Book of Memoirs by Richard M. Bartleman in Caracas, 1890-1893

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Title:
Book of Memoirs by Richard M. Bartleman in Caracas, 1890-1893
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English
Spanish
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Bartleman, Richard M.
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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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6


RICHARD NI.
MAN.
Probable Successor to A. W. Barrett as Secre-..' tary of Legation at Venezuela.
"Mr, Richard M. Bartleman, a resident of Brookline and at present secretary of the Massachusetts Humane Society, is the probable successor of Mr. Arthur W. Barrett, secretary to the American legation at "Venezuela, who was recalled, having proven himseif obnox-l^us to the Venezuelan government. The president has asked Mr. Barrett to tender his resignation, it is understood, and will appoint Mr. Bartleman upon its reception
Mr. Bartleman is well-known in Boston, and is a capable youig man moving in the higher circles of society. He was born in Charles-town about 27 years ago, and is the eldest son of the late Chief Engineer Richard M. Bartleman, U. S. N. Receiving his early education in the public schools, hp w HJaBPg dnr-Mnil mtn fnr rlrtv"'"g V
tftf. >.itm.cV,;p nf rt p^omiaent artisyand within a yga* 'nr 'wr be -eagagefby a Wjestejji nrr uauiexoimtAJpaaJ hey w<>b colar, paBings onfl "nrino rimvn in nil T nlr.r hr rrmniriiirl In Tfiin 111 Til |, nnrl for two years was engaged at civil engineering. When he carne back to this city, three years ago, he was offered the responsible office of secretary of the Massachusetts Humane Society which
he accepted and has ably filled. He has im--proved the general condition of the society and ipromoted in a great measure, the life-savmg service of New England. ':- ,
Mr. Bartleman is highly connected, being la cousin of the Hon. W. C. Endicott, his mother is of the Crowninshield family, and a number of male relatives are in service in the army and navy.
1 Mr. Bartleman is a most affable gentleman, 'cultured nd of fine appearance, and has_ the rspect and good will of all who know him/ He. will make a capable official. M
Mr.'ToBe's success in socuring tliel nomina-tion of Bartleman by his own individual ett'ort has won hia increased respect rom those of his eolleagues wlio imagined that the senators controlled ail sucli appolntments. j
*-Mr. R. M. Bartleman, Secretary of Legalldoat
. .Carracas, Venezuela, bas returned to lila post after en, joylng a thlriy daya' leave of absence among bis frlends ln Boston. A dlnner party waa glveji to rila honor, on itheevoof his departure, by Mr. R. F. Straln. Amone the gneetB present were Lleut. Maaon T. Shufeldl, U. S. Navv, who leavea for Zanzbar to obtaln colntiea of the different Afrlean trlbeBforcxhlbltlon at the World's1 Fair Capt. Fagln, of the Charlestowu Navy Yard, who salla shortly on tbe LancaBter for ble new statlou ln China, and Lleut. Wadnameru. 8. Navy, who wlil prob. ably boln command of the American Armada wtrich la 10 go to the Soulh American countriiea,,,^ jes
/se
SECT. BRTBMAS GJ3TS IT.
In s'pite of the Factthtthe Senators Do* Not Know Him. "Washington, May 10.rsveoil it?i *n. pomtment of B. M. Bartleman t MassaSmsISi '
rom. Every member of the liouse whn was seen this morntng professd "lie deeoest ignorance coneerning the appointee. aeePest
HE THINKS LODGE DlB>r.
Somethina; About R. M. Bartlerrian's Poti-cal Career-
E. M. Bartleman of Congress st, who has just been made secretary of legation at Caracas, bogan taking interest in poiitics iu 188S, when he vuted in (Jliarlestown, votinj; the straight repub-lican ticket, uational as well as state. Provlous to that, in 188(5. lie ieft Boston, having re-sideil ln Cliarlestown all his Ufe, and weut to I'hiladelpliia. l'roui there. in December, 18S6, lie went to Kansas City, whei'e be was employed as constriicting engineer for the tulpli railroad system. remaming there untll January, 1888, when he returned to Boston, accepting the posi-i tion of secretary of the Humane Society. Mr., Bartieniau was away on duty at' tlie last state and city election, but voted in the city eiecton of 1888 for Mayor Hart and the regular republican ticket, lie was not a mem-ber pf any of the etimpatgn clubs, belongs now to no politieal organization as distinctfrom the party itself, and has only a slight aequaintance witli politicians generally. He has no personal acquaiutance with eltlier of the senators or any' of the Massachusetts members of congress, but1 bases lns success upon the indorsainent of friends iu Boston, andtheir influenee with Con-gressman Lodge. Mr. Bartleman 13 unmarried.1 His successor in the Humane Societv will prob-ably be Siduey Burgess, brotlier of Edward Bur-gess, tiie yacht bullder, v/lio was secretary of the society ln 1884.
The Opinin Confirmed at Washington.
Washington, May 12.ISpeda!.]Congress-man Lodge is eredited witli llaving senuredthe aopoiiitmeiit of Bartleman without any assist-ance from the senators or any other member o the delegatlon. If this be true it is a victory of considerable mportance, as showing tho strength of the member from the slxtli districr^ with the present adminisiration as several consular appointments recommsnded by the.sena-tors have been waitlng th Ptesident's approval 'or weoks. '.*:' 'r'~~ '"' "v


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CARACAS
PiXTIX,; AND WTHOGKVPHICJ OFriCK.OV TIIC XA'J'K)\AL aoVWMENT
1889
i 1S3.tt z^r^p 'ss' t^/^x7'^'
81
6*


(eogrnphical Sccion.
i.
Positon.
The Republic of Venezuela insituated in the torrid zone betwccn i 0 40' South ltitude and 26' North. Its longitud rcekoned rom the Caracas meridian is 10o 20' to the Kast and 6o 25' to the West.
Venezuela, is litnited on thc North by thc Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean ; on the South by the Km pire of Hrazil and by the land in dispute bctWeen (he Kepuhlios of Coltmbia, Ecuador and Peni; on the Eflsl by Britsh (uiana, and on the West by ili<- Republic p (.himbia.
Area and :pecial condition of the sol.
The territory of Venezuela mcasreH r,552,741 square kilomter and com-prises the following zones:
The Farmihg zpiie................349,488 sq. km.
Breedirig zone................105,313
,, Uncultivated zone...........797,940 ,, 1,552,V41 sq. km.
With regard to writrship, the territory is thusdivided :
// as/c lad,
Farjing zone...................220,247 sq. km.
Less the land sold in 1887 and 1808 84 ,, ,,
Cattle-breding zpne............. 152,059 ,,
l.css the land sold in 1887 and 1888 fiOO
Uncultivated zone........................
Laiided estte.
Krming zone.........
recding zone........
Uneultivated zone.....
"he hydrographic system of the country is as folt
11 ydrographic system f the Orinoco rver____
Rio Negro
do. do. do.
do. do. do.
do.
do. Cuy un "rver do. (ulf of Cariaco.. ..
do. do. Para......
on the sea-side..........
of the Lake of Valencia ..
do. Lake of Maracaibo.
226,163 sq. km.
151,459 785,038 l,ir,3,2G0sq. km.
123,32o sq. km, 253,854 12,302 ,,
1,-552,741 sq. km.
949,430 sq. km.
100,350
158,109
7,052
30,811
124,981
4,615
177,384
.1.552,741 sq. km.
bvcnty-one islands belong to the Republic, besides a great number of sinall nds and islcts lying in severa! places near the eoast. The total rea of islands 7,8oS sq. km., seattered in the following States and Territories : te of ( hizman Jlanco and Colon Territorv (\4) 1 ojo s-. j
I Carabobo.......................... ( 4)......' 3i ' '
, l>erimiez......................... (25)...... 507
, ,, Falcon............................ (16).....
Iba Territory......................... 112)....
541 35,180 .,
37,808 sq, km.
Thc principal island is Margarita which forros part of the State of Gzm
r,anco. :>' >$**flK*V
"Witlun ih lerrUory of ..Wenezucln ,,, ,7 rivers have their hcad waters, amone hich th.- Orinoco, the vluef onc is one ot the linee great socan of South tracni'a. li haaalcngth om,., adrnete urid ha- ., .' nflluentC It d,-,v,.s issource Irom the ranina rirtgc at a height ,50o hiefers and flows into ilu Alhntie Ocean.
The two most iropOrtant lakes of Venezuela are. that of .\aracabo, with an uea of .11,728 sq. km. and that of "Valencia with 550.
Seasons.
- .u,. t.i-m hut two seasons in Venezuela : the drv and the P, opcrly speak.ng.therc a, e ta* o** ^ bf c com and
wet scason he hrst oegrns ^ The rainy season s therefore from
the second wtien 11 ei monthsJie Icmperaliirc rises on account of the *I^.0c^JSten^SS*er and owing to the influence of the sn being nearer to the r," % the rest of lhc ycar t]le ar C(inIs an Climate.
1 i. ..virnnelv prodijial with Venezuela for, besides having en-Nature has bce exirt JMl ,nak(. thc 5l), so fruitful. with vast trac[s tlowedherwlthgreal sirca developmcnt of eattle-breeding; with
( levcl ground wlmli l'r"J"! ious and Fussful wt)od> and w,th fuch rich ^"Thlv'have be"otripfOvcrbial, it has enriched her besides with snch raines that i>>""'- .iv(.0(anv country in thc world may (levte themselves a miltl cbniate that nalim- h(;- forn)ace ()f ther .orkng abilities without with case in the >'P;'^ wjlh re|atve comfort. The admirable conditions of mperibng tlieir tvmce by the number of persons who in the terri-
Ycnezucla s ^h""j"^ ycars as well as by the average death-rate. At the lory altain 100 aiio m >^ ^ f n ^ whb, that ()f bnhs n ag_ .pht. conuneneeinenl 01 n t,)e pPuportion 0f n 10,<)00. These particulars
'""ak"highi!, in favourof Venezuela if compared with corresponding ones of the
'" Vnsui^tabL^T*^ st obs'ervalions regarding the lemperalure of some laces in Venezuela: ,
Highest degree of heat Centigr.
l'BUERAL OISTHICI
.Macuto ... Antimno
rCiuclad de t'ur.i
Lia Guaira.....
Los 'Peques.... La Victoria....
1 .owest degree of heat. Cehtigr.
Asi.
1 (N'ue
VWoia.....
Mui'j.illiau ... Hr'inia......
mruat.......
32 50 20
2S 8 75
30 50 22 50
50 26
Jli 8 50
31 50 20
29 :;o 17
30 60 10
2(1 18 50
25 50 IS 50
25 IS
19 29 25 IS 37
26 50
29 25
-17 25
25 75
20 50
24 75
21 50
Highest degree of heat Ccntgr.
STATE OF ItlHMI til'./.
Barcelona.................
Cumana..................
Mniurn..................
STA'i'l OI- llOl.IVAK.
Ciudad lolivar............
S;m Fernando.............
S't'ATK (! Z.\MU.\.
( uan re ...............
Harinas...................
San Carlos.................
(tapio ..................
Araure ...................
31 o 40 31 50
50 60 00
Lowcst tlcgrec of heat. .,. ^Vergc Ccntic-r.' ^mpeialu
Harquisimete San I-'elipe 1
Qbor Yaritag
31 .'II
211 : 28
23 c
S.)
24
24 20
24 24 24 24
24 21
= 45 60 50
30 50
31 23 -_ 50
Coro ........... Cmnarebo ...... :J2 2!l 50 60 24 50 28 26 62
statk f i. 's anui-:s.

Mucuchies...................... o-j 20 63 .-' ,',ltj;;.'8' 6 17 75 16 13 21 18 14 15 14
50 50
Ejido........................... 20 15 8'' 10 18 25
Trujllo .............. 26 50
locono .......... 21 50 is 25
15 25
at.'C) ohjs'oco and amazon
tihr' oky.
San l-'ernando de .. 20
28 23 22 23
Maroa.......... San Carlos de Rio 28 29 50 50 50 1 50 211 50 25
V.
Population and its alternatives.
Thc following ablt! gives thc population of the Republic at lhc 'bcgihring of each of the three last years.
Population January ist. I January ist. I January ist.
Federal DistnCt.........
State of Ciuzmn Illanco
do. Carabobo.......
do. Tennudez... ...
do. Bolvar.........
do. Zamora .....
do. Cara.
do. falcon----......
do. l-os Andes......
Yuruari Territpry.......
Alto Orinoco & Amai (;oagira Territory Colon Territ. (floatingpopulation); Armisticio Territory----........
ph Territory
70 078 69 868 70 466
514 651 512 265 517 50S
167 499 108 210 170 94 S
2S5 284 .17 984 og. 979 560
l(i) i 648 i 5S
245 457' 246 405 217 502
245 43'.) 24S 134 254 431
IOS 260 1 i 99 867 200 SOS
:.U7 195 j M22 852 I 327 798
10 38 S52 | 340 20 :S 190 595 20. 38. 510 850
:J6 500 137 1 36 520 43 1 30. 551 43
Catira Territory.......
Delta do. ........
Cruzaran Blanco Goliiy. lolivar Golny.........
-,1 1.599
i___>y]_
Totals.J 2.19S.320 Iminigrams not included in forrgoing tenis .
included with increase, in that of limiting States, included witli its increase in that of the State of Bolvar.
793
1.511 830
34.385 .4.537
Population of the Kepublic on thc ist. of January 188S'.
IN'CIK.ase or l'ol'l'i.ATION FKOM TIIK CLNsn TO 3ECEMBER 31ST. 1SS7.
Fn18fely ISl' 'SSl tU l,ecember3'st. iS82(2omonths) ..
1884 ____"
1885.................'
,, 1886................
1887......................................
.238.922
Number of imniigrants who ha siiit: lapse ...........
c scttled ir, thc Kepublic during the
4.;.743 31.266 26.752 1S-314 9.647 26.41S
159.140
163.677
Wre'nt'"^ ""5 ^P^lic accordjng lo thc tensus taken
Increase of population up to December 3ist. 1S87...........
Population of the Kepublic on January isi. ,Ss8............
2.075.245 163.677
2.238.922
vun 4u.N UK Tlll KKI'flU.IC l'KO.M l8lO IU JANfAKV IST. iSSS^
1810 (aecrding to Humbo'.dll.............................. 802.100
1825 (oflicial figuresl................................... 659.033
183S (with figures taken partly from foriner ycars)............. 887.168
1839 (Codazzi)............................................... 945.348
1,844 (oflicial figures!..........' .............................. 1.218.716
1847 (oflicial figures)....................................... 1.267.692
1854 (oflicial figures)........................................ 1.564.433
1S73 First general census.of th Kepublic................... 1.7S4.194
1S81 Second do. do. ................... 2.075.245
1SS6 (figures from thc Direction of Statisticsl.............. 2.198;320
1887 do. do. do. do.................. 2.207.967
1888 (January ist.) do. do.................. 2.238.922
ln iSo the population of native indians amuunted to 'J21.400 thus dislnbuted :
lndepeildent ............................................. 52.400
Submitted.................................................. 14.000
Civilized................................................. 155.000
221.400
Lhc actual population of native indians amounts to 336,000; thus:
Independen...................................... ......... 66.000
Submitted ......,.......................................... 20.000
Civilized ......................................... 210.000
326.000


14


15
II'OIIS Scc
Thc Press.
! gfcat'deyeJdpmeht auaiiu'd.by thc pf ftntn the eomincnci*mcnl of the cseul Administra! ion is worlhy oi note, fot" durthg n. tl<: number of n'ews-tliroiighout che Repul-lir lias in rcased in suco a considerable mahn'r; hat it is iinpossible to gve the precise number of those which uctually circuate witli FCfiidarity, -because e'ycry day new oncs appear in all importaiU renters of popu'aiion, Ade.r the ciTicacy of consiiiutionnl [bcrty: At th'e be'gutniiig iBSBthere \v.e.re i'^j'ne^vspttperS n thc. country and now, accnrding to.latest mes i./, are published., most of which are pnlilicai, althongh many are seien-, iterary-, and i mmrcif; and soh\e arttstic and reiigious. "Tho numVr. of tu:wspapers published in the t'trdera lNuic and in cftt-fi j;.lT\c''o!Uo.vv,nij:
' .l^deral hist'ficl.....\.............. 43
o (inzuan illanco. ...... 4..... ;:i
,-.: ,*...-..:;ic .." -----;l'4'-. ,
. Cafobol
<1q
do.
a... Kajcun
lu.. 1..,. A,k
Ul'UH v Xm'uu
]..a\ru to Carenero .and Rio Chico, and that which las une sreujijer ejoiug. ic trfiffie runi Ciudad lolivar to1 Trinidad, and auother saii iti^ fronj the sam porL to Sa:: Kernandu and Nutrias when thp waters of tlie.(Orinoco and Apure admit the navigatiou up to that place, 'l'he fi'rsp of ihcse lines has two steaniers in active service which also touch ai the Island of Trinidad, aud the second, tluit is to say. Ule Pluvial and Man tim Navigation Corupany o{ Ifcirlo vento wndward,) has for irs tralTic a'n equal number o steamers,, At the lar of Maracaibo there are two tug and pilot-steamers and pilot siling-vessels at} pretty well manhd, and re.ndering ver.y im portan t services. Sveral Unes of steamers sail periodically from Venezuela 10 forcigri countries to wit: an American Cine, three Hritish. three IVench, on& Dlitch'and one tiennan. The ordnary service by the first is thricc a month, four tunes' by ihc second, thrice by the l'rench Unes, twicc by the dormn and once by the JJijtch
Passages for foreign countries.
lile Hiles ol steamers admiUmg pas; icrally cliarge. thc...following priCes:
o lines from St. Na/aire, and lordcaiiN', touehing Santander;)
Kjlfqpc or ilie.bit:
>)Jitish Lims
(The Royal Mail from Southamp
and other lritish l'orts.) Prora II.378.25 to l. 1,077.50 at cordihg to the cass of the pas.-iug ;md cabin.
759 ]
A
'R'i/
ley,
(.'y
loa.;'
i
1.


iMisL'i'IIiuii'oiis Scclion.
'Iha great deyelopineht ntlaiued by thc prss from the eommencemcnt of thc present Adminstration is worthy of note, for dtiring it the number of news-papjcrs throughout thc Kepublic lias inreased in such a considerable manner, that l is impossiblc to gve the precise number of thosc which actually circuate \vitli rcgularity, beca use every day new phes appear in all importa ni centej*s'o popidaton, uder thc cficacy of constitutionnl liberty. At thc beginning of 18S8 there wcre 133 newspapers Iu the country and now, according to latest figures 10/ are published, most of which are political, although many are scien-liie, Hterary, and commercial, and some a'rtistic and religious.
Thc number. of newspapers published in the federal Uistriel and in each State, is lhc following :
Federal I >ist riel.................... 43
State of Guzmuit Blanco......./,..... :tn
do. ermudcz................... 14
du. lolivar.................... -JO
do. Zamora.................. s
do. l.ara....................... ;>0 .
do. Falcoh .',............->
>.-.;. do. Los Andes.................. ir,
Yuruai y. Territory.................... :l
Total., lili'.
Money.
Thc conagc-law now in forc in Venezuela is that sanciioned by Congress on May .:71h., 1887, the enaetment of which was directed by the President of thc Kepublic on June 2iitl. of thc same y'ear. l'nder it the monctary uriit of the Republic is the /V/TVrr, a silver coin cquivaient in valu to the peseta and /)'/, and thc pircos to be coined for curre ncy must be of the following classes and vales :.'.-*
Tu Guaira to (.'arenero and Rio Chico, and that which has one steamer toini' the traffic from Ciudad lolivar to Trinidad, and another sailing from thc same'-port to San Fernando and Nutrias when the waters of the Orinoco and Apure admit the navigation up to that place. The irst of thesc lines has two steamers in active service which also touch at thc Island of Trinidad, and the second that is to say, thc Fluvial and Maritime Navigation Company of Barlovento -(windward) has for its traffic an equal number of steamers, At the llar of Maracaibo there are two tug and pilot-steamcrs and pilot saling-vessels all pretty well manned, and rendering very important services.
Several lines of steamers sail periodically from Venezuela to foreign countries t o wit: an American Line, three Britisrn three French, one. Dutch and one 1 ierman. The ordinary serviee by thefirst is thricc a month, four times by the second, thricc by thc French Lines, twice by the Oerman and once by the iJuteh
Passages for foreign countries.
The lines of steamers admhting passengers to Kurope or thc United States generally charge the following prices :
l'icce of
rams 25,80o w;t
A piece with ipoo thoiisdth. law
Go/d. diamet
uf 33 millimete
grams weiglu and 37 mlm. dinmeter 5 lolv.
S
835
The law for gold is 00 miilesimat purts. (luid and silver coins of Venezuela have 011 1 he obverse sde llolivar's cffigv surrotindcd on thc top par by the following inscripton : "lolivar Libertador'' aud on thc reverse, besides the arnis of the Repubbc, a semicircular inseription with thesc words: listados Cuidos de Venezuela", the corresponding law and weiglu, and the year iu whicli it was coined.
Sime the promulgation of this Law to Deccmber isL. 1888, tlic sum of 11, u,01.0,017 iu Vcnczuclan, money was coined and placed in eireulation, thus:
Gold Pie,
(1,424,000
1. 5 1* > pieces of l. 5,
1!.
.10,617
Besides thesc, there are gold piece of It. and 20, and silver pieces of 5 and .> '.j olivais, as well as id' 1 lolivar, 50 and 25 cehtimes, coined preyous to 1887 which are considered legal tender. National nickel and copper coins issued up to 1870 are of curren! valu according to Law. .
The ntroduction and curreney of forrgn sver money is strictly prohibited. i'orign gold pieces are considered as coinmodittes and are consequently subject .^.Vhc aiternatives of the rqarkei, but they are aec.eptrd in commercial trans1-;ii ht following rutes : Thc American ^o dollar- piece .\\ ............... I!. 104
,, Spanish i ...............>..... 1. 2
. 10 loll'tr-piece from South American Kepublics. ,, S2
,, l'o.un.d Sierliiig {).................... ..... ,, =5.'.15
,, Napolen (20 fran<'si...................... 20
20 mark-picee itlermanyt................... ,, 4-75
g ,, 1 1-ollai-piecc................................ M 5---
i; l'ractions of thesc pieces have proportional valu. .
Thc Spanish 25 fiesetas piece is current for its same valu and other gold picces o divers class, as the Columbian ondor, the i dollar-pieces of Central ijnu-rica, excepting those coined in 18(7. and some others, are legal tender for llieir Jirinilive valu.
' III. Roads and means of communication.
Kailway lines which up to the present have been linished thivugliout the. Ke-Ijtufilic represent a total Icugth of 281 kilometers of which 37 belong to the line, Ih-i wcen Caracas and l.a't iuaira, 8 to that belwecu Maiquetia and Macuto, 5 to jhat belween Caracas and VA Valle, 54 ro that bet wcen l'tierto Cabello and Va-ncia, eo Lo that. bctwecn the pon o Tucacas and the .Mines of Arou, 35 tothat tween" 1.a Ceiba and Sabana de Mendoza, 10 to that between larcelona and ; liay of Guanta, and 33 lo that between Carenero and San Jos. Of the lines w b'uildng, 5 kilometers are open to public traffic, 20 in the Central Railroad ijjBtd 13 in the l.reat Kailroad of Venezuela. Thc Iirst of thesc two lines, which ;*to be e.jn kilometers long, starts from Caracies and will have its tcnninus in $Tuicncu (State of Carabobo); and the second shall be about 300 kilometers in ejliension and will connect 1 he captta) of the Republic with the town of San Carlos in the State of Zamora. Other contraets have also been siipulatcd for lvi cOnstriiction of seyral railway lines. the sut\'.'ying works of s*ime of which li^.e alreatly tonsiderably advanced.
tireat many roads cross the territory of Venezuela iu several divclions aud eoiitribule lo a greal exteiu to the effieieney of the trafile between the most im-porant. farming and tradig centers in the Republic. Thc lonest ones are, besdes lhc four which respecttvely connect Caracas with l.ullimira. Valencia, Clitire and the vaeys of the 'J'uy, that from Puerto Cabello to Valencia, that froti this last town to Nirgua, thai Irom the same capital of the Siaie. of Cara-bobb to San Carlos, that from Cua to San Casimiro, that from La Victoria to the-plaus of the (uarico Section. and that opcned between Sun Flix and th.e Miuin< regin of the Callad: .
I
Navigation.
.' Thre are three lines of .steamers in -costant 'activity doing thc service between thc different pons of the Republic, viz: ihat from Puerto Cabello to l',a iiuiira- and Ciudad lolivar tottehingut intermediate porta; that from La
TO KTKOri'
French Lines.
('1 he two lines from St. Nazairc, Le Havre and Hordeaux, touching at
Santander.) Kirst class passage....... l, i,,ooo
Second ,, ,,....... 850
Third ,, ,, ....... 750
etween-deck ,, -y
(Line from Marseilles, touching at Malaga and Barcelona.)
Cabin passage Between-dcck
B. 750 11 225
Britisk Lines.
(The Koyal Maii from Southampton and other British Ports.) Prora B. 378.25 to B. 1,077.50 according to the class of the passage and cabin.
Germn Line. O o Le Havre and Hamburg.)
This line generally issues but third class passage-tickets which costli.312.
When it admts irst class passengers it charges for each B. 560.
TO tilt I'NITKI) STATUS.
American {RedD) Line.
From La Guaira to New York (frst class)....-. l. 416 , {second classi .... ,, 260.
' VI*' ;" .g^fe
Places in foreign eountries where Venezuela has Consular Agents.
LondonLiverpoolNottinghamManchesterCar-dff-Southampton-DundeeGrmsbyGlasgow SwanseaQueenstown (Irciand)--MaltaGibraltar Montreal (Cunada)BarbadoesAntigua (jranad-SanVincent^aint LuciaPortofSpam (Trinidad) Kingston Jamaica)GeorgetownVictoria-Town t // A msterdamHarlingenRotterdamFlessingParar inariboCuragoaArubaBonaireSamarang (/stand o/Java).
MadridBarcelona-- MalagaValenciaHuelva La CoruaTarragonaCdizSantanderBilbaoVa-IladolidSeiille PamplonaSan Sebastin Vigo LinaresGijnAlicanteSan Lcar de Barrameda -MurciaJeFez de la FronteraTudelaIrinLcri-da-^VnarozVillanueva y GeltrSanta Cruz de TenerifeOrotavaLa PalmaLa GomeraI^mzarote. Las PalmasHa vanaSantiago de CubaMatanzas Sagua la Grande-ManzanilloCienfuegosSari. Juan de Puerto Rico Arrecvo MayagezPonce; Santa MariaZeb (Phitippine'Islands)? Lisbon.
Ronie- FlorenceNaplesMilnGenova- Bologua-| BrindisiVeniccLcghornSalernoPalermo-An-conaSmpierdarena Girgcnti Messtna.
HntsselsAntwerp(ihentr]Jege--Brugcs~Hassclt. ,'
Berne. [ VieilnaTrieste. St. Petersburg. AthcnvCorf. I Constantinople. j Bucharest.
i CopcnhagcnSt. Tilomas.
j CristianiaGottemburgBergen.
[ WashingtonNew YorkPhiladclphiaBoston la!--timoreNew OrlcansSt. Louis (Missouri)St. Fran-" cisco (California)PcnsacolaSavannahChicago.-
j M^exicoTampicoVcracruz.
\ GuatemalaSt. SalvadorSt. MchaelOmoaSt. [ Jos de Costa Rica.
BogotBarranquilla PanamA raucaSan Jusc de ;
CucutaRio HachaSanta MartaColon (Aspmwath
Honda.
lilHAI iuitais ANU its LOI.l.N-IHS.
khanck ano its eOL.on.IKS-
llol.LAM) A.VI) ITS i.'iU.oMIS
>I'.\1n \\0 ITS COt.OVIF.S,
1-1 iITt'CA .
1TAJ.V.
ELtilt'M. SWJ'IV.l'.KI ..VN1>. AlSIKIA. Rl'SSiA.
ROI MANIA.
PKNKMAKk" AMi ITS COLUXIES.
SWKUEN ANU NOKWAV.
1mtki) STATKS OF AM KKK'A.
CKVI KAI AMF.IICAN HK'lTW.ICS.
|1K A/.U.. AliCI-NNNli KEI'IUUC. LKtCt;AV. l'ARAia'AV.
UAII't.
KKi'UUMC OF ST. UOMINO.
QuitoGuayaquil. LimaFjI Callao.
Rio JaneiroPernambueoliahia-St. PauloPara. Buenos Aires, -f | Montevideo. "
I Asuncin. | Port-au-Prince. *A Saint J^omngoPuerto Plata.
l'ctttanTanger.


