Technology Advisory Group
UNDP Interregional Project INT/81/047: Development and Implementation of Low-cost Sanitation Investment Projects
TO: Mr. Richard N. Middleton, Project Manager FROM: Mary Elmendorf, Consultant
DATE: May 25, 1983
SUBJECT: THAILAND: Consultations on the proposed United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Interregional project on Promotion and Support for Women's Participation in the International Drinking Water and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD) Back to Office and Full Report
1. In accordance with terms of reference dated December 22, 1982, I participated in an International Seminar on Management of Human Waste in Low-Income Settlements, held in Bangkok, January 16 through 22, 1983, (see separate report to you dated May 3, 1983) and discussed with participants a number of linkages with the proposed interregional project. Pre-seminar preparation and post-seminar discussions occupied all of January 15. January 23 through February 1 were"spent in discussion of the objectives with the appropriate government agencies and women's organizations.
2. The local offices of UNDP and World Bank as well as the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific were kept fully informed throughout the mission. I debriefed with UNDP (Deputy Resident Representative) and the World Bank Regional Office at the end of the mission. A list of persons met is shown in Annex I.
3. An Aide Memoire summarizing findings was prepared and left with UNDP and the World Bank offices in Bangkok. Excerpts from this with a Narrative Report of the meetings and interviews with various organizations are attached as Annex II.
4. Attached as Annex III is a draft of the proposed interregional project on Women and the Decade which met with favorable comments from most contacts. Copies of this draft proposal were left with UNDP and UNICEF. Several specific but minor changes were suggested. Since the document was still being circulated it was requested that additional comments be sent directly to Mr. M. Potashnik at UNDP headquarters in New York.
FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5. In my brief time in Thailand it was, of course, impossible to make
a thorough evaluation of the many on-going projects which might participate in or have relevance to the proposed components of the Project. Interviews were arranged with the Director General of the Community Development Department (CDD), Ministry of Interior; the Director of Non-Formal Education, Ministry of Education; the Population and Community Development Agency (PDA); and the President of the National Council of Women of Thailand (NCWT).
Mr. Richard N. Middleton
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May 23, 1983
During these meetings various projects were suggested which fit into the overall framework of the proposed project (see Annex II for details of discussion and officials contacted.)
6. In Summary, I would suggest that as a part of the development of the projects in a country such as Thailand, it would be useful to document the positive linkages between governmental and non-governmental programs, between rural and urban women and between the professional women and the established women's clubs. Emphasis in all the material should be on process and the excellent training and communication components which have been developed. UNICEF's regional office could be the focus of such a project, with close cooperation from UNDP, or vice versa.
Specific projects to consider
Community Development Department
7. There seemed to be a consensus among the people I consulted that pertinent projects being supervised by the Community Development Department, Ministry of Interior, were well conceptualized and innovative in approach. (See Annex II, UNDP, ESCAP, UNICEF.) I suggest that these projects be examined in more detail with the possibility of their serving as a model for replication and adaptation, since women are well incorporated into an integrated rural development program with sanitation, health and nutrition activities interwoven with income generation.
8. The process of decentralization is carefully structured in this government office with necessary orientation, training and communication materials. Women are given organizational and leadership skills but are carefully re-incorporated into existing village committees and progress is being made at higher levels. Documentation could include:
(a) Filming or video-taping of various activities for public information, etc.
(b) Translating, summarizing and printing existing research material.
(c) Preparation of case studies.
(d) Developing guidelines for adaptation to other countries.
Titi Memet, UNICEF Regional Director, observed that: "Thailand has made great progress and is far ahead of many other countries in incorporating women into development projects".
9. I would recommend that the possibility of developing parts of project components (b), (c) and (d) as outlined in the draft proposal (Annex III), be explored further. In our exploratory discussions there seemed to be interest in having more detailed documentation and no reservations were expressed about filming or video-taping. Since both UNICEF and UNDP are working with this department, which also serves as the official coordinator
Mr. Richard N. Middleton
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May 23, 1983
for the non-governmental agencies and has representatives of the National Council of Women in Thailand on its steering committee, this seems a logical program for full documentation.
Two Demonstration Projects
10. I would also recommend that, if funds are available, consideration be given to extending support, under Component 1, to two existing demonstration projects which can be further documented during implementation. Recommendations for the projects to be extended to other areas have been made but more funds are needed:
(a) The CIDA/UNICEF project in Korat, which is designed to involve women in planning, implementing and maintaining water supply and sanitation.
(b) The ASEAN/Australian project in Ubon Rachathani which is designed to link rural and urban centers with a water and sanitation component as well as income generation.
Population and Development Association
11. A further recommendation, if a project with a non-governmental agency is desirable, would be to explore with Mr. Mechai of the Population and Development Association, the possibility of documenting and/or support of one of their projects which has water, women and waste components.
Urban Slum: Klong Toey
12. I would also recommend consideration of documentation on women's roles in the urban slum Klong Toey in improving sanitation. In spite of the lack of piped water, families have installed and use pour-flush latrines with cesspools in the swampy terrain. There is already excellent case material prepared by Prateep Ungsongtham, as well as photographs and video tapes. Since this slum is being evacuated, plans are now being prepared for the transfer. The majority of the families want to build their own homes on the nearby designated land. This will mean the installation of appropriate water supply and sanitation. Ms. Somsook Boonybunicha, the coordinator of the Slum Upgrading Workshop of the Centre for Housing and Human Settlements Studies, a section of the National Housing Authority, could assist. Women's roles as a part of community participation, could be observed and documented from the beginning.
Follow-up to International Seminar
13. I recommend that the papers prepared in Workshop D by the following people be reviewed, and that the sections on women, community participation, training and communication be documented further:
Mr. Richard N. Middleton
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May 23, 1983
- Ms. Nomtuse Mbere, Botswana.
- Ms. Quratul Ain Bakhteari, Pakistan.
- Ms. K.N. Vijayanthi, India.
- Mr. Bindeshwar Pathak, India.
Each participant expressed interest in cooperating. Copies of the papers are available from Dr. Krisno Nimpuno, Institute for Housing studies-BIE, Weena 700, 3000 AG Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Drafts of the original documents have been placed in TAG files.
14* I also recommend that the projects covered by the above-mentioned
papers be visited by UNICEF, UNDP/TAG or someone specifically assigned to explore further ways of cooperation. Additional funding and/or staff should be provided as needed for this from the proposed interregional project.
15. It would seem logical to give priority attention to the case study by Ms. Quratal Ain Bakhteari in the low-cost settlements in the slums of Karachi, Pakistan, since a project in rural Pakistan has been selected by Titi Memet, Regional Director for Southeast Asia and the Pacific, UNICEF for consideration for supplementary funding under component A of the proposed project. Memet said that Margarita Cardenas, director of the Pakistan UNICEF office, would have all the details. She also said she would advise Mrs. Ma Yanshing of UNICEF headquarters of her interest in seeing this project given extra support and documentation under components B, C, and D, if possible. (For more details see Annex IV Programme for Children and Women in Pakistan.)
16. Several other workshop papers which had references to community involvement and women's incorporation into planning might also be useful additions for case studies, etc., such as that of Mr. Weera Jindasa of the Sarvodaya group in Sri Lanka (see my separate report on the part of my mission spent in Sri Lanka).
17. More information should also be obtained from Dr. Surya Rao of Hyderabad, who described a group latrine for children which has been used in lower schools and playgrounds. A schematic drawing (Annex V) details this facility. Dr. Rao promised to send photographs and more details, but follow-up through UNDP/TAG or some other way might be indicated.
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ANNEX I Page 1
List of Persons Met
[Note: This is in addition to the list in the report on the International Seminar on Management of Human Waste in Low-Cost Settlements]
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
Ms Titi Memet Tanumidjaja Regional Director for Eastern Africa and the
Dr. Jane Bunnag Regional Adviser, Programme Support and
Ms. Laeka Pija-Ajariya Women in Development Officer
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Mr. Michael Smith Deputy Regional Director
Ms. Sachiko Natsume Assistant Regional Representative
Ministry of Interior, Community Development Department (CDD)
Dr. Pairat Decharin Deputy Director-General
Ms. N. Babphapt Assistant Director of Maternal/Child
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Dr. David Oot Office of Health, Population and Nutrition
Ms. Lawan Ratanaruang Women in Development Officer
The National Council of Women in Thailand (NCWT)
Khunying Orawan Techaked President
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
Daw Aye Senior Regional Programmer for Women's
J.C. Williams Agricultural Division, Community Development
Dr. Claudio Sepulveda Medical Division, WHO
Population and Community Development Association (PDA)
Mechai Viravaidya President
TAG/BTO/ME/1-83 6 ANNEX I
Ministry of Education: Department of Non-Formal Education
Dr. Kasama Varavarn (Ph.D.) (Harvard University, Education and
National Housing Authority: Centre for Housing and Human Settlement
Ms. Soomsook Boonybunicha Architect Mr. Terry Stanley Consultant
Chulalongkorn University: Social Research Institute
Dr. Amara Pongsapich (Ph.D.) Department Director, Chubalonghorn
University Social Research Institute (CUSRI) (Anthropologist, University of Washington)
Mr. Fred Temple
World Bank Mission, Bangkok
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ANNEX II Page 1
NARRATIVE ON INTERVIEWS AND MEETINGS WITH VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS
lie. Community Development Department, Ministry of Interior
lie. The National Council of Women in Thailand
Ilg. Population and Community Development Association
Ilh. Ministry of education: Department of Non-Formal Education
Hi. Chulalongkorn University: Social Research Institute
IIj. World Bank
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ANNEX Ila Page 1
Ms. Titi Memet Tanumldjaja, Regional Director for Eastern Asia and the
Dr. Jane Bunnag, Regional Adviser, Program Support and Communication
Mr. Clarence Shubert, Regional Adviser, Urban Development
Ms. Laeka Pija-Ajariya, Women in Development Officer, Thailand
Mr. Pricha Chulavachana, Programme Officer, Thailand
Pricha Chulavachana and Clarence Schubert, both of whom had participated in the Seminar on Human Waste Management, set up appointments at UNICEF, including one with Titi Memet Tanumldjaja.
