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Do Not Quote
FORESTRY, FUEL, FOOD AND FEMALES
1. Seventeen World Bank projects, all with forestry
components, were briefly reviewed along with other rele-
vant background material including the Forestry Sector
Policy Paper and several related papers and memoranda of
John Spears. (Annex I) Fifteen of these projects in-
cluded provisions for introducing more efficient wood-
burning stoves and others were focused on solar energy for
domestic use or other innovations or adaptations in house-
hold cooking patterns. Many of the projects included
woodlots -- both community and household. In analyzing
these reports other aspects with direct relevance to the
impact on and of women in wood use, needs, and conservation
were considered such as:
sociological research at the community level
to identify perceived needs and priorities;
Coordination and integration of various sectors
at the community level including extension
training of artisans, promoters and forestry
conservation of community woodlots and protec-
tion from grazing, vandalism, and fire. Plans
for the future and discussion of linkage with
research and surveys of energy needs, uses and
resources, especially household consumption
credit related to changing technologies, i.e.
acceptance of fuel-efficient stoves.
2. Before examining some of the specific ways in
which women have been or may be involved in selected
forestry projects, it is important to note the major
movement in this sector toward recognition of the human
dimension during the past few years. John Spears in his
article "The Changing Emphasis in World Bank Forestry
Lending"* spelled out the importance of involving people --
*Delivered at the World Forestry Congress sessions concerned
with "Forestry for Rural Communities" in October 1978.
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the total community, the villagers, the foresters, the
planners, and the government officials -- in Social
Forestry. He outlined prerequisites and constraints,
along with new ways to meet the challenge of worldwide
fuelwood shortage and environmental degradation. He
recognized as one of the root causes of the problem the
need to find ways "to ensure people's involvement at the
3. In his January 1980 article memorandum he- L
listed 17 components in most of which women are implicitly
included but more explicit references to women in several
of the components would maximize their impact and better
assure their participation in the full project cycle.
4. Part of the problem is one of semantics. For
instance, "the people", the "total population", "all the
inhabitants", "household needs and uses", "the farmers",
"the nurserymen", "the foresters" may include women, but
implementation of past programs -- even those primarily
involving women, such as maternal child health and family
planning -- have been carried out with inadequate participa-
tion of women. By specifically including women in new
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forestry development (plans) and recognizing and incorporat-
ing the traditional ways in which they have participated as
the principal gatherers and users of wood, the full impact
of the Bank's Social Forestry efforts in the developing
countries could be realized.
5. Noted in this paper are highlights of some of
the successes and failures based on the material in the
reports, indicating involvement of women where possible.
A more complete analysis of annexes and survey data would
surely reveal more indicators along with details on cultural
and political constraints. Rapid strides in Bank project
incorporation of women in feasibility studies and plans
for implementation are being made, particularly in near
disaster areas such as Burundi. Here women were included
in the survey, the planning and hopefully will be active
in the implementation.*
*Mbi in his presentation of his survey data for the Bank
project at the National Academy of Sciences Workshop in
January 1980 had used the research techniques discussed
at the same conference in Elmendorf's paper "Human Dimen-
sions of Energy Needs and Resources." The importance of
case studies at the community and household level were
noted.at the same conference by Cecelski and Dunkerly in
"Energy Use in the Rural and Urban Households of Develop-
6. Five years age Eckholm warned us of this world-
wide deforestation emergency in his book, Losing Ground.
At that time he included more references to women as agents
of change at the suggestion of the Office of Environment
and Health after the manuscript was reviewed.
7. As World Bank lending in social forestry in-
creases dramatically and countries continue to face energy
crises resulting from the critical shortage of fuel wood,
efforts must be made to include women in every phase of
the project cycle.
8. The stage is set for a worldwide increase in
energy from firewood. Social Forestry will pay a key role
and a more relevant one if the actors include women as
well as men.