PRESIDENTE CONSTITUCIONAL i DE VENEZUELA 1890.
a_____ _________== = a =__
MINISTRO VENEZUELA 1890.


17
Dolical Scction.
i.
Constitution and other principal lavvs.
The. presen! Constitution of the Republic, sanctioned in the yenr i"3r, com-nrises the bcsl principies of modern, liberal doctrine associated with the most tiniple guaran nes for which a desire may be cntertained in civil lifc. According ;,, said Constitution, all the States wnch forin the Venezuelan Fedcraton, atliiiowledge rcciprocally its sovereignty and iu maintaining it in all its forc on lhc basjs cstablishcd by the Fundamental Law, enter into dutea on the per-Imniiino: of which mainly depends the regularity of Administration,
lo all who reside wii'hin the Territory of the Nation, be they natives or foreigners, ii warrants the inviolability of thelr Uves, their property with all its prerogatives, rights, and prvileges subject only to legal laxes, the secrecy of tlieir orrespondence, their prvate dwellings which can not be entered but to preven t the perpetration of a crime, personal liberty, liberty of thought, of pe-rit ion, of transit, of meeting, of industries, ofsuffrage, of instructon, and reliquias liberty, in accordance with the principies of social order.
All Venezuelans enjoy in the States of the Union the same rights and im-munities pertaining to their condition of citzens of the Fcderaton, but they me Nuble lo perform there the same duties as natives and residents. Foreigners have the same prerogatives bolh in renard to their persons and pro;> rty, and only iu cases determined by law can they appeal to dplomatic meaos, always however in confonnity with piiblic Conventions.
The Territory of Venezuela is of free access to foreigners of all Naiions un-less, with regard to some one, there be a particular anteceden! or rcason for which the (lovernmenl of thc Kepublic may forbd his landng or command his expulsin from the 'Territory, as the case may be
The Constitution recognizea
as Venezuelans, besides those born in the Vt
of the Republic, no matter what the nationalty of their parents is, all en whose fatliers or mothers are Venezuelans though they have been born .ther -- f fhev come to reside here and express tlieir wisii to become iF/.* ''"" s~-''"i';li American Repblica or of
are Venezuelans, if they come to reside in thc Republic and express their desire to be o une. Venezuelan 5.
The Constitution of Venezuela acknowledges as appcrtaining to the compe teney of the States, all multis it does not exprcssly assign lo the General Administration of the Republic. Therefore the Courts cf Justce of the self-governing Sections are completely independent except when it be determined that cases opened in them be submitted to the consideration of the Supremc Court of Appeal.
The national forc is divided into naval and territorial and consists of the praportiou of citzens suppHed by each State ot the Republic according to iis popula t:on. In case of war this proportion may be ncreased with the mil i ta corps. During elections the national military forc and that of the States is kepl slrictly quartered and in no case is it allowcd to vote.
All Venezuelais are Hable to serve their country according lo Law. ln case of necessity the caer fice of lifi- and property is exacted,
The Nation exercises Lhc righi ol Kecle thc Law on this subject.
Military aud Civil Authority cannol be i corporaton.
No dues are Icved on goods exponed.
Collecting and paying oflices are kept apait.
The principies of the Law of Nation* fiirm pan are especally applted tu cases of civil war.
Patronnge in accordance with 1 :n one and the same person or
of National Legislation and
Organization of the Republic.
Legislativa Power which has its origin, according to the Constitution, in popular election, regulatcs and determines the most important poltica! m.-win-cs of the country. From this Power an: derived more or less directly --'i i'ii.-n bv regular means a publc desire
Tlr d I


Political Sccllon.
i.
Constitution and other principal laws.
Tlie presen! Constitution nf the Republic^ thctioned in thc year 183 r, com-
prevent tlie perpetra!
tition, nf transit, of n triol libertv, in ac '.\ll Venezuelans cnjoy
meeting:, of industries, of suffrarc, of instruction, nnd re-iVious libertv in"accordance with the principies of social order.
...:.'\ ->ijov in the States of tile Union the same riyhts nnd im-
hnu^vcrinconformitywilhpiibhcConventiiin* *, .
The Territory of Venezuela is of free aeces to foreigners of all Nalions un-less witli regare! to somc one, there he a particular antecedent or nason for which the Government of thc Republic may forbid hifi landtng or command |,is expulsin from the Territory, as the case may be
The Constitution recognizes as venezuelans, besides ihose born m tlic I erri-tory of the Republic, no mattt-r what thc nathmality of their pareis is, all childreii whose fathers or mothers are Venezuelans though they have been born in anolher country, if they come to reside here and express tlieir wish lo liecome such also all those who are natives of the Spanish American Repu'olics or of the Spanish West Indica, provided they have eslablshcd'their residnce iu this country and mude known tlieir desire to becoine Venezuelan ciliztrns. as well as all foreigners who ohtuin patenls of naturalization.
The National 1 .egislature consists of two 1 louses, one of Senators and another of Heputies endowed with lhc most ampie power in al! 'matters related both to poli lies and admnistration, from the election of the Federal Coarte i 1 to the formation of the Animal liudget of Public Fxpendlurc. To form the Senate llouse each State desgnales by mcans of is respective Legislature three Senators and an equal number of Substitules to fi 11 the vacancies that may oceur, and to form the other llouse, each State returns by popular election one De-puty for each thrty-hve thousand nhabitants and another for any number ex-ceedng fifteen thousand. ln the same manner an equal number of Substlutes are returned to replace Principis n case of need. lioth Senators and Deputics are elected for a term of four years at thc end of which a new and total election takes place. 'This liody meets every year in the Capital of the Union on the 2oth day of February or on the one most immediately following, and its Ses-sions last seventy days and may be prolonged to twenty more. Fach house may be organized with two thirds of ts tota! Members and once they have com-menced to hold Sessions can continu them with two thirds of those who open-ed them, provided that the number of Principal Members present bs at least equal to one half their full number. Joth Houses dscharge their functions separately, having however the power to mcet in Congress in certain cases determined by Law or when one of the two deems it necessary. S.:ssions are eitlier public or prvate according to what cither House may decida. The natural President of Congress is that of the Senate-House, and that of the House of Deputies is the Vice-President. Be fore a law s sanctioned it has to undergo three discussions in each House and at least one day has to intervene between each discussion, and when any bll meets with opposton in onc of the Houses it can only be proposed anew in the other House.
'The Federal Council is composed of seventcen Members, viz : one Senator and one Deputy for each individua! State of the Union and one more Deputy for the Federal District, and is chosen by Congress every two years from amongthe particular representatives of each State and of the Federal District. This election takes place in the irst aud third year of each term of office of the Legslative liody and within the first fifteen days of its constitutional meetings. From among its own Members the Federal Council proceeds to elect the person who, during the corresponding term o two ycars, is to fill the post of President of the Republic and thc one who has to replace htm in case of temporal or total vacancies. Members of the Federal Council rcman in office during two years, as also does the President of the United States of Venezuela, and the same person who holds thislast-mentioned post cannot be reelected for the term immediately following. or are members of a Federal Council elgible as members of the next new Council. This liody in its deliberations is ruled by a special, by-law which prescribes thc manner in which its Members are to fulfiil their "natural functions and determines their rights and dutes. Particular faculties are ascribed to the President but most of those in relalion with Admnistration have to be performed with the deliberative vote of the Federal Counci!.
The President of the Union appoints the Cabinet Ministers of the Executive and in the Councils he holds with them, are resolved all matters which are not assigned to the interior management of each Department. Any resolution de-creed in Cabinet Council is of joint-responsibilty. The President enaets and attends to the execution of Laws and Decrces of the National Legislature ; but if the Executive Power becomes aware of the want oflawfulness of soine bil already sanctioned as a Law by both Houses, it can solicit the veto of the J-eg-is-lattires of thc States. If thc majority of these support the Exe'cutivc's opinin, the Supreme Federal Court of Justice confirms the agreed suspensin and all these proceedings are reported in the next meeting of Congress.
'The Suprem? Federal Court of Justice tries actons brought against Cabinet Ministers and against diplomado officals and also civil cases when the Nation is sued. It adjusts contentions that mayissue between Public Officers of dif-ferent States in political and jurisdictional matters or in those of competeney. ln cass of collision of laws this Court must declare which of the two is to re-main in forc, and passes judgement in cases of scizure, performing besides all functions which law ascribes to it, among others, that of deciding controversies arising fr^:n contraets or concessions granted by the President o the Republic. 'This Supreme Court consists of as many Members as there are States in the Union, and for their appointment Congress meets on the fifteenth day of its ordinary Session, so that the representatives of each State may draw up a list of Principal Members and another of Substtutes, out of every one of which lists Congress chooses a Principal Member and a Substitute for each State.
'The Supreme Court of Appeal is a Tribunal of the States and is composed of one Member for each State of the Federation chosen by thc Federal Council from the lists of lawyers sent by thc States of the Republic. Total vacancies that may oceur are lillcd from these lists of elgible lawyers. This Court has to decide all actions brought againet High Functionariesof the dfferent Statrsand lo settle any difhculties that may oceur between Court-Officers of dfferent States of the Federation or between those of one of them, when there is no adecate authority to this effect. It also has to try and decide all recourses to appeal and periodically to report to Congress any discrepaney which may be a Iiinderance to the efficeney of civil or criminal legislation. As Law cspecially determines it, the ohject of recourses to appeal is the abrogation of sentences passed by those who are ntrusted with the Admnistration of Justice provded that they are plainly contrary to somc law or when they have infrnged any special rule or course of procedurc.
Members of thc Supreme Federal Court of Justice and those of thc Supreme Court of Appeal remam in office for a term of four ycars.
It is necessary to be a Venezuelan by birth, to be elgible to the nices of President of the Union, Senator of the Republic, Member-of the Supreme Federal Court cf Justice, Officer n any of the branches of the Finance Department or in the Diplomatic Career, and Cnsul General. In the second and third cases it is required besides to be thirty ycars of age, a cc-nditon which is also essen-ttal to become a Member of the Supreme Court of Appeal. All Venezuelans of the male sex over twenty-one years of age are qualified for any other post discharged by election. To be a Cabinet Mnster of the Executive it is necessary to be twenty-five years of age and to be a Venezuelan by birth or lo have at Jeast ive years of naturalization.
To this purpose and by special law of May ^rd. 1882 which illustrates and expains this point, are reputed as Venezuelans by birth besides all those born within the Territory of the Republic (of which the martime.and fluvial waters ni Venezuela form part, as also her men-of-war in any place and her merchant-ships in the main seas or in waters of another State the laws of which do not ascnbe local citizenship to those born in them), all those, whose fathers or mothers are Venezuelans, born in any of the places which formerly constituted the Republic of Columbia ; those born abroad of Venezuelan parents absent in service or on account of the Republic, from September 22nd. 1830 to April 22111. 1864 ; those born of Venezuelan fathers in foreign countries in which they are dis-charging diplomatic functions, and those born abroad whose fathers or mothers
StS C0'"C l " thc ***** intl tWr desire
'I he Constitution of Venezuela icknou-lcdgcg as auucrtainintr tr. th.___ "
lency of the States, all malUis it does not J^^SS^^^^K inmwtration of the Republic. Thcrcfore the Coiirts cFlus ice offthS ~if" KovcmmK Sections are complctoly independent except wh^i b\dtrmi^.rf
popula!-,,,,. In ffot Zr thlsV~Xy bailasSlSiS' coros I,unnK e cefons lhc national military toree and that o theStSlSis ke|>t stnctly quartered and in no case is it nllim-cd to vote
- ^ I case
th ^^ l,U: riXljt f KCCl,'SaStC 1'Ur"agC " ^cordnce with corp!r!uion!,IUl CM At,thoril>' c:,,,not be vc** ! and thc same person or
No dues are leved on goods exponed. Collecliug aud paytng office are kepl apart.
The prmcipU'* of the Law of Natons form part of National legislation and are cspecially apphed to cases (>f civil war. ^
II.
Organization of the Republic. *
Legislativo Power which has ls orgn, according to lhc Constitution, in popular cleeiion, regulatcs aud determines the most important political nieasures of the eotintry. From ibis Power are derived more or less directly all other Power* of thc Federation, and when by regular means a public desire is hiadc known, i s ls duty to issue lhc general Laws that may be required, provided that they are not opposed to thc Fundamental Covcnant of the Republic.
57 Deputics and 24 Senators constitute both Houses cf National Representatives.
Executive Power t arries out the general principies of Admnistration and s responsible for the effeclve execulion of Laws. 'Thc President of the Republic makes use of it wth the deliberative vote of the Federal Council n conjunction with the Cabinet Ministers. ln bcneit of Admnistration there are eight e-partinenls, subdivded into I>rections, to each of which is intrusted the careful consideraron of administrative questions related to each other.
The President of the Venezuelan Union is now Doctor Juan Pablo Rojas P.u'i., who was constitutior.ally elected on July znd. 1888. He inaugurated his Government on the sth. of the same month which is the day on which Venezuelan I ndependence is coinmemorated. The Cabinet Council is formed as follows:
Interior Relations.......... Doctor Raimundo Andueza-Palacio.
" Fomento (agrieulture,
trade, mines, industries, &c.) Vicente Coronado.
Public Instruction.......... General Marco Antonio Slva-Gandolphi.
Public Works.............. Doctor Jess Muoz-Tbar.
Finance................... Jos Mara Lares.
Public Credit............... General Jacinto Regino Pachano.
War and Navy............. General Narciso Rangcl.
Forcgn Affairs............ Doctor Antonio Parejo.
Judicial Power is vested in the Supreme Federal Court of Justice and in the Supreme Court of Appeal, which Bodies have their original Laws which prescribe how they have to make use of their faculties, and establish their internal regulations. Besides thesc, the Republic has other Courts and Tribunals of a dfferent order, in accordance wth local wants, which admnister justice n civil and criminal matters in conformty with Cotes of Law sanctioned for this purpose. Special reference is made to them n the Admimslrative Secftou.
III.
Territorial Divisin.
Fight Individual or Self-governng States, one Federal Dstrict, eght^Tcrri-toresand two Farmng Colonies constitute the Republic. The denomnation of States, Tcrritories and Colonies is given in the statistical tabl referring to population. Fach Individual State has its Legislature from among which the President of the Sectional Government is elected every two years. The President of.the Republic organizes the Federal District and excrcises his authority in it through a Governor. 'This post is now filled by General Santos C. Mattei.
'Thc Admnistration of the Tcrritories is intrusted to the Government of thc Federation and therefore the Vuruari, Caura, Goagira, Colon, Alto Orinoco, and Amazon Territories are ruled by a seprate original Code sanctioned by. the President of thcRepublic on the 231. of August 1882. It determines eyery-thinq regaxding the internal maiiageinerifof each Terrirory,-ineludiog^Adnii nistration of Justics and all matters o "Revnue. Tre Armisticio T rrtory which was established after the said Code had been sanctioned, was organized by the Executive Decree of December ist. 18S3, and lhe Delta T erritory, established on the 23rd. of February 1884, is ruled by peculiar resolutions passed on thc 23rd, July 1884.
The.Guzman Blanco and Bolivar Colonies were founded in thc year 1874 with the object of establishing in the Republic a system of colonization and are also dependent, so' faros organization and ordinanecs are concerned, on the Executive Power whbh exercises its junsdietton over them, through the Department of "J-omcHto". Each of these Colonies has a Governor and a Secretary,
IV.
Principal Cities.
Caracas, capital of thc Republic and res*dence of the High National Powers, coirstitutes the Federal District together with six outer boroughs, to wit: Ait-t/tranttt Afaca rao, La Vega, El Vallcy El Recreo, and Macuto. It was built at the foot of the Avila in 1567 by Captain Diego de Lozada and is surrouhded by a delicious and fertile vaey where the evenness of temperature contributes to its natural vegetation which comprises all kinds of plants and flowers. Three rivulets, ncreased with the waters of several brooks, cross the city and add to those of thc river Guaire, on the left bank of which lies Caracas. The lowest temperature observed in Caracas during thc last twenty years isg degrees Centi-grade and the highest 29 degrees. Its population, on the ist. of January 188S, reached 56,498 nhabitants and 70,466 including thc six outer boroughs already mentioned. The rea of the city s of 4,272,000 square meters. Its highest point (Pastora Suburb) s 1,04^ meters above the sea-level and its lowest (Iron bridge over river Guaire) 880 meters. The height of an intermedate point { Bolivar Square) is 920 meters.
The city of Caracas has the glory of having been the source wherc the idea of South-American Independcnce took its orgn and that of having been latcr 0:1 repcatedly the scene of the most important political events of the Nation. It is the birth-place both of the Lberator Simn Bolivar and of other men who have distinguished themselves in the Army, in the Science of governing and in Literature, and it also has been honoured wth vists of notable representatives of human knowledge, such as Barn von Humboldt and Count de Lesscps..
Caracas was the Seat of a Bishopric from the time when that of Coro was transferred to it, shortly after having been raised to the rank of capital of Venezuela, uutil the year 1804 when it was raised to an Archbishopnc. Its first Archbishop was Doctor Francisco 1 barra. Now Doctor Crspulo tlzctegui oceupies the Metropolitan See, having been elected by the Congress of the Republic, proclaimed i 11 R Considered from a physical point of view, Caracas has now a beautiful appca-rance. 'J'he narrow streets have been turned into elegant avenucs and the gloomy-looking and smooth walls of convens and public buildings into facades of modern architecture. (as-light is used instead of petroleum and water pipes nstead of the od system employed for the distribution of water. Thc plan of


18
r. FRANC E.BUSTAMANTE
JTABLE POLITICO-VENEZUELA
EUGENIO BARLETTA
INSPECTOR GENERAL lELTELEFONO DE Cd. BO LjVARJ
MINISTRO PLENIPOTENCIARIO DE VENEZUELA EN WASHINGTON. I DELEGADO Al CONGRESO PANAMERICANO.


DR R. ANDUEZA PALACIO
PRESIDENTE GONSTTUGIONAL DE VENEZUELA.




21
pLruclinn hss been ni most completely altcrcd although there is no ncwly built
.jstrthc front of which does not compete in bcauiy and neatness of stylc with
.- clegance nd comfort of its apartments. The city lias within its arca somc /elve'thousand buildings, and ncarly all tlic slrcets are strafght, being paved ith slones and having broad ceinent side-walks. y Among thc most important buildings rank : the National Captol consisting f two grcat buildings, one Inoking to thc South, the Palace of thc Legislativo loases, and the other to the North, lhc Palace of the Federal Executive ; the ellow llouse, wherc the President of thc Republic has his residence ; the Guz-1.-1 ii Planeo Theatre ; the Universily, thc principal front of which is of a fine othie dcsgn ; the Fxhibition Palace, wherc thc Venezuelan Academy and that 1' llistory now hold their meetings and wherc the National Musetim is ; Saint
une's Basilio which is thc principal church of the capital for its beautiful ;*chitecture ; the Church of Saint Francisco lately rebuilt ; the Cathedral ; thc
epartments o l'iuancc. Fomento and Public Works; the Hoy Chapel, and
ially the National Pantheon which contains the work >f Tenerani, that famous -oc.u'ment crected lo the memory of lolivar,
<)n the hill to the West of the city, besides the grcat reservoirs of thc splen-id aqueduct which providts the water supply, there is the Guzman Blanco 'roinenade with its beautiful gardtns and snmmer-houses and iis dfffrent :iths for carriagts and pedestrians, and from which a magnificent panorama
-velops ilself to the view. Not far from it, there s a line hydropathic estab-
tluuent.
Caracas has 40 bridges besides a viaduct 41 metis long which ptlts in com-uuication thc t Inzuan Planeo Promenade with the Calvary Chapel. Amongsi .ese, particular mention must be uiade of the Regeneration-bridgc and that of 77/. i)f/i of February^ both made of i ron and boldly constructed. Scven =tKiden-britges have been reccntly replaced with masonry-bridges and somc hers have been repaired.
ln Caracas there are ten principal Squarcs each of which bears the ame of une distinguished chisten or memorable event. All are embellished with mo-uments crected lo the glory of grcat apostles of the Republic and of emnent ersons who have rendered services lo the mothcr-cottntry. in the olivar-c ' --.>.... of ihc I.iherator, in the National Pantheon-Square
A railroad, inaugurated n the beginnng of 1S8S, puts Valencia in romiiiunt-cation wth Puerto Cabello which is tlic second port of thc Republic. This line s 54 kilometers long and in 1888 crried 62,300 passengers and 15,072/.< kilo-granis of merehandise. A grcat ainount ofconmodities_from tlic cenler and western parts of thc Republic are exported through the Custoin-House ofsaid port, consisting principally of coffee, cocoa, hides, deer and goat-skins, cetton, dye-woods and copper from the Aroa-Mincs. The total exports of said distum-Hosc omounted to I!. ''2,6.10,453 during the econmica! year of 1SS7 to l.:':'.
Barcelona, capital of the State of Bcrmudcz, was founded by Juan de L'rpin at the end of 1637 on the slope of Cerro Santo and was transferred in 1671 by Sandio Fernndez de Angulo to the banks of river Neveri wherc it lies yv*t. It has a good site on a plnin 16 meters abo ve the level of the sea, and counts i,Soo houses and 12,750 inhabitants. Its temperature seldom rises over 30- and sonie-times falls to 23o 50. L'ntil 1881 it was thc capital of the State of Barcelona but Barcelona ilself, Cuman and Maturn having formed one self-governing F.ntity, thc Constituent Assembly declared it the center of the Government of thc State of Bcrmdez. It has broad and straight slrcets, large squarcs, a beautiful Parish Church, a market and other buildings of modero construetion.
A raiiway line 19 kilometers long which is lo put it n connection wth l'ne hay of Guanta was commenced in the month of Xovember 18S6. and later on another hne 20 kilometers long was begun, the construetion of which is quickly advane-ing, from Parcelona itself to the valley ofNaricual wherc, according to contract with the National Government, the French Company "Hullas del Xcvyj" work the rich coal mines of that tract of country.
Ata short distance from the town, is the Guzmn Blanco Port through which several kinds of produce from the Barcelona Section are exported, such as coffee, cocoa, hides, deer and goai-skins, dividivi, eotten, brown silgar, salt-meal, eocoa-nuts, cattle and horses, dye-woods, and sundry kinds of tunber. The total wcight of exports during the economical year of 1SS7 lo 18SS amounted to 1,184,411 kilograms and the number of hcad of cattle and horses was 57S. The total valu of exports was B. 202/01.