Memet expressed great interest in the draft of the UNDP Interregional Project "Promotional Support for Women's Participation in the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD)." She had several specific suggestions to make and invited me to return on January 28 to get more details, as well as her full reactions to the draft document. As Memet said, "we have many fragmented examples of women's involvement in improvements in water as caretakers, planners, etc., but we lack adequate documentation of how this has happened". "The first thing we need" she said "is an inventory of all known examples then there should be very detailed case studies".
Memet cited an example of the project in Baluchistan, Pakistan where UNICEF is working in an integrated rural development project centered on water and sanitation. The region is extremely orthodox, with women's traditional roles carefully defined. An anthropologist has been assigned to work on the project which, among other things, is developing techniques and approaches to teach women how to use the new water supplies and improve personal and household sanitation. The methodology used and the findings would be useful to the proposed interregional project as part of several components there.
The excellent long-term study in urban Karachi, which Ms. Ain Bakhteari reported on at the Seminar, could also be presented as a documented case study. The work with women and children, after initiating the program with the traditional male community leaders who originally refused her access to women, is a clear example of the need for time to establish contact with women in their homes and meeting places. Details of the training courses set up to prepare young women as teachers of the girls (and boys sometimes) in their homes would be interesting to analyze, in relation to adding improved health and sanitation modules. Two case studies, one urban and the other rural, in a single country, both focused on women, could be of great use to planners and project directors. Perhaps an assessment/evaluation of the projects could be designed for comparative purposes, with guidelines developed for use with similar cultural groups.
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ANNEX Ha Page 2
The second point Memet made was the importance of income-generating activities not just for groups, but also for individual women. She felt there was a clear relationship between water and the ability to earn money. The ability to buy water in some areas is increased with the availability of cash, but also the value of money and time increases as women are self-employed. They have increased status in the family as earners of cash and more decision-making power related to such things as improved water and sanitation in their homes.
Memet stressed the fact the UNICEF assisted governments in training women for income-generating activities, but not for entering the labor market as wage earners, which was the focus of ILO. Since 1978 UNICEF has made "seed money" available as loans to groups of women to start small businesses or money-making projects. Most of these loans have been repaid to keep a revolving fund going. "Recently, national banks in Thailand have been making regular loans to women's groups. Training in management, record keeping etc., has been started and illiterate women have requested literacy classes so as to become less dependent on the literate women. Improvements in personal and household sanitation go hand-in-hand with income-generating activities as women try to improve the quality of life for themselves and their families. Linking a new source of income to women's time and energy released by improvements in water supply and sanitation is a positive motivation.
Memet and I discussed two areas of UNICEF that would be relevant to the Project: Project Support Communication (PSC), Development Support Communication (DSC) and the Women In Development (WID) Projects. Of special interest are the communication and education components that have been developed by PSC in UNICEF. An appointment was set up with Dr. Jan Bunnag, who has been responsible for the communication components on Monday, January 31, after her return from Vietnam.
Laeka Pija-Ajariya, the Women In Development officer, is preparing comments and suggestions based on the draft document. She summarized the area-intensive people-based approach, which is now official policy in Thailand. Of special interest is the fact that, as of this year, women can legally be heads of village councils, and five have already been elected. There are organized women's committees in every community, and one or two women are on nearly every village-level council. Women's opinions and concerns are being increasingly heard and addressed.
Pija-Ajariya also discussed Thailand's new approaches to integrated development in which the health worker, the agricultural development worker, the nutritionist and the teacher (who serves as secretary) work as a committee at the local level. A "bottom-up" instead of a "top-down" approach is being developed with community development officers from the Community Development Department, Ministry of Interior, as coordinators at the provincial and district levels. Special training programs have been designed to help people carry out integrated programs which include water supply and sanitation components.
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ANNEX Ila Page 3
The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has funded a 2-year project in Korat which includes involving women and other community members in program planning, locating wells, selecting caretakers and securing land rights for property to install 600 wells and pumps. An assessment of this project is now under way.
In the first progress report of this Project (Thailand Sural Water Supply E/ICEF/P/L/783) for the Canadian UNICEF committee (CIDA) and the United States UNICEF committee, it was noted that one of the strategic problems was "to link rural water supply to primary health care in problem malnutrition areas and to provide water in villages where UNICEF is supporting skill-development of women so as to promote their capacity to participate in delivering services to their community". The aim is "to reduce infant mortality rate from 44.8/1000 to 35.8/1000 and the morbidity rate due to water- and food-borne diseases from 266/1000 to 187/1000 by 1981".
As an initial part of the project, Project Support Communication (PSC) workshops were held for 55 Community Development workers in Surin and Buri Ram provinces. The workshops emphasized the importance of participation of villagers at the planning stage, particularly women, who will be motivated to "select well locations, caretakers, and to decide what their contribution for the installation of wells would be". Also included in the workshops was the preparation of a sociological survey methodology for obtaining base line date to determine needs, attitudes and practices related to water before introducing improvements. The CDs carried out these surveys while technicians were examining geological conditions and evaluating appropriate alternative sources and technologies.
On January 31, I met with Dr. Jane Bunnag at UNICEF to discuss various communication techniques and materials. Not only had various people in UNDP, UNICEF and World Bank headquarters suggested that we get together, but Memet had also recommended that we discuss the project proposal.
Communication strategies whether called Development Communication Support (DCS) or Project Communication Support (PCS) are being considered on a regional basis. I had already read Dr. Bunnag's excellent analysis of "Communication and Community Participation" presented in draft form to UNDP in January 1982, which highlighted the interlocking of communication with community participation. As she noted, community participation "should indicate their informed concurrence and involvement in the development process from the earliest stages of project formulation". The word "informed" implies that residents of a community, both women and men, have been thoroughly informed as to the "technological alternatives, their financial and other costs, their role in design, installation, and maintenance of the facilities".
In discussing PCS within UNICEF I found that even though it has been integrated with planning in the field, it has been kept as part of Public Information in headquarters. In the Asian regional office of UNICEF, Dr. Bunnag's responsibilities have been separated from the P.I. Office and are related more closely to project planning even although much of the material is of use for information dissemination.
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ANNEX Ila Page 4
Communication both data gathering and information dissemination -should be interwoven with project planning and programming in the donor agencies as well as in the field. One of the contributions this project can make is to help integrate women and communication into the planning, implementation, and evaluation of projects.
Dr. Bunnag agreed to send selected material and background papers on approach and process to me c/o the UNDP headquarters office.
We discussed two specific things prepared in Thailand which she promised to evaluate:
(a) The Community Participation and Water Supply Handbook, prepared several years ago.
(b) An existing video tape on community participation in water supply, which is being translated into English.
She also provided more information on the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) which uses "deworming" as an entry into environmental sanitation and family planning. JOICFP has become a contributor to UNICEF and might well have an interest in the proposed interregional project for women since their interest is focused on maternal/child health.
After the meeting with Dr. Bunnag I had lunch with Pricha and Laeka who gave me helpful written comments on the proposal and will be sending more material to New York. Pricha felt that funding for replication of either the Korat or Buri Ram projects would be well spent (see Ministry of Interior -He).
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Mr. Michael Smith, Deputy Regional Director
Ms. Sachiko Natsume, Assistant Regional Representative
January 25 and 27 1983
An appointment was set up with Michael Smith who is charged with IDWSSD activities as well as Women In Development programs, including the Voluntary Fund. Mr. Smith suggested that I also meet Sachiko Natsume, assistant regional representative, who has just taken over the Women in Development (WID) part of Smith's activities.
After a brief discussion of IDWSSD activities in general, the Task Force on Women and the background of the draft UNDP interregional project on women, he summarized the situation in Thailand, including the lack of an approved Decade plan.
Natsume joined us and we continued discussing various project possibilities. As a part of turning over his WID activities to Natsume as well as providing an opportunity for me to meet the government agency most involved at the grassroots level in basic needs programming, Smith offered to set up an appointment with the Community Development Department, Ministry of Interior.
On my return to UNDP, I checked on reactions to the draft proposal with Smith. He may be sending further comments to Mr. Potashnik at UNDP headquarters but said that the draft seemed alright to him. He questioned how the regional approach would work in specific national settings and what the country contributions would be, and how they could be handled.
Natsume had not finished her comments on the draft but will forward any suggestions to UNDP. She and I went from UNDP to the Ministry of Interior where we had an excellent meeting with Dr. Pairat, Deputy Director-General of the Community Development Department (see Ministry of Interior, Annex lie).
TAG/BTO/ME/1-83 13 AMEX IIc
MINISTRY OF INTERIOR, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT (CDD) Dr. Pairat Decharin, Deputy Director-General January 27, 1983
An appointment was made by Michael Smith of UNDP for Ms. S. Natsume and myself to meet with Dr. Pairat to discuss the four on-going Voluntary Fund Projects and other possibilities within the framework of the draft Project Proposal.
Dr. Pairat, who had attended the Mid-Decade Conference on Women in Copenhagen as an official member of the Thai delegation and who is an applied anthropologist trained at Michigan State, was extremely knowledgeable about problems, possibilities and projects of direct relevance to the proposal. As a government official who has been working on the implementation of the new "bottom-up" people-based development 5-year plan, Dr. Pairat has been closely related with the previously mentioned CIDA project in Korat which he feels can be replicated in other areas now that a demonstration project has been completed and is being assessed.
Dr. Pairat, with his assistant, Mrs. Bubphat, has been working since 1962 on maternal/child development projects in the Department, which started originally with nutrition and home economics, although progress was slow. With UNICEF, ESCAP and UNDP help, the new approach, which emphasizes training and organization of women's groups as well as adding income-generating projects, has stimulated increased response from women at the village level.
According to Dr. Pairat, some recent research has indicated that Thai women have much more decision-making power than was thought earlier (unfortunately the study is available.only in Thai). Not only are the women being successful in their group projects, but they are beginning to speak out at community meetings and take their places as committee heads.