Analysis of Reports -
9. The importance of effective coordination among
various projects and programs is pointed out in most of
the documents. Most often mentioned are the Ministry of
Agriculture, Livestock and Rural Development and the Waters
and Forests Departments. The need for assistance with
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coordination by the Ministry of Planning, since some forestry-
related developments fall within the responsibilities of
other ministries, is also noted in several reports. (Burundi)
In Indonesia there is careful attention to the outreach
programs of the Ministry of Health and Home Affairs as
institutional frameworks for maximizing community partici-
pation which would allow for more involvement of women at
a Ministry level. In no document is there specific mention
of the need to coordinate program design specifically with:
Women's groups. As worldwide plans are being
made for the Mid-Decade Conference of Women in August 1980,*
there is a rare opportunity to incorporate women, who play
the central role as collectors of wood and preparers
(cookers) of food in most of the world. Governmental and
private agencies, national and international, are organized
and reevaluating strategies for meeting basic needs in-
cluding fuel, food and water.
Health and nutrition components: Even though
the need for a fuel-efficient low-cost stove is incorporated
into reports of 15 countries the possibility of using home
*Where discussions of ways in which women can mobilize to
bring about improvements in their domestic basic needs.
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demonstration agents is not explored except in India, of
local school teachers and health volunteers (Indonesia: 15).
Increasing hunger due to lack of enough wood to cook daily
or to prepare protein-rich, long-cooking traditional foods,
such as beans or pulse, was noted in several studies (Tinker
10. The value of fodder for livestock was noted
more often in the Bank reports than the importance to human
diet of many trees in providing supplementary, sometimes
survival, foodstuff such as leaves, flowers, nuts, fruit,
bark and roots.
11. As Spears pointed out, integrated approaches
to development will be the most likely to succeed. Granted
that it is extremely important for forestry projects to have
a close relationship with agricultural and rural develop-
ment projects, as urged by Spears, but many of these pro-
grams have not been really integrated at the community
level. The extension agent, agronomist, has usually talked
with the farmer -- not with the family and too often the
elite farmer. Many projects have failed because of lack
of understanding of the important roles of women in
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decision-making and implementation of village level activities.
The "invisibility" of women (G. Scott, 1979) does not mean
they are not involved in household and community choices
for acceptance of change, including the basic need of fuel
12. Forestry projects should reach for broader
audience including women to assure full local participa-
tion and acceptance with maximum impact on the poorest of
the poor. Exploring the possibility of coordination with
other Ministries, such as Health, Housing and Community
Development as well as Women's Bureaus, would allow for
integrating projects with home demonstration agents, primary
health workers and others who have more access to the
women in the households. The mentioned a
Home Economics component, but more reports were limited to
the Agricultural sector and to extension work with farmers.
The only report, however, with a planned women's component
is the Ulla Ulla project in Bolivia. This is the "first
rural development project to make a deliberate effort to
increase,woman's participation in the development process."
(Bolivia 1798a-BO. Annex 10:175).
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13. Even though the Bolivia project has no direct
forestry component the adaptation and development of low-
cost solar devices for heating, cooking, pumping, food
drying, water heating and greenhouse agriculture in a
semi-arid, high-attitude area with high levels of insola-
tion and extreme scarcities of traditional fuels, has
direct relevance to many aspects of the overall sector.
The involvement of women in this traditional setting during
the early planning, based on a conscious attempt to in-
clude them in their various roles in the research design
and plans is admirable, and should be evaluated for use
elsewhere in Bank work, especially in the Forestry sector.
14. Conservation There is very interesting linkage
in the Gujarat, India project between production and con-
sumption in that demonstration fuel efficient stoves will
be built in villages which establish self-help woodlots.
If women are involved intensively in this as implied
there may be more acceptance and diffusion.
15. Another important aspect of the Gujarat Report
is that the four communications units planned will be
headed by female social workers whose task will be "to
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determine and encourage the use of the most appropriate
stove for the locality." Even though there is no descrip-
tion of how the social worker plans to accomplish her
mission, one assumes she will be working directly with
the women in the households. The five artisans assigned
to each social worker will probably be men since they
are not designated as female, but even men artisans are
usually more free to work with women in groups if super-
vised by a women.