i'.msl nirlon hr-.s been almnsl eonipletriy altcrcd although there is no ncwly built liouse thc front of which des nct compete in hcaiuy and neaincss of style with lhc clegance and comfort ni ts npnrlnu-nts. /Thc city has within its arca somc twelvo'thmisand buildings, and ncarly all thc streets are straighl, being paved with slones and having broad cement side-walks.
Among the inost importan! buildings rank : thc National Captol consisting f two great buildings, one looking to lhc South, thc Palace of the Legislativo llouses, and the otlu-r to the North, the Palace of the Federal Kxccutive ; the Vellow llouse, wherc the President of the Kepublic has his residence ; the Guz-inaii Illanco Theatre; the l'uiversiiy, the principal front of which is of a line othic design ; the F.xhibtion Palace, wherc the Venezuelan Academy and that nf llistory now hold iheir meetings and wherc thc National Museum is ; Saint Anne's Pasilic which is lhc principal church of ihe capital for its beautiful trehiiecture ; the Church of Saint Francisco laiely rebull ; the Cathedral ; the Deparlmcnts of 1'nance. Fomente- and Public Works; the Hoiy Chapel, and ti nal 1 y the National Pantheon which contnins the work of Tcneniui, ihat famous monument crected o the memory of lolivar.
| (in the hill to the West of the c:ty, besides the grcat rtscrvoirs of thc splcn-did aqueduct which providts the water supply, there is thc Guzman Illanco | Promennde with its beautiful gardtns and summer-bouses and its difftrent jpaths for earragcs and pedestrians, and from which a magniliccnt panorama develops ilself to the view. No: far from it, there is a line hydropathic cstab-lishinent.
Caracas has 40 bridges besides a viaduel 41 meters lon.n which puls iu com-! uuuication thc (uzman Illanco Promenade with thc Calvary Chapel. Amongsl these, particular menlion must he made of the Kegcneration-brJdge and that of The 11/A of /)/> ruar y" both made of i ron and boldly construcled. Scven woodi'n-bridges have "been reccntly rcplaced with mnsonry-bridgcs aud some others have been repaired.
ln Caracas there are ten principal Sepia res each of which hcars the ame of soiue distinguished eitizen or memorable event. All are cmhellishcd with mo-ntimeTits crected to the glory <>f i^:re;; 11 apostlcs of the Kepublic and of eminent persons who have rende red scrviees to the mother-country. ln the Bolvar-Sipiaie there s the staitie of the l.iberator, in the National Pantheon-Square ihat of the Coinmunder-in-Chicf Francisco Miranda, n the Washington-Squarc : that of ihe Coiispicuous Foundrr of thc Noilh-Amcrican Kepublic, and in other 1 sq nares respective! y those of Marshal Juan Crsstomu Falcon, Generis Jos Tadeo and Jos (I reg rio Monngas, Citizen Antonio Leocadio Guzmn, General Ezcquicl Zamora, and (enera! Antonio (muan Planeo. This last one and thal of" thc l.iberator ate cqtieslran, both of great arlislic mcrit,
Pesides (he Official Gazettd\ published daily, which records all thc aels of the Governmer.t, ihere are in Caracas 3 political news-papers, and 2 commercial, 3 scient ilie,i* arlistic, 1 rclivjoiis, aud 2 literarv periodicnls. There isa 1.11 liogruphie aud Printing 1 lili ce, bclongng to thc Nation, for the purposc of editing ollicial publicaiions, li has large offices suppled with all that is ro-iquired for any kind of impression. 1 Mtring the last two years (1887 and rSSS) its presses have produced iu copous edilions 580 numbers of the < \flicial Gazctto, 33 volumes of several works, iS pamphlcts, and 87 minor publicaiions, suchas programs, diplomas, circulars, matriculation-schcdulcs, noticesof acknowledge-inenl, pernits, models of statistical tables, Nalonal-Dcbl Notes, plans, certili-ealrs, cve., >i'c. During this same periotl this F.stablishment prnted aud lilho-igraplied an eclon of the Statistical Annuary of the Kepublic amounting to one hundred thousand copies n ivc langliages, There are besides in the capital 16 privan- printing-ofliees.
Canicas has for ts interna! service two tramway-compancs and 12 hackney-rarrage enterprises which are very advantageous means of couveyance between distan! points t f tlu: city.
Two Telephone Companies placj in constant communicalion 737 subscribers of Caracas with each other and wth 223 of La Guaira and its environs and with 42 of other villages and places less distant from the capital. I
Four railway lines start from Caracas, one putting it in conneelion wth ihe port of La Guaira, another wilh the town of Petare, another with the place of Anlmano, and another with the village cf El Valle. By the Iirst line there is a ; yearly traffic of 47,232 passungers and 52,508 by the second. The total weight of goods they carried amounted rcspeclively to 53,389,769 and 1,598,119 kilograms. The Antimar.o Une is less important, and that of Kl Valle s not n operalion at present. The La Guaira Hile, completely inished and opened to public traffic in 1883, is 37 kilometers long and carries all the commodities from the fertile and rural regions of the Federal District and of thc Guzman Illanco and lolivar Sectons which are exported through the Ctistom House of that port which is the principal one of the Kepublic. These exports rose during the fiscal year of 1887 to 1888 to 1!. 19,001,2u6, most of which was coffee and cocn.
Caracas possesses whatever elements of comfort and amusement that may be wished for in civilizcd ufe, such as theaters, hotels, clubs, coffec-houses, kc. \ and for spirilttal nourishment and as an incentive to studous persons a magniliccnt library containing 31,125 volumes s always open to lhc public, and in the National Museum there isa collccton of innumerable historical curiositics and valuable od documents which wtli soon form a precios gathering of antiquitics *>f inestimable valu.
The city has several Hcspitals and other Cl'aritabh: Instiutions, and by De-I cree of August iClh. iSSS, the actual President of thc Kepublic directed the ; construetion of one which is to be called "Hospital \~argas" and which will be or.c of the besl of its kind. This building is n course of construetion and will 1 soon be Iinished. It will oceupy an arca of 19,800 square meters and have one \ Department for elhcr sex and another for the Drection and Management, in Which there will be diss.:cting and operating-rooms, a dispensary, cnsul ting-vioms for people who are not nmatcs, praclitioner-rooms, &c. Jioth Depart-^uients, ihai for men and that for women, will have gardens and a chape!, an infirma) y-hall, a hydropathic establishntent and corriclors.
Thc two most important tcrary bodies in thc capital are the Venezuelan Academy corresponden of the Koyal Spanish liody, established in 1S83, and the National Academy of llistory crcated by Decrce of the actual President of ihe Kepublic. The Iirst one is trusted with the carc of maintaining the genune puriy of our national tongue, and the second with that of studying Venezuela\s past and of forming her native annals. The first mentioned has 24 active Mein-- beis and the other 20.
1 Scicntific prof'essions are represented in the capital of thc Kepublic by 135 physicians, 114 lawyers. Si engincers, and 6i land-surveyors.
n the corresponding place of the AdutinistratTe Seetion may be apprcciated the great care devoted in the capital of thc Kepublic to matters related to Public Instruction.
Ciudad de Cura, captol of thc State of Guzmn Illanco, was founded at the dose of the XVI Ith. century by Juan de Bolvar y Villegas, near rivers Tucu-tunenio and Minas, and was made a capital after the adoption of the last Federal Constitution. The circumstance of its being located between the Aragua Valleys and thc Guarico Plains contributes to make it an important commercial renter, lis height above the sea-level is 519 meters and its temperature ranges between ?5 and 30 degrees Centigrade. 11 has 12,198 inhabitants including suburbs and .v'rons, and somc 2,500 buildings among which may be mentioned, the Cathedral, the Government Palace, the Municipal Mansin, the Saint Domingo Hospital, and the Polcc and Militia Barracks. lis thoroughfares are new and broad aud there are several Squarcs with gardens of modern design which adorn thc town. Its water supply is obtained by means of an aqueduct of recent construetion which is immensely useful to tlic town. Ciudad de Cura has also a very Cnod librare.
falencia is the capital of the State of Carabobo and was founded in the muidle of thc XVIth, century by Alonzo Daz Moreno, not far from the Lake of l'acarigua, on a beautiful plam having a temprale and healthy climate the highest temperature of which is generally 24 75. The city is at 472 meters tbove the sea-level and has a population of 38,054 inhabitants. It has 6,000 houses, many of them of modern construetion and one of the best aqueduets in tiie counlry. The market, which was rcbuilt a few ycars ago and thc Cathedral : which was begun to be construcled in 1S13, are two of the best buildings it pos-sesses, It has besides severa! Squarcs and public walks of recent formation which enhance its beautiful site, in one of which, the Bolvar-Square, is to be admired the lof'ty monument crected in commemoralion of the batlle whch sealed Venezuelan Independence. This monument was decreed on the sist. September 187 and was tnaugurated by the present Government. A great Theatre, which which will be tlic second in mportance in the Kepublic, was commenced in the jmonth of November 1887 and will be fuished as soon as the iron-work, which is 1 being made in Europe, is in its place.
On several occas'ons Valencia, by eventual circumstances, has been the capital the Kepublic and durng the War nf Independence ts citizens gave repeated pr>ofs of heroic valour and eminent self-denial. ln 1S30, after the separalon of Venezuela from Coumbia, the celebruted Constttient Congress met in that cty and in 1831 ihe Iirst Constituonal Congirss.
A railroad, inaugnrated in thc beginning o^ iSSS, plits Valencia in communicalion with Puerto Cabello which is thc second port of thc Republic. This line s 54 kilometers long and in 1S88 carried 62,300 pnssengcrs and 15,972,00o kilo-grams of merehandise. A grcat amount of commodities from tlic center and wcslern pars of the Kepublic are exported through the Ciistom-I Iouse of snid port, consisting principally of coffee, cocoa, hides, deer and goat-skins, colln dye-woods and copper from the Aroa-Mincs. The total exports of said Ctistoin-I louse amounted to B. 22,640,453 durng the economicnl year of 1S87 lo 18S8.
lia rodona, capital of lhc State of Bcrmudcz, was founded by Juan de l'ipn at the end nf 1637 on the slope of Ceno Santo and was transferred in 1671 by Sandio Fernndez ele Angulo lo lhc banks of river Ncvcr wherc i lies yvt. It has a good site on a plain 10 meters above tlic Icvel of ihe sea, and counts 1,800 houses and 12,758 inhabitants, Its temperature seltlom rises over ^oc and some-times falls lo 23^ 50. l'ntil 1881 it was the capital of the State of Barcelona but Barcelona ilself, Cuman and Maturn having formed one self-governing Entity, thc Constitucnt Asscml)Iy dcclared it the center of the Government of the Siatc of Bcrmudcz. It has broad and straighl streets, large squarcs, a beautiful Parish Church, a market and other buildings of modern construetion.
A railway line 19 kilometers long which is to put it in conneclion with the bav of Guanta was commenced iu the month (jf N'ovi-mber 1886. and lateron another hne 20 kilometers long was begun, the construetion of which s quickly advanc-ing, from Barcelona itself lo the valley of Naricual w!ierc, according to contract wilh the National Government, the French Company i'J/ullas del AVrr;v work the rich coal mines of that tract of country.
At a short distance from the town, is the < luzmn Blanco Port throunh which several kinds of produce from the Barcelona Scciion are; exported, such as coffee, cocoa, hides, deer and goat-skins, dividivi, cotten, brown sngar, sal meai, cocoa-nuts, cattle and horses, dye-woods, and sundry kinds of timbera Tlu; total weight of exports during the econmica! year of 1887 to 1888amounted to 1,184,411 kilograms and the number of head of cattle and horses was 570. Thc total valu of exports was B. 202/01.
('iudad Uot/i'ar, founded in 1704 by Joaqun Moreno de Mendoza under the ame of Santo Toms de uayana''*, is now thc capital of ihe State of Bolivar and lies on the righl bauk of river Orinoco, on the dcevity of a rocky, barren hill. It is 57 meters above thc sea-level and its temperature fluctans between 25c and 30 Centigrade, thotigh during the rany season it sometimos rises to 33o at day-time and gradually falls to 2.(c It has ncarly 1,700 nouses and 11,686 inhabitants. Formerly l was called ".Santo 'Jomas de Angostura* on account of the relalivc narrowness of the Orinoco at that point, measuring there only 734 meters. Thc ame it now bears was decreed by Congress in 1846 at the request of Ihe Authoriiics and of a number of inhabitantsof the town, being then the capital of the Province of Guiana. lis principal buildings are, the Palace of the Government, ihe house oceupcd by the Federal College, the Calhcdral, the Theatre, and thc Market. It has two large Squarcs, the Bolvar-Square with thc statue of the Lilierator and thc Guzman Blanco-Squate.
Ciudad Bolivar is Uie See of the Guiana Bshopric, established in 1790 and now vacant on account of thc deatii of 1 )r. Manuel Felipe Rodrguez which took place at the end of 1887. The National Congress, n its session of the 14II1. july 1888, elected Dr. Jos Antonio Ramos-Martnez to serve the Diocese who* wil take charge of bis Aposlolic Dignity as soon as the Pope confinas the election.
Gold from the rich Viiruari mines and ncarly all commodities from the other Tcrritories limiting the State, are exported through Ciudad Bolivar. These are generally, coffee, cocoa, hides, deer and goat skins, cotton, peruvian-bark, raw-tobacco, tonka-beans, caoulchouc, edible gratn, cheese, copaiba-oil, and drugs. Total expon of all this produce through the Custom-House of Ciudad Bolivar amounted durng thc fiscal year of 1887 to 1888 to II. 2,535,160 and to 1,600,909 kilograms. Thc total number of head of horned cattle was 11,990 and its valu B. 1,343,684. Bul 1 ion and smelted gold amounted lo B. 1,983,63c, Sur-face-gold to B. 160,576, and Quartz to 11. 2,510. The total vale of exports was B. 6,245,1 ir, including B. 80,620 forsiuffcd birds.
Guanaro, capital of thc Slate of Zamora, was founded in the year 1593 on the banks of rver Guanaro by Juan Fernndez de Len, and is built on the slope of a hill surrotindcd by a plain 143 meters above the sea-level, and oceu-piesa very convenient position for the trade that is carried on with thc limiting States of the Portugcsa Seciion and even with all the "West and Center of the Republic. Its climate although hot is healthy, the average temperature l-cing 2S 75 Centigrade thotigh it happcns U* be somelmes hi<;ier tlian 32c This town has 1,200 houses o pretiy good construetion and io,83o inhabitants. Notable among its buildings are, the Parish Church lately rebuilt, the Mansin of thc Executive Power, that of the Courts of Justice, these two last of recent ac-quisition. The actual President of the Republic directed on thc 8th. of Oclobc. 1888 the construetion of an aqueduct by means of water-pipes for sad capitalr The estmate of this work, made by thc respective lloard, reaches 11. 560,000.*
Uirquisimcio, capital of the State of Lara, is one of thc most ancient cites of Venezuela, and was founded by Juan de Villegas in 1552 although not cxactly in the same place it now oceupies, bearing originally the ame of Nueva Segovia. It is built on a large plain 522 meters above the sea-level, just where thc roads that lead to the western Sectons mect and in a central point of those leading from Carabobo to Zamora, on account of which its commerce with the center of thc Republic is very easily carried on. It is the Scc of a Bshopric erected by rcsoluton of Congress in 1847 and now served by Doctor Vctor Jos Diez. It has 4,500 houses and 31,476 inhabitants. The climate is acknowledged to be healthy and the highest temperature is 29 o. Towards the lower part of thc city the cultivated estates of a rich valley watered by the river which flows to the South of Barquisimeto form a beautiful panorama. It has very good buildings, to wit: the Cathedral, the Conception Church, the Government Palace, the Military Barracks, and the Market. Within a short time the Titicare-brook will supply the town with water by means of an aqueduct the construetion of which has been decreed by thc present Government, for which purposc I!.S,ooo are applied monthly. The construetion of a railway line was commenced on thc xoth. of March 1888 and work is actively carried on. It will start from La Luz and pass through Barquisimeto with the right of extending the line to either of the towns of Tocuyo, Carora or Trujillo. This enterprise will be of great profit for those who have cultivated land in that regin of the Republic.
Ca/atrida, capital of the State of Falcon, is a town of little importance, situated on an and, dry tract of fat land 11 meters above the level of thc sea and at a distance of little less than 2 kilometers from the mouth of the river of the same ame, It has 600 houses and 3,606 inhabitants. It owes its actual rank to the fact of being ncarly equally distant from the two principal towns of the State, Coro and Maraca Uro, which are respectivcly the capitals of the Falcon and Zulia Sectons.
The first of these two towns was founded by Juan de Ampies in thc mddlc of 1527 under the ame of 41 Santa Ana de Coro being the second cstablish-ment of thc Spaniards on the Main-l.and, and the capital Of Venezuela until 1578. It was also the See of the irst Bshopric in the country until a few years after the capital was transferred to Caracas. It is built on level ground, 33 meters above the sea-level and has an average temperature of 280 Its houses amount to the number of i,3oo and its inhabitants to 9,452. The splendid works, constructed in 1864 under Marshal Falcon's Government in order to suppiy Coro with drinkablc water, having been destroyed by a flood in 18S5, an aqueduct was decreed in 1887 which should convey the waters of river [sir by means of water-pipes which has been just inaugurated. Twelve kilometers, distant from thc town es the poit of La Vela through which the principal] produce of the Falcon-Section s expoited, consisting of coffee, hides, goat-skins^ dividivi, brown-sugar, salt-fish and some kinds of dye-woods. Total exporta through tlis port during thc econmica! year of 18S7 to iSRS rencht-d the valiu;'1 of B. 3,0*7,333.


VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS.
PROCLAIMED BY THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, OCTOBER i, 1890.
COUNTRY.
Argentine Republic. Austria-Hungary....
Belgium....................
Bolivia....................
Brazil....................
British Possessions N. A. (ex-
cept Newfoundland)......
Central American States
Costa Rica...............~]
Guatemala...............
Honduras.................I
Nicaragua................
Salvador................j
Chil.......................
China____
Colombia.
Cuba.....
Denmark. Ecuador.. Egypt....
France........
Germn Empirc.
Great Britain____
Greece...........
Hay ti............
India........ .
Italy............
Japan...........
Liberia..........
Mxico.
Netherlands____
Newfoundland..
Norway.......
Per...........
Portugal........
Russia.........
Spain.......
Sweden......
Switzerland..
Trpoli_______
Turkey Venezuela.. .
Gold..
STANDARD.
Gold and Silver. Silver...........
Gold and Silver.
Silver...........
Gold............
Silver...........
Gold and Silver. Silver...........
Silver..........
Gold and Silver.
Gold.............
Silver...........
Gold............
Gold and Silver...
Gold..............
Gold...........
Gold and Silver .. Gold and Silver...
Silver..........
Gold and Silver...
Gold and Silver *.
Gold... Silver.
Gold and Silver.
Gold............
Gold.............
Silver........
Gold.............
Silver......
Gold and Silver.
Gold............
Gold and Silver.
Silver..........
Gold.............
Silver...........
MONETARY UNIT
Peso .. Florin.
Franc .. Boliviano Milreis ...
Dollar.
Peso ... Peso ,..
( Shanghai Tael......< Haikwan
( (Customs)
Peso..................
Peso...............
Crown................
Sucre................
Pound (100 piastres)..
Franc...........
Mark............
Pound sterling...
Drachma........
Gourde........
Rupee...........
Lira............
Ven 'Gold...
Dollar.........
Dollar..........
Florn.. Dollar Crown..
Sol.....
Milreis. Rouble.
Peseta................
Crown...............
Franc.................
Mahbub of 20 piastres.
Piastre.......... ...
Bolivar..............
Valu in Terms of U. S. Gold Dollar.
$0.96,s .42,0
10.3 .85,0 54,6
.85,0
1.25,6 1.40
.85,0 .92,6 .26,8 85,0 4-94>3
'9,3
=3,8 4.86.SK
'9,3
96,5
4o,4
'9,3
99,7
9i,7 r .00
92,3
4o,2 x.01,4
.26,8
.85,0 1.08
.68,0
19,3 .26,8
.19,3 70,7 .04.4 .17,0
COINS.
Gold : Argentine ($4.82,4) and y Argentine. Silver : peso and divisions. Gold : 4 florins ($1.92,9), 8 florins ($3.85,8), ducats ($2.28,7) anc* 4 ducats ($0.15,8). Silver: 1 and 2 florins.
iold:
o and 20 franes. Silver 5 franes.
Silver: Boliviano and divisions. Gold : 5, 10, and 20 milreis. Silver :
Silver : peso and divisions.
, 1, and 2 milreis.
Gold: escudo ($1.82,4), doublo ver: peso and divisions.
($4.56,1), and cndor ($9.12,3). Sil
Gold: cndor ($9.64,7) and double-condor. Silver: peso. Gold: doubloon ($5.01,7). Silver: peso. Gold: 10 and 20 crowns.
Gold : cndor ($9.64,7) and double-condor. Silver: sucre and divisions. Gold: pound (100 piastres), 50 piastres, 20 piastres, 10 piastres, and 5
piastres. Silver : 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 piastres. Gold : 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 franes. Sdver: 5 franes. Gold: 5, 10, and 20 marks.
Gold : sovereign (pound sterling) and )4 sovereign.
Gold : 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 drachmas. Silver : 5 drachmas.
Silver: gourde.
Gold: mohur ($7.10,5). Silver: rupee and divisions. Gold; 5, 10, 20,'50, and 100 liras. Silver : 5 liras. Gold : 1, 2, 5, io, and 20 yen. Silver: yen.
Gold: dollar ($0.98,3), 2>, 5, 10, and 20 dollars. Silver: dollar (or
peso) and divisions. Gold : 10 florins. Silver: % 1, and 2^ florins. Gold : 2 dollars ($2.02,7 X). Gold: 10 and 20 crowns. Silver: sol and divisions. Gold : 1, 2, 5, and 10 milreis.
Gold: imperial ($7.71,8), and \2 imperial t($3.86,o). Silver: and 1 rouble.
Gold : 25 pesetas. Silver : 5 pesetas. Gold : 10 and 20 crowns.
Gold: 5, 10, 20, 50, and too franes. Silver: 5 franes.
Gold: 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 piastres.
Gold : 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 bolivars. Silver: 5 bolivars.
* Gold the nominal standard. Silver practically the standard.
t Coined snce January 1, 1886. ld half-imperial = $3.98.6.