Water and improved sanitation are key parts of this integrated rural development approach which includes training in household management, personal hygiene, nutrition, food preparation and presentation, etc.
Dr. Pairat works with university groups on research and also coordinates voluntary agencies, in cooperation with the National Council of Women in Thailand, which has been designated as the official "umbrella" organization by the Royal Thai Government, in lieu of a Women's Bureau (see Annex He).
One of the things which CDD recognizes in programming for "Women in Development" activities is the fact that the process which involves the interdependence of technical services comes together at the village level. Hence a woman is seen as a"person who is concerned about the education and health needs of the child, the water and sanitation needs of her home and her
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ANNEX lie Page 2
community, and other related activities which are a part of her everyday life". The following diagram shows the intra/inter-relationship of the basic service sectors which concern women in development activities at the village level.
Community action for the delivery of basic services
Rural water supply and sanitation
Food and nutrition
Women and youth in develovment
Preschool child development nutrition
Source: Community Development Department, Ministry of Interior, Thailand, Annual Report, ASEAN-WID. Julv 1982
The key role played by water and sanitation in an integrated development approach at the village level is clear. The interesting thing in this model is that at the same time there is a recognition of the need for intersectoral planning at all levels with provisions made for flexibility in order to respond to the needs of the villagers including women. Figure 3, on the following page shows this in a schematic way.
One of the innovative approaches is the training of women in Thailand as well pump caretakers (see Annexes Ila and lie). Another successful demonstration project includes building systematic linkages between provincial urban women and women in rural areas. Urban women are helping to discover markets for rural produce, advising on most profitable products for sale, and assisting in training courses and literacy classes. Dr. Pairat said that care is being taken that the rural women do not become dependent on the urban, but that a feeling of sisterhood and mutual sharing is developed. Along with income-generation, there is organization of child nutrition stations emphasizing both sanitation and nutrition. It is hoped to extend this pilot program to other areas as soon as funding is available. Some background documents on these programs were collected and more will be sent directly to UNDP by Ms. Natsume.
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Coordination and Management Committee
ANNEX lie Page 3
PMO Chairman Health, MOE, CDD, DOAE, BOB Members
IAD Vice-Chairman NESDB, DISC, LAD, UNICEF Secretariat staff
Provincial Office Governor
District Development Committee District Officer
Senior Deputy District Officer
Private Sub-Committee Sub-Committee Sub-Committee Sub-Committee Sub-Committee
organi- on Occupation on Security on Education, on Health on Public
sation Development Religion, Culture and Athletics Utility Service 1 r-
Private Teacher CD Agricul- Healt'i
organi- officer tural offi-
Village Committee Development
Source: Community Development Department, Ministry of Interior, Thailand
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ANNEX lie Page 4
Dr. Pairat is obviously very sensitive to the needs and strengths of women as individuals and in groups. He is also aware of the need to integrate women into the total development process and not keep activities completely separate or segregated.
The importance of decentralization and of cooperative planning and action among the various organizations both governmental and non-governmental has been demonstrated by the policies and procedures of CDD. The conceptual models developed by CDD and contained in their March 1982 report to the ASEAN Women in Development Project are examples of how the linkages recommended in WHO's framework for DECADE Planning, 1980, can be implemented.
Water and Sanitation are an integral part of the scope of basic services needed for development.
The ASEAN Women in Development provided, through Australia, US$172,800 to support one urban center and seven rural centers in Ubon Rachathani for developing their production and marketing, as well as providing capital for a revolving fund which is handled by CDD This demonstration project, which started in May 1982, has been successful and the CDD hoped to extend it to other selected parts of Thailand as soon as funding is available.
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UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (USAID) Dr. David Oot Office of Health, Population and Nutrition Ms. Lawan Ratanaruang, Women in Development Officer January 27, 1983
During an informal lunch with David Oot, I thanked him for handling and delivering the last WASH-AID documents to the Seminar. We also discussed the Seminar and USAID projects which Thailand has in water and sanitation. Unfortunately, the present emphasis on provincial piped systems has very little provision for human dimensions except for agency training. The nutrition and maternal/child health programs are more relevant to the project document, but no specific suggestions for cooperation were made by Oot.
In my interview, arranged by David, with Lawan who coordinates Women in Development activities, she gave me a list of 37 project grants with Private Voluntary Organizations in Thailand since 1978. Some of these had components which related specifically to the proposed Decade project.
One of these, Food and Nutrition Development, which started for 3 years in 1976 has been continued until 1985. The grant is made through the Asia Foundation to the Rural Development Centre for Southern Thailand^ with cooperation from the Prince of Songkhla University. There are special provisions for training, evaluation and communication in home management of food related to water use and sanitary practices.
Another grant, through the Asia Foundation to the Council for Social Welfare in Thailand, made in 1980 and still continuing, is earmarked for training for social development to some 350 organizations, many of whom have projects with women, some of which have sanitation components.
A strengthening grant has been made to the National Council of Women in Thailand (NCWT) to help them coordinate more effectively their memebership of 107 women's organizations, 500,000 regular members and 350 associated members.
As the new USAID director in Bangkok takes over, a survey of past and on-going projects is being made with summaries of their plans and activities. If there is later interest on the part of USAID in participating in the proposed UNDP interregional project, one of the above three projects might be selected for fuller documentation or replication within the framework of women's participation in Decade activities.
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THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN IN THAILAND (NCWT) Khunying Orawan Techaked, President January 28, 1983
On Friday, January 28, I spent a luncheon meeting discussing the programs of the NCWT with the President and two of her committee heads. NCWT has been designated by the King:
- To be the coordinating center of all the women's association and women's organizations in Thailand for the purpose of the development of human resources, especially women and children.
To disseminate knowledge about desirable activities which would improve the standard of living and strengthen the self-reliance of the Thai people to member organizations in the metropolitan area, in the provinces and in the remote areas.
- To seek funding to assist member organizations which are involved in community development.
To extend assistance in gathering data for the preparation of documents and the operation of the member organizations.
We discussed the overall responsibilities and reviewed the seven project committees which have been set up by the Board of Directors, namely:
(i) Educational Promotion
(ii) Health Promotion
(iii) Religious and Cultural Promotion
(lv) Vocational Promotion
(v) Women's Advancement Promotion
(vi) Consumer Promotion
(vii) Improvement of densely populated communities
(in cooperation with the National Housing Authority)
Even though none of these are specifically focused on water supply and sanitation, there is an awareness of the problem on the part of Khunying Orawan. In fact she furnished' me with the background documentation on water which was prepared for the Mid-Decade Conference on Women in Copenhagen. As noted in the document, women "are considered to be the main target group to be responsible for and benefit from the safe water supply service" developed by the Community Development Department (CDD) and the Department of Mineral Resources; 465 women have been trained in 60 villages in two provinces as hand-pump caretakers (see UNICEF/CIDA project and CDD). This is the kind of data which the proposed interregional project hopes to document more fully. Whether or not the NCWT would be able to assist in the documentation would have to be explored. As was noted by several people, NCWT has been given increased official responsibility as the "umbrella" organization, but lacks professional staff and clear policies or procedures. The NCWT committee head for rural development projects said that she works
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ANNEX He Page 2
through the wives of the governors at the provincial level. In the past, they have set up fairs to help sell handicrafts from the provinces and are hoping to develop training programs. The best way to coordinate these efforts with such projects as the CDD ASEAN Women Australia project (see CDD/MOI) would have to be explored.
Several comments were made by outsiders that NCWT should be coordinating the work of the various agencies instead of getting into project design and operation. One of the purposes of the USAID grant was to help strengthen the capacity of NCWT to synthesize the many efforts by and for women in Thailand and serve as a pressure group to building awareness and raise consciousness concerning women here.
The NCWT notes in its report on Water Storage Tanks (Thai version) that in spite of the fact that an easy-to-construct bamboo/cement water tank has been identified as the solution to the water problem in some areas by the Thailand Appropriate Technology Action for Development (ATAD), no women are being trained in this, even though women make up more than 50% of the construction labour force in the nation. The Division of Sanitation in the Ministry of Public Health limits selection of tank-builder trainees to men.
The problem of rural water supply in Thailand is complicated by the fact that rural water supply is split among seven different agencies so that increasing women's roles in this sector is difficult. According to a publication entitled "Water" prepared for the 1980 UN Conference on Women, "a proposal is being considered by the Government to establish a Single Rural Water Supply Agency. This new government agency would incorporate all the existing rural water supply organizations. Its principal responsibility would be to provide access to safe water to all rural inhabitants of Thailand in support of and in collaboration with primary health care".
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UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC (ESCAP)
Daw Aye, Senior Regional Programmer for Women's Programmes
J.C. Williams, Agricultural Division, Community Development Adviser
Dr. Claudio Sepulueda, Medical Division, WHO
Daw Aye, Burmese sociologist and specialist in women's projects with years of experience in this region, brought me up to date on the projects she had started with the Royal Forestry Department during my 1982 visit here as a part of a rural renewable energy commission.
Women participate in the planning, are managers of and, hopefully, will be the beneficiaries of a fuel-wood tree planting project and an agro-forestry scheme with cashew nut trees inter-cropped developed with the Royal Forest Department and the Forest Industries Authority.
As of now there is no water or sanitation component in the project but as the women become more productive, one could develop.
Daw Aye's confidence in the ability of Dr. Pairat (se CDD/M0I) to supervise projects with components in which women are involved in planning and implementation is based on knowledge of his performance in the past and participation with him at ESCAP workshops.
J. C. Williams, Agricultural Officer, shared several documents related to training and community participation, including "Transfer of Knowledge and Skills among Peer Groups A Manual on Methodology", developed at the ESCAP/FAO data-country project for the Promotion and Training of Rural Women in Income-Raising Group Activities", Bangkok 1979. The philosophy behind this project was that people at the grassroots level in developing countries have a great deal to teach their own people and that they themselves are the best teachers.