16. Since clay/sand stove-building in some areas
is a new profession, without previous sex-sterotyping,
women have been accepted as artisans/masons without any
problems. In fact, in Honduras one female stove-builder
is considered the best. She has just returned from
Jamaica where she gave a demonstration at a Caribbean Home
Improvement Conference. As we consider acceptance and
diffusion of fuel-efficient stoves, a desperately needed
innovation, more attention should be given to the training
of women as stove-builders. The participation of women in
the first group of people from Honduras to be training in
the construction of Lorena stoves in Guatemala undoubtedly
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explains part of the rapid adoption of the stoves in
Honduras. (Elmendorf: 1980.a)*
17. The fact that thirty-five Lorena stoves were
built in six months in a low-cost housing project** in
Honduras was due partly to the interaction of these women
masons and the female heads of household, who make up over
60% of the families in this community of 320 homes. Using
women as stove builders/designers has validity in other
parts of Latin America as well as other parts of the world.
18. It is the women who construct chulahs in Bengal
(Briscoe 1979:637). In many parts of the world women
are skilled pottery makers working in clay and sand.
The stoves might well become an extension of this craft.
In a recent survey in Tanzania it was noted:
The Importance of involving village women in
survey activities as well as in the implemen-
tation program cannot be emphasized strongly
enough. Among other responsibilities, they
carry the water, fetch the firewood and care
*"The Human Dimension: Energy Survey Methodology" National
Academy of Science International Workshop, I 1980. Project
proposed "Lorena Stoves and Cooperative Housing An
Institution Framework" May 1980.
**Part of the success is due probably to the credit facilities
offered through the Cooperative which meant the household
could have a stove built and a kitchen area framed and roofed
at a monthly cost which was approximately the same amount as
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for the health of their families and thus are
the people who will ultimately benefit from
water pumps, methane generators and sanitary
latrine construction. Their opinions and
ideas cannot be ignored but rather must be
solicited as they will pay a key role in the
diffusion of technologies. (Arusha Appro-
priate Technology Report 1977 1978: 29).
19. In the Staff Appraisal Report of Tanzania it
was noted that "the response by villagers to establishing
self-help village tree blocks has been-slow." (Muir 1:7).
Were the women involved? The total community? Note is
made of the lack of adequate transportation for forestry
officials in order to control and supervise the forestry
20. The report in the Philippine Appraisal on the
other hand shows that double the amount of funds envisaged.
had been disbursed and that forest concessions are now less
subject to frequent damage from bush fire and shifting
cultivation. An attempt has been made a) to understand
and meet the needs of the rural people (note: note farmers)
and b) to involve and get the cooperation of the local
inhabitatns. The provision of short-term benefits -- from
thinning, intercropping and having mixed production of
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firewood, tobacco, leaf, meal, etc. -- seems to explain in
part the success of this project. Details of women's in-
volvement are not outlined but the impact on women and
theirs on the project seems implicit in the words people
and the local inhabitants.
21. Conservation and protection relate also to
another aspect -- that of access by women to the fuel
needed for daily cooking.
Women and Access to Fuelwood
22. Cernea's discussion of social issues related
to forestry is focused on the very important land tenure
problems involving communal and private property including
changing perceptions and solutions when tree planting is
involved. (Tanzania Annex 6 Supplement 1).
23. No mention is made, however, of women as owners
or users. As we know women's access to wood for fuel
Some land and tree tenure systems adversely
affect the share of firewood resources gained
from tree planting and forest land manage-
ment that flow to women, directing them in-
stead toward the men of the society who then
will apportion them to the women..
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Other tree tenure systems, although unique,
produce the opposite result; private land
owners cannot refuse women access to trees
on their land for use as firewood." (Devres:
that impact on women's access be discussed
by mission during feasibility and appraisal:
also, as revised forest laws are being in-
troduced in some areas giving provision for
the right to manage forests to be vested in
the local village community women's access
and use should be defined.