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27
O
O
pwn of Maracaibo, originally called Nueva Zamora", founded by Pacheco in 1571 on the left margin of the lake of its ame, lies 9 meters je sea-level, and offersamost agrceable view on account of thc special nent of iis houses, of thc mnense groves of palm and cocoa-trecs Jorn it, of the beautiful appcarance of its hay, and of the different po-rcupied by thc various iimits of thc town, each of which stretches fnrth lerent point f the horizon. The average temperature is 270 50, fre-Ictricnl discharges take place and thc air is dry on account of thc want Maraca i bo has 4,800 houses and 34,284 inhabitants and possesses Iquarcs and numerous gardens which add to thc embellishmcnt of tlie Is principal buildings are: the Government Palace, that of Justice, m-House, the house oceupied by the College of Superior Instruction late, and the Theatre which bears the nainc of Baralt Itissup-th water by au aqueduct which was inaugurated four years ago. ln lo there are severa! religious and charitable societtes besides an asylum Blings. Thc tirst centenary of thc illustrious Patriot General Rafael a, an eminent citizen of Maracaibo, was celebrated n the month of p888. The Executive Power of the Nation, in taking part in those f, decreed on the -rd. of August 1888 thc erection of a statue of that hed patriot in his own nativo town, for which purposc and according ttc thc sum of P. 55,200 lias been appropriated.
Ily thc principal commodities from thc Zulia Section are exported he Maracaibo Custom-House but also many from the State of Pos nd other western regios of Venezuela. During the last econmica 1 le exports rose lo B. 31,942,208, principally consisting of coffee, div-Jwoods, and different species of timber. (n one of the margins of the re is a dock-yard wherc vcssels which carry on the frequent traffic over rs of the Section are built and repaired.
i town originally known under
a, capital of tlic State of Los Andes,
of Santiago de los Caballeros de M crida", was founded in 1558 by rguez Surcz in one of the few level places to be found in thc Guzman territorv which mainlv cons'sts of high and verv rugged mountains.
According io the Budget-Law sanctioned by the Congress of thc Republic in accordance with thc wants of National Admnistration the following expenses llave been made from 1880 to 18S7 and from 18^7 to iS38, thus:
Department of Interior Relations.
Legislative Power.........................
President of the Republic.................
Federal Council............................
Presidentas Secretary-Office................
Supreme Federal Court and Court of Appeal States of the Union and Federal Tcrritories .
F.cclesiastic Assignations..................
< Mticial Fdittons............................
Pententiaries .............................
National Hodays .... .................
National Pantheon____.....................
Registry Office...........................
Sundry Branchcs.........................
The Department.......................
Department *f "Fomento".
Post-Oflicc.................................
Telegraphs..............................
Immigration...............................
National Printing Offiee....................
The I >epartment..........................
Department of PublL Instruction,
Popular Education .........................
i3S61S37 1SS7io.
B.
638.962,40'
6.1.5.x), 204.777,50
20.500, 160.397,13
.020.725,72
282.709,75 222.874,9:" 63-198,25 23.708,20 2.759,63 30.517,84
58.248,82
724-^.^5,32 1.004.987,43 129.034
2.061.020,76
B.
402.309,95
I02. 642, 20 260.430, 64.4OO,
189.512,4, 6.128.247,73 3't-724.:is
64.316. 32.-38, 3.968, 50.400, 21.126,67 85.701,27
6,i.2S8,97 757-397.'4 196.949,29 214.390,48 75.839,88
I I /


Thc town nf Maracaibo* originally called Nueva Zamora", founded by Alonso Pacheco in 1571 on the luft margin of thc lake of its ame, les o meters above the sca-lcvcl, and offers a most agrceuble view on account ofthe special arrangement of its houses, of the mnense groves of palm and cocoa-trecs which adoro it, of the beautiful appcarance of its hay, and of the different po-sitions oceupied by thc varios limits of thc town, each of which stretchesforth to a different point f the horizon. Thc average temperature is 27o 50, fre-quent clectrical discharges take place and thc air is dry on account of the want of rain. .Maracaibo has 4,800 houses and 34,284 inhabitants and possesses several Squarcs aud numerous gardens which add to thc cmbellishmcnt of the town. Its principal buildings are: the Government Palace, that of Justice, the Custom-House, the house oceupied by the College of Superior Instruction uf the State, and the Theatre which bears thc ame of Baralt ". It is sup-plicd with water by an aqueduct which was inaugurated four years ago. ln Maracaibo there are several religiotis and charitable societies besides an asylum for foundlings. Thc iirst centcnary of thc illustrious Patriot General Rafael Urdaneta, an eminent cili/.en of Maracaibo, was celebrated in the month of Octobcr 18SS. Thc Executive Power of the Nation, iu taking part in those festivities, decreed on the jTll, of August iSSS the erection of a statue of that tlistinguishcd patriot in his own nativo town, for which purposc and according to estmate the sum of l. 55,200 has been appropriated.
Not only thc principal commodities from thc Zulia Section are exported through the Maracaibo Custom-House but also many from the State of Los Andes and other wcstern regions of Venezuela. During the last econmica 1 yea'r these exports rose to I!. 31,942,208, principally consisting of coffee, dividivi, dye-woods, and different species of timber. ()n one of the margins of the Lake there is a dock-yard wherc vessels which carry on the frequent traille over the waters of the Section are built and repaired.
Ale'rida, capital of the State of Los Andes, a town originally known under the ame of Santiago de los Caballeros de Mrtda", was founded in 1558 by | uan Rodrguez Surez n one of the few level places to be fotind in thc Guzman Section, a territory which mainly cons'sts of high and very ruggetl mountains. The tcwn lies at 1,660 meters above the sea-level and its climate is generally eold and wct on account of thc low temperature of many places which surround it. The average temperature s 16o 14. The majes tic ridge of mountains covered with perpetual snow may be seen in the distance, the summit of which, called Pico del Toro", is at 4,950 meters above the level of the. ucean. The town has more than 2,000 buildings and 12,018 inhabitants. There are some re-markable edifices though of ancient construetion. The cathedral is of recent build.
Mcrida is the Se2 of a Bishopric the establishment of which was directed by Pilis VI. in 1778,and Father Juan Ramos de Lora, having been appointed Bishop, effected its crcation in 1786. The actual Bishop is Dr. Romn Lovera, elecled by thc Congress of the Republic and proclaimed by the Pope in 1880.
The capital of the State of Los Andes is thc only town ofthe Republic which possesses, besides Caracas, a Univcrsity, previously a Sc'minary, where since iSro academie studes wcrc formally instituted.
Venezuela, besides those mentoned, has many other important towns 011 account of their population and as cetitcrs of commerce, agriculture, or cattle-trade of thc respective Section. Such are Santa Lucia, La Victoria, and Ca-la bozo in thc State of Guzmn Blanco (the last one s thc See of a Bishopric); Cuman, thc native town .of thc Field Marshal of Ayacucho, Antonio Jos Suero, and CarpaoH and Maturin in thc State of Bermiidcz ; San Fernando in the State of Bolvar ; San Carlos and Harinas, in the State of Zamora ; San Felipe % Carora, and Tocuyo, n lhc State of La ra; and Trujillo and San Cristbal, in the State of Los Andes.
The capitals of the Federal Tcrritories, excepting Guasipati, which is that of the Yuruar, are places of growing mportance as centers of Governmcnts of m-mense regions wilh searcely any population, for up to a few years ago they liad not commenced to fcel the benelccnt influence of civilization. Guasipati, which has t'o:> houses and 3,046 inhabitants, is sita ted on a high and large plain, and was raised to the rank it now oceupics by Kxcculive Dccrce of September ?rd., 1881, regarding the organization and ordinances of the Yuruari Territory. At Iirst "Las Delicias" was the capital of the Armisticio Territory and afterwards in January 1885 the village t>f San Juan" until it was transferred, in July of the same year, to Palmarto", a borough lying to tho right of the High Apure with about ion houses and 1,100 inhabitants. Thc Government of the Cauro Territory resides at .Puerto Guzmn Blanco and those of the Alto Orinoco and Amazon Terrtories in San Femando de Atabapo, which are places of scanty population, although the last one was founded more Iban a century ago and was the seat of Evangelio Missions. The capital of the Delta Territory was temporarily established at "Pedernales", which lies n thc island of the same ame; but by resolufion of the Department of Interior Relations, dated No-vember 24U1., 1887, it was transferred to Tucupita on account of having greater number of inhabitants and more healthy conditions. The residence of tic Governor of the Goagira Territory was "Santa Teresa" until by special Decree of thc President of the Republic, issucd on the i2th. of November 18S0 it was transferred to Paraguaipoa, a place containing very few houses and inhabitants. The Government of thc Colon Territory is established in Gran Roque, which is the highest of all the surrounding islands, Itspopu- lation besides the oflicial stafl is a floating one which consists principally of fishermen who trade with Bonaire and La Guaira.
"yEcIl of the Colonies, Guzman Blanco and Bolvar, has its capital which is thc residence of the local Government. Taguacita, a place having 300 inhabitants and being 27 kilometers distant from Altagracia de Orituco", which is the most important farming-ecnter, is the capital of the Guzman Blanco Coony and that of the Bolivar Colony \%Arara, which lies at a distance of 7 kilometers from the place of Guatire through which it carries on ts commerce wilh other places of thc State of Guzman Blanco.
Administrativo Section.
\
\ Revenue and Expenditure.
'Ihe principal sourec of Public Revenue in Venezuela is the tax levied on im-ports, although there are other branches, such as the Inland Custom-Houses, .Salt-Mines, Sale of Stamps, and Duties on Mines, which greatly increase the
receipts of the Treasury. During the two last fiscal years the National Statc-
Trcasury liad thc following movement:
18861887 188718S8
mport Duties............................
Storage Duties.......................
lntcrest.................................
Receipts from Stampcd Paper.............
,, ,, the Federal Tcrritories.......
j ,, ,, Sale of Stamps..............
Telcgraphs ................
,, ,, Tclephones..................
| Waste Lands...............
I ,, Revenue of Public Instruction
Transt-Tax.............................
Salt-Tax.................................
School-Fncs ............................
Hecourses to thc Court of Appeal........
Natural receipts from contrais...........
Pier of Maracaibo.........................
rWharfmcn of Maracaibo..................
Railroad from La Guaira to Caracas........
Consular fees ..........................
Registry Offiee Fees.......................
yPatents of Invention.......................
Tr.msfers and prorogation:, of contrais.....
Totals....................
B.
J.203.
24.
77-129. 153-702, 1.261. 440. 6. 89. 473-5.212. 603.
459,82 260,90 103,2c 441,65 864,46 459.75 371,82 540,67 M6,95 537,76 160,15 300,82 399,05 37,56 360, 018,27 400, 359,6i 971,98
56.504,5:
16. 215
B
29.728. 54-36. 144. 165. 324-1.312. 2 75-2, 102,
645-6.931. g 10. 3-
817,84 081,85 027,28 116,73 296,12 295,66 432,7
845,85 "7.52 745,75 549,3o 152,43 465,12 :.98o, .916,89 '.200,
7"-30!o5 75o,
33.686.245,94 40.724.531,11
According to thc Budget-Law sanctioned by thc Congress of the Republic in
accordance with the wants of National Admnistration the following expenses have been made from 18S6 to 1SS7 and from 1S87 to 18S8, thus:
Department of Interior Relations.
Lcgislative Power.......................
President of the Republic..................
Federal Council.............................
President's Secretary-Offce................
Supreme Federal Court and Court of Appeal States of the Union aud Federal Tcrritories ..
Ecclesastic Assignations...................
()lTicial Editicns.............................
Penitentiaries ..............................
National Hodays......................
National Pantheon..........................
Registry Office............................
Sundry Branches..........................
Thc Department........................
Depa riment of'' Fomento"'.
Post-OiTicc..............
Telcgraphs...........
Immigration............
National Printing Office. The 1 epartment........
Department of Public instruction.
Popular Education .......................
Superior Education.......................
Salaries of this Branch's Treasury........
Commission on Sale of Stamps...........
The Department____......................
Department of Public Works.
Public Buildings____...................
Salaries of this Branch's Treasury.....
The Department.....................
Department of Finance.
Custom-Houses ... ........................
Court of Accounts.........................
General Auditor's Office...................
Salaries of the Treasury of Public Service____
Financc-Courts.............................
Attorney General of Finance................
Redemption of Bondsof 1 pg per month____
Light-Houses...............................
Additons to the Budget.................'
()ther Branches ............................
The Department.........................
Department of Public Credtt.
Interior Public Credit............
Exterior Public Credit............
Salaries of this Branch's Treasury The Department ................
18S61887 B.
Department of War and Navy,
Army, Parks, Fortresscs, Hospitals, &c. Na"
Pensions ........
The Department.
Department of Foreign Affa,
Diplomatic and Consular Corps..........
Foreign Claims, Diplomatic Conventions. The Department.....................
638.962,40 64.500,
24-777oO 20.500,
l6-397.1 4.020.725,72 282.799,75 222.874,96
63-498,25 23.708,20 2.759,67 30-517,84
58.248,82
724-835,32 1.004.987,43 129.934,25
62.113,75
2.061.029,76 782.697,02
23.466, 103-277,58
42.720,
4.816.962,55
x4'943l 41.982,46
1.058.952,4? 27.713,96 80.949,80 50-070, 78.465,63 6-075,
r.200.000, 22.765,94
1.707.798,83 874.383,62 75-732,49
2.074.004,03 2.135.202,9(5 31.643,20 37.142,07
2-38.375,^ 231.470,if
295-793,5i 44-243i7f
278.476,17 629.130,76 62.967,
64.316, 32.138, 3.96S, 50.400, 21.126,67 85.701,27
28.644.575,87
2.082.103,15 2.135.202,06 28.084, 42.ii9,8S
Summary by Deparlments.
Interior Relations..
Fomento ..........
Public Instruction..
Public Works......
Finance............
Public Credit......
War and Navy.... Foreign Affairs.....
Totals
18861887 1S87
B.
5-794 1.921
3-013 4.873 5.i8: 4.277 2.Cog 970.
.270,19 .870,75 ,190,36 ,883,oi 907,75 .992,26 .882,61 573.94
28.644.575,8;
B.
7-719-f i.f"
3-1
9-338.-; 11.581./ ,4-287-
4.057.* 995-:
43-254-
The Total Receipts from 1886 to 1S87 were
therefore.................................. B. 33.686.245,94 B. 33.686.245,94
Expenditure................................ 28.644.575,87
Balance in favor......................... 5.041,670,07
Total Receipts of Revenue................. B> 40.724.531,11
Surplus of foregoing year added thercto...... 5.041.670,07
Total................ B. 45.766.201.18 B. 45.766.201,18
Expenditure..... ..... 43.254.950,87
Balance....:......... l. 2.511 250.31
The movement which has taken place during the same economieal years in thc Federal District's own Revenue and that of the States of thc Union was as follows:
18861887
Federal District..............
State of Guzmn Blanco..........
,, Carabobo................
,, Bermidez (last 6 months) Bolivar................
,, Zamora..................
Lara....................
Faltn................
,, Los Andes..........
Receipts Expen- Balance
d tu res in favor
B. B. B.
r.501.633,61 1.472.417,41 29.216,20
841.450, 770.790, 70.660,
718.790,61 700.063,17 18.727,44
213.066,42 213.066,42 ,,
398.965,51 396.636,^1 2.329,10
440-753.33 409.934,95 30.818,38
410.788,03 398.706,40 12.081,63
2S9.188,72 286.893,94 2.294,78
564.963,85 555.266,68 0 9-697,17
5.379.600,08 5.203.775,38 175.824,70


28


29
-1 l'rom 1R07 t(> 18.SS Imports Kxports Balance in favor
Krclcral District ....................... Slarr: of Gtizmn llancn................... ,, Carabobo........................ ,, licnmiilc/........................ I'.. 1.752.123,50 718.052,33 706.778,79 1!. 1.736.894,96 1.321.192, 707.860,09 706.769,58 406.542,15 409.934.95 643.166,72 547.110,13 817.642,50 i:. 15.228,52 114.528, 10.192,24 9,21
,, Xntnom....................... ,, Falcon.......................... ,, Los Antlcs..................... 761.681,91 751.859,18 594.432,10 891.882,73 35'-74>,9 108.692,46 47-321,07 74.240,23
8.019.424,81 7.297.113,1c 722.311,71
Forego'ng figures show that lhc compnrison of thc respective eolumns of receipts wilh those of expenditure is so favorable for thc first, that, both in the lab les of National Revenue, in thnse'of thc Federal District Municipal Revenue and in those of the Revenue of the States, there is not only no dficit but ncarly always balances in favor which may be applied to the furthci' promotion of thc Covernmcnt's welfare.
Kstablishing a proportion between the total number cf inhabitants of the Republic with tie lotal Revenue during the econmica! year of 1887 to 1888, which was tlic ni ( "">'-'eb inhabitant of Venezuela cor-
cspoiids tboi!'''/J//f/,j Which s i, ni,
)nne i.l'u #''Jee Hll-taxif,."".'Jl-0
3
The following figures show in detail the present condilion of Elemental '. truction throughout the Republic at thc end of thc yeiir 1888.
s-iujoips jo pioi puna*-)
sjcoips jo [uioi pinjj;)
s.iu[oips
-I IT
'''Ilu;
a
1


07 u) iS.s
l'Yilcrn] 1 >islret ......
Sinie of Guzmn Blanco
Carabobo......
,, trmiidez.....
lolivar........
Zamora......
Lara..........
,, ralen........
Los Andes____
1 tuportrt K.N polis Ualanci:
in favor
1!. 1.752.133,50 li. 1,736.894,98 l. 114.528,
718.052,33 '>o7.'8fo,'oy 10.192,24
70*5.778,70 706.769,58 0,21
400.804,24 406.542,15 352,i;
701.1 81,91 49.034.95 351.746,90
751.850,1 i' 643.166,72 103.692,46
594.432,10 547.110,1;: 47-3=1.97
891.882,73 817.642,50 74.240,23
8,010.42.1,81 7.297.113,1c 722.311,71
Forego'ng figures show that the comparison of thc respective Col timos of receipts with those of expenditure is so favorable for thc irst, that, both in the tables of National Revenue, in those>uf the Federal 1 >strict Municipal Revenue and in those of the Revenue of the States, there is not only no dficit but ncarly always balances in favor which may be npplicd to the further promotion of the overnment's welfare.
Kstablishing a prnportou between the total number o inhabitants of the Republic with the total Revenue during the econmica! ycarof 1887 to 1888, which was thc most productivo, it rcsults that to each inhabitant of Venezuela cor-sponds the siim of II, rg.31 a year from the general tota! of contribtiiionc, hich is a modrate tribute compared wilh the most favored Nations in this spi-ci. This rcsult has been arrived at after having deducted from the Reuni of the States thc siim which corresponda to them from the transil and rli-iaxes, which are included iu the total nggregnle of National Conlributons.
National Debt.
Thc Venezuelan Public Debt is divided into four ciasses, which are : Infernal Debt, Exterior Debt, Diplomatic ConventJom 7V//, ind llonds 0/1 pCt. per month.
The Infernal Debt s called National Consolidated Debt and reached on July ist., 18S6, l. 39,463,741.04, a sum which, byvirlueof ihe consecutve public bitldng-sales wjiich were cffected durng the fiscal year beginingon that date, was reduced to 11.39,114,895.49 by the commencement of the next year. On the ist. of July 1888, and by means of the same system of public sales, the ln-ternal Debt was reduced to I. 38,760,^69.17, This Debt s represented by IK-benlures to the bearcr with an annual intcresl of 5 pCt. which s most punct-ually paid in monthly inslahnents. 'J'he sums paid on this account, during lhc economieal ycars of 1886 to 1SS7 and 1S87 to 1S8S, rose to II. 3,916,137.68 and that outlaid in public sales was I!. 239,969.50, During lhc present year this Debt has been quoted at 5opCt.
The Exterior Debt amounted in August 188o to the sum of II 67.686.412,50, in the same month of 1887 to l. 67,584,150, and on the 151I1. of August 1888 to 1L 67,552,587.50. Said Debt bears interest at the rato of 3 pCt. per annum to cover which interest the sum of II. 177,933.58 is placed, at the beginning of every month, at the dispcsal of the Board of Bondholdcrs, or what is the same, they have at their conti ol an annual sum of l. 2,135,202.96. The surplus resulting on this account s applied to cover thc expenses of thc London Office and to the gradual redempton of the Debt. According to most recent information this Stock was quoted n thc London Moncy-Market at 42^5 per Cent.
The National Difiloniat ic-Conreni ion Debt now n clrculation had its orgn in the liquidation of claims acknowledged to France, Spain and Gcrmany which took place in conformity with the Executive Decrce of August 5th., 1887. According to it, and up to December 3ist., 1888, Bonds of sad Debt, to theamount of B. 5,072,725.70, had been issued, distnbuted thus :
France ( Halance due)............................ l. 483.970,92
Spain do. do................... ......... 4.498.012,70
Gennany do. do............ ................ 90.742,08
U. 5.072.725,70
This Diplomatic Debt bears an annual interest of3pCt. payablc, by half-fferly, due instalments, to each particular Legation, and the remnant of the-iim appropriatetl to this object by the (overnment is applied to the redempton the. Bonds by periodieal bicding-sales held by the Bbard of Public Credit. .defray the expenditure incurred by this Debt, the Public Treasury nds annually B. 459,133.08, which are taken from the 13 pCt. of the 40 units ^ustom-House Receipts. ln the Money-Market it has reached a quotation |6 per cent.
Bonds of 1 p% per month. On the 31 of December 18S7 they amounted
L....... "........................................... B. 1-739-439.97
celed up to June 3Cth. i882. ...: ..................... 537.837,84
Balance n circularon ..
B. 1.201.602,13
be intertst corresponding to theS3 Bonds is paid by the Commercial Bank of icas at the beginning of every month and the redempton is effected by ns of grcat salrs, at which sometimes nobody makes a propesition because Iholders prefer to receive the regular paid interest rather than their capital, e Bonds are often quoted above par of their nominal valu, e following is a summary of the Venezuelan Debt at the commencement ie economieal year of 1888 to 1889.
Internal National Consolidated Debt...____ B. 38.760.269,17
Exterior do. do. do....... 67.552.587,50
1 Diplorfiatic-Conventions Debt............. 5.072.725,70
Bonds of 1 p9 per month.................. 1.201.602,13
B.
112.587.1S4,50
mcet thc obligations derived from these different Debts, Venezuela, ac-ng to the last fiscal ycar's figures, needs only to make use of 14 } pCt. of evenue, a fact which speaks greatly in favor of the present economieal
of affairs and proves tlic intelligent manner in which State-Trcasury rs are being managed.
III.
Public Instruction.
s Branch comprises in Venezuela Popular Instruction and what may be [Superior Instruction or Scientifc Education, each wth its own regu-
\
\ Popular h.structiou.
Vne Decree of 27th. June 1870 011 elemental, free, and compulsory edu-lawned in Venezuela an era of real intellectual improvement for, from rent institutes which the Republic had atthatepoch, now the aggregate >f federal, muuicipal, and private-schools reaches 1979, and instead of bscholars who at that time received education therein now 100,026 bf both srxr obtain the ber.ffit of elemental instruction.
'The following figures show in detail thc present condition of Elemental In<-. truction throughoul the Republic at thc end of thc yettr 1888.
S,ll!|Olj,lS jo prjo] ptl.lt)
, Cl (1 I O
SJCOli-H jo pnoi pUB.:;)
s.iupupy
I I
l I
o + o>
I !
.$ ? vo io
-i r>
S|OOl|.1S JO
.iaqutu\-
I \ \l.
s-JU|oiins
!f & I I I
s[ooqos jo .i-iquilla
S|OOl[03
U1X
I I
S[OoqDS lo joquinj^
U
5 2
D
a u CJ 0
u c 6 ,* w) V
_u uzinn irabob irmdi )livar. amo ra ira... dcn *0 c '< o "E "S Total.
Q" U ca 4) H erri
*2 *c *c f
S ; = g"
C
Besides these, the Covernment supports 7 Schools for soldiers in Quarters, 4 Normal Schools, and the School of Arts and Trades established in thc capital. The first named are attended by about 1,800 pupils and the other by 306, of which 100 are, being trained for teachers. The School of Arts and Trades, which is intended principally for the study and spread of nianufacturing arts, has now 62 pupils learmng cabinet-work, carpentry, ironwork, and masonry. The total number of these schools and that of their pupils addcd to the totals of foregoing tables, givesan aggregate of 1,991 institutes and of 102,188 children who are at present acquiring elemental education Jn the Republic.
To support the 1,346 schools directly depending on the Government a sum qf B, 2,401,621 is annually spent, or what is the same B. 1,784.50 for each institute The proportion between the total number of inhabitants of the Republic an that of pupils receiving elemental educaron is cf 46 per i,oco.
Snper ior lKstructicv.
Statistical items n this respect are not Uss satisfactory in Venezuela. 'J'he ad-vancement of Superior Instruction in the Republic is represented iiy 2 Univer- ] sities, 6 High-Class Federal Collegcs, 14 Low-Class enes, 9 National Collegcs,;j forGrls, an Academy of Fine Aris, a Sclioo] of Musie, nnether of Singing, a-\ Polytechnic School, 28 Prvate Collegcs, a Nutica) ScIkhjI and a Telegraphic School. These Institutes are attended by 4,784 students who re taught by,54i
professors. Wilh tlic exception of the 28 Prvate Collegcs, thc Nation defrays annually the sum of B. 754,858.75 in the management o all th< se institutes.


BEAZIL'S LGATIONS".-------
Tho Bureau ofthe American Repblica is informedthat the Government of Brazil has issued a decree dividing the Legationa of that Republic in foreign countries into two classes, as follows:
First class. The United States, Germany, France, Great Britain, Chile, Argentine Republic, Uruguay, ltaly and Portugal, where the Legations will be in charge of Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary of the first class.
Second class. Austria, Hungary, Belgium, Bolivia, Spain, Mxico, Paraguay, Per, Russia, the Vatican, Switzeiland and Venezuela, where the Legations will be filled by Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary ofthe second class.


