centre
of prehistoric archaeology. As early as 1740 Mahudel"8 pub-
lished a treatise upon stone implements and laid the founda-
tions both of Neolithic and Palaeolithic research. By the begin-
ning of the nineteenth century the problem of fossil man had
awakened wide-spread interest and research. In Buckland's19
Reliquiae diluviance, published in 1824, the great mammals of the
Old Stone Age are treated as relics of the flood. In 1825 Mac-
Enery explored the cavern of Kent's Hole, near Torquay, finding
human bones and flint flakes associated with the remains of the
The best reference works on the history of French and German Palmolithic Archae-




Old Stone Age, and it is very remarkable that the next discovery
related to the very dawn of the Old Stone Age, namely, to the
life of the 'river-drift' man of the Lower Paleolithic.






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RISE OF ARCHAEOLOGY 11

cave-bear and cave-hyaena, but the notes of this discovery were
not published until 1840, when Godwin-Austen"O gave the first
description of Kent's Hole. In 1828 Tournal and Christol21
announced the first discoveries in France (Languedoc) of the
association of human bones with the remains of extinct animals.
In 1833-4 Schmerling" described his explorations in the cav-















A B C
FIG. 3. Three great types of flint implements.
A. An eolith of accidental shape.
B. A paleolith of Chellean type, partly fashioned.
C. A Neolithic axe head, partly polished.
After MacCurdy.
erns near Liege, in Belgium, in which he found human bones
and rude flint implements intermingled with the remains of the
mammoth, the woolly rhinoceros, the cave-hyaena, and the cave-
bear. This is the first published evidence of the life of the
Cave Period of Europe, and was soon followed by the recogni-
tion of similar cavern deposits along the south coast of Great
Britain, in France, Belgium and Italy.
The work of the caveman, gradually revealed between 1828
and TRAn is now knnwn tn hplnno tn thp rlnqino nprinrd nf thp




knives, etc., while bronze remained in common use for ornaments.
The Bronze Age, in which bronze was used for arms and cut-
ting instruments of all kinds.






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1e MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

This discovery of what is now known as Chellean and Acheu-
lean industry came through the explorations of Boucher de
Perthes, between 1839 and 1846, in the valley of the River Somme,
which flows through Amiens and Abbeville and empties into the
English Channel half-way between Dieppe and Boulogne. In
1841 this founder of modern archaeology unearthed near Abbe-
ville a single flint, rudely fashioned into a cutting instrument,
buried in river sand and associated with mammalian re-
mains. This was followed by the collection of many other
ancient weapons and implements, and in the year 1846 Boucher
de Perthes published his first work, entitled De l'Industrie pri-
mitive, ou des Arts a leur Origine,2 in which he announced that
he had found human implements in beds unmistakably belong-
ing to the age of the 'river-drift.' This work and the succeed-
ing (1857), Antiquitls celtiques et antediluviennes,24 were received
with great scepticism until confirmed in 1853 by Rigollot's2
discovery of the now famous 'river-drift' beds of St. Acheul,
near Amiens. In the succeeding years the epoch-making work
of Boucher de Perthes was welcomed and confirmed by leading
British geologists and archaeologists, Falconer, Prestwich, Evans,
and others who visited the Somme. Lubbock's26 article of
1862, on the Evidence of the Antiquity of Man Afforded by the
Physical Structure of the Somme Valley, pointing out the great
geologic age of the river sands and gravels and of the mammals
which they contained, was followed by the discovery of similar
flints in the 'river-drifts' of Suffolk and Kent, England, in the
valley of the Thames near Dartford. Thus came the first posi-
tive proofs that certain types of stone implements were wide-
spread geographically, and thus was afforded the means of com-
paring the age of one deposit with another.
This led Sir John Lubbock2 to divide the prehistoric period
into four great epochs, in descending order as follows:
The Iron Age, in which iron had superseded bronze for arms, axes,




clearly perceived the level of Aurignac, where the fauna of the
great cave-bear and of the mammoth appears to yield to that of
the reindeer. Above he perceived the stone culture of the Solu-






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RISE OF ARCHEOLOGY 18

The later or polished Stone Age, termed by Lubbock the
Neolithic Period, characterized by weapons and instruments made
of flint and other kinds of stone, with no knowledge of any
metal excepting gold.
Age of the Drift, termed by Lubbock the Paleolithic Period,
characterized by chipped or flaked implements of flint and
other kinds of stone, and by the presence of the mammoth, the
cave-bear, the woolly rhinoceros, and other extinct animals.
Edouard Lartet, in 1860, began exploring the caverns of the
Pyrenees and of P6rigord, first examining the remarkable cavern
of Aurignac with its burial vault, its hearths, its reindeer and
mammoth fauna, its spear points of bone and engravings on
bone mingled with a new and distinctive flint culture. This dis-
covery, published in 186i,28 led to the full revelation of the
hitherto unknown Reindeer and Art Period of the Old Stone
Age, now known as the Upper Palaolithic. As a palaeontologist,
it was natural for Lartet to propose a fourfold classification of the
'Reindeer Period,' based upon the supposed succession of the
dominant forms of mammalian life, namely:
(d) Age of the Aurochs or Bison.
(c) Age of the Woolly Mammoth and Rhinoceros.
(b) Age of the Reindeer.
(a) Age of the Cave-Bear.
Lartet, in association with the British archaeologist, Christy,
explored the now famous rock shelters and caverns of Dordogne
-Laugerie, La Madeleine, Les Eyzies, and Le Moustier-which
one by one yielded a variety of flint and bone implements, en-
gravings and sculpture on bone and ivory; and a rich extinct
fauna, in which the reindeer and mammoth predominated.
The results of this decade of exploration are recorded in their
classic work. Reliouix Aouitanica.29 Lartet, observes Breuil.30




only recogrzea in ms later years tne SLauon or orassempouy, not
Note that lists and tables of races, cultural stages, faunae, etc., in this volume are
given not in chronological but in stratigraphic order, beginning with the most recent at
the top and ending with the oldest at the bottom.






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14 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

trean type in Laugerie Haute, and of the Magdalenian type in
Laugerie Basse. Lartet also distinguished between the arche-
ological period of St. Acheul (= Lower Palaeolithic) and that of
Aurignac (= Upper Paleolithic).
It remained, however, for Gabriel de Mortillet, the first
French archeologist to survey and systematize the development
of the flint industry throughout the entire Palaeolithic Period, to
recognize that the Magdalenian followed the Solutrean, and that
during the latter stage industry in stone reached its height,
while during the Magdalenian the industry in bone and in wood
developed in a marvelous manner. Mortillet failed to recognize
the position of the Aurignacian and omitted it from his arche-
ological chronology, which was first published in 1869, Essai de
classification des cavernes et des stations sous abri, fondue sur les
products de l'industrie humaine:31
(5) Magdalinien,* characterized by a number and variety of
bone implements;
(4) Solutrien, leaf-like lance-heads beautifully worked;
(3) Moustirien, flints worked mostly on one side only;
(2) Acheuleen, the 'langues de chat' hand-axes of St.
Acheul;
(i) Chellien, bold, primitive, partly worked hand-axes.
Shortly after the Franco-Prussian War, Edouard Piette
(b. 1827, d. 1906), who had held the office of magistrate in vari-
ous towns in the departments of Ardennes and Aisne, France,
and who was already distinguished for his general scientific
attainments, began to devote himself especially to the evolution
of art in Upper Palaeolithic times, and assembled the great col-
lections which are described and illustrated in his classic work,
L'Art pendant I'Age du Renne (i9o7).32 He first established
several phases of artistic evolution in the Magdalenian stage, and




Thus step by step the culture stages of archaeological evolu-
tion have been established and may be summarized with the
type stations as follows:






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RISE OF ARCHEOLOGY


comprehending that the Aurignacian art which he found there
underlay the Solutrean culture and was separated by a long in-
terval of time from the most ancient Magdalenian. His dis-
tinct contribution to Paleolithic history is his discovery of the
Sdotrca,


J,-t Inic


AA


ChLllek EarlyAche.eul LateAcheluea Mousic io.
FrG. 4. Evolution of the lance-point, spear, or dart head. Note the increasing sym-
metry and skill in the flaking and retouch as the types pass in ascending order
through the Chellean, Acheulean, Mousterian, and Aurignacian, into the perfected,
symmetrical, double-pointed 'laurel-leaf' of the Solutrean; and into the subsequent
decline in the flint industry of the Magdalenian and Azilian stages. After de Mor-
tillet, Obermaier, and Hoernes.

Etage azilien overlying the Magdalenian in the cavern of Mas
d'Azil.
Henri Breuil, a pupil of Piette and of Cartailhac, exploring
during the decade, 1902-12, chiefly under the influence of Car-
tailhac, formed a clear conception of the whole Upper Palae-
olithic and its subdivisions, and placed the Aurignacian definitely
of +'|a blca ^f +1|k Carfac




FIG. 5. The type stations of the successive stages of Palaolithic culture from the
Chellean to the Azilian-Tardenoisian.

A new impulse to the study of Paleolithic culture was given
in 1895, when E. Riviere discovered examples of Paleolithic






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SM II





16 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE


ETAGE
Tardenoisien,
Azilien,
Magdalenien,
Solutreen,
Aurignacien,
Moust&rien,
Acheul6en,
Chell6en,
Pre-Chell6en
(= Mesvinien, Rutot),


STATION
Fere-en-Tardenois, Aisne.
Mas d'Azil, Ariege.
La Madeleine, pres Tursac, Dordogne.
Solutre pres Macon, Sa6ne-et-Loire.
Aurignac, Haute-Garonne.
Le Moustier, commune de Peyzac, Dordogne.
St. Acheul, pres Amiens, Somme.
Chelles-sur-Marne, Seine-et-Marne.

Mesvin, Mons, Belgique.


These stages, at first regarded as single, have each been
subdivided into three or more substages, as a result of the more
refined appreciation of the subtle advances in Paleolithic inven-
tion and technique.




Only the Mesvinian stage is generally accepted by archae-
ologists, and this embraces the prototypes of the Lower Pale-






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RISE OF ARCHAEOLOGY 17

mural art in the cavern of La Mouthe,3 thus confirming the
original discovery, in 188o, by Marcelino de Sautuola of the
wonderful ceiling frescoes of the cave of Altamira, northern
Spain.34 This created the opportunity for the establishment
by the Prince of Monaco of the Institut de Paleontologie humaine
in 19io, supporting the combined researches of the Upper
Paleolithic culture and art of France and Spain, by Cartailhac,
Capitan, Riviere, Boule, Breuil, and Obermaier, and marking a
new epoch in the brilliant history of the archeology of France.
It remained for the prehistory of the borders of the Danube,
Rhine, and Neckar to be brought into harmony with that of
France, and this has been accomplished with extraordinary pre-
cision and fulness through the labors of R. R. Schmidt, begun in
1906, and brought together in his invaluable work, Die diluviale
Vorzeit Deutschlands.3"
To an earlier and longer epoch belongs the Prepaleolithic
or Eolithic stage. Beginning in 1867 with the supposed dis-
covery by l'Abb6 Bourgeois36 of a primordial or Prepaleolithic
stone culture, much observation and speculation has been de-
voted to the Eolithic37 era and the Eolithic industry, culmi- *
nating in the complete chronological system of Rutot, as follows:

LOWER QUATERNARY, OR PLEISTOCENE
Stripyian (= Pre-Chellean, in part).
Mesvinian, culture of Mesvin, near Mons, Belgium (= Pre-Chellean).
Mafflean, culture of Maffle, near Ath, Hennegau.
Reutelian, culture of Reutel, Ypres, West Flanders.