24. Spears noted that governments' commitment to
assist people in developing "their forests" as opposed to
protecting "government-owned" forests (Spears 1978:5) can
be a decisive factor in obtaining local support. This
change in policy is an apt time to be sure that "their
forests" are defined as belonging to the total community --
so that women will know what the new arrangements are.
Contracts may even be written on use and obligations, as
suggested by Hoskins (1979:57).
Changing Fuel Use and Cooking Behavior Improved Stoves
25. The Nepal Project File stated that any im-
proved stove should be:
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1) more efficient than the one to be replaced -
also, possibly, provide heat and reduce smoke
2) low in cost both in time for a) construction;
b) maintenance; c) materials employed;
3) made of local materials as much as possible;
4) simple in construction and maintenance so that
knowledge can be easily transferred;
5) accommodate behavioral patterns and systems as
well as attitudinal requirements. (Item 5:3).
26. More and more evidence points to the fact that
women as users should be involved in the design, evaluation,
building, and dissemination of the new technology. An
analysis of the Honduran acceptance of the Lorena stove
from Guatemala gives clear indications of the roles played
by women as noted above. A recent report by lanto Evans
finds similar evidence in Senegal where the women made
local modifications in size, shape and number of openings.
Hopefully the poor record of dissemination in Africa and
Asia can be overcome with more involvement of women. The
basic sociological research in various Bank projects can
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indicate key issues to resolve in involving women. (Mali,
Burundi, ) if the roles of
women, invisible and obvious, are included in the analysis.
27. Community Level Sociological Research: Community
level research where women are an integral part of the
design, as interviewers and interviewed, not only gives
the national planner and Bank personnel needed data but
also acts as a beginning awareness on the part of women -
the gatherers of wood and the providers of meals of
concern from others about one of their basic needs, i.e.
fuel for food. Dialogue is started in which alternative
solutions can be discussed concerning energy-efficient
stoves, fuel wood lots and other alternatives. In this way
the perceptions of the community as to the needs and
solutions to the energy problem can be defined. (Elmendorf,
28. Research components in which careful attention
to the women's perceptions of needs, resources, and prior-
ities of use were noted in the documents on Burundi, Nepal,
Upper. Volta, and Pakistan.
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Research to Evaluate Present and Continuing Roles of Women
29. The importance of the interaction of women
with women in this area of more efficient fuel use through
the adoption of improved stove designs cannot be over-
emphasized. Every effort should be made in the Bank pro-
jects to be sure that women are involved in the sociological
surveys by discussion of their present energy consumption
patterns. Some of the reports indicate that wood is __%
this component. In the excellent energy survey of Burundi
made by E. Mbi it was noted that cooking consumes 50-55%
of the total energy use and about 60-70% of the fuel
energy expenditure. Two university students, a male and
a female, were assigned to neighborhoods in Bujumbura with
which they were familiar. This approach, in which women
were used as part of research teams, combined with careful
clearance with neighborhood chiefs of the introduction of
artisans, added a wealth of information to a baseline
study which clearly pointed out uses and needs, and made
specific recommendations for immediate action. (Burundi -
Annex and Draft paper by Mbi).
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30. Recommendation: In order to have a more com-
plete picture of the overall energy pattern and to have
information on motivation for change including adoption
of fuel-efficient stoves it would be an advantage to have
data to add to the fuel energy use patterns on human time
and effort expended in:
1) collecting/obtaining energy for cooking
2) preparing meals
31. For example, the excellent charts in the Burundi
report would give an even more dramatic picture of the over-
all energy cost of food preparation/cooking if this time
dimension were added to the already staggering fuel cost
in the impoverished areas of Bujumbura.
Changing of Fuel Use Patterns From Wood to Peat
32. Even though peat offers great promise as an
energy source for Burundi, "farmers have been reluctant
so far to use peat even when offered it free of charge
because of high smoke production, an acute problem since
traditional dwellings have no chimneys or windows."