Pages Missing or
Unavailable


ullowitij
the Conditions o thesc Fnstitutes :il thc cese of 1888.
1 Ucfirces cunfered
Unlvcrsilics nnd Coliges for llnys. g s P 5 -q C "3 T u h B '-i
"SiS |l D ,3 13
1 Central University (Caracas) ......... 1 Unversity in Los Andes (Mrida)... federal Collegcs (High Class)........ 1 ,, 1 I-ow Class)......... Prvate Collegcs...................... 29 24 130 T 54 .64 1.028 795 1. -262 68 7 12 39 107 48 l33 25 i 4
1 408 3-S40 r 288 25 54 16
i National Ac 1 Venezuelan I
l'iny of Fine Arts... olylechnic School ....
Students
The following s .i summary of the Public Buildings and of the sums laid < mi them up to Novembcr ^oth., i8S8,
Ycars 1887 lo 1SS8.
Public Buildings
Suins disbt
Churchcs...................................
Theatres......................................
Soldiers-quarters and Prsons..................
National Buildings (alterations and repairs).....
Canalization of Riversand other Water-Works Custom-I Idiisrs, Coast-Guards,\Vharfs, and Light-Ho
Public Monuments.........................
F.mbellishmcnt of Towns...................
Public-Baths................................
Cemeteries...................................
Ralroads----...............................
Other Roads and I f ighroads,,............ .
Aqueducts ...................................
Telegraph-Lines............................
Works in Construetion, M norWorks, aud Sundry Kxpens
400.0 ->, 110.401, 96.044,3 05.649,1 722.56
564.540,1 204.290, 1.638.776,1
12.000, 24.000,
4.018.753,< 749.008,1 576.192,1 567.803,. 3>8-3=7,'
Totals..................................I B. 11.965.949,:
VII. Post-Office.
' (iTj
10
i (O)
X
lili I


/ ''uilowint i.-ihlis gvc the ("imiltions of (Jirsc institutes ai the ces:' of 18SS.
y--------------
l '///'r'.v.r/.'/V. nnd Coll'scs At AVr,
Ceniral Universiiy (Caraeas) ..... l'niversly in Los Andes (Mrla), Federal Colimes (1IK1> Classl... .
I l.ow Classl.....
Prvale Collegcs..................
I lgreos confelcd II 1SS7 to iSES
40S
164
1.02S 705 1. =62

~ U
f c


X

0
25 33
8
25 54
(;//;dV Institutes Profcssors Studenls
1 1 National Acrulemy of Fine Arts. 9 301
1 Venezuelan l'olylcclinic School 4 5n
2 15
1 40
4 26 406
' Co//i\crs for (iris Teacheis Pupils
55 394
50 39
1 25
1 Scliool of Singing ........... r 29
IT 107 838
Summary 0/1 nst tutes of Superior Education.
Institutes Profcssors Students
44 40S 3-54
4 26 406
*7 107 838
Totals........ 65 541 4.784
Thc Kepublic has also a Ccltege of Lawyers, established by Decree of February 71h., 1883, and a Collegc of Physicians the establishment of which was directed on the yth. of Oclober of the same year. Kach of these lodtes consists of all persons lega 11 y qualiied for the respective professions. There is also a Medical lloard which has principally to inspe-ct thc performance of medical scicnce and pharmacy and to propose means for the improvement of the con-dtions of Public Health. The Collcge of Engincers, established in Caracas, renders important services to the Government and contributes to the develop-ment of the study of this b:anch. lcth in these Podies as well as in the Libra-ry, National Museum, Venezuelan Academy and in the support of a certain number of yoting men who are studying abroad at the Government's expense, several sums, appropriated to that'effect in the budget cf Superior Education, are annuallv laid out.
IV.
Public Libraries.
Thc Library of the Central University s rapdly increasing by virtue of special Resnlutions of the Government in benefitof its devclopmcnt and by the liberality of several Foreign Scientific and Literary Institutions, n this respect, towards Venezuela. A r thc betrinn int of the year the 1 .ibrary had 12,79 ) 1 i lera ry works in 30,259 voluntes and 548 pareis of newspapers. It poss/sics now 13,050 of the first n 31,125 volunu s and 900 pareis of the second, gvinga year-ly increase of 400 works and a much larger proportion of-newspapers.
Thc Libra ry of the Venezuelan Academy which commenced to be fonmd in 1884 has nearly 2,000 works principally on languages, llistory, and universal literature. Many of them are very rare on account of being original editions now totally exhausted.
There are in the country other Libraries of importance, such as that of the iState of Carabobo in Valencia ; that of the State of Guzman Planeo in Ciudad de Cura, and that which by Resolution of the Government was reccntly commenced to be formed in thc capital of thc State of Falcon. Each of the first tnentioned has more than 2,000 volumes.
National Museum.
_ \
This lnstitute is divided into three Sections. The first one, called the Iolivar-Hall ", s devoted to the preservation of objeets and doctunents excluir! y related to the Liberator ; another Section where cverything referring to ational History is kept, and another set apart for Natural History. All three ctions have rece i ved additions during 1887 and 18SS. At present all samples Venezuelan producs are being separated to be spccially arranged by them-Ives.
VI.
Public Buildings.
The activity of this lranch during thc years of 18S7 and 18SS has been re-narkablc. During this time two Churches have been built n the Republic, wo others have been rebuilt, three repaired, and the Treasury has helped to he alteraton and'reparation of eight more. Two Markets, a Theatre and nine llridges have been erected and considerable sums have been applied to m-irovements effected in 32 National Buildings and to the embellishment of towns ike Caracas, Valencia, La Guaira, Macuto, Antimano, LosTcques, La Victoria, uacara, &c. A Standard Hospital has been commenced which will be one o re best in America and an Astronomic and Meteorologic Observatory is being nilt which will be of grcat importance for thc development and improvement t scientific studies n Venezuela. This, besides the nauguraton of the railroad om Puerto Cabello to Valencia, the powerful impulsa given to similar enterrases, and the fact of having helped to thc Construetion of eleven aqueduets, | the openingof sx high-roads, to the reco::struction of one and the reparation of ven of having worked in the canal i zat ion of four rivers ; of having establish-d five telegraphic lines ; and lastly, of having opened to public traffic a railroad fhich is of great importance to the country. During this time the erection of splendid mpnunidtatias been effected dan d three more have been decreed, viz : ne to the memory ofthe Illustrious Patriot General Rafael Urdaneta. one tu ?at of the Field Marshal of Ayacucho, Antonio Jos Sucre, and another to that Cthe Eminent CtizeJ^ of Nw-tiranada^BAntonio Ricaurte and Atanasio rardot, for their heroic decds during the War of Venezuelan Independence.
The following is .i summary of the Public Buildings and of ihe sums laid 011 on them up to Novcmbcr ;oth., 18SS.
Ycars 1887 lo iSSS.
Public Puddings
Churches........................................
Thentres...............................
Markets................................
SoMicrs-quarters and Prisons.....................
National Puddings altcrations and repairs)...........
Canalization of Riversand other Water-Works.......
Custom-Houses, Coast-Guards, Wharfs, and Light-I loases
Public Monuments.........................,.....
F.mbellishmcnt of Towns............... .. ........
Public-Ualhs..................................
Cemetcries........................................
Railroads................................. ........
Other Roads and Highroads....................
Aqueduets .........................................
Telegraph-Lines ................ ....................t
Works in Construetion, MinorWorks, and Sundry Expenses
Totals.
Sums disbursed
505.270, 400.000, 110.401, 96.044,76 605.649,16 722.563.S8 852.328,90 564.540,15 204.290,
1.638,776,17 12.000, 24.000,
4.018.753,09 749.008,11 576.192,95 567.803,49 318.327,72
11.965.949,38
VIL Post-Office.
At the end of 18S8 there wcrc in the Republic 50 post-lnes ser ved by couriers on foot, 17 on horseback, 3 by raiiroad, 2 fluvial, and 7 maritime. By means of thesc 79 lines, the postal-servicc has been effected throughout the Republic n the most punctual and elTicicnl manner. During thc last two economieal years they carried 6,488,878 tems of home corresponden ce thus partcularized :
Different kinds of Correspnndence 18861837 1S871888 Totals
1.29.691 206.506 '8.544 65.940 20.242 1.376.834 1.463.567 199.130 12.052 71.924 24.861 i-759-587 2-7.33-258 405.636 30.596 137.864 45-103 3.136.421
Official Correspondence...... Post-Cards..................



2-957-757 3.531.121 6.48S.S78
Por thc admnistration of this branch a General Dircction was established in Carneas besides 10 principa! and 141 inferior Post-Oflices Ihrougbout the country. The annual expense of this seivice in 1888, incltlding the sum expended in correspondence outward bound, was l. 612,874.78.
Venezuela belongs to the Universal Postal Union since 1880.
VIII. Telegraphs.
The extensin of tebgraph-lines of the Republic was of 4,269 kilometers.lt the beginning of 1887 and since then they have been ncreased to 514 kilometers more, as may be seen by the following table which also inchicles parteulars of last two vears.
Telegraph-Lines
North......
South......
South-east .
East.......
West.......
Totals.
1886- 1887
32 415 537 1.446
r-839
II
36-953 42.078
38.022 73-312 146.512
c H
v o
4i5 274 .223
839
44.811 51.026 89.171 76-775 146.731
81.764 93.IO4
127.193 I5O.087
293-243
4 269 336.877 4.783 408.514 745.391 The 96 Telegraph-Offioefi exsting in the Republic are served by 96 Stalion-Mastcrs, 47 Clerks, 102 Distribulors and 135 Line-guard?. There is besides a Centrai-OfTice with a General Director who at the same time is Inspector and resides in Caracas, a Sub-Director, a Cashier, an Assistant Cashier, a Book-keeper, three Clerks, and one Assistant. According to last parteulars this branch costs the Public Treasury the sum of B. 758,216.72. The total receipts of Te legra ph-Offi ees durng last year were of B. 272,394.52.
IX.
* Submarine Cable.
Since the month of July 1888 Venezuela was placed n communicattoii with foreign countries by means of a cable laid down by the French Society of Submarme-jTelegraphs by virtue of contraetsigned to that effect by the Government of the Republic. Since the 2th. of July, 1888, the date of its nauguraton, to the 3ist. of December 1888, 691 Cable Despatches have been sent from Venezuela arjd 605 have been received from abroad, besides the daily publication of universal news free of charge. The Execmive Power exercises its natural jurlsdiction over the enterprise by means of a Clerk whom t has thc right toap-point and Wno dscharges thc duties of Treasury-Officer of the Government in the Telegraph-Ofice of the Company. The tariff of transmission of telegrams by cable now in forc was first submitted to the National Government'sapproval.
X.
Telephones.
There are two Tclephone Companies in the Republic, the Inter-Contivental and The American. The first one was established in 1883 and from that time to December 31SL, 1888, it had placed 776 instruments which are thus in use:
In Caracas and environs............. 495
In La Guaira ,, .............. 113
In Valencia and suirounding places ... 109 In Puerto-Cabello ... 59
Total...................... 776
Besides constant internal connection incach one of the mcnCioned places, there are lines connectng Caracas with La Guaira and Valencia wilh Puerto Cabello. The number of daily connections between different subscrbers in Caracas is about 3,000, in La Guaira 97, in Valencia 300, and looin Puerto Cabello. Between Caracas and La Guaira the number of daily connections is rom 150 to 20a and between Valencia and Puerto Cabello from 35 to 45.
The other enterprise, The American Telephone Com/any, was rstabKshed about the mddle of 1S88 and by December 3ist. of the same year it liad 446 subscrbers throughout the country, thus :
ln Caracas.......................... 284
In La Guaira.................... 112
In Maracaibo........................ 50
Total .................. 446
Daily connections in Caracas reach an average of 2,oco and 50 in I a Guaira. Th's enterprise has also l.ncs connectng both places.


they made bold to aslc ot whom tliey solicited f he thoug that such a man as this or such would have associated himself wii. that wasn't first-class. Did they thiii. moment that this or that man would ses. concern fail or a claimant go unpaid? Ti. said to everybody that men and not capital were what we should look to in cases of this kind; people did look to them, and this is what they got for it. I cannot tell you how many times I have been asked qnestions like these: Do you think Ex-Governor Hamilton, a man who has been chief executive of the great com-monwealth of Illinois, would go into a thing that wasn't straight? Do you think a man of Mr. E. G. Keith's standing in this community, could afford or would entertain the idea of b'e-coming an officer in an association that wasn't responsible and all right in every way? isn't he its treasurer? And what have you to say of


hy did I love you?" if you ask me why, I canuot answer; this alone I
' \*Jp\ know, *^=a^y Dear heart, I never would
7 have loved you so,
Nay, might have lost youblindly passed you by Had it not chanced, one winter gone, that I, Tracking a wounded deer across the snow, Lost the true way; till, following the glow Of a great star, the lights of men burned nigh.
So, night had fall'n on an abandoned chase, When, meeting you and seeng in your eyes The luring gleam of that remcmbered star, My heart pressed forward; till the genis that gracc Your bosom's snow-drift twinkled their sur mise That, at my knock, Love's door you would unbar.
Charles Henry Luders.


36


37
XI.
Public Registry.
National Registry-I.aw, sanctioned by thc Congress of the Republic on kh.y 1887, and enactcd on the 301)1, of the sanie month, prescribes that [apital of the Federal District and in that of every State of thc Union Hist be a General Registry, and that both n the Federal District and in Capital of a District o tie States there is to be a Subordnate Office de-,g upon the correspondng (enera] one, There are, therefore, in all thc Ret General Registries and 123 Subordnate, including the two exsting in iruari Federal District according to Article 12? of thc Law. ornas or patents of Lawyers, Sol cito rs, Physicians, Surgeons, Apothecaries, eers, Archbishops, I.hshops, Means, Canoas, Crales, Letters of appojnt-of Civil and Military Ofticers, Shp-Registers, and Patents of Inventton, gistered or recorded in General Offices, and in Subordnate ones contracta huments referring to declarations ; to transinission, lmitatton, and mort-t)f property ; tbos: ri lated to matrimony, lutorages, guardianships, powers .orney, commercial business, and matters of inheritance. e ensuing table gives the e: - O>00 ICO O
XII. Immigration.
Under the auspiecs of peacc, Venezuela has been devcloping her natural weahh durtng the last few years so that there is no inhabited regin n the country which does not offer material proof of the existence of one of thc three industries which constitute the cssential means of national*property, to wit: Agricultura, Cattle-brccding and Mines. Owing to the impulsin naturally given to all branches of Public Wealth, when skill and la'oour enlarge their sphere of action, the elements of progresa at the disposal ofthe Republic have been gradually 111 ult iplied and the means of transporting its commodities; contnued intellectua! intercourse, and the cultivation of friendly relations, are now more in harmony with the present state of things, Thus in a short time a considerable rse has taken place n exports; highroads have been substituted by railways in many places ; tclegraph-lines have to a certan extent absorbed part of thc post-oftice work, and terriiorcs, which formerly were inaccessible to human labour, are now open to industrial aclivity. The case with which emigrants have been'per-suaded to tome from different countries to the Republic can in no other manner be accounted for, especially from France, Spain, taly and the Canary Islands, as well as the noble desire with which the honest and liard-workingininigrant tries to establish himself n Venezuela, where even the climate and habits are genial tf> him. It is a rare thing for an immigrant not lo find employment in thc country after a short stay. and it is still more uncommon to find a person who, working dilligcntly in sonie branch of industry or trade, is not sure to acqurc iu Venezuela a comfortable position.
It is not only Agriculture, Cattle-breeding and Mines which can serve n the Republic as an indticement to immigration for owing to the industrial dcvelop-ment, towns are taking larger proportions, new roads are opened and therefore both architeets and engineers, artisans and workmen find onni n .mi- ' iking
]| /
3|W
OI
lder nies nall lhc sof iree itly
ns, id.


XI.
Public Registry.
V'ational Registry-I.aw, sanctioned by thc Congress of the Repub.ic on til., 1887, and enacted on the 3oth. of the same month, prescribes that 1 Rpir.nl of the Federal District and in that of every State of the Union uist be a General Registry, and that both in the Federal District and in Uipilal of a District of tiie States there is to be a Subordnate (lllicc dc-g upon thc correspondillg (enrral one. There are, therefore, 111 all the Rc-e, General Registries and 123 Sllbord'nate, ineluding the two exsting m iruari Federal District according to Article 123 ofthe I.nw. ornas or patents of Lawvcrs, Solicito, Physicians, Surgeons, Apothecaries, .cers Archbishops, llisliops, Deans, Canons, Cales, Letters of appoint-of Civil and Militan- Ollieers, Ship-Registcrs, aud l'atents of Invenlum, gistered or recorded in G.:neral Offices, and iu Subordnate ones contrais "milenta referring to di-clarations; lo transinission, limitation, and tnort-of property ; thosj related to matrimony, tutorages, guardianslips, powers ornev, commercial business, and matters of nheritanee. e enuing tablc givts the cxnct movement effected in Ihe 132 Registry es during the economieal year of 1S87 to 1888 which is the Iirst one after iromulgation of thc l.aw.
1 1 | 1 Ji X> 00 -t- f co w ci 0^ !''-~j. i. *^ ^ o, t-C-cT -r ir> 0 . ir, tC c rC rr o.co w ^ co OOp* l*" 2 | | f? ?ofc | 8 ^t" n 1 ^ ? t 4 tn e! .. m n i ri r d > o p
i 0 c ci o- o- ~ -r ci rom -r h croo i^ww O' r- t-* 00 m\o -r co m i Cl 'O -O O- cn 0 O t~ ! 0 '0 m ero t> -f"lC f c> CI cj i>. m m 0 in m Pi h m un t, m m 'i 0 m c i> I j n
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u C B !.' i I ,s-| IS | 1 ^5 '-'? 1 ?,:!""' 1 1 i 1 1 To
y. l 0 K 1 !! .11 ti l mj -JO O ...CUJ U U l co co -t- r- -r O- -r -t- t ^ co co O. S | s? | | S | -8,8 5 1 fp,'S SI-- i S (fir'i 1 fi ti -f 1 1 c; ff.co 0 0 "} 4 rq i/-, t m J ci o 0 t-C >
f, t-. crl00 COtC NTI O, - *0 N co 0 f CI W co | rr'" L- 1 1 1 ?%* 1 ? 1 MIS c c ro Ci
y. j f. "o --7 tn>d t>- 'o ".' u ti n n "i t'.o ci ct 0 0*5 ro CI, 0^ rn -T 0^ M W_ -t 'O OT d" i co* h o" i co h h h t ( r t i/i oco i ci i i r-, c * cJ >d h ci ci cT 0
A 2 1 3 = 1 a | a-tifiti moo 'O co ci hco >o 0 O1 ^-'O ci f. jo s
:/) 1 ni 1 . 1 0 | | t^' M o-ina C co r-co c i- o> >o o oc>i^ 0 co o- m r^TO i- O m "i m meo Ci 0 'O >o i *o o'co i i ' r" c i i c C- w CI co vo rn 0 N i f l> 1 i | | ^rvo ro | | co ^ =r | 1 m a> meo r-.^ g | c m. | j | 0 n m t m en m "O CI q> ^-1
rr i^. ir, oco i~-co t ci rc,co ci co ro ^ io m m rn | O L00 O -O |>.< M 1 III? o> co
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| g M =2 1 1 ? S, g.^ """" 1 1 1 1 IR Cn
- < 00 ^J- co m & lo u", ti O n cs ^ "f o r-v r-*\o to H N t i>. vorCrf-i i oo* o" i OO 00 '* t"t"t i r^.fll--fO i icn i f \o ct> co t-sco 0 co co m c^ \ -r to er. ci m - r*. - A B' r-8
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o m vo io f- o r- 0 9> "01-1 >S ^ r-, ir r-.cO rovo mcn o 0 r-. vq_ h i o 00 O" | i o 4 1 o" m o^g' | ^ j ,j i g !? | h In t 1 1 ^ cT 1 c? gJSJ**T "rCO **' 1 co VO "9 ro CO vo
3 5 c O "^ rr. ra -t- O ro m O O h *o 'o m oo r>o0 *o *o 1 ? 5&?j?o| Ve. .8 5 | | | | | i>; 1"
| a --no ri oco 0 co co com-O "i ci O i r- to h vo h 'ovq_ cj_ ^ n meo co^ q> F m -? i hTvo" co i m r 0 - cT meo* cf-vo i l i i i - cT 1 o m h1|MO> m -ovo ntOSo + m m *c | f' n i i co m ci oo l vo* 00 t
1 1 h 0 Or, 0 vo vo m ONCOtO ovo vc "1 M vo o | | m.o* $ fO j S S Ni, | | j h 0 t -h
h p 1 I 1 "i ~ PZV ^^^WK^S 3 ~C vo'co* m o m m ~ m m' o"co* cT o* 'co" <-T i u" ^ i r-O O i i co wo meo f^rmmi'iN ovo ci i cr> l | j j | T~ r~ | I ti oso cv vq ca co q 0 n <- m j | oo j c t c'c h h ( m 1 ^ q I
1 si las o inNfimO 0 -t n ir) n 0 co ii io M-vO m ~f | | | i g. S | | ^ . j J m s ; [ o m r-i r
\ i rt ,0 co 0 f w u c -c> m -d-o n m en. d i i i'sfs.i i g-s |.| *4 i i ii i i s 7:1 o 1 1 co rovq t^1 1 m q co 1 *g 1 0 o 0 vd
1 y 1 i 5 jas 1 -s, 1 hh m co n | | ^ | | (.g-O | | | | | H 10
s r. M D 0 y a Patents of Officers of the Civil Service... Sealed Wills............................ Criminal Triis ,, ., .......... Prtesis and other judicial acts.......... j Urban Property............ Sales of >ura. > .............. j lreeding do..... ...... Tack-sale.i aud | Agricultural Properly .. | Urban Property'...... Paymcnt of Agricultura! Property Mortgages on 1 Breeding Properly ____ Ship Registers................ Totals............. ......
XII. Immigration.
Under the auspiecs of peace, Venezuela has been developingher natural wcalth during the last few years so that there is no inhabited regin in the country which does not offer material proof of the existence of one ofthe three industries which constitute thc efticntal means of nationaf property, to wt: Agriculture, Cattle-breeding and Mines. Owing i) ihe impulsin naturally gfven to ali branch.-s of Public Wcalth, when skill and labour cnlarge their sphere of action, the elements of progress at the disposal of the Kepublic have been gradually multiplicd and the means of traiisporling itscomir.odittcs; continued intellectual intercourse, and thc cullivation of friendly relations, are now more in harmony wth lhc present state of things. Thus in a short time a considerable rise has lake 11 place in exports; highroads have been substituted by railways in many places ; tclcgraph-lincs have to a certain cxtciU absorbed part of the post-office work, and tcrritories, which formcrly werc inacccssible to human labour, are now open to industrial activity. Thc case wth which emigrants have been'per-suaded to come from different conntries to thc Kepublic can in no other manner be accounted for, especially from France, Spain, Italy and the Canary Islands, as well as the noble desire wth which thc honest and hard-working inmigrant tres to establsh biinscU in Venezuela, wherc cven thc climate and habits are genial to htm. !t is a ra re thing for an minigrant not to find employment in thc country after a short stay. and it is still more uncommon to find a person who, working dilligently in somc branch of industry or trade, is not sure to aequire n Venezuela a comfortablc posilion.
It s not only Agriculture, Cattle-breeding and Mines which can serve in the Rcpublc as an nducement to muiigration for owing to the industrial dcvelop-ment, towns are taking larger proportions, new roads are opened and therefore both arehileets and engineer, artisans and workmen find oi>portunity of making use of their alulities.
T/tc" Guzman Blanco a nd Bolivar Colonies.
To nsnrc tlic futuro of immigration, pnrlicularly that which comes under certain condilions, the Covernmcnt established in 1874 two farming Colonies which snce then have been gradually developing notwthstanding the small number of seltlers who began to farm and cultvate them. The principal of the two lies to thc South of River Tuy between the Guarico and Bolivar Sectons of thc State of Guzman Blanco. t has very large mountains traversed by three rapid streams of grcat volume and more iban a hundred rivulets which greatly con tribu te to its unconrmon fertility. Thc climate is healthy nd thc temperature agreeablc, according to the place and season, varying from 12o to 23 Centigrade. The trael of land it comprises s capable cf affording work to more than 100,00;.) labourers and also produces coffee. cocoa, sugar-cane, indian-corn, beans, French beans, rice, and other commodities of general use. When the road, which is being construcled to connect this farming center with some places on the banks of thc River Tuy s linished, this Colony will be only 130 kilometers distant from the capital of the Republic. Its height above the sea-level is 1,800 meters and its population was at the beginning of 1888 of 1,511 inhabitants. This colony s called the Guzman Planeo Colony and its capital is Taguacita which has already been mentioned in the correspor.ding Section. The valu of what this Colonial District produced during the year 1S88, is as follows:
Coffee................................ 1. 606.720
Cocoa........ .................. ....... 20.160
Plantains............................... 2.375
Sugar-canc............................. 126,400
Total......................... 755-655
The Bolvar Colony is not far from Guatire and liesin one of thc ramifications of thc chain of Mountains bordering the coast of Venezuela. It has land suitable for thc cultivaton of coffee, for pasture, for any kind of minor produce, and offers to immigrants who are willing to establsh themselves there, very cnticing piospects. Grcat is the fertility of the mcadows watered by river Araira, as well as that of lhc hlly part, in spitc of the difficulties to be inet with on account of the steep declivity of thc ground. Thc temperature there flucta tes between 20o and z\ and the climate is one of the healthiest in the Republic. One of the principal sources of this Colony's future prosperity, is thc peculiar conditon of its abundant, pur and transparent walcrs. Thc chicf artcles it produces are ndian-c'orn, Frcnch-beans, beans, and plantains though there are coffee-cstates with over 120,000 trees. At the commencement of 1888 this Colony had 830 inhabitants belonging to 127 families, 38 te-roofed houses, 155 thatched ones, 2 offices where coffee is put in condition, 4 where cassava s made, and shops, Reccntly a Govcmmcnt-Housc was built in Araira, which s the capital of the Colony ; this building has Barracks and a Prison attached to it, and now a church is being crected.
XIII.
Waste Lands.
The Law on this subject now in forc, enacted on July; 2nd., 1S82, prescribes that all lands comprjsed within the limits of thc Republic which do not belong cither to Commons, or Corporations or prvate persons, as well as those held with unlawful title, and those claimed by the Nation according to Resolutions to this effcct, are considered Public-Lands. The Federal Executive manages Public Lands and allots them according to how it may deem it more convenient, either to Farming or Mining Colonies, or to the establishment of Territories for the cultivaton of natural producs, or for the protccCon of natives, orto'thc devclopment of immigration, or to any enterprises or industries which may be useful to the Country. In alloting Public Lands the Law establishes that the rghts of lhc granice, his heirs and successors are waranted, but that the Nation is not responsible either for eviction or indemnities, or obliged to put thc pur-chascr in possession by fixed limits. Any one wishng to buy a plot of Public Land must Iirst of all bind himself to cultvate, within three years after thc allotment is granted, at least one half of the land, and if it is cattle-breeding" land, to establish himself in it within one year. Thc sale is effected according fo the estmate which thc Law prescribes and with an order issticd by the Department of Fomento the corresponding sum is paid in the Oflicc of Public Credit either in National Consolidated 5pCt. Stock or in cash the'equivalent sum of the inarket price of said Stock according to lalest quotations.
The amount of Public Lands exsting in the Republic as well as that of those sold in 18S7 to iSSS has been mentioned in the Geografihical Section.
XIV.
Admnistration of Justice.
This important branch of Administraron has been regulated in Venezuela in a wise and precise manner, according lo the best principies of universal legis-lation. For its practica 1 admnistration there are thc Civil and Penal Codcs and the respective ones of Procedure. Thc first one, sanctioned on thc foth. of December 1880, consists of 1,923 Anieles and establishes thc rule respectng the rghts and duties of citzens with regard to their acts in social life. The Penal Code now in forc s that of thc 201. of February 1873. It has 582 Artictes which enumrate all common crimes and determine the manner to prevent and punish them. The Code of Civil Procedure was enacted on the loth. of December 1S80 and has 563 Anieles which establish the rules to be'observcd in the Admnistration of Tustice in civil matters. The Code of Criminal Procedure has 415 Artcles and establishes the mode of procedure in criminal matters.
The Superior Tribunals of Venezuela, as already stated in the Political Section, are: The Supreme Federal Court of Justice and the Supreme Court of Appeal. For local wants there are throughout thc Republic special Courts and
ISuperior Jiidicatures which try separately civil and criminal cases. There are also, according to the necds of each Section, District, Borongh, and Town-Corporation Judgcs. '" *