TERTIARY
Prestian, culture of St. Prest, Eure-et-Loire, Upper Pliocene.
Kentian, culture of the plateau of Kent, Middle Pliocene.
Cantaliari, culture of Aurillac, Cantal, Upper Miocene or Lower
Pliocene.
Fagnian, culture of Boncelles, Ardennes, Middle Oligocene.




tne period KnOWn as me rieisLocene, or _riaciai, ana rosLglaclal,
the 'Diluvium' of the older geologists. The men of the Old
Stone Age in western Europe are now known through the latter









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MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE


olithic culture, which among most French authors are termed
Pre-Chellean or Proto-Chellean. The Eolithic problem has
aroused the most animated controversy, in which opinion is
divided. A critical consideration. of this era, however, falls
without the province of the present work.

SUCCESSION OF HUMAN INDUSTRIES AND CULTURES*

V. LATER IRON AGE..................... EUROPE 500 B. C. to ROMAN TIMES.
(LA TENE CULTURE)

IV. EARLIER IRON AGE ............... EUROPE 1000ooo- B. C.
(HALLSTATT CULTURE) ................ .ORIENT 18O00-100

III. BRONZE AGE.........................EUROPE about 2000-1000
ORIENT "4000-1800

II. NEW STONE AGE, NEOLITHIC
3. LATE NEOLITHIC and COPPER
AGE TRANSITIONN PERIOD) ......... EUROPE 3000-2000.
2. TYPICAL NEOLITHIC AGE (ROBEN-
HAUSIAN, Swiss LAKE-DWELLERS) .... EUROPE 7000.
i. EARLY NEOLITHIC STAGES
(CAMPIGNIAN CULTURE)............ EUROPE

I. OLD STONE AGE, PALEOLITHIC
UPPER PALAEOLITHIC..............EUROPE
8. AZILIAN-TARDENOISIAN. I 12,000.
7. MAGDALENIAN. (Close of Post- 16,ooo.
glacial time.)
6. SOLUTREAN.
5. AURIGNACIAN. (Beginning of Post- -
glacial time.)
LOWER PALEOLITIIC
4. MOUSTERIAN. (Fourth Glacial 40,000.
time.)
3. ACHEULEAN. (Transition to
shelters.) I
2. CHELLEAN. J 3 100,000.
I. PRE-CHELLEAN (MESVINIAN.) (
EOLITHIC.

*This table is a modification of that of Obermaier in his Mensch der Vorz'il.. To each period
of the chronologic reckoning should be added the Igoo years of our era.


GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF MAN

Man emerges from the vast geologic history of the earth in
-L _--l_ 1-__-.. __ 11_ Tt1_-_ _ __ <-1_;-1 __J TI__L- -*-1













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1~1?
4? 0
Digitized by, OOSIe











A N











-, i

























S06
\ ,.- K -
Io-"e--- -A


















I,4 -^ ( a



mark the grander divisions of time; palaeontologic and anatomic
events mark the lesser divisions; while the successive phases of
human industry mark the least divisions. The geologic chro-






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GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF MAN 19

half of Glacial times to the very end of Postglacial times, when
the Old Stone Age, with its wonderful environment of mammalian
and human life, comes to a gradual close, and the New Stone
Age begins with the climate and natural beauties of the forests,
meadows, and Alps of Europe as they were before the destroying
hand of economic civilization fell upon them.
It is our difficult but fascinating task to project in our imag-
ination the extraordinary series of prehistoric natural events
which were witnessed by the successive races of Paleolithic men
in Europe; such a combination and sequence never occurred be-
fore in the world's history and will never occur again. They
centred around three distinct and yet closely related groups of
causes. First, the formation of the two great ice-fields centring
over the Scandinavian peninsula and over the Alps; second, the
arrival or assemblage in western Europe of mammals from five
entirely different life-zones or natural habitats; third, the ar-
rival in Europe of seven or eight successive races of men by
migration, chiefly from the great Eurasiatic continent of the
East.
Throughout this long epoch western Europe is to be viewed
as a peninsula, surrounded on all sides by the sea and stretching
westward from the great land mass of eastern Europe and of
Asia, which was the chief theatre of evolution both of animal
and human life. It was the 'far west' of all migrations of
animals and men. Nor may we disregard the vast African land
mass, the northern coasts of which afforded a great southern
migration route from Asia, and may have supplied Europe with
certain of its human races such as the 'Grimaldi.'
These three principal phenomena of the ice-fields, the mam-
mals, and the human life and industry, together establish the chro-
nology of the Age of Man. In other words, there are four ways
of keeping prehistoric lime: that of geology, that of paleontology,
that of anatomy, and that of human industry. Geologic events




three interglacial, and one postglacial. These not only mark the
great eras of European time but also make possible the synchrony
of America with Europe.






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20 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

nology deals with such immense periods of time that its ratio to
the animal and to the human chronology is like that of years to
hours and to minutes of our own solar time.
The Glacial Epoch when first revealed by Charpentier"3 and
Agassiz,40 between 1837 and 1840, was supposed to correspond to
a single great advance and retreat of the ice-fields from various
centres. The vague problem of the antiquity of Pliocene man
and Diluvial man soon merged into the far more definite chro-
nology of glacial and interglacial man. As early as 1854, Morlot
discovered near Diirnten, on the borders of the lake of Zurich,
a bed of fossil plants indicating a period of south temperate cli-
mate intervening between two great deposits of glacial origin.
This led to the new conception of cold glacial stages and warm
interglacial stages, and Morlot" himself advanced the theory
that there had been three glacial stages separated by two inter-
glacial stages. Other discoveries followed both of fossil plants
and mammals adapted to warmer periods intervening between
the colder periods. Moreover, successive glacial moraines and
'drifts,' and successive river 'terraces' were found to confirm
the theory of multiple glacial stages. The British geologist,
James Geikie (1871-94) marshalled all the evidence for the
extreme hypothesis of a succession of six glacial and five inter-
glacial stages, each with its corresponding cold and warm climates.
Strong confirmation of a theory of four great glaciations came
through the American geologists, Chamberlin,42 Salisbury,43 and
others, in the discovery of evidence of four chief glacial and three
interglacial stages in northern portions of our own continent.
Finally, a firm foundation of the quadruple glacial theory in
Europe was laid by the classic researches of Penck and Bruckner"
in the Alps, which were published in 1909. Thus the exhaustive
research of Geikie, of Chamberlin and Salisbury, of Penck and
Bruckner, and finally of Leverett45 has firmly established eight
subdivisions or stages of Pleistocene time, namely, four glacial,




postglacial stages, vast interest attaches to the very difficult
problem of the duration of the whole Ice Age and the relative
duration of its various glacial and interglacial stages. The fol-









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GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF MAN 21

Since most of the skeletal and cultural remains of man can
now be definitely attributed to certain glacial, interglacial, or


Major Divisions Periods and Epochs Advances in Life Dominant Life

IIOLOCENE. Recent alluvial. Rise of world dviliza- AGE or MAN.
tion.
..... ........ Industry in iron, cop- IRoN, BRONZE,
per, and polished AND NEW
QUATERNARY. stone. STONE AGES.

PLEISTOCENE, Postglacial Extinction of great
or stage. mammali. ofthe
ICE AGE. Glacial stage. Dawn of mind, art, Old Stone Age.
and Industry.

PLIOCENE. Transformation of
man-ape into man.
Late Tertiary.
MIOCENE. Culmination of mam- AGE OF
mals.

OLIGOCENE. Beginnings of anthro- MAMLS
TERTIAYL. poid ape life.
Appearance of higher MODERN
EOCENE. Early Tertiary. taped vanish of
and vanishing of PLANT LFE.
archaic forms.

PALEOCENE. Rise of archaic mam-
mals.

Extinction of great
reptiles.
Cretaceous.
LATE Extreme specializa-
MESOZOIC. tion of reptiles. AGE

Comanchian. Rise of flowering or
plants.
REPTILES.
JurassicRise of birds and fy-
EAtLY ing reptiles.
MESOZOIC.
Triassic. Rise of dinosaurs.

PLACE OF THE OLD STONE AGE IN THE EARTH'S HISTORY
(Indicated in heavy-face letter.)
Compare Schuchert's Table, 1914.




accepting Reeds's" estimate of the relative length of time occu-
pied by each of the preceding glacial and interglacial stages, we
reach the following results (compare Fig. 14, p, 41):







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Vt MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

lowing figures set forth the wide variations in opinion on this
subject and the two opposite tendencies of speculation which
lead to greatly expanded or greatly abbreviated estimates of
Pleistocene time:

DURATION OF THE ICE AGE

1863. Charles Lyell," Principles of Geology ............. 800,000 years.
1874. James D. Dana,4 Manual of Geology ............. 720,000 "
1893. Charles D. Walcott," Geologic Time as Indicated by
the Sedimentary Rocks of North America. ...... 400,000
1893. W. Upham," Estimates of Geologic Times, Amer.
Jour. Sci., vol. XLV .......................100,000 "
1894. A. Heim," Ueber das absolute Alter der Eiszeit. .... 100,000 "
1900. W. J. Sollas,51 Evolutional Geology................ 400,000
1909. Albrecht Penck," Die Alpen im Eiszeitalter........ 520,000-840,000
1914. James Geikie," The Antiquity of Man in Europe...620,000 (min.)


We may adopt for the present work the more conservative
estimate of Penck, that since the first great ice-fields developed
in Scandinavia, in the Alps, and in North America west of Hud-
son Bay a period of time of not less than 520,000 years has
elapsed. The relative duration of the subdivisions of the
Glacial Epoch is also studied by Penck in his Chronologie des
Eiszeitalters in den Alpen.5 These stages are not in any degree
rhythmic, or of equal length either in western Europe or in
North America.
The unit of glacial measurement chosen by Penck is the time
which has elapsed since the close of the fourth and last great
glaciation; this is known as the Wirm in the Alpine region and
as the Wisconsin in America. While more limited than the ice-
caps of the second glaciation, those of the fourth glaciation were
still of vast extent in Europe and in this country, so that an esti-
mate of 20,000 to 34,000 years for the unit of the entire Postglacial
stage is not extreme. Estimating this unit at 25,000 years and




terraces' in or upon which they occur; second, through the age
of the open loesss' stations which are found both on the 'older
terraces' and on the plateaus between the river valleys; third,







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GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF MAN


Relative Grand Descent
Relative Grand I of Alpine
Duration Totals Snowine

POSTGLACIAL TIME. Units Years Years Meters
(Period of Upper Paleolithic culture, Cr6-
Magnon and Brilnn races)................... I 25,000 25,000
IV. GLACtAL STAGE (-Wiirm, Wisconsin).
(Close of Lower Palaolithic culture, Neanderthal
race) ................................... 1 25,000 5o,ooo 2,200
3d. Interglacial Stage.
(Opening period of Lower Palmolithic culture,
Piltdown and pre-Neanderthaloid races)..... 4 1oo,ooo 150,000
III. GLACIAL STAGE (-Riss, Illinoian).............. 25,ooo 175,000 1,250
2d. Interglacial Stage (= Mindel-Riss, Yarmouth).. 8 200oo,ooo 375,000
(Period of Heidelberg race.)
II. GLACIAL STAGE (-Mindel, Kansan) ............. 25,000 400,000 1,300
Ist. Interglacial Stage (-Gilnz-Mindel, Aftonian). 3 75,00o 475,000
(Period of Pithecanthropus or Trinil race.)
I. GLCIAL STAGE (-Giinz, Nebraskan)........... I 25,000 5oo,ooo 1,200


The Postglacial time divisions are dated by three successive
advances of the ice-caps, which broadly correspond with Geikie's
fifth and sixth glaciations; they are known in the Alpine region
as the Bilhl, Gschnitz, and Daun. These three waves of cold and
humid climate, each accompanied by glacial advances, finally
terminated with the retreat of the snow and ice in the Alpine
region, the same conditions prevailing as with the present cli-
mate. The minimum time estimates of these Postglacial stages
and the corresponding periods of human culture, as calculated by
Heim,50 Nilesch,5" Penck,52 and many others, are summarized in
the Upper Palaeolithic (p. 281).