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33. No plan was suggested for solving this except
for improving the stove, but perhaps some adaptations could
be designed by the women in the household.- What are their
perceptions of the problems? Solutions?
From Traditional Fuels to
34. In the Ulla Ulla project with a very strong
women's component perhaps community solar ovens for
precooking of traditional foods, such as beans, which
could later be reheated and served at home would have
1) useful demonstration of alternative energy
2) better food nutrition
3) conservation of fuel
4) released time from collection of fuel
(dung) and cooking; a) to care for their
animals; b) to make and market their handi-
crafts; c) to prepare better pastures.
35. That demonstrations of other alternative energy
sources, i.e. biogas, solar, or whatever proves appropriate,
be used in neighborhood or club groups where fuelwood is
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short. Nutrition would suffer less and adoption of
alternative sources and technologies would be speeded up --
with locally appropriate adaptations made on the recommenda-
tions of users.
36. Community and Household Conservation of Forests
and Planations. "The Government's policies for forest
protection and exploitation of plantations have been poorly
defined; prices for licenses for cutting timber and fuel-
wood are so low that wood is effectively given away free
of charge and control of cutting is at best disorganized.
The practical problem of protecting forests and controlling
cutting of the hundreds of scattered plantations are
enormous in a country where the rural population has never
paid money for wood and has traditionally scavanged for
fuelwood and building poles wherever they were available.
In these circumstances, it will be essential that the
Government continue its efforts to define a coherent set
of policies for the forestry sub-sector, including, inter
alia, appropriate protection and control of plantation
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resources, concerted effort to plant trees to meet the
needs of urban and rural population for fuelwood and sawn
timber, more rational pricing policies, and an intensive
program of staff training."
37. In the Nepal Hills women of different villages
voluntarily agreed "to organize the gathering of fodder,
pine needles for compost, or fuelwood from the same place
and to organize collection in a rotational way which will
allow for adequate regeneration." (Spears' Changing
Emphasis in World Bank Forestry Lending. 1978).
38. In Malawi there was increasing evidence that
"farmers are more likely to protect trees that are sited
close to their own homesteads and most of the output from
which would be utilized for domestic consumption." (Malawi:
13). There is no mention of women but one can quess that
a survey would reveal that women and children play
significant roles as caretakers and nurturers of these
39. According to the project plan, each household
will be responsible for 1,000 seedlings. Farmers will need
to follow instructions carefully to ensure a good survival
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rate and reduce termite damage." (Malawi: 26). In order
to accomplish this, forestry extension services would be
provided by nurserymen from the Wood Energy Division,
Training and Extension Sources. Need for education and
reeducation can be met by training in new nursery and
plantation techniques." (Malawi: 26). The need for
education for the women in the household seems apparent.
Perhaps the extension services to be provided by the
nurserymen will be adequate and acceptable, and given not
only to the farmers who often fail to pass on this im-
portant information correctly to their wives. In many
cultures the women start the seed beds and care for young
plants and protect the trees in their homesteads and
villages. They can learn and organize, as we have seen,
and will often respond with dignity, creativity and pride.
40. Similar problems arise in Indonesia where:
Homegardens, located around the homestead,
provide farmers, especially the poorest,
with the basic ingredients for survival.
This typical homegarden is a mixture of
fruit trees, firewood trees, and trees
which produce building materials, with
under-plantings of annual and other
herbacious plants such as roots, tubers,
medicinal plants, and vegetables.
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Together, these plants form a close canopy
similar to natural forests which protect
the soil from erosion. The mix usually
depends on the farmer's relative need for
home consumption and cash crops. Signi-
ficantly, the proportion of homegardens
increases with increasing population
pressures. (Indonesia: 8)
41. Even though women are not mentioned specifically
the roles they are playing and can play in the future
relate specifically to the stated approach of the project
for home garden improvement:
(a) gradual replacement of some existing
crops with improved varieties of similar
species or with more .economic species, and
(b) improvement in the layout of crops and
in husbandry practices. The project would
also finance free distribution during the
testing period of insecticides, fertilizers,
and seedlings of improved varieties of
traditional crops and of such cash crops as
pineapples, cloves, and vanilla. It would
also attempt to increase vegetable produc-
tion both for home consumption and sale by
distribution of vegetable seeds. Crop innova-
tions would be accompanied by extension
efforts to help improve the layout and farm-
ing practices in the homegardens with particular
emphasis on family nutrition. (Indonesia:
42. In Malawi special attention was planned for
choice of new tree species to introduce.