38
7
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te
(2


Pages Missing or
Unavailable


\
Limni.uy ol vhirh have b
ivil and inercantlc cases of ordinury and voluntary juris-eu Iried hy Lliu respective: Courls nf thc Kepublic in 1887
K'l'S
! i Tr! IllIKl'.SI
:.] ISt.llK'-r
liso thc: 1)
1 i J lical til'l
l ~ H 1
Xaional Wealtii Scclion. 1.
Agriculture
'1 he cultivaton ol coffee, cocoa, and sugar-canc constitute thc principal pru-duclion of \ enczuelan agriculture. Thc two first are constantly cxpoitjd, particu-larly coffee which s thc most considerable source of the country s wealth. Thc fertility of the Venezuelan Tcrrilory. however, is so -real that iii any /.ora: of thc Republic su hable for agriculture ha'rvcsts of all kinds of nutritious grain, cdible roots of divers classes, cotton, tobceo, and all other commodities which are peculiar to hot countries are r: ap.xl. Amon.y; edtble grain, indian-corn grows so abundantly that there is r.o State of the L'nion wherc its cultivaton is not a success. One fifth o the population of Venezuela is engaged in agriculture.
Thc Mcrcantile Section gives particular:: about thc tpiantitv of each commodity exported.
XV.
Penitentiaries
orn:! y iv:tn
Saturnal K-thc Courls o
le is in th( :rn i 'cnitcnl:
s called llu hud in the o!
he Kasleru 1 |ow:ig is ih
1*.
lus
cutiv
wherc eliminis gentenced to cise confine-Venezuela serve their respective sentences. un Carlos n the Zulia Section and is called irv ; tli- second, in the Libertador Castle of Pucrlu Ca-C'entral Penileutiarv. and lhc third has been decreed to 1 Santiago Kortrcss al A raya, Cunian Section, and will cnitent iarv.
1 a\- i : ni i. U: I --.. ;u. vi: ! !.-\ Ib. ( ls f
Cattle-breeding'.
1 he 1111
u! cattle exsting 111 Venezuela has been gradually nercasing in a remarkable manner during thesc last years, horned cattle more ihanany other. ln 187 3, that is 10 say, 15 years ago, there were 1,389,802 head of horned cattle and by the end cf 1808 statstics in luis respect give a number of 8,476,291.
The following lables coniain the most recent particulars i 11 regard lo thc increase of each species until 1SS8 and its compnrison with former ycars:
873 Iu3j 1887 | 188S
lloincd-ailtlc . i ).So2 2.158.26; (lois and 2.Q2C. 7 6.687.04 1 8.476.2OI 1
3I


Tin- siimniary of civil and iilcrcaiitilc casis of ordinary and vulujiliirjr jnris-dielionuhich have been Iried liv lhc respective Courls of tlic Kepublic 111 1SS7 and iSSS. are as follou-S':___-
coL'Ris ol' jL'sricr.
Ye
S87
Sil [>0 l i 1
1 nluin lloroug
: TribunalslColirtsaiid Judicaturcs Ist. lilslancel ....................
ais of the District...............
h Judicaturcs....................
Totals
-66 .448
S.Qfi
Vea r
1050,11.440
iS I 1.284
1,467
-' S
^57 a6-
1.709
1 .-193
14.^6
XV.
Pcnitentiaries,
ln conformiiy witli thc K.veculive Decreced .Maivh 6th., 1S0.1, thc Kcpuhl: luis three National F.stablishmenls wherc criminis senlenced to cise conline-mtinl bv thc Ctnirts of Jnslicc of Venezuela serve their respective sentences. 'J'he irst one is in lhc Forlress of San Ciarlos n lhc Xuliu Secton and is called the.'Weslern Pcnitciiliary ; thc second, in the I-ibertador Castle of Puerto Cabello and is called lhc Central Penil euliary, and the third has been decreed to be established n the od Santiago Forlrcssl Araya, Cunian Scclion, and will be called the Eastcrn Pcnitcntiary. ',
The following is lhc number of criminis who, senlenced by thc Courts of (usticc, vvere conlncd in the pouttentiaries ofthe Kepublic iu 1887 and 1888, aud the crimes for which they were Iried.
M.inslnnghter............
Allempied Mauslaughtcr Connterfciting of money.
Kobbury Wnunds. Arson .. Violence
I
47
32
Total
79
There'are besides in the Federal District aml in the States, jals where sentences of oprn eonlinement or arresl are servetl, or where criminis await thc result of the cases for which they are trice!.
Jy thc end of 1888 the number of prsoners in thc jails of thc Republic was :
por Manslatighter................................. 103
,, Attempted Manslaughtcr..................... 28
,, Wountls.................................... M9
,, (hiarrcl....................................... 74
Arson.................................;..... 1
,, Violenco...................................... 11
Robbery..................................... 39
Thcft ....................................- 52
,, Slander....................................-"- 6
Rapie...................................... 6
,, lnfanticidc ...... ......................... 4
lnstilt ....................................'---- 9
Burglary..................................... 3
Disrespcclful Dcmcanor....................... 74
,, Drunkcnncss................................ 33S
Complicity................................... 2
,, Minor Offenees............................... 1=7
, Insanity.................................. y
Total Number of prsoners. ........ r .037
XVI.
Charitable Institutions.
From thc beginning of his Admnistration thc actual President of the United States of Venezuela silowcd an earnest desire to reglate this branch of Public Service and to that cffect issuecl on August i6th., 1888, a decrec enactng the cstablishmcnt of a National Hospital for both sexes, with sufiieient capacty for at least 1,000 sick-pcople and similar in all respeets to the Laribossiere-Hospital in Pars. This buildng which s rcally monumental, and which has already been described under thc hcading of Principa/ Citiex, will be finishcd by the )cnd of iSSa. The other Hospitals of the Federal District are the Civil one for Men, thc Military one, that for Womcn, that for Lepis, and the Lunatic Asy- lum, which have been specially organized according to a Resolution of the President of thc Republic, -dated October 8th. 1SS8, which establishes a General Superintcndencc that is intrusted with thc strictest vigilance with regard to healthy eonditions, foud, medical assistance, and interior management of each one Good improvements have beca effected in all, particularly i 11 that for Womcn, and in order that thc condition of prosperity osaid Asylums be known and to publish its statistic?, an oflicial periodical has been established, called "Gaceta de los Hospitales de Caracas^ which also includcs clinical observations and other cssays licsdes thesc, there are in thc Federal District several Charitable Institutions, such as the Orphan Asylum, and thc National Charity Asylum, which greatly contribute to thc relief and comfort of paupers and other helpless persons.
In conformity with the Prcsidcnt's Resolution of nth. January, 1S89, cightecn Sistcrs of Charity have latcly arrived from Erante who have been sent for to atlcnd and ir.anagc thc Hospitals and other Charitable Institutions of the Re-puhlic.
Thesc Institutes had during 1SS7 and iSSS the following movement :
Ycars Admitted Disinissed on account of recovtry or othenvise Deccascd
M. t. Total 5-573 5.674 M. | Total M. I'-. Total
4.122 4-=7S 1.451 1.396 3.22S 3.421 960 933 4.197 4-354 760 76S 495 474 '=55 1.242
lSS3.........
s.400 =.847 n.=47 6.64 g 1.902 S-55- t.52S 969 = 497
XVII. Army.
Che Military Codo now in forc in tlic Republic is that sanctioned on the h. of ^February, 1882. It has 1,687 Artcles which determine the nattire of 1 National Army, its forn'iaton, object, commissions, posts, and everything c regarding Public Forc as thc fafe.yuard and maintainance of legal pcace. )n thg 31SL of December SSS thc Regular Army amounted to 3,385 men h their corresponding number of comniissoned and non-commiss:oned Of-?rs and was disiributed in ^garrisons, 20 of which correspond to an equal num-of towns of thc Kepublic, 5 to Castles and Fortresses, 5 to Federal Tcrri-es and one to the Columbian Frontier, and the four last 10 ships ofthe tional Navy. The Miltia consists of more than 250,000 citizens and in cas.' becd an active army of 100,000 men may be raised from its numbers, XVI I. National Navy.
'he Venezuelan War-Navy consists of 5 steamers and 5 sehooners. Three [incrs are alwys in active service.
National Wealth Scclion.
1.
Agriculture
The cultivation of coffee, cocoa, and sugar-canc constitute the principal pru-duclion of Y eiiezuelan agriculture. The two iirst are constantly cxnoitd, particularly coffee which is the most considerable sourec of the country^ wealth. Thc fertility ol the Venezuelan Territory, howcver, is so ^-rcat that in any zone of lhc Republic suitablc for agriculture harvests of all kinds of nutritious grain, cdiblc roots of divers elasses, cotton, tobceo, and all other commodities which are peculiar to hot countries are rcaped. Among cdible grain, indian-corn grows so abiinelantly that there is no State of thc Union where jts cultivation s not a success. )ne fifth of lhc population of Venezuela s engaged in agriculture.
The Mcrcantile Section gives particulars about thc quantity of each com mod t y e x port ed.
II.
Cattle-breeding.
J'he number of cattle existng in Venezuela has been gradually incrcasing in :i remarkable manner during Ihcse lasi ycars, horned cattle more than any other. Iu 1873, that is lo say, 15 ycars ago, there were 1,389,802 head of horned cattle and by lhc end cf 1888 siatistics in tiiis respect give a number of 8,476,2911.
Thc following tablcs contain the most recent particulars in regard to thc increase of each species until 1888 and its compnrson with former years:
1873 1 ,87c 1883 1886 1887 888
! iorncd-catilc .. Goals and Sheep........ Ilogs ......... 1lorses ........ Males.......... I onkeys....... 1.389.8o2!. 158.=67 1.128.27312.309.418 362.597 660.112 J3.80O i92.815 47.200 I56.02o 28I.ooo 5I9.82O 2.926.733 3.490.563 976.500 29i.603 247.703 658.764 5-275-48I 4.645.858 i.439.185 344015 277.691 769.920 6.687.041 5-I58-4M 1.666.489 365-498 288.897 813.224 8.476.291 5-727-517 1.929.693 387.646 300.555 858.963
3.302.672I6.oo5.452 8.59I .866 12. 752 .750 14.979.563 17.680.665
Venezuela possesses mnense plains, covered with different sorts of grasses. which are verv suitablc for cattle.
III. Mines.
Prcciutis metis in great abundance and mineral substanecs of very great valu and utlty are found wthin the limitsof the Venezuelan Territory. There are very rich Gold Mines in different States and Tcrritories of the Republic, chefly n the Yuruar; there are Silver mines in thc States of Bennudcz, Lara and Los Andes; Copper mines in these States n those of Guzman Blanco and lolivar; Iron mines in different places particularly throughout the Delta Federal Territory, wherc many have lateIy been dscovered ; and n other Sectons of the country, Sulphur, Coal, Asphalt, Petroleum, Lead, Kaoln, and Tin Mines. There is also a very grcat varety of rocks and clay suitable forbuildingpurposcs and for arts, and in many places, especially in the State of Falcon there are grcat layers of saltpctrc, alum, and manures, such as guano and phosphate of lime.
Thc most active mining regin at present in the Republic is the Yuruar Territory. 1 )lTerent Companics more or less organized, such as "El Callao" which is lhc principal one, "I-a Union", 11 El Callao Bis", "Alianza de Cicapra", "El Choc'1, and many other Companics, possessing gold prod.ucing land, have been working for some years, though with those contingencies peculiar to new industries, the wealth of that ground which is called tobea vast producihgcenter from which thc wholc Republic will rcap innumerable benefits.
The following tablc gives thc amount of gold sent from the Yuruary Territory to Ciudad lolivar during 1887 and 1888 by the National Superintendent of Mines of said Territory, and shows the quantity yieldcd by each mine,,-thus:
COMPANES
El Callao..........................
Chile ..: ...........................
La Unin...........................
El Callao Bis.......................
Cicapra............................
El Choc....._____................
Venezuela Austin Limited .........
Gold belongng to several Companies Surface and Amalgam-gold......;...
Year 1887
154
292 20T
130 648
608
S93
Year 1888
L.643 7 105
154 186 69
706
348
457 351
155 431 344 608
344 400 5-074 9=3
Total:
797 362
3
.56
220
"5
836 996
397 065 35i 893 55 313 231 083
The gold belongng to different Companics and surface and amalgam-gold was sent by several firms and by prvate individuis.
From 1866, which was thc epoch when the rich Mines of what is now tlic Yuruar Territory began to be formally worked, to 1886, the quantity of gold
exported from that Mining District amounted to........ K 55.861
and total of foregoing table............................_5.074
Yicld up to 1SS8..................................
G83S 923
G 761
...................... K 60.936
Thc Copper Mines of Aroa, lying in the Yaracuy Section of the State of Lara are thc only ones of this kind which are now worked in the Republic. Tke Quebrada Raihvay Land V Copper Cotupany Limited commenced to work them fifteen ycars ago and on account of the great increase of its yield had to build a railroad from the center of the mining-works to Tucacas which isa place wherc the Company ship to Puerto Cabello thc copper-ore they send abroad. During the years of 1SS6 to 1S87 and 1SS7 to 1888 this line carried 8,218 passen-gers, besides great quantitics of mineral yiclded, and K. 16,335,782 of sundry goods. Thc total weight of exported mineral in these two years was K. 72,609,456. The capital of this Company s of B. 20,366,397.50.
At present thc French Company called "Hujlas del Never" works thc rich coal-mincs of thc Naricual-vallcy which is not far from Barcelona, the capital of thc State of Bermudez.
The Mining Law now in forc was sanctioned by thc National Congress on May 26U1., 1887, and was enacted by the President of thc Republic on thc 3oth. of thc same month. Thc Executive Decree which regulates it, was issued on the 3i"d. of August following, and determines in 56 Articles the manner in which both the Government and persons having interest therein are to proceed in regard to right of property, discovery, indication, contributions, provisional and defin t ve possession-titles, and other circumstanccs regarding the working of Mines within the Territory of thc Republic.
IV.
Precious woods, Dye-woods and Timber.
Tlic abundance of natural vcgctatlon in ncarly the \vhoJ>. Territory of thc Kepublic, chicfly in uncultivated regions, will be a sourec of natural elements for thc cstablishmcnt of new industries in Venezuela when the growth of population shall be so considerable as to extend the working centers to uncultivated places which abound in incalculable wealth. Thc grcat quantity of all kinds of use ful wood so plcntiful in Venezuelan Forests are fully sufiieient to afford employment to a great number of pcople and encourage the establishment of new industries which will be more profitable than those of other countries. The


46
//^ s~x.f^. Fj. /jr. y/.
7(00 i .< J?.
' 7
/ZL
r


47
8
lamber o sum plus df wood sent to Lhc National Kxhibilion in 1883 amounted :o 2,070 which corresponded to about 600 different kinds of wood suitable for jarpentry and cabinet-work, and timber. Five were from tlie Federal District, 578 from thc State of Guzman Blanco, 276 from the State of Carabobo, 20T f The variety of Dye-Woods is equalIy rcat, such as mora-wood, "brasil", "brasilctc", "arracai", "paraguatn", and thc "nazareno" which grow throughout ihe country, besides other no less va'uable. natural dye-subsiances in Venezuela, such as ndigo, analto, bosuga-bark, innnglc-rcots, &c.
The dividivi, red mangle-bark, an;! othci sui;stnncrs used for tanning purposes are also produecd.
V.
Medicinal Plants and Substances.
It woakl be prolix to enumrate thc plants and substances of Venezuela of which use is mude in many cases in pharmacy. In the Fxhibitlon in 1883, 500 samples of tliis kind were represented. This gives 110 doubt an adequatc idea 1 of the profusin wilh which thcyexist evcrywherc 111 thc country. Those which are constantly used are, thc woriu-wood, beneseed, mugwori, angelonia, anise, anisecd, horage, knecholly, cassia, holy-thistle, very active against certain fevers, coriander, "cupana" which is refreshing and aromatc, besides beng a good i'ebrifuge and diuretic, common dill, viperroot, corn-flag, cochmenl, "guaco", | "guamacho", fennel, ipecacuanha, linseed, plantain, tobacco-pepper. mallows,
coy ....... ........,.................
su'-i-,,/ noW t. 7 /
(ommeichil Secou.
Interior and Exterior Commerce.
Thc Code of Finance, alte red n December 31SL, 18S3, to which I.awswere addcd, sanctioned by Congress n 1884, 011 Custom-Housu Ordinanccs regardim; thc introduction of geods and thc confisca t ion of prohib ted ones, comprises all the Resolutionsol thc Government relating to the Admnistration and .Management of thc State-Treasury, and also determines the procedure n commercial transactions which are directly connected wit h certain Branches of thc National Revenue. Amongst the 38 laws of which it consists thc Tariff of Import Duties, which is Law Number XXIII, no longer subsista for it has been included with certain altcrations in thal sanctioned 011 the aSth. of March 1889 by the actual President of the Kepublic Doctor Juan Pablo Rojas Pal.
There is likews; a Trade Code which reglales all commercial transactions, sanctioned on February 2oth., 1873, and consisting of 961 Anieles cstablishing rghts and duties of tradesmen n their innumerable transactions, and cstablishing thc legal form for all commercial acts thoiigh they be perfermed eventual!}' by persons of a different profession.
l.ui'UK; -.
The increase in thc valu of goods imponed through thc Custom- Houses of lhc Republic durng the last fifteen years is rcmarkablc, especially if compared with foregoing ones up to 1873, as may be secii by the following table of vales imported during somc previous vean-
1 \ars I 'ii/i/es Imported
1830 1831 II. 8.188.105,65
lH3 [835 13.990.167,80 18391840 24.865.431,25 18441845 19.846.907,70
S',';--! '-S'- i 6.593.246,50
l854 lS55 24.97l.2l8,
l855 I860 27.230.577,70
l304- l85 135.205,70
1075i$74 1.717.103,45
This com par son shows that thc last figure but one had risen ncarly to lwo thirds its amount by 1874 ; and ten years later. in 1084, Ib:: tolal valu of importa was twicc as large,
The .said trade has been carriel! on in Venezuela ihrouh :s Custom-Huiists dtiinri'fl in the f. AUnv',n>* nh / f...:~......' '---- '


i ,. ,r -,,,,les uf wooll sclll lo lile National I'.X11 ihiliilll ii loSj amounted ,l,th c nvsiK.iKl.il tn .-tl.mil ,,o difieren! kinds of wood suitablc for .0 2,070 1 lie he ^Jwok, and tin.bcr. I'ivc ere from the Federal District, -Km thS ute ,fV.unmkn Illanco, =76 froin the State of Carabobo, 20, f,om
:h s te of ilerililldez. 4 from the State of Mollear, 249 Irom tile State o Za-ora % rom -he State ofUra 286 from lhc State o Falco,, ,,5 from the Si "te of I os Andes, and 68 from the I erritories and (. alomes. Among wouds suitablc for cabinet-work Venezuela has tro. wood, 10 the mahoeany and lis dillereni cedar and "ane'elino" to the oak and lignuin-vita: which impcrishability is of grcat valu, "araguaney", "cuspa clarea,o which are used
l'hcir Dcculiar'coclition's are frcquently used in ship-builcling. There are also ln Venezuela parielllarlv in the Mate ol Ilermudez, nlinite species ol palms amongst' which are those called "inorichc "temiche"espinosa "pin tu", "palmiche", and "coro, oil, and soap and tlic nativ hamniocks aud baskets. ,, , ..,
Ihe virietv of l>ye-\\oods is equally eieai, such as mora-wiod, 'brasil "bnsilcte" "arracai "paraguatn", and the "nazareno" which grow throtigh out'ihe country, besides oiher noli
;ul .", palisaiule anin;; timber Irom the 0:1 account of its sides many, such as the "alcornoque", puy", masaguaro" and the "yopo" ,. 'house buding, there are several, sueh as Ihe "mora'", el", "paralare", "caro" and "carian" which oa account o
IH
l'hey \ tus oul
d native wine, viuee: valuable. natural dyc-substances in V(
lann 111.; purposes
. LOO L Ol II l > "------- ....
,lK-la such us ndigo, analto, bosuga-bnrk, mnrglc-roots, &c Thc dividivi, red mangle-bnrk, rmdothei substances iisrd for are also produeed.
V.
Medicinal Plants and Substance.
U would he prolix to enumrate the plants and substances of Venezuela which us"' is mudo n many cases in pharmacy. ln thc Kxhibilion in i88j, ; -imples pf'this kind were represented. This gives no tloubt an adequate idea of the profusin wilh which they exist everywhere 111 the country. Those which are constanlly used are, the worni-wood ben 1 1 anisced, liorage, kncelioily^cassia, holy-tluslh
coriander, "cupaui
which s rcfrtshing and
good lonc, rosemary, 'tbano'' an hemnsta-inugrilio",
Other "currueni" and
inugwort, angetoma, anise ry active against certain fcvers, tromatic, besides being a good febrifuge and diuretic, common dill, yiperroot, corn-flag, enchimal, "guaco", "guamacho", fennel, pecaeuanhn, lnsecd, planlain, tobacco-pepper, mallows, common chamomile, '-mastranto", thorn-apple, wild inarjornm, lii-uricc, "paste" or holv-grass, parsley, "pesara penny-roya., polypedy, which hr~ such purifving condlions, ]>cruv:au-bark, ru rhubarb. sni'e, eider, senna, Gurami
lie, spurge. balmgeiltle, "ualiiu valenan, yervein, pur "vagriun'o", m ni', common aloe, and sarsaparia.
'Si? also peculiar gums are producid in the whoUr Republic from thc "jobo", eedar, pluin, and evergreen oak-trues, and very valuabte resins for thc variety of tlieir uses, such as thc caranna and tacamahaca. Of a roma tic plants that which is mostly exported is tlic tonka-bean which has a delicious perfume and is one of the principal sources of wealth of certain Venezuelan foresls as those of the Catira Tcrritories. Amongst others of the same kind there s thc sweet basil, cinnainon, "cuspa", "juva" and vanlla, as v, somc palms like that called "yur" which yieids exi]uisite, aromatic oil. plas which also yicld very usefu! oil y substances, such as the copaiba are equally abundant.
VI.
Salt Mines.
The principal Sal Mines of Venezuela are, that of Araya, dscovered by thc Spaniards in lhc last year of thc X Vth. century in thc Iow coast of the pennsula ol its ame Cumana Section State of Bcrmudcz ; that of Guaranache in lhc same Section; that of Poza Grande in the Barcelona Section of said State; that of lhc Coche Island in the Nueva Ksparta Section, of thc State of Guzmn Illanco ; those of Mi tare and Guaranao, n the Falcon Section in tlic State of thc same ame, and lastly those called La Hoyada, Sabaneta, Sinnmatca, and Salina Kica, in thc tilia Section of thc State of Falcn.
From thc middle of 1SS3 the Salt Mines of Venezuela were worked by contract until by Executive Deerce of Septcinbcr 3oth., 1886, thc Government reassum-cd the "Admnistration of this important Branch of National Revenue, now under ihe charge of an olTicer who, with the character of Supcrintendcnt, appoints and dismisses the nccessiry elerks and presents his accounts to thc lloard of Inquiry within the same lapsos prescribed for these cases to thc Custom-Houses of the Kepublic. Owing to this system thc Salt Revenue has again commenced to increase, as may be scen by thc respective particulars in thc following table, during lhc two last economieal vais compared with thc three previous ones; viz : Net yield ofthe Salt Mines of the Kepublic from 1873 lo 1SS8. Economieal Ycars Yield
1573 1S74..........................B. 402.307,55
1574 1875...................... 925.054,
1875 1876 .......................... 704.190,30
1876 1877........................ 978.402,30
1S771S78.......................... 565.212,
18781879...................... 412.482,
1S791880 .......................... 896.291,90
, 1S80iSSi ......................... 1.129.157,42
188118S2 .......................... 1.003.165,65
iSS-1883......................... 1.007.591,40
18831884 ......................... 583-333.74 I
1SS4tSS, .......................... 541.666,67
1S851SS6 ....................... 566.666,67
1S81SS7 ... ----.................. 603.399,05
1887i883 ......................... 910.152,43
II. 11.229.072.63
VIL
Hunting and Fishing.
A considerable port ion of thc working population of Venezuela depends on thesc two industries. The first one disposes, in different pars ofthe Territory, ofayre.it number of wild animis thc flesh of which is very delicate, such as the peccary, lhc "lap;,", thc rabbit, thc deer, and lhc armadillo ; and thc second iudustry has al ts dispusal a grcat quantity of fish es and shcll-tishes casily sold in ihe country and thc islands surrounding the Main Land. ln lhc seas of the castern Sectons fishir.g is carried on in regular form although there are many fisheries in thc rvers and channcls of the Bolivar State and n those of the Guarco Section of thc State of Guzman Illanco.
Sundry Commodities.
The caoutebouc froin the Alto Orinoco and Amazon Territory is very good, as the gradual inrense in the quantity exported proves. During the economieal year of 1SS7 to 1S88 a total of K. 41,686 with a valu of B. 255,083 of this commodity was exported lo the Brtish West Indiesand 10 the United States of America.
Among other kinds of use ful produce Venezuela has innumerable plants and textile artcles besides cotton such as, "cocuiza", "cocui", "gamelote", "jipijapa", lax, "majagua" and lastly the ramic now so valuable in thc industrial market. A Company, with considerable capital, has just been formed n Caracas to cultvate this plant 011 a large scale. All animal produce of Venezuela is very valuable. The country can compete n wools. furs, hairs, feathers, greases, wa.v, honey, &c, wth the best of other Nations ; and the stlkworm-breeding is taking such proportio:is, that hanks of sk of the bst qualty have latcly been sent lo the Rome and Pars Fxhibitions, prepared in the l"'stabishmcnt which thc Government supports in Caracas. Venezuela possesses ^lso tortose-shell and other precious shells, and ls seas produce beautiful pearls, hielly in those ef the western coast of the Falcon Section and in those of Nueva sparta, for though the pearl oyster-bcds of Margarita, Cubagua, and Coche, renowned at the beginning of the XVIth. century, may n>>w be eonsidered liausted, it appcars that there are very good beds in other islands which have been explored as yet.
Commcrehil Section.
Interior and Exterior Commerce.
lhc Code of Finance, alieivd in December 3ist., 18S3, to which Laws were addcd, sanen.Micd by C (ngress ni iSS.;, on Cu.nom-Housc Ordinanccs regarding the introdiuMion ol yoods and the coniscatmn of prohibited ones, comprises -iil tiie Kesoltitionsot thcGov-rnincni relating lo the Admnistration and Mana-e-meiu ofthe Stale-1 rcasury and ais., dcicriuincs the procedure incommercial irausactions which are directly eonnected with certain Branches of the National Revenue. Amongst thc 3S .aws of which it consist, the lar ij)' of Import Duties, which is Law Number XXIII, no longer sulwists for it has been included with certain ullcrattons iu thal sanctioned on thc 281 h. of March 1889 by lhc actual President of thc Republic Ductor Juan Pablo Rojas Pal.
There is likcwis; a Trade Code which reglales all commercial transactious, sanctioned on February aoth., 1873, and consisting of 961 Anieles cstablishing rghts and duties of tradestilen in their innumerable transactons, and cstabsh-ing the legal form for all comnnicial acts though they he perfcrincd eventual!}' by persons of a different professon.
Thc incrcas;; in the valu- o g< the Republic durng the la^t fiflec with foregoing ones ti|) to 1873, as may imported during some previous ycars : 1 \ars 13 O 1 ' 1 1834-1835
18441845 iS*;1850 1854-1S55 18591860 18641805 J873>874 I his c The wiitl trade has beca carried o;i in Venezuela through 2 Custom-Housts sita ted iu thc following places: l.a Guaira and Juan Griega (State of Guz-inn Plamo); Puerto Cabello (State of Carabobi); Maracaibo and l.a ca (State of Falcn t; < tildad Bolvar (State of Bolvar); Cart'tpano, Puerto Sucre, Gria, Cao Colorado, and Puerto Guzmn Blanco (Slale of Bcrmudcz); and San Antonio del Tehira (State of Los Andes).
The following tables give the movement of this Branch during thc last two years:
1Z0O lo 1887 '
imported through the Cnslom-Houses of ais is ivinarhable, especially ifcompared :cii by the following table of vales
/ 'alues imported B. 8.188.105,65 13.999.167,80 24.865.431,25 19.3.46.907,70 16,593,246,50 24.971.218, 27.230.577,70 38.135.265,70 61.717.183,45 i^iire but one had riscn ncarly to two laler, iu 1884, Lh^: total val lie of m-
Greai Britain...
France........,
1 lermany.......
Spain..........
Holland........
Bclgium.......
ltaly.........;.
United States ol
America.....
Columbia.......
Uruguay.......
liritish Guiana .
West Indcs
Spanish .......
Dutch.........
Britsh ........
French.......
Danis'i ........
Inijnn'ts sub/cet to Dut'y
Vales Dulv B. | B.' 14.746.290,33! 6.703,211. 8.030.254,85: -j.C03.352. 10.133.869,42! 4.1S8.972.
.3B-5357; 5'-3-2.3t
467.662.54! 160,890.
71.197,53' 21.786
27 3.608, i 53-36g.
19.776.789.57j 7.910,17.; 2.107.327,27 555. 3;;. 53.491, n.970.
152.522,4c .}f_'.7.l4.
85.990,091 -",0.400,
966.153,45 359-2 13,
2.056, I 442,
1.780, 147,
/ mports freo of Dnty
Weight :
K.
15.902.100: 1-444-S^'i
843.079:
14-5'/1 37-35C
Vales B.
.998.190,14 5.029.109,70 197.410,07
8.058,87
;-434,
.926,2611 5.086.089,9424, 155.180 328.541,20
Totals.....58.216.425,32123.203.459,8:
3-895
4 4.868
162,60c 2.000
600,
54-512, 472.244, 507.895,05 65
22.636.963 14.975.454,97 73.191.880,29
Total Valiies
l.
17.744.480,47
'3-059-35405 10.331.279,49 1-343-358,57 475-7=ii4' 7t-I97,53 506.042,
.862.879,51 2.435.868,47 55-49L 2.980,30
207.034,40 558.234,09 1.534.047,50
2.12T, I-7S0,
Io87--l838
Great Britain
France.......
Uermany....
Spain.......
Holland.....
Bclgium ....
Italy .......
Switzerlaud United States o
America----
Colombia .....
Ecuador.......
liritish Guiana
West Imites
Spanish.......
Dutch .......
liritish .......
IMports sul'jat to Buty
Vales l.
21.408.320,92 10.409.610,33 i3-35i-537,io 1.817.546,51 783.328,70 163-875,35 3.5-605
16.340.820,39 3.484.181,95 4.000,
175.912, 139.296, 556.743,82
S.677.063,07 29.728.S17,
Uuty 1!.
9.906.019,61 3.846.144,81 5.598.345,83 7S5-547,72 280.439,62 68.632,1c 19.207,le ;o.|,
7.912-910,64 856.903,84 265. 4.270,82
59.616, 95.917,69 294.492,4c
/mports /roe 0/ Duty
1.1S 150.008 217.831
Weight Valties
K. B.
14.066.837 2.101.792,90
1.697.311 2.242.167,55
787-133 108.853,54
1.647 3-7io,
21-539 28.348,85
12.839 iS-735,20
123.297 216.165,
3.031.03c 3.403.004,38
616.867 86r-295,52
20.727.507 10.286.22:5,49 78.963.288,56
-Total Vales
23.510.113,82 12.651.777,88 13.460.390,64 1.821.256,51 811.677,55 182.610,55 251.770; i 2.500,
ig.743.824,77
4-345.477,47 4-oco,
3.7S5t
178.622, 942.639.50 1.052.842,87
COMl'AKATIVK SI'MaiAKV.
1 'ears Total l 'alues Total Duties
I!. Vi.
1S87- 18SS................... ......... 73.963.288,56 29.728.817,84
1SS6 1S87............................. 73.191.880,29 23.203.459,82
Balance in favor of 1S37 to 1S8S......---- 5.771.408,27 6.525.358,02
Goods iutroduced frec of duty through ihe Cusiom-House of La Guaira pro-ceeding.from Great Britain, constst mainiy of iron material for railways, coal aud cement; those of French origin, of sivcr in bars for thc Mint; and those coming from Gcrmaay, of cement. The principal article which enters frec of duty from thc United States of America and from Spanish Wcst-lndes through thc Custom-House of Puerto Cabello is money in gold coins, and ncarly all frec imports through Ciudad Bolivar come from 'Trinidad. Columbian commoditits which, according to thc tariff now in forc, are introduced free of duty through thc San-Antonio-del-Tchira Custom-House, consist of: hempen-sandals, vetches, anisecd, silgar, a certain kind of lcather called "baqueta", fullcd wool, a sweet-meat called 11 bocadillo", cocoa, rugs. "chingalcas", swcets, mats, "fique", French-beans, chick-pea, meal, hams, woolcn-blankels, coincd-gold, potatoes, woolen saddie-coverings, fish, another kind of mat, cheese, tallow, hats, aud toiacco.
LJf.JOUS INTKOICKO iN IKANSIT l-'OK Clil.lMIilA.
1 'ears Custom-houscs 'alues
18861837................. Maraeiibo I!. 2.398.915",
,, ................Ciudad Bolvar 5.659,80
i >. 2.404.574,8o_
1S37 1SS8 ...............Maracaibo 11.4.949.268,18
,,.................. Ciudad Bolivar no.S6o,S6
_ l. 5.060.129,04