This approach corresponds with the findings in the population field where peer support among women was a positive force in acceptance of family planning. Similar approaches among farmers has accelerated transfer of knowledge about new farming techniques. In Thailand, the Community Development Department is using this process in its training and communication support for women (see CDD/M0I).
Dr. Claudio Sepuluedo, Chilean doctor assigned to ESCAP, has worked on several WHO programs and was interested in following up on women's roles in relation to water and sanitation if a proposed project is. developed.
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POPULATION AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION (PDA) Mechai Viravaidya January 26, 1983
On Wednesday afternoon, January 26, we visited Mechai at his PDA office to discuss the present activities of this association as well as any projects he might suggest in his new role as Governor of the Provincial Water Authority which might relate to the proposed project.
During my previous meetings with Mechai in Bangkok, we had discussed the Community Based Appropriate Technology (CBAT) program which had relevance to rural renewable energy. Several of the components of CBAT's which we discussed then, such as methane generators and water storage tanks are still on-going. Since the grassroots integrated programs which have been developed are based on incentives related to family planning, there is a definite relationship with women in the broader context, but no women's program as such, except the family planning activity. Mechai emphasized that women play virtually equal roles in his projects.
Mechai gave us a quick update of activities, some slides on the water storage tanks and expressed interest in having funds to carry out some of their grassroot acivities related to water supply and sanitation. He said he could tailor some women-focused projects if there was a possibility of support.
Another part of our discussion dealt with communication and training components. Leona d'Agnes of Path, Indonesia had written to Mechai about my visit to Bangkok and felt some of the communication materials she had helped to design for PDA during the two years she and Tom d' Agnes worked with Mechai might be of Interest to us. Unfortunately there was not time to explore these in detail.
However, Mechai did tell us about the US$2.5 million USAID grant
which has been given to him and development alternatives to evaluate the
"bottom-up" person-oriented development and design a management plan for the Thai Government 5th development plan.
As far as the Provincial Water Works are concerned, there are grants from the World Bank and USAID for piped systems in provincial towns, but there is practically no involvement with users or women except for payment of fees.
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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION: DEPARTMENT OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
Dr. Kasama Varavarn (Ph.D. Harvard University, Education & Development)
January 27 1983
Even though there was not time to visit the Ministry, I did have a long discussion with Dr. Varavarn. She has collaborated with CDD and UNICEF.
Some of the messages on sanitation and/or health developed through the department might be of interest if a project is developed in Thailand and she offered to make copies available.
Dr. Varavarn has been the director of the World Bank project in Non-Formal Education which has just been completed. The Ministry of Education has approved a budget to continue the program with Thai funds.
TAG/BTO/ME/1-83 23 ANNEX III
CHULALONGKORN UNIVERSITY: SOCIAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Amara Pongsapich, Ph.D. (Anthropologist, University of Washington)
Department Director, Chulalongkorn University Social Research Institute
January 28, 1983
Dr. Amara has designed and directed a number or research projects in rural Thailand, including participation in the recent one by META on rural renewable energy. She had done research on changing roles of women and could be useful if a project is developed in Thailand. Her Institute has excellent social research facilities.
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Mr. Fred Temple, World Bank Mission, Bangkok January 17, 23 and 31, 1983
A call was made Co the Bank on Monday, January 17 to advise them of my activities, etc. A second- call was made on Monday, January 23 to check for messages.
On Monday, January 31 an appointment was made with Mr. Fred Temple to review the activities of the last two weeks and summarize conclusions and recommendations included in this aide-memoire, a copy of which will be left in his office, with additional copies sent to the World Bank regional office in Sri Lanka and headquarters in Washington, DC, attention Richard Middleton.
Fred Temple commented briefly on World Bank activities in water supply and sanitation. He asked if I had discussed the project with Mechai and what suggestions were made for analyzing the roles of women in urban slums with the National Housing Authority. I mentioned my visit to Klong Toey and said we would welcome suggestions of ways to cooperate. Temple had not received a copy of the draft proposal.
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ANNEX III Page 1
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME INTERREGIONAL PROJECT
Title: Promotion and Support for Women's Participation
in the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade
Number: INT/83/003 Duration: 3-1/2 years
(including six-month preparatory phase)
Sector: Health (25)
Sub-Sector: Promotion of Environmental Health (2520)
Government Cooperating Agencies: To be identified in participating countries
Executing Agency: United Nations Development Programme in association with
other United Nations executing agencies and organizations
Estimated starting date: March April 1983
Government contributions: To be identified
UNDP contributions: To be identified
Cost-sharing contribution: $3.5 million for 3 years
Preparatory Phase: $198,690 for 6 months
On behalf of the Executing Agency
On behalf of UNDP
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ANNEX III Page 2
PART I. LEGAL CONTEXT
1. This project will become effective when signed by the United
Nations Development Programme. Arrangements will be defined for the execution of different project components, with responsible participating and executing agencies where applicable, and in the case of individual governments in letters of agreement.
PART II. THE PROJECT
A. Development Objective
2. The long-term objective of this project is to support the global effort of the 1980s to develop water supply and sanitation systems which will enable participating governemnts of developing countries to provide safe water supplies and adequate sanitation facilities for most of their people by 1990 and to improve the positive impact on the health and welfare of families in peri-urban and rural communities.
B. Immediate Objectives
3. The overall objective is to support and expand affirmative measures to include women more actively In all activities related to the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, as well as to demonstrate and promote ways of achieving women's effective involvement in the planning, execution, operation, maintenance and utilization of systems for water supply and sanitation.
4. The specific objectives of the project are:
- to assist participating countries to design and implement programs and projects to demonstrate how the participation of women as actors and target groups can contribute to water supply and sanitation schemes, and their economic, social and health impacts on the community;
- to organize training activities including orientation seminars, workshops and other training efforts for officials of government agencies, women's organizations, NGOs and other community groups on the design and implementation of programs and projects to involve women in the support of Decade goals;
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- to prepare technical reports, training materials and guidelines on the methods and approaches for governments, development agencies, and other groups on the role of women in water supply and sanitation schemes;
- to support national public information and communication programs in raising public awareness of women's needs and their actual and potential contributions to the achievement of Decade goals.
C. Special Considerations
5. If countries are to reach their goals for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD), they must be able to make optimum use of their resources, both internal and external. The lack of properly trained personnel is recognized as a major human resource costraint to Decade achievements. The Steering Committee for Cooperative Action formed by organizations in the United Nations system has emphasized the importance of developing human resources to meet Decade goals, and has promoted a Decade Human Resources Development Strategy and Action Programme to support countries in achieving these goals. As of now, very limited attention has been given to women as the primary human resource the ultimate user, whose participation is one of the keys to the success of the Decade.
6. Recognizing the impact which women can have on the success of water and sanitation programs, the United Nations Conferences on Human Settlements (HABITAT) and Water adopted special resolutions recommending women's incorporation in these programs. In addition, recognizing the significant impact the IDWSSD can have on the roles of women, the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women meeting in Copenhagen (July 1980) adopted a strong resolution entitled "International drinking water supply and sanitation decade", which subsequently was endorsed by the General Assembly in its resolution 35/136. It specifically mandates "Member States and United Nations agencies, including specialized agencies, to promote full participation of women in planning, implementation and application of technology for water supply projects".
7. In order to move from rhetoric into action and to mobilize women as valuable human resources, a special Task Force on Women and the IDWSSD was established in April 1982 by the Steering Committee for Cooperative Action. The Task Force is chaired by UNICEF and includes as members: FAO, WHO, UN, World Bank, INSTRAM, UNESCO and UNDP. The mandate of the Task Force includes developing a strategy for the enhancement of the role of women in the Decade, supporting other Decade programs in relation to women, and acting as a mechanism for the planning and implementation of activities in support of increased participation by women in the Decade.
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D. Background and Justification
8. Statistics show that half the world's people 2,000 million men,
women and children are without reasonable access to a safe and adequate water supply. Even more human beings lack proper sanitation. Those most severely affected are in the rural and poor urban areas of the developing countries.
9. WHO estimates that 80 percent of all diseases in the world
including gastro-enteritis, schistosomiasis, and diarrhoea are associated with poor personal and household hygiene and inadequate water supply and sanitation. Children are most gravely affected. The estimated annual death toll among those under five years of age from diarrhoea and other diseases directly related to lack of safe water and proper sanitation is 15 million, with transmission primarily via the faecal-oral route of infection. Without the involvement of women few improvements in household sanitation are possible.
10. Health, economic and social costs are enormous. They are
characterized by reduced labour productivity through sickness, loss of income and the drudgery involved in hauling heavy loads of water over long distances. Women and children suffer most.
11. Women bear primary responsibility not only for fetching water, but
for water management, sanitary practices, and health education within the household and the extended family. Water is required for the activities they routinely perform such as food preparation, laundry, tending animals and kitchen gardens, as well as for income-generating ventures like handicrafts and food processing. Women, too, set personal and household standards of cleanliness and inculcate sanitary habits among their children.
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12. (a) Women are often excluded from the planning and implementation of water and sanitation projects, even although it is they who may determine project success or failure. This is especially true with regard to choice of technologies-, when failure to consult women may lead to the Installation of pumps too heavy for women to operate, or not durable enough to stand up to the continuous use they will receive.
(b) Projects may fail, as well, unless women's local customs, preferences and traditions are taken into account, for example, with regard to the design and location of new facilities, such as latrines. Extreme care must also be taken in use of technologies, especially toilet facilities which will remain unused or misused if they are culturally inappropriate or unacceptable to women.
13. Women can contribute to water and sanitation programs in many positive ways at all stages: project planning and design, implementation, operation, maintenance and repair, and evaluation. Achieving their full participation will require:
- adoption of policies and affirmative measures by Governments in their Decade plans and other development strategies;
- technical and financial support of bilateral and multilateral agencies, to enable governments, NGOs and others carrying out IDWSSD-related programs to develop and implement projects which will utilize women's capacities;
- orientation and training, to create awareness among planners and others involved in the Decade of the need to involve women in water/sanitation projects and equip them with skills necessary to secure this involvement;
- research, to document experience and develop guidelines for women's participation in the sector;
- public information/communication, to create understanding and acceptance of women's potential contributions to the achievement of improved water supply and sanitation, and related social, economic and health benefits, among decision-makers, technicians, community workers and others interested in contributing to the achievement of IDWSSD goals.