GEOLOGIC AND HUMAN CHRONOLOGY

There are four ways in which the lesser divisions and sequence
of human chronology may be dated through geologic or earth-
forming events. First, through the age of the culture stations
or human remains, as indicated by the 'river-drifts' and 'river




the different river-valleys of western Europe were not all formed
at the same time; thus the testimony of the 'terraces' is always
to be checked off by other evidence.






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24 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

through the age of the shelters and caverns in which skeletal and
cultural remains occur; fourth, through the age of the 'loam'
deposits, which have drifted down on the 'terraces' from the
surrounding meadows and hills. The men of the Old Stone Age
were attracted to these natural camps and dwelling-places both
by the abundance of the raw flint materials from which the palse-
oliths were fashioned and by the presence of game.
In more than ninety years of exploration only three skeletal
relics of man have been found in the ancient 'river-drifts'; these
are the 'Trinil,' the 'Heidelberg,' and the 'Piltdown'; in each
instance the human remains were buried accidentally with those
of extinct animals, after drifting for some distance in the river
or stream beds. It is only in late Acheulean times that human
burial rites or interments begin and that skeletal remains are
found. Owing to the less perishable nature of flint, relics of the
quarries and stations are infinitely more common; they are found
both in the river sands and gravels, in the 'river terraces,' and
in the loesss' stations of the plateaus and uplands. Thus pre-
historic chronology is based on observations of the geologist, who
in turn is greatly aided by the archaeologist, because the evolution
stages of each type of implement are practically the same all over
western Europe, with the exception of unimportant local inven-
tions and variations. In brief, the large divisions of time are
determined by the amount of work done by geologic agencies;
the comparative age of the various camp sites is determined by
their geologic succession, by the mammals and plants which oc-
cur in them, and finally by the cultural type of any industrial
remains that may be found.

TIMES OF THE 'HIGH' AND 'Low' RIVER 'TERRACES'

The so-called 'terrace' chronology is to be used by the pre-
historian with caution, for it is obvious that the 'terraces' in




rials brought down by the four great glaciations and with the
river levels of Postglacial times. In general, therefore, the 'high
terraces' are the oldest ones, that is, they are composed of






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GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF MAN 95

As to the origin of the sands and gravels which compose the
'terraces' we know that the glacial stages were periods of the
wearing away of vast materials from the summits and sides of
the mountains, which were transported by the rivers to the
valleys and plains. These vast deposits of glacial times spread
out over the very broad surfaces of the pristine river-bottoms,
which in many valleys it is important to note were from ioo to
I50 feet above the present levels. The diminished and contracted
N.W. SE.





i ------------ -- ------ 6 --- f 4km
Fro. 6. Terraces on either side of the valley of the River Inn, Scharding, Austria,
formed by sand and gravel deposits partly covered with loess. After Bruckner.
Ib. Very broad river deposits of First Glaciation, on the first erosion level, covered
with the 'Upper Loess' of the Second Interglacial Stage.
IIb. Somewhat narrower river deposits of Second Glaciation on the second erosion
level.
IIIb. Still narrower river terraces of the Third Glaciation on the third erosion
level, covered with the 'Lower Loess' of the Third Interglacial Stage.
V'b. Fourth or lowest terrace of the Fourth Glaciation on the fourth erosion level.
Va. Erosion terraces, Achen.
Via. Post-Biihl erosion.
Loess', 'Upper Loess' of Second Interglacial. Loess", 'Lower Loess' of Third In-
terglacial.

streams of interglacial times cut into these ancient river beds,
forming narrower channels into which they transported their
own materials. Thus, as the successive 'river terraces' were
formed, a descending series of steps was created along the sides
of the valleys. In many valleys there are four of these' terraces,'
which may correspond with several glacial stages; in other val-
leys there are only three; in others, again, like the valley of
the River Inn which flows past Innsbruck in the Tyrol (Fig. 6),
there are five 'terraces,' while in the valley of the Rhine above
f aIdo thlorn ao Co v ra;_ cr4nnAmnr ;a 1 hc010TaP rl Inri flC mvn




meridionalis), while the 'low terraces' along the Seine are only
fifteen feet above the present level of the river and contain
mammals belonging to the Third Interglacial Stage. Similarly,






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26 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

materials brought down during the pluvial periods of the First,
Second, and Third Glacial Stages, while the 'lower terraces'
and the 'lowest terraces' in the alpine regions are composed
of materials borne by the great rivers of the Fourth Glacial and
Postglacial Stages. In the region around the Alps the 'higher
terraces' are products chiefly of the third glaciation; in the

hetnfUder HU Upper Scworsta


-350

/ ,; '-250


.0-- 2 3km
FIG. 7. Cross-section through the terraced Pleistocene formations of the Rhine valley
above Basle, Switzerland. After Penck.
Ib. Outwash of the First Glaciation-Giinz-Deposits on the first erosion level.
Ilb. Outwash of the Second Glaciation-Mindel-Deposits on the second erosion level.
IlIb. Outwash of the Third Glaciation-Riss-Deposits on the third erosion level.
IVb. Outwash of the Fourth Glaciation-Wiirm-Deposits on the fourth erosion level.
Va. Erosion terrace, Achen oscillation-fifth erosion level.
Vla. \Post-BUhl erosion-sixth and seventh erosion levels.
Ilc. Moraine of the Third Glaciation-Riss.
The section of the Rheinfelder Hill lies 3 km. west from the Moliner Field.

valley of the Rhine they are visible near Basle. On the upper
Rhine the 'low terraces' are products of the fourth glaciation;
they cover vast surfaces and contain remains of the woolly mam-
moth (E. primigenius), an animal distinctive of Fourth Glacial
and Postglacial times.
More remote from the glacial regions, but equally subject to
the inundations of glacial times are the 'high terraces' along the
River Seine, which are ninety feet above the present level of
the river and contain the remains of mammals characteristic
of the First Interdacial Stage. such as the southern elephant (E.




of St. Acheul."5 The loams and brick-earth are of much more
recent age than the original gravels and sands of the 'terraces'
which they overlap and conceal; the lowest and oldest 'loam'






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GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF MAN 27

the 'high terraces' of the River Eure contain mammals of First
Interglacial times, such as the southern elephant (E. meridionalis)
and Steno's horse (E. stenonis); these fossils occur in coarse river
sands and gravels which were deposited by a broad stream that
flowed at least ninety feet above the present waters of the
Eure.
The human interest which attaches to these dry facts of
geology appears especially in the valleys of the Somme and the
Marne in northern France; here again we find 'high terraces,'
'middle terraces,' and 'low terraces'; the latter are still sub-
ject to flooding. In the deep gravels upon each of these terraces
we find the first proofs of human residence, for here occur the
earliest Pre-Chellean and Chellean implements associated with
the remains of the hippopotamus, of Merck's rhinoceros, and of
the straight-tusked elephant (E. antiquus), together with mam-
mals which are characteristic both of Second and Third Inter-
glacial times.
This raises a very important distinction, which is often mis-
understood; namely, between the materials composing the orig-
inal terraces and those subsequently deposited upon the terraces.
It appears to be in the latter that human artifacts are chiefly, if
not exclusively, found.

TIMES OF THE LOAM STATIONS

The 'loam' which washes down over the original sand and
gravel 'terraces' from the surrounding hills and meadows is of
much later date than the 'terraces' themselves, and the archae-
ologist in the valley of the Somme as well as in that of the Thames
may well be deceived unless he clearly distinguishes between the
newer deposits of gravels and of loams and the far older gravels
and river sands which compose the original 'terraces.' This is
well illustrated by the observations of Commont on the section




who considers that this 'lowest terrace' belongs to Third Inter-
glacial times; a restudy of the stations along the Thames may
throw light upon this very important difference of opinion.






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28 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

(limon fendillg) contains Acheulean flints, while the overlying
'loam' contains Mousterian flints. Although occurring on the
'higher terraces,' these flints are of somewhat later date than
the primitive Chellean flints which occur in the coarse gravels
and sands that have collected upon the very lowest levels (Fig. 59).
A similar prehistoric inversion doubtless occurs in the 'ter-
races' of the Thames, for materials on the 'highest terrace'
(Fig. 8) contain Acheulean flints, while materials on the 'lowest
terrace' belong to a much more recent age.


X e
Soh Oft
Feeth erh







overlying one of the high terraces. Site also of Gray's Thurrock, a deposit of
FIG. 8. Section--Four terraces indicated in the valley of the Thames at Galley
Hill, near London. Site of the discovery of the 'Galley Hill Man' in deposits
overlying one of the high terraces. Site also of Gray's Thurrock, a deposit of
Third Interglacial times containing mammals and flints of Chellean age. A
typical camping station of 'river-drift man.' Drawn by Dr. C. A. Reeds.

We have no record of a single Palaeolithic station found in the
true original sands and gravels of the 'higher terraces' in any
part of Europe; only eoliths are found on the 'high terrace'
levels, as at St. Prest.
The earliest paleoliths occur in the gravels on both the 'mid-
dle' and 'upper terraces' of the Somme and the Marne, proving
that the gravels were deposited long subsequent to the cutting
of the original terraces. Geikie," moreover, is of the opinion
that the valley of the Somme has remained as it is since early
Pleistocene times, and that even the 'lowest terrace' here was
completed at that period; this is contrary to the view of Commont,




Third Interglacial Stage, and finally during Postglacial times
there were periods of arid climate when the loesss' was lifted
and transported by the prevailing winds over the 'terraces' and





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GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF MAN 29


TIMES OF THE 'LOESs' STATIONS

The glacial stages were generally times of relatively great
humidity, of heavy rain and snow fall, of full rivers charged with
gravels and sands, and with loam the finest product of the ero-


FIG. 9. Magdalenian loess station of Aggsbach, in Lower Austria. A quarry
camping station of the open-plains type. This typical Postglacial loess de-
posit contains flints of early Magdalenian age. After Obermaier.

sive action of ice upon the rocks. This loam on the barren
wastes left bare by the glaciers or on the river borders and over-
flow basins was retransported by the winds and laid down afresh
in layers of varying thickness known as loesss.' There was no
loesss' formation either in Europe or America during the humid
climate of First Interglacial times, but during the latter part of
thp qSprnnr TntPrclnruarl qfto *orin;n tnliurrl thio rlnco f t,


- -L ~d


Irlu 1!




by the early Palaeolithic men from Mousterian times on; and thus
from the beginning of the Mousterian to the close of the Upper
Palaolithic their lines of migration and of residence followed the






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30 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

plateaus and even to great heights among the mountain valleys.
As observed by Huntington58 in his interesting book The Pulse
of Asia, even at the present time there are districts where we
find loesss' dust filling the entire atmosphere either during the
heated months of summer or during the cold months of winter.
In Pleistocene Europe there were at least three warm or cold
arid periods, accompanied in some phases by prevailing westerly
winds,59 in which loesss' was widely distributed over northern
Germany, covering the 'river terraces,' plateaus, and uplands
bordering the Rhine and the Neckar. These loesss' periods
can be dated by the fossil remains of mammals which they con-
tain, also by the stations of the flint quarries in different culture
stages. Thus we find late Acheulean implements in drifts of
loesss' at Villejuif, south of Paris. Among the most famous
stations of late Acheulean times is that of Achenheim, west of
Strasburg, and not far distant is the loesss' station of Mom-
menheim, of Mousterian times; both belong to the period of the
fourth glaciation. An Aurignacian loesss' station is that of
Willendorf, Austria.