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49
EXl'OKTN
Tlic increase of exports in Venezuela during thc fifteen years clapscd from 1S73 to 1888 corresponds perfectly to that of foregoing Branch during thc same period. This increase is better appreciated by comparng figures of annual exports from 1831 to 1873 with following years. 1 'ears
18301831.............. B
18341835............
18391840............
18441845..............
18491850..............
18541S55.............
185918C0..............
18641865..............
18731874..............
Thc foregoing table shows that by 1S74 the Vales Exported n 1864 to 1865 were more than doubled. Thc following table gives n detail figures of vales exported-during the fiscal years of 1886 to 1887 and 1887 to 1888 and the countries to which the different commodities have been sent.
Vales exporta 8.676.829,45 13-38.357,io 23'7S5-5io,3o 22.368.635,05 23.957.205,35 27.467.451,95 34-5M-595,4 33-39S.3S3.90 73.918.122,05
1 o* t t> t>. h en meo co co ci < n a s "i o 'o 0 o co co o m
I m -TCO 'fCO ' ir, ir) vHCO t^-M I N H O XIO (HCO i NH t C*CQ 'O i O O ** O- ""> O O Q 1NO W 11-) c o
< o'co
-10 to h fj t(( t-^co c
Thc foregoing table does not include the export of coined gold aud silver which m 1886 to 1887 reached thc sum of B. 3,087,436.17 with a weight of 8,243 kilograms, and 111 1887 to 18S8 that of B. 4,072,739.35 and K. 6,508, or lewelsand Trecious Stoncs exported through La Guaira, Tuerto Cabello, and Ciudad Bolvar the valu of which was B. 34,788 in 1887 and B. 72,854 ir. 1888.
The total amount of Cattle exported appcars in thc following tabica which also give their destination and the number of each species.
WEST-1NIES
SPECIES J)


0
Horned Cattle____ 7917 870.946
(loats and Sheep 198 1.090
Horses .......... 179 49.419
137 40.920
956 30.970
Total ...... 9.387 993-345
KOKEIGN GUI ANAS
2.338 9
5
2.398
200.400 3.600
2.01 266.OI5
OTHER COl'NTRS,
126 12.650 lOO I .OOO
22613.650
2


X ~o
10.381 1.143.996
298 2.090
188 53-OI9
137 40.920
1.007 3^985
12.011 I.273.OIO
\ i
- b
* I =
4 s.


9
p.xiuh'i
Vcnc/aicla during
tile fifteen years eiapsod from
''i" 'i'ss' corresponil''prfectly to that of foregoing l'raneh durng'tlic sanie ' ' This increase is lietter appreeiated by comparing ligares of annual cx-Is f'roni iS;i to 1873 witli following years. i'ears
........ 1!.
18301831. 18341833
1839 1840. 18441845.
1840 1850. 1854855 185918C0. 18641865. ,8731874.
/ 'alues exported
8.676.8=9,45 13.308.357,10 =3.755-5<.30 22.368.635,05 23.957.205,35 =7.467.451,95 34.514.595,40 33-398.353,00 73.918.122,05
l'he foregoing table shows that by 1S74 the Vales Exported in 1864 to 1865 were more than doubled. The following table gives in detall figures of vales ev,o.S durng the fiscal years of ,886 to 1887 nnd 1887 to ,8" to which the different commodities have been sent.__
\ and the countries
" ^ ? cT 1
pl m h 1
,/ co o co o t h o 1 p 00 o c t o- 1
n h h co >o rovo co meo co 00 co n rn 1 0 vo
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I '...........
ni II "S i 11111
I I
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00 VO -- h'm'cT-1-OOm
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is m m m o co 1
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ro tn vo vo co N vifl tsco O N\ M OCO ts 1
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e I I
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t h vd
m I I J61
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ilO NNW | 1 in n 1
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o -2
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i ts CVC
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es I I j I I I 1 I I I i I I I
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ce I I I I I I I I I I I I I S
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ir; ts
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r- 10 -reo ts o oco ci o vo O' -1- < o o r^co h vo h > cd c> m. tsc ' i
**-vD Cl w rf, ir, [>. -- i O h ci h 1
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cito t -fvo ro a m ov
m fitO lO'O CI h VO
m Tf o O 10 vi
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m I l *3.S 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1
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es mII 11 1 1 1 1 l 11 1 y
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co vo 00 m *(
TOO iOCO tM l
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VO Ov'-O vo Is Cl m -l-co
W i
O'" n
uno m lt) ts
ti Cl [s
ts m\o O O O h O Q
'f m + m vo isvo j m ct invo co
m 4- c cj- r "i- 6
QVOON mcmm o
O ^vo m
n ovo w o -w* -*co
n o ^-vo j
o o ts o o
CO tJ-CO f
o> o
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ow h
W Cl
: . -^r'> :
g.j? u sj 7^^? !
t u te P-tJ o d > p j l o.2 o o o- ^ o-h.- > o t UfxtUKflOflHPOr
II I I I u
1 1- Cl t O tsVO 10 m i m CO
j vo ts ri m to foco o ro | ro | co
8881 j 881
foregoing table does not include the export of coined gold and silver whieh 3 lo 1887 reached thc sum o Ji. 3,087,436.17 ivitli a weight of 8,231 kilo- 1, and 111 1S87 to 1888 that of I!. 4,072,739.35 ai-.d K. 6,508, or lew'clsand
The foregoing table does not include i It 1886
grams, ano 111 1007 io 1030 imu 01 n. 4,072,739.35 antt K. 6,508, or lewclsand l'rceious Stones exported through I.a (luana, Puerto Cabello, and Ciudad I!. Iivar lhc valu of which was 11. 34,788 in ,887 aud 1!. 72,854 in 1S88.
The total amount of Cattle exported appears in thc following tablcs wlich also givc their destination and the number of each species.
1886-1887
WHST-INIHKS |'oki;k;n GUIAN A ij
SPKC1BS 1 1 i m i z X Bolivars |
Horned Cattle____ oats and Sheep 7.9i7 S7O.946 I981 I.090 179 49-4J9 137 40.920 95| 3-970 2.338 9 260.400 3.600 2.015
Mules........... Donkeys......... 5'
Total ...... 9-387' 993-345 2.398 266.015
OTHKl COUXTBS.
.650 .ooo
226 13.650
io.381 298 18?
137 I.O07
.143.996 2.000 53-OI9 40.920 32.985
12.OH 1.273.OIO
18871.888
I'l EIGN oth1r
VVKS'I -INDI KS (IL'IANAS t.'OI'NTIS. TOTALS
SPECIES t 7.
a -O
-C , en
*C ~A X Bol X "o
Horned Cattle.... 9-33 1.088.604 3.279 397980 12.582 1.486.584
Coats and Sheep 291 2.8ll 291 2.811
Horses .......... 240 70..{80 13 5.200 262 75.680
Mules.......... 228 35.588 10 3.900 238 39.488
Donkeys ........ 1.010 4i.98S 128 5-360 1.138 47-348
Total....... 11.081 i.239.47i 3-430 412.440 14.511 1.651.911
Total Exports can therefore be reduced to the following:
Stindry Anieles....
Cattle...................
Cash....................
Jewels and preciutis Stones.
Totals.....
18861887
K.
91.634.12
8.233 187
91.642.548
13.
86.245.264,65 1.273.010, 3.087.436,17 34.788,
90.640.498,82
18871888
K.
6.508 92
80.082.673
13.
80.076.073 84.412.624,21 1.651.911, 4-072,739.35 72.S54,
90.210.128,56
L'UASTIN-TADK.
The following table gives the movement of this kind of trade which has been carried 011 between all the ports of the Kepublic during thc economieal years of 1887 and 1888.
Exports................. Totals................. 18861887 18871888
K. 50.072.645 35.259.991 13. 43-956.799,10 45.810.200,21 K. 52-375-748 32.652.381 13. 44.959.030,97 45.741.922,75
85-.332.636 89.766.999,31 85.028.129 90.700.953,72
From previous figures it is deduced that the commercial activity ofthe country amounts during said two years to the sum of B. 513,473,749.2G thus discrimi-nated:
18871888 .... Totals____
73.191.880,29 78.963.288,56
I52.i55.i68>85
90.640.498,82 90.210.128,56
180.850.627,38
COASTING TRADE
89.766.909,31 90.700.953,72
180.467.953,03
513.473.749,26
To effcct said trade, the number of yessels which entered Venezuelan ports and sailed out of them was 24,558 of the following nationalites and conditions :
NATION A LIT I KS
Venezuelan -----
English.........
French..........
Germn .......
Dutch ..........
Spanish.........
Italian......
Danish .........
Sweedish........
Norwegian......
Austrian........
North-American
Colombian......
Argentine.......
Dominican .....
Small crafts of all nationalites ............
18S61887
349 167 102
84
Total ......
5-542 112 6 40 3=
5-783
=79 108
6.710 5>7
11.788
1887 1S88
5^4 !74 110
95 58 18
6.103 71 8
39 80
6-394
6.607 =45 118 134 136 26 8 44
=4
7-549 5.221
12.770 24.558
498 5=4 226 25S 193 57 12 64
4-259 10.299


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7
Cc-J S^C ^C-ct-l-^r


2 ^>c.
Venezuela en el Extranjero
El A^w York World, fecha 27 de abril publica un discreto y bien pensado artculo scbre Venezuela, del cual creemos conveniente reproducir, traducidos, algunos prrafos.
Se refieren principalmente la noticia que por all circul, con escepcional alarma, de la muerte de un ingls en las bocas del Ro Amacuio, sobre el Delta del Orinoco.
Dicen asi:
"La noticia publicada por E\ World de la muerte de Wiliam Campbell por tres agentes de poli ca venezolanos en el ro Ama-curo ha despertado mucho inters entre la coloni 1 Sur-americana de esta ciudad. No ha sido solamente la noticia de la muerte de Campbell que ha merecido la atencin,sino la creencia de que este incidente renovar con ms rigor la cuestin pendiente entre la Gran Bretaa y Venezuela. Naturalmente, los pasajeros venidos pollos ltimos vapores, de los puertos yenezolanos.han sido solicitadoscon inters por las personas que desean saber la nueva faz que ha asumido la disputa. Hasta ha habido preguntas acerca de si Inglaterra mandara inmediatamente un buque de guerra para demoler algunos puertos venezolanos y cobrar grandes sumas de dinero como una indemnizacin. -
Entre los pasajeros del vapor Caracas de la lnea D roja, que ha trado las ltimas noticias de l costa norte de la,- Amrica dej Sur estaba el "seor Wli'rri "Wf-llard Hovyard, de esta ciudj^ quien
ha estado durante los dos meses ltimos viajando por Venezuela en compaa de su esposa. Al llegar el corresponsal del World a casa del seor Howard le encontr ocupado en abrir una caja conteniendo objetos de alfarera india, recojidos ),ox l y la seora Howard entre los venezolanos.
" S, le el artculo publicado en el World, contest el seor Howard una pregunta del corresponsal. Me sorprende que la noticia no hubiese llegado ms antes aqu, pues nosotros la supimos en Venezuela antes de nuestra salida. El da de nuestro embarco para Nueva York ornos algo de un rumor acerca de que un oficial ingls, en la Guayana, haba matado un jefe de a polica Venezolana, pero como nada he odo luego en confirmacin de esto estoy dispuesto dudar de su veracidad. La situacin es suficientemente grave, sin que eso la complique ms. "
Cuales son las presentes indicaciones de futuro trmino de esta disputa, pues creo que se puede llamar as. ?
S, fu la respuesta, se pue de llamar una disputa, pero realmente es algo ms. Originalmente era una mera disputa, pero en realidad se ha convertido en ma formidable complicacin internacional, tan grave, en fin, que no selo ambos pases han roto sus relaciones diplomticas, sino que estn listos pelear.
En caso de verdadera guerra, Venezuela no tendr muchas probabilidades, dijo el corresponsal.
;Ah, ese jes el punto, respon-


53
iHFibre amarilla.Parece, segn nos informan de Valencia, que en dicha ciudad se est generalizando esta temible epidemia; atacadas de ella han muer-, to ltimamente muchas personas. J^f
"7'


dio el seor Howard, seriamente; J sobre el cual hay una grande equivocacin. Yo no estoy seguro de que Venezuela salga perdiendo; al contrario, yo creo que ella sorprender la mayor parte de las naciones militares del mundo. Usted ignora, creo, que Venezuela tiene uno de los mejores ejrcitos de batalla (fighting army) que jams han usado uniformes. Pocas personas lo saben; pero es un hecho. El ejrcito Venezolano no es grande, pero para la clase de campaa que un ejrcito invasor tiene que hacer no tiene igual. Sus filas estn llenas de hombres qne no saben lo que es el miedo. Lo creo como lo digo.
Estos hombres jams vuelven la espalda. Pifmero mueren peleando que rendirse correr. Tambin pueden pelear muy bien usted cee que un hombre que se est quieto, sin mover un oolo msculo, hasta que el jaguar llega hasta el alcance de su mano, huye de ninguna clase de enemi go ? as es que los Venezolanos cazan el tigre suinmericano. Su caza es siempre un encuentro las manos, en el cual un cuchillo una lanza son las nicas armas.
"Yo dudo que alguien sepa claramente como comenz la disputa. Creo que Venezuela Inglaterra estaban muy satisfechas con sus lmites hasta que los ingleses empezaron sacar oro en tierras venezolanas,
Entonces comenzaron las cuestiones.
Esa parte de Venezuela es increblemente rica en oro, plata y cobre, y naturalmente los venezolanos quieren gobernarla de acuerdo con sus leyes.
He aqu el punto. Si estos sacadores de oro ingleses se hubiesen quedado donde tenan derecho hacerlo y no hubiesen intentado ir ms all de los lmites de su concesin, no hubiera habido dificultades. En vez de hacer esto, sin embargo, comenzaron estirarse en el territorio sobre el cual no tenan jurisdiccin, Guzmn Blanco les permiti que hicieran su gusto, con tal de que sus soldados mantuviesen sus enemi-
| gos [de Guzmn Blanco] en jaque. Ellos ayudaron Guzmn dominar los revolucionarios, y esto era todo lo que el quera. Cuando Guzmn se vio obligado abandonar su dictadura y huir un pais extranjero, el Gobierno que lo sucedi encontr que los ingleses haban ensanchado mucho sus lmites, y que adems estaban haciendo planes para establecer un puerto en el Orinoco. El Gobierno de. Venezuela protest contra las usurpaciones de una manera digna y corts, pero los buscadores de oro rehusaron retirarse. Estos estaban, en fin, tan determinados mantenerse en los avances que haban hecho, que fabricaron fortificaciones y se prepararon pelear. Yo he odo decir que han. tenido algunas escaramuzas accidentales con los venezolanos, pero en este respecto hay muy pocos informes sobre los cuales se pueda descansar.
{Continuar)


55
Cria o i a-n. ^si H eT. wo.i<
Retreta para manana 30. Marcha. Obertura Marta, Flotor. Aria Fausto, Gounod. Fantasa, Elixir de amor, Donizetti. Vals, Esperanza, peticin, Metra. Maz rica. Polka.
T7


Venezuela en el Extranjero
El Gobierno de Venezuela, busc, por todos los medios diplomticos, manera de llevar la cuestin un arreglo amistoso con la Gran Bretaa; pero estos esfuerzos han sido infructuosos, principalmente, I
segn se asegura, causa de la obstinacin de Inglaterra, y su falta de deseo de una discusin limpia del asunto. La muerte del rey de Blgica, que deba obrar como arbitro entre los dos gobiernos suspendi las negociaciones que no han sido desde entonces renovadas. Yo tengo poca esperanza de que la disputa se arregle pronto, aunque, antes de que la muerte de Campbell se supiera, el Doctor Raimundo Andueza Palacio, Presidente de Venezuela, en su mensaje al congreso haba expresado su creencia de que la dificultad de los limites sera llevada pronto un arreglo amistoso.
;Ou efecto tiene esta dificul-tad sobre el comercio en Venezuela?, pregunt el corresponsal. 1 El comercio con Inglaterra ha disminuido considerablemente, dijo el seor Howard. Pero lo que Inglaterra ha perdido lo han ganado los Estados Unidos. Hoy los ingleses estn muy en baja en todas partes de Veuezuela, pues los venezolanos invariablemente apoyan su patriotismo con sus transacciones comerciales.
Venezuela no necesita mercancas inglesas 'por hoy. Cual es el resultado? Los comerciantes franceses trabajan da y noche para obtener el comercio. El Gobierno francs los apoya hasta el punto de dar una lnea directa de vapores franceses un subsidio tan
fuerte, que l solo paga los gastos | de la lnea. Si el vapor se retraza unas pocas horas en entregar la correspondencia se le impone una
'< tremenda multa. Yo dudo de que los franceses obtengan el comercio, y he aqu mis razones: Bajo el poder de Guzmn Blanco, Venezuela era una especie de anexo francs. Todo era francs, hasta el dinero circulante. Los venezolanos se cansaron de este y de Guzmn y hoy no tienen particular preferencia por lo francs, por que no quieren Guzmn ni nada de lo que l favoreca. As ve usted, que Inglaterra y Francia estn
fuera del comercio venezolano. As quedan los Estados Unidos y Alemania en la competencia. No se puede contar Holanda, aun-
' que hay una lnea de vapores que van los puertos venezolanos.
"Alemania no se duerme en esta materia, capitalistas alemanes, encabezados por Krupp, el fabricante 1 de caones, estn fabricando un buen ferrocarril desde Caracas, hacia el oeste, hasta Valencia, una distancia de ochenta millas. Los alemanes hacen lo posible por hacerse amigos de Venezuela, y sin embargo la mayor parte del comercio venezolano viene Nueva York, que no ha hecho absoluta-
; mente esfuerzo alguno para obtenerlo. Desde setiembre ltimo el comercio de Vunezuela con este pas ha aumentado extraordinariamente, y, lo que mejor es, sigue creciendo. He aqu la oportunidad de los Estados Unidos. Venezuela est ansiosa de ganar el buen deseo y la amistad del pueblo americano, y yo estoy seguro de que nosotros, en este pas, lo estamos tambin de mantener relaciones amistosas con Venezuela. En ca-