(26). This is
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an area where women can make real contributions as they can
in the Indonesia project and, probably, in all of them.
43. Valuable information about indigenous trees,
medicinal and herbal use of leaves, roots, etc., as well
as constraints to introduction of new species are in the
realm of women's knowledge. Group discussions, even half-
day ones, with women could be a valuable part of research
44. This type of participation also stimulates con-
tinuing local involvement. As Hoskins pointed out in
Upper Volta, the forestry expertise of the women
was dramatically demonstrated in a seminar
in Upper Volta. Participants, who were
women social workers, teachers, business
women, medical professionals, etc., were
quite aware of a wide variety of forestry
issues and were very outspoken about
The women stated that foresters should not
clear even old trees and shrubs without
taking a close look to see which of these
provide food, medicine or other products
either in normal times or in times of
shortages.* Participants not only knew
*In the Yucatan every village has special trees which are
saved for emergencies -- drought and war. .Stories abound
of their uses.
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the local traditional trees but discussed im-
ported exotic species. For example, they
spoke authoritatively about a eucalyptus
variety then being planted in voltaic forestry
projects. They knew that the burning leaves
kept away mosquitoes and that boiled leaves
gave a broth useful in treating colds. They
mentioned that, because the tree grows rapidly
even with little water and is resistant to
animal damage, it might be necessary as a
temporary solution for emergency fuel problems.
But, they felt that many other types of trees-
are better for more typical situations. The
disadvantages they mentioned are that this
eucalyptus is completely inedible for humans
and is not good for animal food. The wood is
difficult and time consuming to cut and,
though it is lightweight, it is sticky and
awkward to carry. Also, it burns rapidly and
therefore more of it is required. Its oils
give it a flame that is very hot and difficult
to control for long, slow cooking of the local
dishes. The oils in the smoke impart a
"vicks-vapo-rub" taste to foods and damage
eyes. When planted near gardens or fields
they find this tree damages other plants and
poisons the soils surrounding it.
- This is not an illustration to open a debate on
the qualities of a controversial tree. It is
given to show that women, both urban and rural,
with no formal forestry backgrounds, could
spontaneously demonstrate an expertise, a
concern, and an awareness of forestry issues
beyond that of many foreign and local foresters.
It would seem to be quite a waste not to tap
this knowledge and enthusiasm for potential
support of local level forestry projects."
(Hoskins 1979 9-10)
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45. We noted earlier the way women organized in
Nepal to protect and to cut rotationally.
46. In Upper Volta it was noted that establishment
of village woodlots and prevention of fires have been
largely unsuccessful because of the disinterest of the
local population. (8) Later on in the report it was
recommended that actions such as introducing woodlots
"should be reformulated with a view to providing sufficient
incentive to the population to participate." (15). Hoskins
noted the voltaic women's interest. Are they involved?
47. The Mali report reiterated the lack of success
in obtaining village participation in community woodlots
and fire prevention. (6) They recommended studies and
surveys which hopefully will include a women's component
as they try to understand uses, needs, motivations in a
feasibility study. (10)
A. Fuelwood Conservation (introduction
of more efficient wood stoves)
48. In India the Planning Research and Action In-
stitute, which has been involved in the design of more
efficient woodburning stoves for cooking, will work with
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local Village Forest Committees and the Project Implementa-
tion Unit on a component of the Uttar Pradesh Social
Forestry Project to construct and demonstrate the stoves
in about 1,000 villages. The report noted that "success
would depend mainly upon understanding and participation
of the rural population at large." (16) One cannot assume
that this means both women and men, and it is important
that women be involved for the community participation
Trees and the Decade of Water: Reuse
of Waste Water and Human Excreta
49. More appropriate solutions have been found
other than water-borne sewage in both rural and urban
areas. Grey water and black water require different
solutions. Excess water, from a village pump can be left
to stagnate, run off to be absorbed casually, or channelled
for productive reuse bamboo for a cottage industry,
building materials, or seed-beds for plants. For in-
stance: A nursery plot of selected trees for village use
could be established around the pump or laundry area which
could be cared for by women.