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14. The project has four major components corresponding to the
immediate objectives. These components and their expected outputs- are as follows:
First component: Incorporating Women in Decade Projects
15. The objective of this component is to assist a limited group of
countries to identify, prepare and implement investment and technical assistance projects and/or components of projects which already Involve women or have a potential for such involvement in their various capacities in water supply, sanitation and other development initiatives in support of Decade goals. This objective will be achieved though the provision by the project of (1) technical support services to government agencies, NGOs, and national groups in the preparation of detailed project designs, cost estimates and approaches for project implementation (2) and/or limited financial support for covering key inputs for project implementation such as training, consultancy services and related equipment.
16. In supporting projects and programs for women's involvement In the Decade, priority will be given to Identifying existing projects supported by UNDP, UNICEF, WHO, the World Bank and other multilateral and bilateral agencies in which women's participation and contribution could be enhanced through outreach activities with modest additional technical and/or financial support. However, the project will also respond to proposals of governments and NGOs for direct support to undertake new initiatives on behalf of women which they might execute directly with external support provided by the project.
17. There are numerous possibilities for involving women in existing and new projects to enhance their contribution to the Decade. Examples of only a few are as follows:
(a) Primary health care: Programs and projects at all levels of the health system could provide greater opportunities for women to contribute to the enhancement of health benefits from new and improved water supply and sanitation schemes. For example, in many countries in Africa, Asia and other regions, village-based women's organizations with outside technical support can assist women to individually and collectively improve health care for themselves and their families, through training in household and community water management and sanitary
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practices; in diarrhoeal disease control; in immunization; maternal and child care, and in nutrition. In addition other community-level programs by themselves or integrated within other efforts can serve as vehicles for involving women in actions to enhance the impact of new and/or improved water supply and sanitation facilities.
(b) Rural Water Supply: There is considerable scope for involving women in the planning and implementation of schemes for the construction of water supply and water storage facilities. For example, rainwater catchments are already being constructed by women in Kenya and elsewhere and new light weight handpumps can be installed, operated and maintained by women without heavy equipment. In Bangladesh, women have assisted in the design of platforms suitable for washing clothes and social meetings as well as for water collection. In Malawi, women participate in the construction of bore-hole sites and dig-wells. With the installation of new water supply facilities in rural communities, there are several essential tasks in the maintenance and repair of these facilities which women can perform if properly trained. In Malawi, Angola and elsewhere women are being trained as caretakers to keep the water sources clean, monitor systems for leaks and other defects, lubricate the pumps, keep stock of spare parts and maintain liaison with mobile maintenance units for complex repairs.
(c) Low-Cost Sanitation: In programs to extend low-cost sanitation facilities to urban and rural communities, women can be more effectively incorporated in the planning and execution of culturally acceptable latrine construction programs, including health education and other essential components. For example, women's organizations in Kenya are sponsoring action-learning workshops to instruct women in self-help income-generating schemes for the construction of latrines; and to instruct women-users on handwashing and other hygiene practices, so critical to the achievement of the health benefits of improved sanitation. In some rural areas, women are producing soap from the wood ash of brick kilns as a complement to latrine construction programs.
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ANNEX III Page 8
(d) Related projects: .Projects in education, vocational training, agriculture, environmental protection, and other fields offer equally promising activities for women's involvement in support of the social economic and health objectives of improved water and sanitation.
During the preparatory phase, consultations will be held with officials in selected countries, UN and bilateral agencies, and among NGOs to identify specific project and program opportunities and the requirements for their further preparation and implementation.
18. In selecting projects for support, priority will be given to inter
(a) the least developed countries and those with relatively low per capita incomes which have demonstrated a commitment to the Decade and to the enhancement of women's participation in programs of economic and social development;
(b) countries which are already involved in some primary health care, literacy program or related activity and which have demonstrated some capability to motivate community participation;
(c) proposals which offer both different as well as comparable approaches for the involvement of women so that experiences, methodologies and training materials could be more easily replicated;
(d) existing projects in which women's participation would be enhanced or new initiatives which government or local organizations might implement directly.
Second component: Orientation and Training
19. Another major goal of this project is to increase the human
resources for the Decade in developing countries primarily through enhancing the involvement and contribution of women in their different capacities to water supply and sanitation schemes. In achieving this goal, the project will design and implement workshops and seminars to orientate and train personnel of selected government agencies, national NGOs and community groups on approaches and methods for enhancing the role and contribution of women to water supply and sanitation projects, including their critical roles in on-going operation and maintenance of facilities.
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ANNEX III Page 9
20. The training workshops and seminar will be designed for project planners, project managers and trainers of community-level extension workers in health education and related fields, such as community development, agriculture, etc. The proposed training workshops and seminars will focus on the following personnel:
(a) Trainers of community-level workers will be introduced to different approaches for training women to improve their existing daily tasks as well as to perform new roles in water and waste management as improved systems are introduced in communities and homes.
(b) Program planners, who are responsible for the design of water supply and sanitation schemes, will be given information on the wide range of considerations and practical measures which can be taken to ensure that women's needs and contributions are fully taken into account in project design.
(c) Project managers of government agencies, women's organizations and other national agencies will be introduced to the methods and approaches used successfully in other projects to involve women in water supply and sanitation schemes, particularly as these relate to planning, operation and maintenance.
21. The training and orientation materials for the workshops and seminars will draw upon existing training materials as well as produce new ones adapted to the aforementioned training objectives. In particular, the project will contribute, as appropriate, to the preparation, testing and dissemination of the films and training modules being prepared under the UNDP/World Bank Interregional Project INT/82/002, "Information and Training Materials in Low-Cost Water Supply and Sanitation" ensuring that women's needs and potentials are fully taken into account. Likewise, manuals and other training materials in primary health care, maternal and child care and other fields will be examined to determine ways of developing complementary approaches to training community-level workers in order to extend Decade activities beyond access to new technologies into the homes and daily lives of the target populations via women.
Third component: Technical Reports and Guidelines
22. Under this project component, technical reports case studies and guidelines will be prepared for use by officials of government agencies, development agencies, and other organizations involved In the design, implementation and evaluation of Decade programs and projects.
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23. The technical reports will focus on subjects relevant to policy makers, technicians and extension workers, such as the roles women can play as managers, trainers, innovators, health educators and change agents in support of water supply and sanitation schemes.
24. In addition to technical reports, several case studies will be prepared on projects which illustrate succesful ways of incorporating women in support of water supply and sanitation projects and analyze their effectiveness and impact. These case studies will be drawn from existing projects as well as from those which this project itself will initiate.
25. The project will also endeavor to prepare guidelines for planners and managers which would supplement, as required, other guidelines such as the "WHO Manual for Planners", the UNDP Guidelines on Women and Development, FAO's "Women, Water and Development' and the "Water Supply and Sanitation Project Preparation Handbook" prepared by the World Bank with UNDP support. In this way, existing and new guidelines would take account of the knowledge and experience acquired under the project on involving women in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of water and sanitation schemes.
26. The technical reports and studies will be disseminated by the project to all governments, other relevant organizations, and development agencies.
Fourth Component: Public Information/Communication on Women in the Decade
27. The basic objectives of this project component is to support national public information and communication programs in raising greater awareness and understanding of women's condition and needs as well as acceptance of their potential contribution to the achievement of improved water supply and sanitation and related social, economic and health benefits.
28. The principal means to achieve this objective will be to prepare and disseminate special written and audio-visual materials for use and adaptation by women's organizations, media services, national media and other channels to promote support and understanding for women's participation in the Decade at the international, national and community levels.
29. In producing this material, the project will draw upon the contributions and experiences of the programs, projects and activities of the UN system agencies, other multilateral and bilateral aid organizations, government agencies, NGOs, and other sources including first-hand accounts by visiting journalists. It will also utilize the technical information, orientation and training materials and other documentation prepared under this project.
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30. The focus and content of public information will vary substantially in view of the widely diverse target groups to be reached in the developing and developed countries. While the principal target group will be the decision-makers, technicians and community-level personnel directly involved in water and sanitation schemes, other groups will also be the focus of public information on women and water and sanitation such as those involved In primary health care, nutrition, home economics, rural development, maternal and child care, education and agriculture.
31. For this component, it is essential to develop strong "argumentation" and actual case examples on the wider roles and benefits for women in water supply and sanitation programs which women themselves actively help to shape and carry out.
Types of need content include, for example, "live" instances of:
- women being consulted in such planning decisions as those on location (adding social, convenience and usage factors to hydrogeological and technological ones); configuration (ease of operation and repair, adding laundering facilities near watering points, etc.); and maintenance and repair systems. Content should cover the process, results and impact of such consultations;
- sel-help programs by women's groups, or prompted by them, for installation of improved water catchment, supply and distribution schemes;
- women's training in water/sanitation-related programs of health education, diarrhoeal disease control and treatment, household and community water management, sanitary practices, soap production, etc.;
- women trained and serving as pump caretakers -including the rationale for this, the training provided, the operations involved and the individual and community benefits resulting;
- women using the time "saved" from distant collecting and carrying of water for better child and home care, improved personal and family health,
self-learning activities, income-generating production, and other individual, family and community betterment.
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32. At least one major booklet and one major film covering such subjects would be produced under this project component, in addition to mulitple other outputs treating such themes.
33. In addition to the preparation and dissemination of public information, the project will promote and support direct communication among officials in developing countries for the exchange of knowledge and experience on enhancing women's participation in Decade-related activities. This will be achieved primarily by extending and intensifying the UNDP-initiated "Women's Advocate" program in Africa and other regions. Those prominent in their countries and/or regions In promoting women's effective involvement in water and sanitation schemes will be supported to travel periodically to other countries to share their experiences not only with women's organizations, but with professional associations and the general public in order to stimulate new roles and approaches for women in the Decade.