TIMES OF THE LIMESTONE SHELTERS AND CAVERNS

Beginning in the late or cold Acheulean period, the Pale-
olithic hunters commenced to seek the warm or sheltered side of
deepened river-valleys, also the shelter afforded by overhanging
cliffs and the entrances of caverns. It is quite probable that
during the warm season of the year they still repaired to their
open flint quarries along the rivers and on the uplands; in fact,
the river Somme was a favorite resort through Acheulean into
Mousterian times.
In general, however, the open rivers and plateaus were aban-
doned, and all the regions of limestone rock favorable to the
formation of shelter cliffs, grottos, and caverns were sought out




mountain and formed vast caverns, such as that of Niaux, near
the river Aridge. Here a nearly horizontal cavern was formed,
extending half a mile into the heart of the mountain. The ma-






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GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF MAN 31

exposures of the limestones which had been laid down by the
sea in bygone geologic ages from Carboniferous to Cretaceous
times. The upper valleys of the Rhine and Danube traversed
the white Jurassic limestones which are again exposed in a broad
band along the foot-hills of the Pyrenees, extending far west to
the Cantabrian Alps of modern Spain. In Dordogne the great
horizontal plateau of Cretaceous limestone had been dissected
by branching rivers, such as the VWzere, to a depth of two hun-










FIG. Io. Ideal section of the bluff overlying the Diissel River, near DUsseldorf, showing
the mode of formation of the famous Neanderthal Cave, where the original type of
the Neanderthal race was discovered in 1856. A typical resort of the 'cave man.'
After Lyell.
c. Entrance of percolating waters from above.
f. Exit from the grotto.
a-b. Interior of the cavern.

dred feet. Under overhanging cliffs long rock shelters were
formed, such as that of the Magdalenian station at La Madeleine.
Many caverns were formed, some of them in early Pleistocene
times, by water percolating from above and (Fig. I ) resulting in
subterranean streams which issued at the entrance; this formed
the expanded grotto, sometimes a chamber of vast dimensions,
such as the Grotte de Gargas. Outside of this, again, may be an
abri or shelter of overhanging rock. In other cases the rock
shelter is found quite independent of any cave.
Where the glaciers or ice-caps passed over the summits of the
hills the subglacial streams Denetrated the limestone of the




cians or priests. It is in the abris or shelters in front of the grottos
and in the floors of the caverns that remarkable prehistoric
records are found from late Acheulean times to the very close of






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32 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

trial with which the floors of the caverns are covered is either a
fine cave loam or the insoluble remainder of the limestone form-
ing a brown or gray clayey substance. The Magdalenian artists
produced drawings on these soft clays and, in rare instances, used
them for modelling purposes, as in the Tuc d'Audoubert. The
sands and gravels were also swept in from the streams above and
carried by strong currents along the wall surfaces, smoothing and
polishing the limestone
n rbosI in preparation for the
Higher forms of Upper
Paheolithic draughts-
manship and painting.
s It would appear that
Carbonieroue the majority of the cav-
verns were formed in plu-
Gvial periods of early
glacial times; the for-
FiR. ii. Formation of the typical limestone cav- mation had been com-
ern. After Gaudry. pleted, the subterranean
V. Vertical section of limestone cliff showing s
(S) waters percolating from above; (A-O) inte- Streams had ceased to
rior of the cavern; and (G) grotto entrance, orig- flow, and the interiors
inal exit of the cavern waters. H. Horizontal
section of the same cavern showing the (G) were relatively dry and
grotto entrance and (A, G, O, B) the ramifica- free from moisture in
tions of the cavern.
Fourth Glacial and Post-
glacial times, when man first entered them. There is no
evidence, however, that the cavern depths were generally in-
habited, for the obvious reason that there was no exit for
the smoke; the old hearths are invariably found close to or
outside of the entrance, the only exception being in the en-
trance to the great cavern of Gargas, where there is a natural
chimney for the exit of smoke. There was no cave life, strictly
speaking-it was grotto life; the deep caves and caverns were
probably penetrated only by artists and possibly also by magi-




diverse opinions. On the one hand, we have the high authority
of Penck"6 and Geikie"6 that the Chellean and Acheulean cul-
tures are as ancient as the second long warm interglacial period.








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GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF MAN


the Palaeolithic, as in the wonderful grotto in front of the cave
at Castillo, near Santander. Thus, as Obermaier60 observes: "In
Chellean times primitive man was a care-free hunter wandering
as he chose in the mild and pleasant weather, and even the colder
climate of the arid loesss' period of the late Acheulean was not
sufficient to overcome his love of the open; he still made his
camp on the plains at the edge of the forest, or in the shelter of
some overhanging cliff." Only in rare instances, as at Castillo,
were the Acheulean hearths brought within the entrance line of
the grotto.

Boule, Breuil,
Geologic Time Pec, Io Wiegers, 11o3 Obermaier, z912
GGeikie, 1914 Schmidt, 191a

Bronze. Magdalenian.
Postglacial. Magdalenian. Neolithic. Solutrean.
Azilian. Aurignacian.
Magdalenian.
IV. GLACIAL. Solutrean. Soutran. Mousterian.
Mousterignaan.
Mousterian.Early Mousterian.
Early Mousterian.
Cold Acheulean.
Tkird Interglacial. Mousterian. Mousterian. Warm
Chellean.
Pre-Chellean.
Cold Acheu-
III. GLACAL. Mousterian. ln^he u

Warm Acheu-
Second Interlacil. Acheulean. lean.
Chellean. Chellean.

II. GLACIAL.
Pre-Chellean
First Interglacial.

DIFFERENCES OF OPINION AS TO THE GEOLOGIC AGE OF THE
PALIEOLITHIC CULTURE STAGES
The right-hand column represents the theory adopted in this volume.

Interpretation of these four kinds of evidence as to the an-
tiquity of human culture in western Europe still leads to widely




Africa on the south were favored or interrupted by the periods
of elevation or of subsidence of the coastal borders of the Egean,
Mediterranean, and North Seas, and also of the Iberian and






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34 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

An extreme exponent of the same theory is Wiegers," who would
carry the Pre-Chellean back even into First Interglacial times.
On the other side, Boule," Schuchardt,65 Obermaier,"6 Schmidt,67
and the majority of the French archeologists place the begin-
ning of the Pre-Chellean culture in Third Interglacial times.
In favor of the latter theory is the strikingly close succession
of the Lower Paleolithic cultures in the valley of the Somme, fol-
lowed by an equally close succession from Acheulean to Mag-
dalenian times, as, for example, in the station of Castillo. It
does not appear possible that a vast interval of time, such as that
of the third glaciation, separated the Chellean from the Mous-
terian culture.
On the other hand, in favor of the greater antiquity of the
Pre-Chellean and Chellean cultures may be urged their alleged
association in several localities with very primitive mammals of
early Pleistocene type, namely, the Etruscan rhinoceros, Steno's
horse, and the saber-tooth tiger, as witnessed in Spain and in
the deposits of the Champs de Mars, at Abbeville.
It is true, moreover, that at points distant from the great
ice-fields, like the valley of the Somme and that of the Marne,
we have no other means of separating glacial from interglacial
times than that afforded by the deposition and erosion of the
'terraces'; in fact, the interpretation of the age of the cultures
may be similar to that applied to the age of the mammalian
fauna. There are no proofs of periods of severe cold in western
Europe in any country remote from the glaciers until the very
cold steppe-tundra climate immediately preceding the fourth
glaciation swept the entire land and drove out the last of the
African-Asiatic mammals.

GEOGRAPHIC CHANGES
The migrations of mammals and of races of men into western
Europe from the Eurasiatic continent on the east and from




were formed at Gibraltar and over to the island of Sicily, so that
for the time there was a free migration of mammalian life north
and south. It is to this that western Europe owes the majestic







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I


GEOGRAPHIC CHANGES


British coast-lines. The maximum period of elevation of the
coastal borders, as represented in the accompanying map (Fig.
12), never occurred in all portions of the continent of Europe at
the same time, because there were oscillations both on the north-


FIc. 12. Europe in the period of maximum continental elevation, in which the coast-
lines are widely extended, connecting Africa and Europe-including Great Britain
and Ireland-in a single vast peninsula, and affording free migration routes for
animal and human races north and south, as well as east and west. The ocean
boundaries are more remote and the interior seas are greatly reduced in area. After
Obermaier.

ern and southern coasts of Europe and Africa. The early Pleis-
tocene, especially the period of the First Interglacial Stage, was
one of elevation remarkable for the broad land bridges which
brought the animal life of Europe, Africa, and Asia together.
The Mediterranean coast rose 300 feet. Land bridges from Africa




Isles include one Aungnaclan, one soiutrean, two ivagaaienian,
and two Azilian; this shows that travel communication with
the continent continued throughout that period, in all proba-






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36 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

mammals of Asiatic and African life which dominated the native
fauna.
In general, the elevation of the continent took place during
interglacial, the subsidence during glacial times, but Great
Britain appears to have been almost continuously elevated and
a part of the continent, and was certainly so during the Third
Interglacial, Fourth Glacial, and Postglacial Stages, because there
was a free migration of animal life and of human culture. The
Lower Palaeolithic peoples of Pre-Chellean and Chellean times
wandered at will from the valley of the Somme to the not far
distant valley of the Thames, interchanging their weapons and
inventions. The close proximity of these stations is well illus-
trated in the admirable map (Fig. 56) prepared under the direc-
tion of Lord Avebury (Sir John Lubbock). The relation which
elevation and subsidence respectively bear to the glacial and inter-
glacial stages is believed to be as follows:
ELEVATION, emergence of the coast-lines from the sea, broad
land connections facilitating migration, retreat of the glaciers,
deepening of the river-valleys, and cutting of terraces. Arid
continental climate and deposition of loesss.'
SUBSIDENCE, submergence of the coast-lines and advance of
the sea, interruption of land connections and of migration routes,
advance of the glaciers, filling of the river-valleys with the prod-
ucts of glacial erosion, the sand and gravel materials of which
the 'terraces' are composed, and subglacial erosion of the loam,
from which in arid periods the loesss' is derived.
Subsidence was the great feature of closing glacial times both
in Europe and America. During the Fourth Glacial and Post-
glacial Stages the Black and Caspian Seas and the eastern por-
tion of the Mediterranean were deeply depressed, while the
British Isles were still connected with France, but by a nar-
rower isthmus than that of early interglacial times. The scat-
tered stations of Upper Palaolithic culture found in the British




- 1..' .. -J Lfl' -tt ".*L UCfll W t VJl. Lt11UJ~ l a
ture higher than the present and of the ascent of the snow-line
300 m. (984 ft.) above the existing snow-level of the Alps.