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50. Excess water from patio installations can also
be creatively used as more homestead trees are introduced.
(As in the Philippines). Plans for watering without
extra burdens of hauling could be maximized.
51. Reuse of kitchen and laundry water poses less
problems than toilet waste water and human excreta.
Appropriate technologies for sanitation, fish culture
in the Orient, sugarcane in San Pedro Sula, Honduras, are
being used in urban programs. More creativity could be
used in designing appropriate village-level water reuse
programs with social forestry.
52. The use of waste water and human excreta as
fertilizer in cultivation of trees could be integrated
with community woodlots or homestead forestry projects.
According to the Burundi Forestry Appraisal Report "the
ideal solution would be for most rural households to have
their own small woodlots to supply .their needs in fire-
wood and poles. Assuming that an average rural house-
hold requires at least 1 m3 of wood annually for its
minimum domestic needs (the figure should perhaps be
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twice as high), about 1/10th of a hectare (or 160 trees)
would be sufficient to meet these needs more or less
indefinitely." (13) A fuel-efficient stove could cut
this need in half.
53. The use of abandoned pit latrines for fruit
trees (Mexico) could be encouraged in.other areas. Dis-
tribution of citrus trees in Bangladesh to households who
had participated in the energy survey (Islan, 1979) was
an innovative approach. Planting them near a latrine
with grey waste water channeled to them could be examined.
54. The synergistic effect of discussing the in-
troduction of biogass" along with a forestry project could
be a moving force if done as an integrated part of a
community project i.e., in a health center or community
building. Such a shared biogas facility in a community
where easily available local refuse and human excreta
were controlled by the poverty group instead of the village
elite might reverse the failures found in some of the India
projects. (Briscoe 1979:_) The introduction of new fuel
saving devices are being explored in community facilities
in the Ulla Ulla project:
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The standard school design developed in
the Ulla Ulla Rural Development Project
(FY78) is intended to take advantage of
solar heat and light with double glazing
and translucent panels in the roof over
each room. Five such schools were to be
ready by March 1980. Two prototype
"village style" houses incorporating
passive solar innovations (different
adobe mix, dark roof, and insulated
floor) had been built by 1978. (Bolivia
55. The impact of these interventions on women is
not detailed in the report, but the fact that a parallel
component improving the quality of the wool/vicuna and
marketing of the women's handicrafts provides for structural
changes to enable the women to use their time released
from dung collection and fire tending in more productive
ways is a positive element.
56. Technical Training: Community level artisans,
designers and promoters: The Burundi project, in which
a carefully thought-out technical training component was
included for existing artisans, would undoubtedly have a
greater chance of coming up with a more fuel-efficient
stove-with greater local acceptance if women were involved
in testing and redesign. Additions, such as two or more
- 31 -
burners of different heats, would be time-saving for the
women as well as fuel saving. Perhaps women testers/
consultants could be chosen from each neighborhood to
participate from the beginning in the redesign and be
trained as home demonstrator agents, in the dissemination
of the best..way to use the stoves.
57. Since these stoves are going to be marketed
locally, the women could do house-to-house selling and/or
58. Another way to help assure success of the stove
project was suggested by Mr. Mbi in his consultant's
draft and conversation May 1980.
59. Along with Nepal, high local initiative was
noted in Nigeria, Tanzania, Rwanda and the Philippines.