34. The project will be implemented in two phases beginning with a six-month preparatory phase during which the following activities will be completed:
(a) Preparation of detailed workplan, including activities in target countries, and budget estimates for the four project components.
(b) Identification of financial and technical inputs to be provided by UN agencies and governments for the various project components.
(c) Identification of cooperating agencies and institutions in target countries and donor countries.
(d) Review of workplan by technical Advisory Committee (see p. 23).
(e) Discussions with potential donor agencies to confirm their level of support for the project.
35. By Government: government inputs will vary from country to country but could include assistance from the National Action Committee in the following:
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(a) promote the Decade Human Resources Strategy with particular emphasis on enhancing the opportunities for women to contribute to the goals of the Decade as well as to benefit from them;
(b) provide information on priority projects and programs which could Incorporate the contribution of women;
(c) advise on local and regional organizations and institutions which the project could collaborate with and support to achieve its objectives.
36. By Cooperating Agencies: The UN agencies involved in the project are expected to collaborate in the planning and implementation of both phases of the project and provide both in-kind and in-cash support. Their specific inputs and detailed plans will be determined during the preparatory phase.
37. By UNDP: UNDP will provide office space and logistic support for the chief consultant, the services of its field offices and in-kind support for the public information component.
H. Work Plan
38. A detailed work plan and project timetable will be prepared by the chief consultant during the preparatory phase. It will be approved before the start of the project by the Advisory Committee and brought forward periodcially
I. Development Support Conmm-nication
39. Development support communication materials, tailored to meet the needs of each specific environment and culture will be used in various components of the project.
J. Institutional Framework
40. The various project components will be executed by different UN
agencies and organizations coordinated by a UNDP project manager. The project manager will be assisted by a small Technical Advisory Committee to include representatives of the UN agencies involved in the project's implementation and donor agencies of the project. The Task Force on Women
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and the Decade will be kept regularly informed on project implementation. The project will be implemented in close collaboration with the concerned government agencies, National Action Committees and other relevant organizations in participating countries. Whenever feasible, these organizations themselves will assume responsibility for the planning and implementation of project activities.
K. Prior Obligation and Prerequisites
41. During the preparatory phase, governments, women's organizations
and other agencies expected to cooperate in the implementation of the program will be consulted to assist in the elaboration of the project and to confirm their support for the project.
L. Future Assistance
42. It is anticipated that this project will generate additional
requests for UNDP support of projects for Women's participation in the Decade, and that governments will consider the use of country and inter-coutnry IPFs, as well as other international and bilateral funding to support them.
PART III. SCHEDULES OF MONITORING EVALUATON AND REPORTS
A. Schedule of Reviews
43. The project will be subject to periodic reviews in accordance with
the policies and procedure established by UNDP. The Project Advisory Committee will advise the project manager on matters for which their assistance is sought in particular, but not exclusively:
(a) the review of the detailed work plan;
(b) selection of projects and programs for women's participation;
(c) review of technical reports prior to publication and dissemination.
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44. The project will be subject to evaluation in accordance with the policies established for this purpose by UNDP.
C. Progress Reports
45. Semi-annual progress reports will be prepared.
PART IV. BUDGET
46. The three- and one-half year budget for the project will be prepared during the six-month preparatory phase. In view of the scope of the project and the number of countries in different regions which would potentially become involved, an estimated $3.5 million for the three-year phase would likely be required. The financial requirements for the preparatory phase are as follows:
Project Budget: Preparatory Phase (in US dollars)
10 Project Personnel 1983
Months required Cost
11-01 Chief Consultant 6 42,000
11-02 Consultants 12 84,000
13 Support personnel 6 13,000
16 Mission Costs 30,000
19 Component Total
59 Miscellaneous Overhead
169,000 10,000 19,690
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ANNEX IV Page 1
Programme for Children and Women in Pakistan 1982 1986
Programme Framework and Plan of Action for an Integrated Area Development Programme for Children and Women in Baluchistan
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ANNEX IV Page 2
In Baluchistan a combined Programme/Project Formulation Workshop was held in March 1980 with assistance from UNICEF Islamabad and UNICEF Regional Planning Office in Bangkok. In addition to developing a common understanding of the process of programme development and setting up a time table for it, the workshop developed guidelines for preparation of area development projects. To carry out the programming work agreed in the workshop, two working groups were set up to consider the physical, social and intellectual development of the child. The programming work was based on the decision reached by the provincial government and UNICEF that lack of potable water and hygienic environment was the most fundamental problem facing children in Baluchistan and as such the 1982-86 programme would focus on integrated area development based on water supply and environmental sanitation with other basic services added or as desired by the communities.
The two working groups in Baluchistan developing the 1982-86 Programme of Services for Children and Mothers used the following criteria to identify the Priority problems of children.
1. Magnitude of the problem, in terms of affecting large numbers of children and covering several geographic locations, especially under-served areas.
2. Community felt need.
3. Severity/seriousness/urgency in terms of affecting vulnerable age groups, causing slower development in later life and causing irreversible damage.
4. Inter-relates with other problems.
5. Amenable to solution.
2. PRIORITY PROBLEMS OF CHILDREN
Two major categories of problems can be identified; the first are mortality rates among children and mothers much higher than in the rest of Pakistan; and the second are problems of social and intellectual development which are characterized by the literacy rates which are lower for Baluchistan than for any of the other provinces of the country.
2.1 Problem of Survival High Morbidity & Mortality rates :
Infant mortality rates in Baluchistan are probably twice as high as the national estimates of 105 per thousand (Federal Planning and Development Division 1978) A UNICEF-assisted survey of social conditions in 29 rural villages in Baluchistan suggested that 150 children out of 1000 live births die within the first four weeks of
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life. Data from subsequent village surveys in three districts are still being analyzed, but initial reports Indicated that Infant mortality rates are well over 200 per thousand, a rate which is not inconsistent with the earlier survey. Maternal mortality is estimated at 8 to 10 per thousand as opposed to the national estimate of 6 to 8 per thousand.
A small number of largely preventable diseases are responsible for the high morbidity and mortality rates; and of these diseases, a good percentage can be classified as water related, being faecal-oral infections, water-washed or water related insect vector infections.
2.1.1 Diarrhoeas and Gastro-intestinal infections
Data on the incidence of and mortality due to diarrhoeas and dysenteries is scanty. Village surveys in Baluchistan identify gastro-intestinal infections as being the second most common disease, following closely after Incidence of respiratory infections. Informal village interviews reveal that diarrhoea may first occur shortly after birth. Hospital based data Indicates that mortality due to diarrhoeas may account for 20 to 30% of the total mortality. Worm infestations are common among children, estimated to be present in more than 60% of children. Like diarrhoeas and dysenteries, worm infestations contribute to weakened physical condition and exacerbate malnutrition.
Province wide statistical data for the nutritional status of children is not available. The Micro-Nutrient Survey (1976-77) shows that 7.2% of children in Pakistan are severely malnourished, and 17% of pregnant and 20% of lactating mothers show iron deficiencies. Preliminary data from surveys in three Baluchistan districts indicate that the percentage of severely malnourished children is significantly greater than the national average and that malnutrition is far more severe in Gwadar on the coast than In Kalat and Loralai Districts up on the plateau in the north.
2.1.3 Communicable Diseases
Morbidity and mortality due to measles, polio, pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, tetanus neonatorum and tuberculosis remain high in Baluchistan. Because these diseases are readily preventable by immunization, this problem is given high priority.
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2.1.4 Complications of Childbirth and Pregnancy
On a national level complications of child birth and perinatal mortality constitute 20% of all infant mortality. The situation in Baluchistan is undoubtedly much worse with a perinatal (first four weeks) mortality rate estimated at 150 per thousand, and a maternal mortality estimate at 8-10 per thousand.
2.1.5 Respiratory Infections
Respiratory Infections were the most commonly mentioned disease of children 0-6 In the survey of three Baluchistan districts and probably account for a sizeable portion of infant and childhood mortality.
Malaria is common in the coastal areas and irrigated lands near the Indus River. On a national level 8.7% of infant deaths are due to malaria.
2.1.7 Other diseases
. A number of other diseases contribute to the morbidity and mortality of children. Sore and running ears, skin rashes, infections and abcesses were commonly reported infections in the village surveys in Baluchistan.
2.2 Root Causes of the Problems of Survival
Because there is so little data on the transmission of disease in Baluchistan province, the analysis of root causes is inferential. It can be assumed that the lack of potable water, the unhygienic environment, the lack of knowledge about personal hygiene and child care, and the unavailability of health services which are all more serious in Baluchistan than in the other provinces, account for the higher levels of morbidity and mortality in Baluchistan. Data is not sufficient to determine which causes are most important in specific cases; for example, what is the cause of the unusually high perinatal mortality in Baluchistan; is it neo-natal tetanus, dehydration resulting from diarrhoea, birth injury, or some other cause?
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2.2.1 Lack of Adequate Supplies of Safe Water
In rural Pakistan as a whole, only an estimated 14% of the population has access to safe water; in Baluchistan the figure is much less. Depending on the region of the province, the water source may be an irrigation canal, shallow well, unprotected storage reservoir or spring. In a few areas tubewell water is available. Shortage of water in many areas contributes to the poor personal hygiene and the consequent skin infections and abcesses reported in the surveys, as well as to trachoma.
2.2.2 Poor Environmental Sanitation
Latrines or other sanitary arrangements are almost entirely non-existent in rural Baluchistan. Males and children may use the open fields, while women will wait until the darkness of evening or use makeshift arrangements within the family compound. Infections causing diarrhoea and other diseases are transmitted from the uncovered excreta by flies and other insects to unprotected food and utensils. Children playing in the lanes or fields come into contact with germs and the eggs of intestinal worms. Dust, common in many dry areas, carries infection. Additionally, standing water and clogged drains in irrigated areas serve as breeding places for malaria carrying mosquitos.