Digitized by GOOgle






CLIMATIC CHANGES 37

ability by means of a land connection. In late Neolithic times
the English Channel was formed, Great Britain became isolated
from Europe, and Ireland lost its land connection first with
Wales and then with Scotland.

CHANGES OF CLIMATE
Penck"6 estimates the intensity of the cold and of the humid-
ity which prevailed during the glacial stages by the descent of
the snow-line in the Alps, which in the two periods of greatest
Sierra r GwrdoM Alps as.
I ] yrw Gnma &y S&Earlan rPiMwe


StrIr dlGiawleer CrerH RaMrN Nrth Skaer
V.lty el/ley S.. Rfe
SNOW LINES OF rTHE FUo PRINCIPAL GLACIAL EcCHS Of 7we PLIS.D~VcE rffr O
A-n rnfiler aStcs trwy *be hr hri A--B t amp
4 Snw ire tih u wt (Wr)i l GleciMl per
3 * Thid (Risll "
b . Re SK l I/) ,
I a First (Gufnz) 5
FIG. 13. An ideal earth section from the North Cape across the Scandinavian
plateau, through the North Sea, Swiss Alps, Pyrenees, and Straits of Gibraltar, to
the Atlas Mountains in northern Africa, along the line indicated on the map (Fig. 25,
p. 65), illustrating the sea-level at the time of the greatest elevation of the conti-
nent during the Second Glacial Stage, as compared with the present sea-level;
also the successive lines of descent of the region of perpetual snow during the four
great glacial advances, as compared with the present snow-line. From studies
by Dr. C. A. Reeds.

glaciation reached from 1,200 m. (3,937 ft.) to 1,500 m. (4, 921 ft.)
below the present snow-level, with the consequent formation of
vast ice-caps hung with glaciers which flowed great distances
down the valleys of the Rh6ne and of the Rhine and left their
moraines at very distant points. The moraines and drifts of the
lesser glaciations, such as the first and fourth, stand considerably
within the boundaries of these outer moraines and drift fields.
On the contrary, the warmer climates of interglacial times are
indicated by the sun-loving plants found at H6tting, along the
,~r11ii, f thf Tnn ;n th 'Trrm1 ,rhi;h nr-n r\r' ar\ a




Cool and dry steppe climate, wide-spread deposition of
loesss.'







Digitized by GOOgle




38 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

The alternation of the cold climates of the glacial stages with
the warm temperate climates of the interglacial stages formed
great oscillations of temperature (Figs. 13, 14). The fossil
plant life indicates that during the periods of the First, Second,
and Third Interglacial Stages the climate of western Europe
was cooler than it had been during the preceding Pliocene
Epoch and somewhat warmer than it is at the present time in
the same localities. During the First, Second, and Third Glacial
Stages there was certainly a marked lowering of temperature in
the regions bordering the great glacial fields. This is indicated
by the arrival in the northern glacial border regions of animals
and plants adapted to arctic and subarctic climates.
It has been generally believed that the whole of western
Europe was extremely cold during these glacial stages, and that
the heat-loving animals, the southern elephants, rhinoceroses,
and hippopotami, were driven to the south, to return only with
the renewed warmth of the next interglacial stage.
There is, however, no proof of the departure of these suppos-
edly less hardy mammals nor of the spread over Europe of the
more hardy arctic and steppe types until the advent of the
Fourth Glacial Stage. Then, for the first time, all western Europe
north of the Pyrenees experienced a general fall of temperature,
and conditions of climate prevailed such as are now found in the
arctic tundra regions of the north and in the high steppes of
central Asia, which are swept by dry and cold winter winds.
Fluctuations of temperature, of moisture, and of aridity in Pleis-
tocene time, are evidenced not only by the rise and fall of the
snow-line and the advance and retreat of the ice-caps but also by
the appearance of plant and animal life in the periods of the loesss'
deposition, indicating the following cycles of climatic change as
witnessed from beginning to end of the Third Interglacial Stage:

IV. Glacial maximum, cold and moist climate, arctic and cold
stprne fIunn anrl flnra




the study either of the plant life of interglacial stages or by the
history of the animals themselves. It is quite probable that
both the hippopotami and the rhinoceroses of the 'warm fauna'






Digitized by GOOgle





CLIMATIC CHANGES 39

Interglacial maximum, a long period of warm temperate
forest and meadow conditions.
Glacial retreat, cool and moist climate bordering the gla-
cial regions.
III. Glacial maximum, cold and humid climate bordering the
glaciers, favorable to arctic and subarctic plant and
animal life.

That great fields of ice and advancing glaciers alone do not
constitute proof of very low temperatures is shown at the present
time in southeastern Alaska, where very heavy snowfall or pre-
cipitation causes the accumulation of vast glaciers, although the
mean annual temperature is only o10 Fahr. (5.560 C.) lower than
that of southern Germany. Neumayr6" estimated that during
the Ice Age there was a general lowering of temperature in Eu-
rope of not more than 60 C. (10.80 Fahr.), and held that even
during the glacial advances a comparatively mild climate pre-
vailed in Great Britain. Martins70 estimated that a lowering of
the temperature to the extent of 40 C. (7.20 Fahr.) would bring
the glaciers of Chamonix down to the level of the plain of Geneva.
Penck estimates that, all the atmospheric conditions remaining
the same as at present, a fall of temperature to the extent of 40
to 50 C. would be sufficient to bring back the Glacial Epoch in
Europe. These moderate estimates entirely agree with our
theory that animals of African and Asiatic habit flourished in
western Europe to the very close of the Third Interglacial
Stage, and that then for the first time the warm fauna, or
faune chaude, gradually disappeared.
Similarly the hypothesis of extremely warm or subtropical
conditions prevailing in interglacial times as far north as Britain,
which originated with the discovery of the northerly distribution
of the hippopotami and rhinoceroses, animals which we now
associate with the torrid climate of Africa, is not supported by




antiquity, for he is four times as ancient as the final type of Ne-
anderthal man belonging to the Mousterian industrial stage.
The various archeologic and paleontologic evidences for this






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40 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

were protected by hairy covering, although not by the thick
undercoating of wool which protected the woolly rhinoceros and
woolly mammoth, animals favoring the borders of glaciers and
flourishing during the last very cold glacial and Postglacial
periods.
The combined evidence from all these great events in western
Europe leads us to conclusions somewhat different from those
reached by Penck as to the chronology of human culture. In
the chart (Fig. 14) on the opposite page, prepared by Dr.
C. A. Reeds in collaboration with the author, a new correlation
of geologic, climatic, human, industrial, and faunal events is
presented. The great waves of glacial advance and retreat
(oblique shading) are based upon Penck's estimates of the rise
and fall of the snow-line (vertical dotted lines) in the Swiss Alps.
(Compare Fig. 13.) The length of these waves corresponds
with the relative duration of the glacial and interglacial stages
as estimated by the varying amounts of erosion and deposition
of materials. The entire Palamolithic or Old Stone Age is thus
seen to occupy not more than 125,000 years, or only the last
quarter of the Glacial Epoch, which is estimated as extending
over a period of 525,000 years. The present opinion of the
leading archeologists of France and Germany, which is shared
by the author, is that the Pre-Chellean industry is not older
than the Third Interglacial Stage. As the Piltdown man was
found in deposits containing Pre-Chellean implements, he prob-
ably lived in the last quarter of the Glacial Epoch, and not in
early Pleistocene times as estimated by some British geologists.
This causes us to regard the Piltdown remains as more recent
than the jaw of Heidelberg, which all authorities agree is prob-
ably of Second Interglacial Age. According to our estimates the
Heidelberg man is nearly twice as ancient as the Piltdown man,
while Pithecanthropus (Trinil Race) is four times as ancient.
Yet the Piltdown man must still be regarded as of very great




terglacial stages in Europe and North America, with the author's theory regarding the
divisions of time, the beginning of the Old Stone Age, and the successive appearance
in Europe of different branches of the human race. To the right the prolonged
warm temperate period in Europe in the non-glaciated regions, followed by the
relatively brief cold period during the past 70,000 years. Prepared by Dr. C. A.
Reeds, in co-operation with the author.
41








Digitized by GOOgle


CORRELATION OF CLI



SPOSGLACIAL -
SWORM, WfscINSIN
sr 7aeprrlces' I



%3.INTER-
GLACIAL
RSS WUORM 4' 4
SANGAMON
Middle Loess" ,,

7


/ RISS. POLANDIAN
" ld Drift- f
...... . : "
SILLINOIAN

a2. -IN TER- | :
GLACIAL
MINDEL-RISS
1HELVETIAN '
YARMOUTH
Long Warm

0Older Loess' ''









f. GLACIAL s
MINDEL SAXONIAN
KANSAN
'Old Drift

1. INTER-
SGLACIAL
SNORFOLKIAN 3
CGUNZ-MINDEL 4


^ J.GLACIAL
C UNZ.SCANIAN -
N EBRASKAN &
/Old Terraces'

PLIOCENE
GLACIAL
A CA
INTERGLACIAL


MATIC, RACIAL, CULTURE LIFE STAGES 19/4


TI. MRA-N A
1%O NEANDERTHALL
4MOUSTERIAN
Sq/WO YA RS

3ACHEULEAH LOWER /KRAPI
1poor, YiA, PALAEO-
2CHELLEAN LITHIC
tOOpoo rfArS

I PRE-CHELLEAN PILTDOWN
4a0o00 YEARJ


50',000
COLD TUNDRA FAUNA
WOOLLY MAMMOTH &
RHINOCEROS. FIRST
STEPPE a REINDEER
'20000 YEARS
zoopoo ras
,a0poo .







asoqooo


3,>o00 .


uopso .

FIRST COLD
FAUNA

400p00 YEARS
42qo00 r0 ns


saooo ,

,s000 .
--------- -" ----- ------
#75,0



COLD FOREST BED
FAUNA IN S BRITAIN
0so0000 YCARS

000 -


HEIDELBERC
























PITHECAN-
THROPUS
(TRINILI


1- 1


STONE CULTURES HUMAN
AND COLD FAUNAS RACES


RECENTFORESTrMEADC ALPINE
REINDEER PERIOD. ARCTIC
TUNDRA, STEPPE. ALPINE
FOREST MEADOW
COLD FAUNA
ARRIVAL STEPPE. TNORA, FAUNA
LAST WARM AFRICAN-AS/ATIC
FAUNA
E.ANT/IUUS. HIPPOPOTAMUS
D.MERCKIl, E TROGONTNERI
ALSO FOREST. MEADOW
EURASIATIC FAUNA


WARM AFRICAN ASIATIC
FAUNA
E.ANTI/UUS, E TROGONTH-
ERI, D. MERCKII. HIPPO-
POTAMUS














... ... .. ---- --- - ......... . .
WARM
AFRICAN ASIATIC FAUNA
E. MERIDIONALIS-TROCON-
THERII, 0 ETRUSCUS,
HIPPOPO TAMUS
MACHCRODUS





PL/OCENE
WARM FOREST


STAGES OF MAMMALIAN
AND PLANT LIFE


L _ _ __ __ 1_ __ _ _ _


Fir. Ia_ Great events of the Glarial Fnoch. To the left the relation of rlciial and in-




treme north. There is every reason to believe that when these
tundra quadrupeds first arrived in Europe, during early mid-
glacial stages, they had already acquired the heavy coat of hair






Digitized by GOO0le





42 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

general correlation theory of the Glacial Epoch are fully dis-
cussed in the succeeding chapters of this volume.