How much were women responsible? The reports do not
60. Part of the response in the Philippines
seemed to be due to a clear recognition on the part of
the mission of the immediate needs of rural people for
firewood and building material. The provision of
- 32 -
short-term benefits from tree cropping and thinning, along
with employment and other facilities for certain groups
stimulated local cooperation and involvement. (Philippines:
3). Interestingly, the importance of local participation
seems to be accepted in most of the projects but women,
who make up more than half of most rural communities, are
not referred to specifically in many. In the Nepal Pro-
ject File Item 14, it was said "the success of community
forestry programs depends on the willingness of the panchayat
communities to participate and this in turn depends on the
dedication of the project workers and their ability to
motivate and involve local people." In the final appraisal
document this was reworded to say "the success of the pro-
ject will depend on the efficiency of a restructured F.D."
(19) One measure of the efficiency of the F.D. could be
the ability to involve the communities and within them the
women. These new approaches will.increase conservation
and decrease destruction.
61. The references to need for fencing with barbed
wire will probably disappear as women gain benefits for
themselves and their families, and are involved, in clear
- 33 -*
plans for short-term benefits and ultimately long-term
benefits for themselves and their children. They will
organize in other places as in Nepal if given incentives
and a "piece of the pie."
62. Careful attention is paid to training facilities
for farmers and their wives in Malawi (5). What about
women without husbands or absent ones? "The three-tiered
educational program" is carefully planned but the impact
on women could perhaps be increased. Perhaps thought
should be given to courses for women not just wives.
Though the provision of courses involving wives is a posi-
tive aspect, it may not be enough for full impact.
63. A young kenyan woman who recently received a
PhD from Harvard University told me that the incident in
her childhood which had the most influence on her was
when she as a 5-year old attended a rural training course
with her mother to help take care of the baby. She
listened to the sessions along with the other youngsters.
(Achola Pala-conversation 1975). Women, with children as
chaperones, can often participate in meetings away from
- 34 -
their villages and have great impact on their communities
when they return with new information/knowledge. Such
sessions could be related to stove-building, starting seed
beds, care, cropping, etc., the many things women know
and care about, and which relate to the use of trees.
64. Many of the reports comment on the urgent need
for forestry staff and personnel. Spears not only urges
training of a new kind of forester but has suggested new
training techniques and materials to prepare people for
the human dimensions of social forestry.
65. The reports point to training as critical.
The need for trained manpower for forestry is
crucial as Burundi has at present no official
with professional or technical qualifications
in forestry. Existing forest department staff
have only general training in agriculture,
with no specialization in forestry, and their
numbers are far from adequate. The lack of
manpower is critical at higher and middle
levels. (Burundi )
Here there is an example of a new skill, a new
profession which is not yet sex-sterotyped. Hopefully
both men and women will be selected for training.
- 35 -
66. In Indonesia:
To overcome the social and cultural constraints
often encountered in rural development pro-
jects, and to ensure that development actions
would be sustained, the project would in-
troduce community participation training
activities for project staff, participants,
and other Government staff concerned with
67. The first Bank Group assisted project in
Indonesia using the strategy of decentralization is an
integrated rural development in the two poorest Kabupaten.
It points out of the difficulties of life for men and
women, including "an incredible amount of time spent on
water and fuelwood collection. Moreover, children spend
as many as 3 or 4 hours daily collecting food for cows
and goats." (7)
68. The recognition that the homegardens, located
around the homestead, provide the basic ingredients for
survival including fuel wood for the poorest of the
families is pointed out.
In summary (see Super 1979) women are the primary
users of wood, and "the principal actors in all fuelwood
related activities from collecting to directing consumption
- 36 -
patterns in the household" (DEVRES 1979) They can also
be the nurturers, the protectors, and the planners for
reforestation and conservation of existing trees and
As noted above, women must play key roles designing,
adapting and aiding in the diffusion of fuel-efficient
stoves if the wood-saving food preparation technologies
(these, along with water heating and boiling, represent
over 90% (check) of the energy consumption by low in-
come households in development countries) are to be
successfully introduced on a significant scale.
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