2.2.3 Lack of knowledge about Hygiene, Health & Nutrition
The lack of potable water and the unhygienic living conditions are closely related to the widespread lack of knowledge about the relationship between hygiene and health, and the Impact of diet or the health of children and pregnant and lactating mothers. Failure to protect food from flies and dust or to wash hands after defecation contribute to high incidence of diarrhoea. Infant mal-nutrition is due to intrafamily food distribution and ignorance of proper weaning practices and child food needs as much as to the availability of food itself. A common practice in Baluchistan is to postpone the start of breast feeding until from three to seven days after birth, depriving the infant of colostrum. Supplemental foods and weaning foods are not commonly introduced until well into the second year. The late start of breast-feeding may be a cause of the early incidence of diarrhoea among infants. In place of breast milk in the first few days of life, infants in Baluchistan are usually fed a mixture which includes honey and water. Perhaps resulting from contamination in the water, infants contract diarrhoea as early as the first few weeks of life. According to informal interviews with health workers who have practiced a number of years in Baluchistan, this may be a chief cause of the high perinatal mortality, rather than neonatal tetanus of which they report having heard of only isolated cases.
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2.2.4 Lack of Health Facilities
Isolation from health services and trained personnel compounds the health problems of most children and mothers in Baluchistan, and makes the introduction of changed health practices even more difficult. Only 28% of the Rural Baluchistan population is estimated to live within two miles of a public or semi-public health institution. Even so, the services of these Institutions are not in fact available to the females and, by association, the children of the area. Health institutions in rural areas are understaffed, and of those health workers in rural areas, only a handful are female. In Nasirabad District, for example, a study conducted by the Federal Planning and Development Division with assistance from UNICEF showed that in two tehsils surveyed, five out of nine sanctioned doctor posts were vacant, and that of four MCH centers, two were non-functioning because of the absence of Lady Health Visitors (LHV). Compounding the problem of access of rural women to female health workers is the dearth of native Baluchi women who have entered health services. Only one or two Lady Health Visitors are natives who speak one or more of the local languages. The majority of Lady Health Visitors come from outside the province and may serve only the three year period of the bond they have signed and may learn the language and customs as they work. Immunization services are not available outside urban centers. While Government health services are not available, rural .women do rely on local dais and family members for medical assistance. A UNICEF-assisted survey of 29 villages showed that 40.39% of the women relied upon a family member for assistance during childbirth. Another 49.37% were attended by a local untrained dai during delivery, while only 9.95% were attended by a LHV or at a hospital. In some locales, babies are self-delivered. Women may also prefer the services of a local woman because of cultural affinity; because the dai will perform additional household service during confinement; and because health institutions often lack adequate supplies of essential medicines.
2.3 Problems of Illiteracy and a Low Level of Functional Knowledge
While the illiteracy rate in Pakistan is one of the highest in Asia, that in Baluchistan is probably higher. An estimated 88.4% of women in Pakistan are illiterate, and the figure rises to 95.3% in the rural areas. That the figures for Baluchistan are higher than this can be inferred from the data on primary school enrollment which shows Baluchistan with a significantly lower primary enrollment rate than the other provinces.
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ANNEX IV Page 7
PUPIL ATTENDANCE IN VILLAGES WITH PRIMARY SCHOOL IN PAKISTAN BY PROVINCE, 1976. PERCENT OF THE SCHOOL POPULATION IN SCHOOL Sex NWFF Balu- Punjab Sind Islam- All
chlstan abad Pakistan
Male 45.4 26.4 53.6 50.2 50.6 45.4 Female 15.6 12.6 39.2 22.0 34.8 24.6 All 30.6 19.5 45.4 35.1 42.7 35.1
As in the other provinces the dropout rate during primary school exceeds 70%, meaning that many of those children enrolled in school do not actually achieve permanent literacy.
Literacy is to some degree an indicator of access of people to new ideas. Women in Baluchistan have the highest illiteracy rate in the country and the lowest school enrollment, which along with their cultural Isolation in the home limits particularly the contact of mothers to new ideas about child care and hygiene.
2.4 Root Causes of High Illiteracy and Low Functional Knowledge
Poverty is an ever present cause of the low standard of education in Baluchistan, but it is not the only one. The low guality of primary education, both in terms of the physical facilities and the quality of teaching, is one explanation for the low enrollment and high dropout rate of both girls and boys.
Many of the primary schools in Baluchistan are in a very bad state of repair. A large proportion of them suffer from such major problems as holes in the roof, no windows or doors, no usable furniture, no blackboards, no latrines or water supply. Many schools suffer from shortage or lack of space, and many use one room for more than one class, which is distracting for both teachers and children. In the urban areas of the Province, schools are often severely overcrowded. The absence of water and latrine facilities also affects the attendance of teachers particularly female.
With regard to curriculum and teaching methods, it is difficult for the new curriculum to be taught adequately due to the shortage of facilities in the schools. Many teachers complain about over-sophisticated teaching methods which contribute to failure in examinations, which is itself a major cause of dropout. The ability of children to read from prescribed books for their grades Is generally very poor. In general, the existing curriculum is not relevant to local needs.
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ANNEX IV Page 8
The majority of primary schools are almost totally devoid of any teaching/learning materials for use by pupils. Primary school teachers are poorly paid, have little or no career prospects, have been poorly trained and suffer from low morale. The provision of in-service teacher training facilities is inadequate.
The access of girls to educational opportunities is more limited than that of boys because of some overriding cultural factors. The most obvious manifestation of the cultural bars to female education in rural areas is the almost total absence of female teachers in rural areas. Rural communities have not been able to produce locally qualified teachers because of the absence of middle and high schools, and other qualified teachers are reluctant to serve in rural areas. In a recent survey, the National Institution of Psychology asked 1700 parents around the country why they educated their sons but not their daughters. Forty-two percent saw no financial benefit from educating their daughters; fifteen percent said that it was not customary; twelve percent said that no girl 's school was located nearby, while only five percent cited poverty as a reason for non-attendance. This same survey showed that girls themselves do not have educational goals. Seventy-five percent of 375 girls aged 6 to 12 could not identify any educational aspirations for themselves.
Among the cultural constraints on female participation in education is the widespread view in rural areas that women's roles is restricted to motherhood and housekeeping. There are fears that the school curriculum, being wide in scope, will educate girls out of these roles and cause problems for them in later life. There are very few models which females can aspire to other than that of the teaching profession. The mobility of girls is a further problem. The older the girls become, the less mobile the society of rural Baluchistan allows them to be. Thus many girls do not enroll, or dropout, where primary schools are not in the immediate vicinity of their homes.
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ANNEX IV Page 9
As for economic factors, although primary education is "free", there are various direct expenditures related to school attendance which place a heavy burden on parents. School uniforms, exercise books, pencils, erasers, and sharpeners are significant expenditures in Baluchistan rural areas. The "opportunity costs" of sending children to school increase in direct proportion to the age of the child. Girls are required to care for younger siblings and In some cases are paid for doing their neighbors' housework. Boys are often required to assist in agricultural work and husbandry.
2.5 Inter-relationship of Problems
In identifying the priority problems of children and mothers in Baluchistan and the basic root causes, the working groups gave special stress to the interaction of the problems. Particular focus was given to the relationship of personal hygiene and health and the impact of this lack of. knowledge about health on investments in water supply improvements, immunization programs or efforts to improve nutrition. Additionally, malnutrition was seen as a problem serious in itself, also contributing to the incidence and severity of other diseases.
2.6 Data on the Situation of Children and Mothers in Baluchistan
In attempting to identify the priority problems of children in Baluchistan, planners confronted the problems of absence of data specific to Baluchistan. For geographic, economic and political reasons, there have never been surveys of the health and education situation in Baluchistan even to the extent of the other provinces. With the cooperation and collaboration of the Planning and Development Department in Quetta, members of some of the sectoral departments, the Planning and Development Division in Islamabad, and with the services of a consulting firm from Karachi (IACP), UNICEF has supplied surveys in the Districts of Baluchistan in order to generate basics for planning.
3. STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES (By December 31, 1986)
During the period 1982-86 the BIAD project will achieve the following strategic objectives:
3.1 To reduce the mortality due to communicable diseases in the age
group 0-5 by 70% from the present level in the identified geographical area and reduce the mortality by 25% throughout the province.
3.2 To reduce the incidence rate due to communicable diseases by 90% in
the target areas, and by 50% throughout Baluchistan province.
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ANNEX IV Page 10
3.3 To reduce the mortality due to infantile diarrhoea from 30% in the 0-1 year"age group to 15% in the selected 40 villages of each district, and from 30% to 25% throughout the province.
3.4 To reduce mortality due to protein-calorie malnutrition in the 0-1 age group from 20% to 10% and in the 1-5 and 5-12 age group from 25% to 12% in all selected villages. Mortality in all age groups will be reduced by 5% throughout the province.
3.5 To reduce maternal mortality from 10 per thousand live-births to 5 in the identified geographical areas, and by 2 per 1000 throughout the province.
3.6 To increase literacy among women in rural areas from 3.4% to 10%.
3.7 To increase the enrollment of 5-9 age group of male children by 5% annually and for girls by 10% annually especially in identified geographical areas.
3.8 To reduce the dropout rate of primary school children from 70% to 40% in 40 villages of each district during the plan period.
4. SERVICE LEVEL OBJECTIVES
In order to achieve the strategic objectives formulated for the reduction of priority problems of children in Baluchistan inter-related and mutually reinforcing service level objectives have been formulated as follows:
4.1 To construct 134 community water systems which would provide safe water supply to 500,000 people in 640 selected villages in Baluchistan.
4.2 To construct one transport maintenance workshop and one warehouse (for storage of water supply materials and equipment) in each of the four division of Baluchistan.