MAMMALS OF FIVE DISTINCT GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS
(Compare Color Map, P1. II, and Fig. 15)
As we have already observed, during the whole history of
mammalian life in various parts of the world never did there
prevail conditions so unusual and so complex as those which
surrounded the men of the Old Stone Age in Europe. The suc-
cessive races of Palaolithic men in Europe were all flesh eaters,
depending upon the chase. The mammals, first pursued only
for food, utensils, and clothing, finally became subjects of artis-
tic appreciation and endeavor which resulted in a remarkable
esthetic development.
From the beginning to the end of Paleolithic times the vari-
ous races of man witnessed the assemblage in Europe of animals
indigenous to every continent on the globe except South America
and Australia and adapted to every climatic life-zone, from the
warm and dry plains of southern Asia and northern Africa to
the temperate forests and meadows of Eurasia; from the heights
of the Alps, Himalayas, Pyrenees, and Altai Mountains to the
high, arid, dry steppes of central Asia with their alternating heat
of summer and cold of winter; from the tundras or barren grounds
of Scandinavia, northern Europe, and Siberia to the mild forests
and plains of southern Europe.7 Members of all these highly
varied groups of animals had been evolving in various parts of
the northern hemisphere from the Eocene Epoch onward. In
Pliocene times they had become thoroughly adapted to their
various habitats. Throughout early Pleistocene times, with the
increasing cold extending southward from the arctic circle,
such mammals as the elephant, rhinoceros, musk-ox, and rein-
deer had become thoroughly adapted to the climate of the ex-





MIGRATIONS AND EXTINCTIONS OF MAMMALIAN LIFE DURING THE
FOUR GLACIAL, THREE INTERGLACIAL, AND POSTGLACIAL STAGES











Digitized by Google


MIGRATIONS OF MAMMALS


RECENT
PREHISTORIc.


POSTGLACIAL
Severe climate.



IV. GLAucIA.
Cold Steppe cli-
mate.



3d INERGLACIAL.
Warm climate.


Reindeer and
Woolly Mam-
III. GLACIA. moth in North
Germany and
the Alps.

2d INTERGLAC1IL.

Reindeer and
II. GLACIA.. Woolly Mam-
moth in North-
ern Germany.

Ist INTERGLACIAL.

I. G*LAcu.. Musk-ox in Sus-
sex. England.


Early Migrations
GEOLOGIC of Scandinavian
AND and North Sibe-
CUMATIC rian Mammals
STAGES. near the Ice-
fields.

REGIONS NEAR
THE ICE-FIELDS
AND GLACIAL
BORDERS.


Return of the Alpine Mammals to the Mountains.

Wide dispersal of Forest and Meadow Mammals
over the Northern Hemisphere.

Retreat of the Tundra and Steppe Mammals to the
North and East.

Mingling in the lowlands of France and Germany
of the Reindeer-Mammoth fauna, the Alpine
fauna, the Steppe Mammals, and the hardy Eur-
asiatic Forest and Meadow Mammals.

Arrival of the Tundra Mammals from the North.

Arrival of the Steppe Mammals from Western Asia.

Southward migration and extinction of all the
African-Asiatic Mammals except the lions and
hyenas.

Mingled African-Asiatic and Eurasiatic Mammals
in different parts of the non-glaciated regions,
the hippopotamus, southern mammoth, straight-
tusked elephant, Merck's broad-nosed


rhinoceros, lion, hyzna, jackal, sabre-
tooth tiger.





Also the stag, giant deer, bison, wild
cattle, forest horse, boar, wolf, fox,
lynx, wildcat, several species of bear.




Survival of many Pliocene African-
AsiaticMammals, mingled with Pliocene
and recent Eurasiatic Forest and Mead-
ow Mammals.


'Warm' African- More hardy Eur-
Asiatic Mammals. asiatic Mammals.

Temperate and shel- Cool temperate for-
tered parts of ests and mead-
Western Europe. ows.

MORE SHELTERED NON-GLACIATED RE-
GIONS REMOTE FROM THE GAcIAL
BORDERS AND ICE-FIELDS.


PERIOD OF
RECENT
ANIMALS.




REINDEER
PERIOD
IN
WESTERN
EUROPE.


PERIOD

HIPPOPTAMUs,
RHINOCEROS,
AND
ELEPHANT.
ALSO
OF THE
STAG
AND
BAson
BISON
IN
WESTERN
EURoPE.


THREE
CHIEF
LIOE
PERIODS.




Bison and wild cattle are grass eaters, and their natural habitats are the open plain
and meadow regions. They also range into open forest lands where grasses can be found.
The prehistoric 'urus' and wisentt' of Europe were both found in forests, but this may
not have been their natural habitat in Paleolithic times. See Appendix, Note IV.






Digitized by Google






44 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

and undercoating of wool, such as now characterizes the musk-
ox, one of the living representatives of this northern fauna.
The five great sources of mammalian migration into western
Europe in Pleistocene times were accordingly as follows:

I. WARM PLAINS of northern Africa and of southern Asia. "African-
Asiatic" fauna-hippopotamus, rhinoceros, elephant.
2. TEMPERATE MEADOWS AND FORESTS of Europe and Asia. "Eura-
siatic" fauna-deer, bison, horse.
3. HIGH, COOL MOUNTAIN RANGES-Alps, Pyrenees, Caucasus, Urals.
Fauna-chamois, ibex, ptarmigan. (See Fig. 185.)
4. STEPPES AND DESERTS. Dry, elevated plateaus and steppes of east-
ern Europe and central Asia. Fauna-desert ass and horse, saiga ante-
lope, jerboa. (See Fig. 186.)
5. TUNDRAS AND BARREN GROUNDS within or near the arctic circle.
Fauna-reindeer, musk-ox, arctic fox. (See Figs. 95 and 96.)
(Compare Figs. 14 and 15.)

In the warm plains, forests, and rivers of southern Asia and
northern Africa there developed the elephants, rhinoceroses,
hippopotami, lions, hyenas, and jackals, which, taken together,
may be known as the African-Asiatic fauna. It contains alto-
gether fourteen species of mammals. The great geographic area
from the far east to the far west over which ranged similar or
identical species of these pachyderms and carnivores is indicated
by the oblique lines in the geographic chart (Fig. 15).
The north temperate belt of Asia and Europe, with its hardy
forests and genial meadows, was the home of the even more
highly varied Eurasiatic Forest and Meadow fauna. This includes
twenty-six or more species. Of these the red deer, or stag, was
most characteristic of the forests and the bison and wild cattle* of
the meadows. Even at the very beginning of Pleistocene times
there appear the stag, the wild boar, and the roe-deer with their
natural pursuers, the wolf and the brown bear. From the northern
woods came the moose and the wolverene. Most of these mam-
mals were so similar to existing forms that the older naturalists




IIItUUW 11Urb t. rE r111 L11l5b egiui 11U1 LU~1CI UVevct1UpU LIIC Lave-
bear (Ursus speleus). Certainly it is astonishing to find the re-
mains of these mammals mingled with those from southern Asia
and Africa, as is frequently the case. In early glacial times the






Digitized by GOOgle


MIGRATIONS OF MAMMALS


placed them in existing species, but the tendency now is to sepa-
rate them or place them in distinct subspecies. Mingled with
these forest and meadow mammals were a few others which have





,&& .i'i 'Jl













P 6it is e I I





FIG. 15. Zoogeographic map. Range of the large mammals of Africa and southern
Asia in Pliocene and Pleistocene times until nearly the close of the Lower Palao-
lithic (oblique lines). Range of the forest and meadow fauna of Europe and
Asia from early Pleistocene to prehistoric times; stag and bison fauna (horizontal
lines). Present range of the tundra or barren-ground mammals (dots) which wan-
dered south during the fourth glaciation, expelling the large Asiatic mammals.
Present range of mammals of the deserts and steppes of eastern Europe and
southern Asia, which also invaded western Europe during the glacial and Post-
glacial stages (vertical lines). The alpine mammals dwelt in the high mountain
regions and invaded the plains and lowlands during Fourth Glacial and Post-
glacial times.

since become extinct, such as the giant deer (Megaceros), the
giant beaver (Trogontherium), and the primitive forest and




-0-- r ---" --' -k t -Q- -
Finally in the Fourth Glacial Stage arrived the lemming of the
river Obi, also the more northern banded lemming, the arctic
fox, the wolverene, and the ermine, as well as the arctic hare.





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46 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

bison and wild cattle mingled freely with the hippopotami and
rhinoceroses, but in late glacial and Postglacial times they oc-
curred as companions of the mammoth and the woolly rhinoceros.
In prehistoric times they survived with the mammals brought
from the Orient by the Neolithic agriculturists.
During a great glaciation, but especially during the severe
climate of late Pleistocene times, the Alpine mammals were
driven down from the heights into the plains and among the
lower mountains and foot-hills. Thus the ibex, chamois, and
argali sheep from the Altai Mountains are represented both in
drawing and in sculpture by the men of the Reindeer Period.
Still more remarkable is the arrival in Europe of the Steppe
Fauna of Russia and of western Siberia, mammals which now
survive in the vast Kirghiz steppes, east of the Caspian Sea
and the Ural Mountains, where the climate is one of hot, dry
summers and prolonged cold winters, with sweeping dust and
snow storms. These animals are very hardy, alert, and swift of
foot, such as the jerboa, the saiga antelope, the wild asses, and
the wild horses, including the Przewalski type, which still sur-
vives in the desert of Gobi. From this region also came the
Elasmothere (E. sibiricum), with its single giant horn above the
eyes. Very distinctive of the fauna frequenting the caverns are
the small rodents, including the dwarf pikas, the steppe hamsters,
and the lemmings. These animals were attracted into Europe
during the 'steppe' and loesss' periods of cold, dry climate.
The advance of the great Scandinavian glaciers from the
north crowded to the south the Tundra or Barren Ground fauna
of the arctic circle. The herald of this fauna during the First
Glacial Stage was the musk-ox, which appears in Sussex, and then
came the reindeer of the existing Scandinavian type. These
animals are followed by the woolly mammoth (E. primigenius)
and the woolly rhinoceros (D. antiquitatis) with their panoply of
hair andr wrrl whirh iharl Innr hPin dlpvplnnincr in thp nnrth




(12) Cartailhac, 1903.1. (28) Lartet, 1861.1.
(13) Dechelette, 1908.1, vol. I. (29) Lartet, 1875.1.
(14) Reinach, S., 1889.1. (3o) Breuil, 1012.7, p. 165.
(15) Schmidt, 1912.1. (i3) de Mortillet, 1869.1.
(16) Avebury, 1913.1. (32) Piette, E., 1907.1.






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MIGRATIONS OF MAMMALS 47

These tundra mammals for a short period mingled in places with
survivors of the African-Asiatic fauna, such as Merck's rhinoc-
eros and the straight-tusked elephant (E. antiquus). In general,
they swept southward as far as the Pyrenees over country which
had long been enjoyed by the African-Asiatic mammals, while
the hippopotami and the southern elephants retreated still far-
ther south and became extinct.
The only survivors of the great African-Asiatic fauna in
Fourth Glacial and Postglacial times were the hyenas (H.
crocuta spelea) and the lions (Felis leo spelea). The lion fre-
quently appears in the drawings of the cavemen.
The various species belonging to these five great faune ap-
parently succeed each other, and wherever their remains are
mingled with the palmoliths, as along the rivers Somme, Marne,
and Thames, or in the hearths of the shelters and caverns, they
become of extreme interest both in their bearing on the chronology
of man and on the development of human culture, art, and in-
dustry. They also tell the story of the sequence of climatic
conditions both in the regions bordering the glaciers and in the
more temperate regions remote from the ice-caps. Thus they
guide the anthropologist over the difficult gaps where the geologic
record is limited or undecipherable. The general succession of
these great fauna is illustrated in Fig. 14 and also in the above
table.
(1) Lamarck, 1815.1. (17) Eccardus, 1750.1.
(2) Schaaffhausen, 1858.1. (18) Mahudel, 1740.1.
(3) Darwin, C., 1909.2. (19) Buckland, 1824.1.
(4) Lamarck, 18o9.i. (2o) Godwin-Austen, 1840.1.
(5) Lyell, 1863.1, pp. 84-89. (21) Christol, 1829.1.
(6) Darwin, C., 1871.1, p. 146. (22) Schmerling, 1833.1.
(7) Darwin, C., 19o9.1, p. 158. (23) Boucher de Perthes, 1846.1.
(8) Retzius, A., 1864.1, p. 27. (24) Op. cit.
(9) Op. cit., p. 166. (2S) Rigollot, 1854.1.
(1o) Broca, 1875.1. (26) Lubbock, 1862.1.
(1x) Schwalbe, G., 1914.1, p. 592. (27) Avebury, 1913.1, pp. 2, 3.
















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MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE


Riviere 1897.1.
de Sautuola, i880.i.
Schmidt, 1912.1.
Bourgeois, 1867.1.
Schmidt, op. cit., p. 5.
Obermaier, 1912.1, pp. 170-174;
316-320; 332, 545.
Charpentier, 1841.1.
Agassiz, 1837.1; 1840.1; 1840.2.
Morlot, 1854.1.
Chamberlin, 1895.1; 19o5.1, vol.
III, chap. XIX, pp. 327-516.
Salisbury, 1905.1.
Penck, 1909.I.
Leverett, ig1o.1.
Lyell, 1867.1, vol. I, pp. 293-
301; 1877.1, vol. I, p. 287.
Dana, 1875.1, p. 591.
Walcott, 1893.1.
Upham, 1893.1, p. 217.
Heim, 1894.1.
Sollas, 19oo.z.


(52) Penck, 1909.1, vol. III, pp. 1153-
1176.
(53) Geikie, 1914.1, p. 302.
(54) Reeds, 1915.1.
(55) Niiesch, 1902.r.
(56) Geikie, op. cit., pp. 111-14.
(57) Op. cit., p. io8.
(58) Huntington, 1907.1.
(59) Leverett, 191o.1.
(6o) Obermaier, 1912.1, p. 132.
(61) Penck, 9go8.1; 1909.1.
(62) Geikie, 1914.1, p. 312.
(63) Wiegers, 1913.1.
(64) Boule, 1888.1.
(65) Schuchardt, 1913.1, p. 144.
(66) Obermaier, 1909.2; 1912.1.
(67) Schmidt, 1912.1, p. 266.
(68) Penck, I909.1, vol. III, p. 1168,
Fig. 136.
(69) Neumayr, 1890.I, vol. II, p. 621.
(70) Martins, 1847.1, pp. 941, 942.
(71) Osborn, 1910o., pp. 386-427.




upper premolars resemDie nose or man.
None of these fossil anthropoids either of Europe or of Asia
can be regarded as ancestral to man, although both Neopithecus
49






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CHAPTER I

ANCESTRY OF THE ANTHROPOID APES- PLIOCENE CLIMATE, FORESTS,
AND LIFE OF WESTERN EUROPE -TRANSITION TO THE PLEISTO-
CENE, OR AGE OF MAN -THE FIRST GLACIATION, ITS EFFECTS ON
CLIMATE, FORESTS, AND ANIMAL LIFE -THE PREHUMAN TRINIL
RACE OF JAVA THE EOLITHS OR PRIMITIVE FLINTS- THE SEC-
OND GLACIATION THE HEIDELBERG, EARLIEST KNOWN HUMAN
RACE THE THIRD GLACIATION

THE partly known ancestors of the anthropoid apes and the
unknown ancestors of man probably originated among the for-
ests and flood-plains of southern Asia and early began to migrate
westward into northern Africa and western Europe.
As early as Oligocene times a forerunner of the great apes
(Propliopithecus), most nearly resembling the gibbons, appears
in the desert bordering the Fayum in northern Egypt. Early in
Miocene times true tree-living gibbons found their way into
Europe and continued throughout the Pliocene in the forms
known as Pliopithecus and Pliohylobates, the latter being a true
gibbon in its proportions; it ranged northward into the present
region of Germany. Another ape which early reached Europe
is the Dryopithecus; it is found in Miocene times in southern
France; the grinding-teeth suggest those of the orang, the jaw
is deep and in some ways resembles that of the Piltdown man.
A third ape (Neopithecus) occurs in the Lower Pliocene near
Eppelsheim, in Germany, and is known only from a single lower
molar tooth, which recalls the dentition of Dryopithecus and more
remotely that of Homo. In the Pliocene of the Siwalik hills of
Asia is found Paleopithecus, a generalized form which is believed
to be related to the chimpanzee, thegorilla, and the gibbon; the
1 11 1 e.i




cestral to any human type.*
*A recent article by A. Smith Woodward describes the fourth known specimen of
Dryopithecus, lately discovered in northern Spain (see Woodward, 1914.2).







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MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE


and Dryopithecus have been placed in or near the line of human
ancestry by such high authorities as Branco and Gaudry. When
Dryopithecus was first discovered by Lartet, Gaudry1 considered
it to be by far the most manlike of all the apes, even attributing
to it sufficient intelligence for the working of flints, but fuller
























FIG. x6. The gibbon is primitive in its skull and dentition, but extremely special-
ized in the adaptation of its limbs to arboreal life. Photograph
from the New York Zoological Park.

knowledge of this animal has shown that some of the living
anthropoids are more manlike than Dryopithecus. This animal
is closely related to the ancestral stock of the chimpanzee,
gorilla, and orang. The jaw, it is true, resembles that of the
Piltdown man (Eoanthropus), but the grinding-teeth are much
more primitive and there is little reason to think that it is an-




narrow, z. e., catarrnme, ana Lne Drain-case is wlaenea, DUL Lne
top of the skull is smooth, and the forehead lacks the promi-
nent ridges above the orbits; thus the profile of the skull of







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ANCESTRY OF THE ANTHROPOID APES


Among these fossil anthropoids, as well as among the four
living forms, we discover no evidence of direct relationship to
man but very strong evidence of descent from the same ances-
tral stock. These proofs of common ancestry, which have already
been observed in the existing races of man, become far more
conspicuous in the ancient Palaeolithic races; in fact, we cannot
interpret the anatomy of the men of the Old Stone Age without


FIc. 17. The orang has a high rounded skull and long face. Photograph
from the New York Zoological Park.

a survey of the principal characters of the existing anthropoid
apes, the gibbon, the orang, the chimpanzee, and the gorilla.
The gibbon is the most primitive of living apes in its skull
and dentition, but the most specialized in the length of its arms
and its other extreme adaptations to arboreal life. As in the
other anthropoids, the face is abbreviated, the narial region is
__ I----1 I ? I i 1-




aLuUVt LI:C UIIILb 4I alU g4 ltU 11CUlall LIC.L U11 LUpl L11 JILLU .ui l
old males. The lower jaw of the orang is stout and deep, and,
although used as a fighting weapon, the canine tusks are much







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MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE


the gibbon (Fig. 16) is more human than that of the other an-
thropoid apes. When on the ground the gibbon walks erect and
is thus afforded the free use of its arms and independent move-
ments of its fingers. In the brain there is a striking develop-
ment of the centres of sight, touch, and hearing. It is these
characteristics of the modern gibbon which preserve with rela-


Frc. 18. The chimpanzee. This figure illustrates the walking powers of the
chimpanzee, the great length of the arms, and the abbreviation of the
legs. Photograph from the New York Zoological Park.

tively slight changes the type of the original ancestor of man,
as noted by Elliot Smith.2
The limbs of the orang are less elongated and less extremely
specialized for arboreal life than those of the gibbon but more
so than those of the chimpanzee and the gorilla. The skull is
rounded and of great vertical height, with broad, bony ridges
^I- ^ .... I -- : __ _,I _- .... __ __ _C &U- ..A -11 -




Neanderthal races. When the chimpanzee is walking (Fig. 18)
the arms reach down below the level of the knees, whereas in the
higher races of man they reach only half-way down the thighs.






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ANCESTRY OF THE ANTHROPOID APES


less prominent than in either the gibbon, chimpanzee, or gorilla.
Of all anthropoids this jaw most nearly resembles that of the
Piltdown man.
In the chimpanzee we observe the very prominent bony
ridges above the eyes, like those in the Trinil and Neanderthal


Fir. 19. The Chimpanzee. This figure shows certain facial characteristics
which are preserved in the Neanderthal race of men. Note also the
shortening of the thumb and the enlargement of the big toe. Photograph
from the New York Zoological Park.

races of men. The prognathous or protruding tooth rows and
receding chin suggest those in the Heidelberg, Piltdown, and




more nearly allied to that of man. Five early human races have been found in Europe in
Glacial or Pleistocene times, but no traces of other primates except the macaques, which are
related to the lower division of the baboons, have been found in Europe in Pleistocene times.
Modified after Gregory. (For latest discovery see Appendix, Note VII.)










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MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE


Thus, the fore limb, although much shorter than that of the gib-
bon, is relatively longer than that of any human race, recent or
ancient. We observe also in the walking chimpanzee (Fig. 18)


GIBBON.
Asia.


NE


Primitive Gib-
bon of Eu-
rope
(Pliohylobates).





Earliest 'Gibbons
of Europe
(PliopitLecus).


Ancestral
poids o
(Proplio
\


MAN CHIMPANZEE. GOIn.LA. ORANGE.
(Homo sapiens). Africa. Africa. Asia.
Asia, Europe.


Crld-lagnon and /
other races.


More primitive spe-
cies, human and /
prehuman.,/
S / / Macaque
Neanderthal race. I of Eu-
/ rope.
Pildown race.

Heidelberg race.

Trinil race i
(Pithecanthropus). Ancestral anthro-/ Macaques
poids of Asia of Asia
Sand
Unknown Pliocene / Europe.
ancestors of man. /

/ / !
I
Primitive anthropoids /
of Asia and Europe. /

/
i iii/


ExISTING
APES AND
MAN.