4.3 To construct 30,000 sanitary latrines and promote safe disposal of household wastes in 640 selected villages.
4.4 To provide health, nutrition and environmental education to 500,000 people in 640 selected villages in Baluchistan.
4.5 To immunize 90% of target group populations (EPI plan) in each of 640 villages and 50% throughout the province.
4.6 To establish an effective 0RS distribution system and train all women in the 640 selected villages to correctly administer it to children when required.
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ANNEX IV Page 11
4.7 To equip each year (1982-86) 5 RHCs and 32 BHUs to be established for improving the quality and coverage of basic health services to 300,000 people living in the 640 selected villages.
4.8 To train 1,300 village women to teach village children especially girls basic literacy, fundamental of personal hygiene and nutrition using simple modules and teaching aids to be developed.
4.9 To train 1,600 TBSs (dias) (100 per district).
4.10 To train 1,600 CHWs (100 per district).
4.11 To train 40 Health Educators.
4.12 To train 1,600 Government sectoral department staff in health nutrition and environmental education.
4.13 To train 4 Sanitary Engineers (one per division).
4.14 To train 32 Sanitarians (10 per district)
4.15 To train 40 Drillers (10 per division).
4.16 To train 240 Water Systems Operators (15 per district).
4.17 To train 160 Assistant and Sub-Assistant Engineers.
4.18 To train 200 Pump Operators (community).
4.19 To train 2000 Village Water Systems Operators (community).
4.20 To train 352 community motivators (2 per Union Council) .
4.21 To train Council). 176 local Government Department officials (one per Union >
4.22 Orientation/motivation/information and management training of 1760
Union Councillors, 800 village headment and 18,000 village level sectoral committee members for Water Supply, Sanitation, Health, Nutrition and Education.
5. PROGRAMME STRATEGY
To meet the problems of high mortality and low level of functional education that have already been identified, the Government of Baluchistan has decided to focus its efforts on the provision of a package of basic services, based on the supply of water to clusters of villages.
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ANNEX IV Page 12
This single project for Baluchistan Integrated Area Development (BIAD) will be implemented in forty villages in each of the sixteen districts of Baluchistan over the five year period 1982-86. The' smallest unit in the project will be the cluster of a minimum of five villages with a population per village ranging from 200 to 2000. The selection of the clusters and the villages within the clusters will be determined by the cost efficiency of constructing and operating a water system for the cluster; taking into account:
1. ease of access to the villages;
2. concentration of houses;
3. availability of satisfactory water resource;
4. interest of the villagers in obtaining a water sypply system and their willingness to cooperate in Its construction, operation and maintenance.
The development of sanitation, health education, health, nutrition and non-formal education services will be focused on these clusters, and will be timed to converge with the provision of water.
Planning and implementation of BIAD will be decentralized to the district and village levels and cooperative links among the government technical personnel, the elected District and Union Councils, village cooperatives and committees and village headmen will be fostered.
BIAD is an experimental government attempt to mobilize rural people in the development of basic community services, so that these services in fact reach the children and mothers who suffer th highest mortality. Integrated area development is based on the idea that villagers can articulate their own needs, and that improvement of the well-being of rural people can occur only when they are participating in the planning and delivery of basic services.
6. RURAL DRINKING WATER THE ENTRY POINT FOR BIAD
Past experiences where outsiders have raised false expectation among villagers and have not fulfilled promises have created a credibility gap. Villagers are reluctant to become involved in self-help projects unless they actually see something tangible resulting or solid evidence of a commitment on the part of government agencies offering assistance. Because water is such a felt need of the rural population, it is the type of outside assistance most likely to breakdown initial village resistance and apathy. If outside inputs are meshed with the organization of
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ANNEX IV Page 13
community participation in the planning and construction of the water system in a timely fashion, then the basis of community organization will have been established for future social servie inputs.
Water is a basic felt need in Baluchistan, not only because of its impact on health, but because of the physical burden the collection of water place on both women and men. In Baluchistan the time spent on the daily chore of water collection can range from one hour the areas where the water source is a nearby canal to four to six hours in the arid areas where the water source may be miles away.
In settlements where water lies only a relatively short distance away, women and children fetch it, using head carried water jars. Where water is permanently scarce and must be brought from up to fifteen miles away, two strategies are utilized. The first involves a seasonal shift of the entire community to the water site along the bank of a river, for example. The second requires maintaining pack animals (camels and donkeys) to bring water from the site, and men or boys do the heavy work of collecting and loading the water.
The planned provision of water "at the doorstep" of each identified village will not only have a positive impact on the health status of the villagers, but will also reduce the time spent collecting water which can be more productively used in community development efforts.
The Government of Baluchistan has also identified rural water supply as the highest priority sector in its rural development efforts, and has been increasing its financial commitment to this sector.
7. PROJECT ACTIVITIES
The Project for Integrated Area Development includes a large number of inter-related, phased activities:
7.1 Identification and survey of 40 villages and village clusters in each of 16 Districts;
7.2 Development of Project structure; provision of supplies and
transport as necessary;
7.3 Development of mechanisms for community participation, including the selection and training of one male and one female extension worker from each Council and the training of village headmen who may also be a Union Council member, the establishment of water and other sector committees in the villages; and the establishment of working relationships between the villages and the government technical personnel.
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ANNEX IV Page 14
7.4 Training of government and village people in support of other activities;
7.5 Site selection, design, construction, motivation, operation and maintenance of water supply and sanitation systems;
7.6 Selection, training, equipping and supervision of Community Health Workers and Traditional Birth Attendants (dais) and support, equipping and supply of Basic Health Units as appropriate; support to training of medical technicians and Lady Health Visitors who will train village level health workers;
7.7 Strengthening of cold chain to District level; training, equipping and development of mobile immunization teams;
7.8 Nutrition education input through Community Health Workers, TBAs and village committees, development of nutrition education materials;
7.9 Development of modules for non-formal, functional education; training of trainers and training of village women in use of modules in non-formal settings;
7.10 Development of a monitoring and evaluation system.
Many of the activities identified above will be modified or developed at the District level in order to fit with the specific needs and resources of each of the Districts of Baluchistan. It is intended that the government officials, led by the Deputy Commissioner at the District level, in consultation with village leadership, will have considerable latitude in adapting activities to the expressed needs of the village clusters and to the avility of these communities to participate in the activities. The actual integration of services and activities will take place at the village level. Decisions on the timing and nature of inputs will be made through village committees.
While it may be the most effective way of reaching rural children in Baluchistn, Integrated Area Development is extremely complicated to implement. The chief constraints on its success in Baluchistan include:
8.1 Lack of experience among government professionals in all
departments with this type of community based rural development.
Insufficient numbers of middle level government personnel to serve as trainers.
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ANNEX IV Page 15
8.3 Lack of experience of villagers in either self-help schemes or informal organizations.
8.4 Absence of pattern of cooperation between government professionals and locally elected bodies.
The advantages which the BIAD enjoys include the strong support of high level provincial government officials and the recent creation of elected local councils which seem to have th epolitical and financial support of the government. At the provincial and federal levels, government places a high priority on the strengthening of local government institutions and on increasing the capacity of rural populations to help themselves.
The chief strategy to minimize these constraints on project implementation is training. This includes training, not only in .the traditional sense of training engineers to build rural water supply and latrine systems, of teaching villagers to construct, operate and maintain water pumps and systems; of training dais and community health workers, or training non-formal teachers, but also of reorienting doctors and medical technicians to a primary health care approach; of training village concillors to work with government professionals in the planning and implementation of programs, of training village headmen to coordinate village services; or of encouraging villagers to articulate their needs and to organize to meet those needs. BIAD will have heavy training components at each stage of its implementation.
^Continuous Motivation -Organizing Villagers -Scheduling Activities
-Represents village to Union Council? Government Bureaucracy
Village Water" Committee
"Village Sanitation Committee
Advise on Design,, site selection
"Advise on design of latrines,drains, etc.
prelect "Trainees | j Select Trainees j
Make Commitments oncommunity inputs
Mobilize Community Inputs/Labour for construction/ operation/ maintenance
Supervise Operation & Maintenance
Make commitment on community work programme to construct, and on '. community inputs
monitor Progress .for Project
Supervise iinple-mentation of work programme
Monitor iise and supervise maintenance of sanitation installations . (latrines,drains, garbage disposal)
lonitor Progress for Project
Village Health Committee Village Nutrition Committee C )l
i \ ) 1
vatorsiHeadmen,mobile teams in motivation/ education on safe. water use/sanitation
Select trainees for" Dai/CHW training
"Support village Educa-tion Committee and Nutrition modules
Assist Mobile Teams in training by providing accommodation -and other facilities -as required
Support & Monitor work of trained dais,
Encourage improvements in poultry raising, vegetable growing with assistance of government officials e.g. provide trainee for poultry vaccination programme _
Mobilize community support for immunization .other health campaigns.
"Monitor ProgrosB-of Project
Monitor Progress of Project__
Tllage Education Committo*
"Identify female ~~ villagers for parti-, cipation in training. programme on conununity education modules
MoTSUlze village girls and .women for pagti-; cipation in community based functional education which may > include health, child care,nutrition,basic literacy/poultry raising,vegetable ".; growing
Monior Progress of Project
BIAD Delivery of Water Supply and Basic Services ' ^
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Indian group latrine for children
At the Seminar on Human Waste Management in Bangkok in January 1983, Dr. Surya Rao of Hyderabad described a group latrine for children which has been used in lower schools and playgroups. The following schematic drawing gives details of this. Dr. Rao promised to send photographs and more details, but follow-up through UNDP/TAG or some other way might be indicated.
Childrens latrine (under experimentation in nurseries and slums schools
Andhra Pradash, India)
A wall3 9 inches above ground.
B curtain wall, 9 inches, above ground, with attractive pictures.
C Toilet of small size.
D Water cistern.
E A mug to carry water.
Dr. Rao said that the curtain wall around the latrine was often used for audio-visual messages. Certainly handwashing and flushing reminders/instructions would be appropriate.
In discussing this with various people it was suggested it would be possible to pipe water to such a unit and arrange a group soakage/pit cistern.