GLACIAL OR
PLEISIOCEI
AGE.






PLIOCENE
AGE.





MIOCENE
AGE.





OuGOCENE.


I-


Small monkeys
of Egypt.
/"


Unknown ancestral stock
of the Old World pri-
mates, including man.


ANCESTRAL TREE OF THE ANTHROPOID APES AND OF MAN
From the unknown and ancestral stock of the anthropoid apes and man the GIBBON was the first
to branch off in Oligocene times; the ORANG then branched off in a widely different direction.
TrIn M tm t~ tti fWWAWuvv inrl .+- t+-# -rTTT I hr-f-hIAtfat a I mt I r- -fr A1afl an/ 11


anthro-
If Egypt
pithecus).


'S
Y




The skull of the chimpanzee is longer than that of the orang,
the most prominent feature in the top view being the extreme
protuberance of the orbits, which are surrounded by a supra-






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ANCESTRY OF THE ANTHROPOID APES


that the upper part of the leg, the thigh-bone, or femur, is rela-
tively long, while the lower part, the shin-bone, or tibia, is rela-
tively short. Indeed, both in the arm and in the leg the upper
bones are relatively long and the lower bones are relatively short.
These proportions, which are inheritances of arboreal life, are
in very marked contrast to those observed in the arms and


FIG. 20. The Gorilla. An immature female, about three years of age,
showing none of the adult male characteristics. Photo-
graph from the New York Zoological Park.

legs of the Neanderthal race of men, in which the limbs are of
the terrestrial or walking type.
We observe also in the chimpanzee a contrast between the
grasping power of the big toe, which is a kind of thumb, and the
lack of that power in the hand, in which the thumb is nearly
useless; in all apes this function is characteristic of the foot, in
man of the hand alone. The opposable thumb, with its power of
bringing the thumb against each of the fingers, is the one char-
acter which is lacking in every one of the anthropoid apes and
which was early developed among the ancestors of man.




ive development ot tne postenor and lateral portions o0 tme
brain. The sense of smell had been well developed in a previous
terrestrial life, but once these creatures left the earth and took







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56 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

orbital and circumorbital bony ridge, which is also strongly de-
veloped in the Neanderthal skull as well as in the Pithecanthropus
or Trinil skull but, so far as we know, is entirely lacking in that
of Piltdown. As in the orang and the gorilla, a crest develops
along the middle of the top of the skull for the insertion of the
powerful muscles of the jaws, a crest which is wholly wanting
in the gibbon and probably wanting in all the true ancestors
of man.
The gorilla illustrates in the extreme the specializations which
are begun in the chimpanzee, and which are attributable to a












FIc. 21. Contrast of the projecting face (prognathism). retreating forehead, and
small brain-case of a young gorilla, as compared with the vertical face, promi-
nent nose, high forehead, and large brain-case of a high race of man. After
Klaatsch.

life partly arboreal, partly terrestrial, with the skull and jaws used
as powerful fighting organs. The head is lengthened by the for-
ward growth of the muzzle into an extreme prognathism. The
limbs and body of the gorilla show a departure from the primitive,
slender-limbed, arboreal type of apes and are partly adapted to
a bipedal, ground-dwelling habit.
As regards psychic evolution,3 Elliot Smith observes that the
arboreal mode of life of the early ancestors of man developed
quick, alert, and agile movements which stimulated the progress-




by the power of walking more or less erect on the hind limbs and
thus releasing the arms; this power is developed to a greater or
less degree in all the anthropoid apes; with practice they become






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ANCESTRY OF THE ANTHROPOID APES


to the trees, guidance by the olfactory sense was less essential,
for life amidst the branches of the trees is most favorable to the
high development of the senses of vision, touch, and hearing.
Moreover, it demands an agility and quickness of movement
that necessitate efficient motor centres in the brain to co-ordinate
and control such actions as tree life calls for. The specialization
of sight awakens curiosity to examine objects with greater mi-


Fic. 22. Side view of a human brain of high type, showing the chief areas of
muscular control and of the sensory impressions of sight and hearing, also the
prefrontal area in which the higher mental faculties are centred. Modified after
M. Allen Starr.

nuteness and guides the hands to more precise and skilled move-
ments.
The anatomy of man is full of remote reminders of this orig-
inal arboreal existence, which also explains the very large and
early development of the posterior portions of the brain, in which
the various senses of sight, touch, and hearing are located.
The first advance from arboreal to terrestrial life is marked




brain; and fourth, the acquisition of the power of speech.
argument for the erect attitude suggested by Lamarck, and
put by Munro4 in 1893, indicates that the cultivation of


The
ably
skill


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MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE


expert walkers. The additional freedom which the erect atti-
tude gives to the arms and to the movements of the hands and
the separate movements of the fingers is especially noticeable in
the gibbon. The cultivation of the powers of the hand reacts
upon the further growth and specialization of the brain; thus
the brain and the erect attitude react upon each other. In





















the seat of the higher mental faculties.

the gibbon there is a marked increase in the size of those por-
tions of the brain which supply the centres of touch, vision, and
hearing.
Discussion as to how the ancestors of man were fashioned has
chiefly dealt with the rival claims of four lines of structural evo-
lution: first, the assumption of the erect attitude; second, the
development of the obtosable thumb: third. the growth of the
development of the obbosable thumb: third, the growth of the




during Miocene and Pliocene times, is rather that of the coin-
cident development of these four distinctively human powers.
It appears from the limb proportions in the Neanderthal race






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ANCESTRY OF THE ANTHROPOID APES


with the hands and fingers lies at the root of man's mental su-
premacy. Elliot Smith's argument that the steady growth and
specialization of the brain itself has been the chief factor in lead-
ing the ancestors of man step by step upward indicates that


FIG. 24. The evolution of the brain. Outlines (top view) of typical human
and prehuman brains, showing the narrow forebrain of the primitive type
and the successive expansion of the seat of the higher mental faculties in
the successive races.

such an advance as the erect attitude was brought about be-
cause the brain had made possible the skilled movements of
the hands.
The true conception of prehuman evolution, which occurred




even more vividly than the animals the changing conditions of
the environment and temperature which marked the approach
and various vicissitudes of the great Ice Age.






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60 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

that the partly erect attitude and walking gait were assumed
much earlier in geologic time than we formerly imagined. The
intimate relation between the use of the opposable thumb and
the development of the higher mental faculties of man is sus-
tained to-day by the discovery that one of the best methods of
developing the mind of the child is to insist upon the constant
use of the hands, for the action and reaction between hand and
brain is found to develop the mind. A similar action and reac-
tion between foot and brain developed the erect gait which re-
leased the hand from its locomotive and limb-grasping function,
and by the resultant perfecting of the motion of thumbs and fin-
gers turned the hand into an organ ready for the increasing
specialization demanded by the manufacture of flint imple-
ments.
This is the stage reached, we believe, in late Pliocene times
in which the human ancestor emerges from the age of mammals
and enters the age of man, the period when the prehistory of
man properly begins. The attitude is erect, the hand has a well-
developed opposable thumb, the centres of the brain relating to
the higher senses and to the control of all the motions of the
limbs, hands, and fingers are well developed. The power of
speech may still be rudimentary. The anterior centres of the
brain for the storing of experience and the development of ideas
are certainly very rudimentary.

CHANGE OF ENVIRONMENT IN EUROPE

Considering that the origin and development of any creature
are best furthered by a struggle for existence sufficiently severe
to demand the full and frequent exercise of its powers of mind
and body, it is interesting to trace the sequence of natural events
which prepared western Europe for the entrance of the earliest
branches of the human race. The forests and plants portray




Upper Pliocene belong to the lower types of the Old World
monkeys, related to the living langur of India and to the macaque
and baboon. The evidence, as far as it goes, indicates that the






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PLIOCENE CLIMATE, FORESTS, AND LIFE 61

The forests of central France in Pliocene times, as well as
those of the valley of the Arno in northern Italy, were very similar
to the forests of the middle United States at the present time,
comprising such trees as the sassafras, the locust, the honey-
locust, the sumach, the bald cypress, and the tulip. Thus the
regions which harbored the rich forest and meadow fauna of
northern Italy in Upper Pliocene times abounded in trees fa-
miliar to-day in North and South Carolina, including even such
distinctively American forms as the sweet gum (Liquidambar
styraciflua), the sour gum (Nyssa sylvatica), and the bay, beside
those above mentioned. To the south, along the Mediterranean,
there also flourished trees incident to a more tropical climate, the
bamboo, the sabal palm, and the dwarf fan-palm; most interest-
ing is the presence of the sabal, which now flourishes in the sub-
tropical rain forests of central Florida. The sequoia also was
abundant. Toward the close of the Pliocene the first indications
of the coming Glacial Epoch were a lowering of the temperature,
and, in the higher mountainous areas perhaps, a beginning of the
glacial stages.
The ancestors of the modern forests of Europe predominated
in central France: the oak, the beech, the poplar, the willow, and
the larch. It is these forests, which survived the vicissitudes of
glacial times, that gave descent to the forests of Postglacial
Europe, while all the purely American types disappeared from
Europe and are now found only in the temperate regions of the
United States.5
We have seen that few anthropoid apes have been discovered
either in the Middle or Upper Pliocene of Europe; the gibbon-
ape line disappears with the Pliohylobates of the Upper Pliocene.
These animals are, however, rarely found in fossil form, owing
to their retreat to the trees in times of flood and danger, so that
we need not necessarily assume that the anthropoids had actually
become extinct in France. The primates which are found in the




The true elephants, first Elephas planifrons and later E. meridi-
onalis, better known as the southern mammoth, both orig-
inating in Asia.






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62 MEN OF THE OLD STONE AGE

ancestors of man were at this time evolving in Asia and not in
Europe. This evidence, nevertheless, would be completely off-
set if it could be proven that the eoliths, or primitive flints, found
in various parts of Europe from Oligocene to Pleistocene times
are really artifacts of human or prehuman origin.
The mammals of Europe in Pliocene times were derived by
very remote migrations from North America and, more directly,
from southern Asia. The Oriental element is very strong, in-
cluding types of rhinoceroses now peculiar to Sumatra and south-
ern Asia, numerous mastodons very similar to the south Asiatic
types of the times, gazelles and antelopes, including types re-
lated to the existing elands, and primitive types of horses and of
tapirs. Among the carnivores in Europe similar to south Asiatic
species were the hyenas, the dog bears (Hyanarctos), the civets,
and the pandas (Ailurus); there were also the sabre-tooth tigers
and numerous other felines. In the trees were found the south
Asiatic and north African monkeys; and in the forests the axis
deer, now restricted to Asia. But the most distinctive African-
Asiatic animal of this period was found in the rivers; namely, the
hippopotamus, which arrived in Italy in the early Pliocene and
ranged south by way of the Sicilian land bridge into northern
Africa and east along the southern shores of the Black Sea to
the Siwalik hills of India. Thus, many of the ancestors of what
we have termed the African-Asiatic mammal group of Pleistocene
times had already found their way into Europe early in Pliocene
times. In middle and late Pliocene times there arrived three
very important types of mammals which played a great r61e in
the early Pleistocene. These are:

The true horses (Equus stenonis) of remote North American
origin.
The first true cattle (Leptobos elatus), originating in southern
Asia.




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