58
so de guerra o amenaza de guerra entre Venezuela Inglaterra los Estados Unidos seran los nicos amigos sustanciales que la Repblica del Sur poda contar como ayuda. No hay razn porque Venezuela y los Estados Unidos no formen una amistad estrecha, que resultara, no solamente en un grato sentimiento sino en un va-lioso comercio. He aqu una sugestin: Que los fabricantes y co-' merciantes americanos, que deseen encontrar una salida para sus mercancas en Venezuela, se renan en Nueva York y formen un plan razonable por el cual sus mercancas puedan introducirse en Venezuela y que hbilmente se muestren los comerciantes y almacenistas. Las mercancas americanas se vendern al lado de las de cualquier pas europeo si se les diese una oportunidad de ser conocidas.
El inconveniente ha sido de que no se ha hecho un esfuer- 1 zo inteligente para vender las mercancas americanas en los mer- 1 i cados venezolanos. Grandes di-; sensiones ha habido en este pas, 1 : durante los ltimos dos aos, con respecto un aumento de comer- ci con las Repblicas de Sur-Amrica. He aqu la ocasin de una prueba prctica. No hay mejor oportunidad en Sur Amrica. El actuallGobierno de Venezue-S.. la, dijo el seor Haward para concluir, es el mejor, ms conservativo y el ms seguro que Venezuela ha tenido. En la administracin del Presidente Palacio el estado financiero del pas ha mejorado de modo que en los mercados financistas del mundo, Venezuela est la cabeza de todas las Repblicas ; Sar-americanas.
\ El Presidente Palacio es muy
popular y es adems un gran trabajador. Por mi propio conocimiento puedo decir que se le encuentra trabajando en su escritorio todas las maanas las 6 y que as trabaja todo el da. El Gobierno americano est muy hbilmente representado en Venezuela por el Ministro Seniggs, que ha logrado en los ltimos aos hacer pagar algunos reclamos que han estado pendientes por muchsimo tiempo. Uno de ellos tiene 30 aos. Una i palabra acerca de la exposicin de Chicago. Venezuela enviar una exhibicin que sorprender mu- 5 chas gentes. El teniente Welles 1 de la marina americana, est aho- ( ra all, y muy capazmente atiende 1 los intereses de la exposicin.
Madrid. Francia, Alemania y otros pases han suspendido sus negociaciones con Espaa, con motivo de los tratados de comercio de esta con los Estados Unidos, hasta saber bajo que condiciones han sido concluidos. La cmara de comercio pide al Gobierno la emisin de un emprstito nacional en lugar del aumento de billetes de banco. El Jefe del Ministerio se niega esta peticin.
M


Retreta que se tocar maana en la noche:
Paso doble.
Obertura Otello, Eossini. Marcha Ada, Verdi. Fantasa Africana, Meyerbeer. Vals Od, Madul. Mazurka italiana. Polka.
:c j.
T


60


iiim;ie.\() iJiiovn
DIPUTADOS,
(5 de mayo)
El Diputado Ayala propuso: "que se cite al Ciudadano Ministro de Relaciones Interiores para que d los informes relativos la violacin de la correspondencia que el seor Eduardo Bauder llevaba de La Guaira para Puerto Cabello, violacin cometida por el Jefe Civil del primero de los mencionados puertos."
Casaas hizo la modificacin siguiente que fu aprobada por unanimidad:
"Que se llame al ciudadano Ministro de Relaciones Interiores para que en la sesin de maana rinda informe sobre la denuncia-hecha por el Diputado Aya-la, de la cual se le remitir copia al efecto."
/
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7Z


BLAINE'S REPLY.
AlToned Bown by Barrlson, It Meet
' vrith General Comraendatlon.
CSpeclal Dlspatchto the Boston Herald.]
. Washington. D. C, Aprll 16. 1891. Blaiue's rpplv to Rtidhii, as tonea down by President Harrlson, was commeuded by all tlie statesmen ln town today, irrespectlve of tlieir' opinin of" Blaine. It was generally pronounced unanswerable. Everybody here expeets Rudlul to treat it as sueb.
Blaine's nextletter, transnjttting the report of the district attoruey at Ne<" Orleans and bis compllatlon of the oficial records of the crltnes of ltaltaus in tliis country, will pro'j-abiy waKe lluini up, if it does not crusb him.
. Plumb of Kansas takes a cbaracteristic view of the wiiole incident, wliichbe proposes to use iu his annual sneech on the diplomatic sepyice, in the Seare next wlnter, as an llluslratlon of the absurdities of dlpltf-maoy. He said today:
! "The whole tliiug lsn't worth tallting about. Suupose the Itallan mlnister Is re-ealled, Who cares? His departure Is of no .mrecoasequence to the American peoolo than l the banana vender who presides over a push can at the crner ot Fifteenth and F streets should cise otit business and decide to.go horue. It's just ono man less to board.
. and hat's the only subject for thougut there is ln the wliole matter. Of course, there's got to.be a lot of letter wiiting over tne af-fair, but Mr. Blaine is attendmg to that most admirably. No one could do any better."
TRADE WITH VENEZUELA.
Ex-Mintster Soteldo Xhlnks Keci-procity Will Be a Ctroat Thlnir.
rsoeclal Uisatch to the Boston Hflrald.1 Washington, D. u., May 6, 1891. Ex-Mlnister Soteldo of Venezuela, who is ra re-ceipt, he states, of a letter from a high o (licor of the Venezuelan government to the effect that the reciprocity agreement petween Venezuela and the United States.has been,
t approved by the federal ooihcll ad th' president of Venezuela, aadsr .v.
"1 am not intmate with the trros of the convention, but I know that" one of the resulta of this agreement will be a niarked Increase ln the shipments of llour from this country to Venezuela, and adecided ebeapen-lng of the product at the Venesuelan- end of the. line. Nearly all the flour used there, heretofore. was rnaae iu this country, but tila
' duty on it amounted to from 4, tp 35 per bar- i
.; "Trade ln kerosene ol will also increase i-Rroldly. Venezuela has oil wells o Its own, and. so far as tested, the product is superior t) the article witb which they are supplld f^orH tbls country, but the wlls are in the ln-- terir o the republic, ana not easily accesible. '
"The convention is a good thinu. and 1 am glad to know lt. As our commercial relations beoome closer, we will become more frlendly, will understand eacn otber, ana lt is universal, friendliuess among all the natlons pn tb ,*. Rrfli;.contlnent tUat, so many of us have jwdrltftffor. aret working fpr, aud will con- ^ffiu^ work for until the end.igaoMeTed," j


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-**ZL J^&r4^u*^^_ rpt^"X^A___________
-'*-f.&Tt*U"l*]LX***.jc---------j^^fafc
^2Lg^_m* z~j___________________________________________________
.e.v. 7>z~ *& "^fw-jr ________________,__________________.______------
/ / .__-


JOHN CHINAMAN'S RE VEN GE.


/-y~t^/ r^U-+-'_____________
Retreta que se tocar maana en la Plaza Bolvar:
Paso doble, Sarno.
Obertura Aluda de Portici, Auber.
Duotto Luca Lamermoor, Donizetti.
Fantaca Mima, Bellini.
Vals Thankyou dedicado al houoruble seor R. T. 0. Middleton, Villena.
Polka Gungl.
Mazurka Taboc.


66
Venezuela y los Estados
Unidos
tratado de reciprocidad
Damos lugar preferente las interesantes noticias publicadas por algunos diarios de New York, relativas un tratado de reciprocidad entre el Gobierno de Venezuela y el de la nacin norte-americana, los cuales hemos traducido as:
venezuela acepta la pec1pro-cidad
(DoliVew York Mail & Expresa, 6 de mayo)
Noticias particulares recibidas de Venezuela nos hacen saber la grata nueva de que el tratado de -reciprocidad entre ese pas y los Estados Unidos ha sido aceptado por el Consejo Federal y el Ejecutivo, j Cuando nuestro Gobierno reciba ; confirmacin oficial de este hecho, no se necesitar ms que la pro- I clamacin del Presidente para que el tratado quede en vigor. Este Ser el tercero de reciprocidad aprobado por ;la actual administracin. El primero fue con el Brasil y el segundo con Espaa para Cuba.
reciprocidad con venezuela
Se lleg d un acuerdo sobre el bil Mackinley
(Del New York Recorder, mayo 6) j
Washinhton, mayo, 5.El ex-Ministro Soteldo, que por muchos aos represent Venezuela y que ahora, aunque avecindado en Washington, se informa ^activamente de los asuntos de su pas, ha recit:
^r^^O T?l^y X S~/f C -
T>do S^Scias^^^pf^si'^^^pS; el j tratado de reciprocidad propuesto por el Departamento de Estado, bajo las previsiones de la ley Mac-Kinley, fu aprobado formalmente por el Gobierno y el Consejo Federal de Venezuela, sin el ms ligero cambio. En consecuencia, slo aguarda la firma del Presidente para ser ley.
El resultado de este arreglo con Venezuela ha de ser beneficioso para nuestro comercio. El ao pasado importamos de ese pas sobre $ 10.000.000 de mercancas, principalmente pieles y caf, y como slo mandamos 4 millones, y qued un balance contra nosotros de $ 6.000.000. Con el nuevo arreglo los impuestos que ahora casi prohiben el envo de provisiones americanas, sern suprimidos, y es de esperarse que el trfiso se balancee.
Venezuela tiene capacidad ilimitada para la produccin zacarina; pero hasta ahora no ha podido competir con el trabajo esclavo de Cuba y el Brasil, ni con los cooles de las colonias inglesas y francesas de Guayana, Trinidad, Demerara, Martinica y Barbada, Ahora que estarn, comparativamente, en las mismas condiciones, el cultivo de caa en Venezuela de seguro alcanzar gran incremento, as como las importaciones de los Estados Unidos.
solo aguarda la firma de harriso
El tratado de reciprocidad entre los Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Del New York Press, mayo 7). Washington, mayo 6.La firma del Presidente Harrisson es el nico requisito que falta para que sea. un hecho. el tratado de


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-j Langostas.Una inmensa cantidad de este voraz insecto, ha in-. vadido hoy la ciudad de Caracas.


74
reciprocidad entre Venezuela y los" Estados Unidos. El documento que el Secretario Blaine ha sometido al seor Bolet Pe-raza, conteniendo los trminos sobre que el Gobierno convendra en un arreglo semejante al celebrado con el Brasil, ha sido devuelto con las firmas del Presidente y del secretario de Relaciones Exteriores de aquella Repblica sur-americana.
Aunque el departamento de Estado se niega revelar la lista de productos afectados por el arreglo; se sabe que Venezuela conviene en admitir libres de derechos todos nuestros productos agrcolas, carbn, instrumentos, maquinaria para industrias, y materiales de construccin y
equipos de ferrocarril. Tembin se ha estipulado que la manteca americana, la mantequilla, cueros, madera, manufacturas de madera, wagones, carretas, carruages, eta sern -recibidos con un dereeho reducido prximamente de 25 por ciento. En cambio los Estados Unidos admitirn libremente de Venezuela, pieles, ail, caf, azcar y otros artculos que 'nerse prcf'ucen absolutamente que se producen en muy poca icantidad en este pas.
v viva la reciprocidad
Sanio Domingo y Venezuela sern _ de los primeros pases que la negocien
(Del New York Herald, mayo 1)
Washington, mayo 6.Los mi-jros de la reciprocidad no dan lu->gar que.,la-idea decaiga. Ljds
prximos tratados que se publ: despus del de Espaa con re; to Cuba, sern, segn es pr ble, los de la Repblica Dominio na y los Estados Unidos de Vene) zuela. El Representante de la Re-4; pblicana Dominicana, seor Gal-van, que negoci el tratado de reci-procidad de 1884, est aqu y ha ce-j lebrado varias conferencias con el Secretario Blaine.
La pequea Repblica est an-: siosa de promover amigables relaciones con este pas, y el seor Gal-vn parece decidido ofrecernos muy favorables condiciones. Nes-tro comercio con Santo Domingo no es de suprema importancia; pe-ro los Estados Unidos podrn,pro-; bablemente, obtener mayor parte' en l con un tratado de reciprocidad favorable.
Ha habido algunas dificultades: domsticas eu Venezuela que re-! tardaron la negociacin de un tra-' tado con ese pas; pero en el Departamento de Estado abrigan la' confianza de que pronto se llegar; un arreglo.
El Presidente de aquella Repblica ha comunicado al Congreso las proposiciones del secretario Blaine, y hay un seludablet emor de que impongamos derechos al caf en los comienzos del ao! entrante, si antes no se llega aun arreglo.
Nuestras importaciones de caf de Venezuela durante el ao fiscal de 1890 alcanzaron el valor .'de $ 9,662.207, siendo ella la ms formidable competidora del Brasil, quien compramos $ 45.664 125. j


-
i-*-c
HORA
Segn se nos informa, hoy ha sido aprobado por el Consejo
St' RennheCret dcl Residente tranrH RePbllca convocando ex-traord.nanamente los miembros del Congreso con el obiern aI considerar, entre L J asuntos, el del! R.f S ^arOS titucional Ref0rma Cons-


.Recepcin Oficial s
Hoy las 3 y 30 minutos p. m, fu recibido el nuevo Ministro Plenipotenciario de los Es iados Unidos del Drasil, seor S. Guimaraespor el Supremo Magistrado de la Repblica.
El batalln nmero 1 hizo los honores correspondientes, comandado por el bizarro General Leopoldo Sarra.tendido en alas desde las puertas de la'Gobernacin del. Distrito hasta el dintel de la Casa Amajilla, en donde la banda de. msica de la Guarnicin dej oir los blicos acordes del himno nacional del Brasil.
El seor Ouirnaraes acompaado del secretario, fueron conducidos desde su morada hasta la del Presidente de la Repblica, en el carruaje de ste, por el joven Director del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores seor A. Fombona Palacio, hermano del joven inteligente Ministro del ramo seor Manuel Fombona Palacio.
-Desde la puerta de la mansin Presidencial hasta la escalera de la derecha se hallaba la Academia Militar de Caracas, presentando un buen golpe de vista las dos filas de arrogantes jvenes, que vestan riguroso uniforme, al saludar militarmente al plenipotenciario.
Al extremo de la mencionada escalera esperaba nuestro Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores al distinguido husped, quien condujo I al Saln Azul, en dojide se encontraban el Presidente de la Repblica,, en .'primer trmino ; la derecha el Doctor Villegas. Pre-I sidente del Consejo Federal, |
los seores Ministros del Despacho y los dems miembros de dicho Consejo; luego la Alta Corte Federal; el General Alejandro Ibarra, Comandante de armas del Distrito, y su Estado Mayor; la izquierda se hallaban: el Presidente del Congreso; el de la Cmara de Diputados; los dems miembros del Congreso.y los Generales Pacheco, Sarria Higueras, jefes de los batallones i, 2o y 3o de lnea, respectivamente, otros altos funcionarios de la Nacin,
Despus de cambiar los discursos de estilo, puso el seor Ministro en manos del Presidente los pliegos y despachos que ante nuestro Gobierno le acreditan como enviado extraordinario y Ministro Plenipotenciario. Luego fue presentado por el Supremo Magistrado los miembros de su Gabinete y muchas de las personas notables que hemos enumerado.
El seftor Ministro y su Secreta-
rio fueron de nuevo acompaados su residencia por el joven Fombona, yendo 'a salida, as como la eutrada del Palacio de Gobierno, con la cabeza descubierta, correspondiendo as los honores del batalln de veteranos y los saludos que le hiciera con los himnos nacionales del Brasil y de Venezuela.
He aqu los discursos cambiados entre el Presidente de la Repblica y cl representante del Brasil.
El Excmo. seor Ministro dijo:


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Festividad del Corpus.Grande animacin reina entre los habitantes de la ciudad con motivo de las fiestas religiosas que habrn de verificarse maana. En la S. I. M. se celebrar la solemnidad del Santsimo Coiyus CTm'o-fo'.Terminada la misa, saldr la procesin con acompaamiento del Muy Venerable Captulo Metropolitano, de todo el Clero de la capital, las cruces parroquiales, los estan-'dartes de las Cofradas y Asociaciones catlicas. La procesin recorrer la avenida Norte hasta la esquina de Tienda Honda, donde avanzar en direccin de la Iglesia de Nuestra seora de las Mercedes para hacer una estacin en esta Iglesia que fu la cuna de la Adoracin Perpetua, cantndose un solemne Tantum eryo.
De la Iglesia de nuestra seora de las Mercedes la procesin continuar por la calle Norte 2 hasta la Santa Capilla donde quedar expuesto el Santsimo Sacramento,
De 2 3 p. m. hora de msica en la Santa Capilla, y las seis, reserva.
Las reliquias de los santos mrtires sern colocados en una de las capillas donie no est la exposicin del Santsimo Sacramento.
Esta noche y maana habr iluminacin en las calles por donde habr de pasar la procesin. Una junta privada compuesta de los Jefes y oficiales del Parque ha dispuesto tambin la iluminacin y adorno de aquel edificio, situado frente la Santa Capilla; y hoy las 12 del da empezaron adornarse convenientemente para tan solemnes fiestas, las casas de habitacin por donde habr de pasar su Maqestad.
83
"2- ~y > f/\4Lc t eCe^y Sn^*-?
a).


(traduccin) Seor Presidente:
Tengo la honra de presentar V. E. la Carta por la que S. E. el Sr. Generalsimo Presidente de los Estados Unidos del Brasil, me acredita, en calidad de Enviado Extraordinario y Ministro Plenipotenciario, cerca del Gobierno de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela.
Grande es el jbilo que experimento en esta ocasin, en que se me recibe oficialmente por el eminente Magistrado que, con tanta ilustracin, dignidad y justicia, rige los destinos de la bella Patria del Libertador.
La revolucin nacional que transforma radicalmente nuestra vida poltica y social, sin producir el ms mnimo desfalco en ^su cr--dito, tanto en el interior como en el exterior, sin alterar sus hbitos pacficos, sin perturbar sus ideas de orden, viene estrechar poderosamente las relaciones de fraternal amistad que existen entre mi Nacin y las dems del Nuevo Mundo.
La soberana familia democrtica de este libre continente se incorpora al Brasil, de hecho, por la proclama patritica del 15 de noviembre de 1889, y, de derecho, por la voz del Congreso Constituyente en 24 de febrero de I89L Desde esta fecha memorable fu integrado el sistema poltico de las dos Amricas.
Honrado con la confianza del primer Magistrado de mi pas, cuyos sentimientos de alta conside racin personal para con V. E., y sinceros votos por la gloriosa prosperidad y engrandecimiento I de la Nacin Venezolana, estoy en cargado de trasmitiros, hago en treg-a de mis credenciales y espero, |
con el benvolo apoyo de V. E., y la eficaz colaboracin de su ilustrado Gobierno, cumplir la noble misin de que me hallo encargado.
El Presidente contest: Seor Ministro:
La satisfaccin con que mi vez recibo la carta credencial en que vuestro Gobierno os inviste con el carcter de Enviado Extraordinario y Ministro Plenipotenciario ante el de esta Repblica, es tanto ms fcil de explicarse cuanto vuestra alta Representacin Diplomtica viene ser fianza segura y reiterada prueba de la firmeza de los vnculos que de antiguo unen Venezuela y al Brasil.
Hoy, cuando por la identidad de instituciones y tendencias polticas cobra nuevos quilates un afecto, consagrado de antes por tradiciones de raza, religin y eos tumbres, y al acrecimiento del cual parecen haber querido contribuir de consuno, la naturaleza con el justo repartimiento entre los dos territorios de porcin muy alta de sus mejores atributos, y el espritu con la inculcacin entrambos pueblos de las mismas gloriosas ideas del progreso y de la libertad, hoy deben, con mayor empeo, Venezuela y el Brasil, estrechar esas relaciones amistosas que siempre rinden gaje de provecho los pases que la cultivan en nombre de la civilizacin.
Sed bienvenido al suelo venezolano donde se os ofrece la ms fra- | ternal acogida; y en cuanto vuestras relaciones con el Gobierno que presido, fiad, como yo fo, en que sern de inalterable cordialidad, como que habrn de descansar en el mutuo respeto y en las nobles consideraciones que se deben, por virtud de muy sagrados principios, todos los pueblos civilizados de la tierra.


85
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; h;Kcojo "agradecido los dseos que expresis, en nombre del digno Magistrado que os ha investido con "el elevado encargo de representar en la Repblica la noble Nacin brasilea, ] y al par os ruego le hagis par- tcipe de mis fervientes votos, .tanto por su propia dicha, como por la del fpueblo cuyos destinos rigi ayer con loable dignidad, en medio de un cambio poltico de radical naturaleza, y hoy gua, con igual acierto y patriotismo," ya bajo las inspiraciones augustas de una nueva Ley Fundamental.
. Quedis reconocido por el Gobierno de esta Repblica en vuestro carcter de Enviado Extraordinario y Ministro Plenipotenciario Uo los Estados Unidos del Brasil.
Reciprocidad.Segn publicacin he-elia por un diario de esta capital, el seor Soteldo ha manifestado en Washington que \ el tratado de reciprocidad haba sido aprobado en Venezuela por el Ministerio y el >Consejo Federal.
i Estar mejor impuesto el seor Soteldo que la prensa y el pblico de Caracas! Y el Neto York Press de 7 de mayo ^agrega: que el nico requisito que falta "para que sea un hecho el tratado de reciprocidad, es la firma del Presidente Ha-rrisonj que el documento que Blaine lia sometido Bolet Peraza es semejante lo pactado con el Brasil, y que ha sido ya ^devuelto con las firmas del Presidente de Venezuela y del Ministro do Relaciones Exteriores.
O est muy mal informado el N~ew York Press, se ha consumado un hecho muy ^ grave, puesto que si conviene la reciprocidad, sean mutuas concesiones, equivalen-. cia solamente, eso no implica un tratado ..semejante al que se celebr entre los Es-atados Unidos y el Brasil, lo que sera fa-! tal para Venezuela.
Hemos opinado por el tratado; pero al propio tiempo contra uno semejante al del Brasil, j, Qu habr de cierto en todo esto?


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Al colaborador X. de la Opinin Nacional
Es necesario que se sepa que no haa sido nuestros hermanos (los colombianos) los introductores en Venezuela de los verdaderos principios del liberalismo radical.
Por qu arrebatarle la Nacin venezolana la gloria de que sus hijos sean los que tomen en su suelo la iniciativa en las luchas del Pro-
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El artculo 153 del Cdigo Penal vigente, que circul en hoja suelta en el espectculo pblico del 28 de mayo, fue elaborado por codicistas venezolanos (de Venezuela.)
Uno que no es goayiro ni carn!.
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Al colaborador X. de la Opinin Nacional
Es necesario qiie se sepa que no haa sido nuestros hermanos (los colombianos) los introductores en Venezuela de los verdaderos principios del liberalismo radical.
Por qu arrebatarle la Nacin venezolana la gloria de que sus hijos sean los que tomen en su suelo la iniciativa en las luchas del Progreso ?
El artculo 153 del Cdigo Penal vigente, que circul en hoja suelta en el espectculo pblico del 28 de mayo, fue elaborado por codicistas venezolanos (de Venezuela.)
Uno que no es goayiro ni caron.


Artculo 153.~Sern castigados con multa de cincuenta trescientos ve iiesolanos con arresto proporcional:
1 Los que por medio de amenazas," violencias otros apremios ilegtimos, forzaren a una persona ejercer actos religiosos, 6 asistir funciones de un culto que no sea el suyo.


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LA OPINION NACIONAL
diredtor: Tefilo Aldrsv Jimnez.
CL-racas: 29 de mayo de 1891.
Fresidenc'a de a Repblica
DR. RAIMUNDO ANDTJEZA. P4LACIO
presidente de los estados unidos de venezuela
Considerando:
Que graves motivos de inters pblico y solemnes compromisos con la causa de la Rehabilitacin Nacional, me demandan en las presentes circunstancias el deber de hacer uso de la atribucin 3 w del artculo 66 de la Constitucin, con el voto del Consejo Federal.
decreto:
Art. 1 0 Convoco la Legislatura Nacional para una reunin extraordinaria, cuyas sesiones comenzarn el i de junio prximo el da ms inmediato posible, con el objeto de:
10 Terminar la discusin del Proyecto de Reforma de la Constitucin que debe ser sometido la consideracin de las Legislaturas de los Estados, en sus prximas sesiones ordinarias, conforme lo prevenido en el artculo 118 del Pacto Federal. 2 0 Sancionar las leyes de fuerza permanente y de presupuesto de gastos pblicos para el ao econmico que comienza el i de julio prximo venidero; y 30 Disponer de las materias, que ahora se someten su consideracin, y de los proyectos de leyes que cursan en ambas Cmaras, y 1 que continuacin se expresan:
Aprobacin del tratado de arbitramento con el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos del Norte para la reclamacin Hancox, en el caso de que oportunamente se reciba la aceptacin, por el departamento de Estado de aquella Repblica, de la nueva frmula propuesta por Venezuela para el artculo 5o del mismo tratado:
Aprobacin del convenio internacional suscrito en Washington, por Plenipotenciarios de Venezuela, para someter arbitramento todas las cuestiones que se susciten entre los Estadcs Americanos :
Consideracin de las bases propuestas por el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos de Amrica so bre reciprocidad, de tarifas aduaneras :
Ley que aprueba la adhesin de Venezuela lo acordado en la Convencin que se celebr en Bruselas el 5 de julio del ao anterior, para publicar las tarifas aduaneras de los diversos Estados del Globo :
Ley que aprueba la novacin de contrato con la Compaa del ferrocarril entre Puerto Cabello y Valencia :
Ley que aprueba el arbitramento en la reclamacin Fabiani :
Ley que fija los Ministros del Despacho Ejecutivo :
Ley de Crdito pblico : Ley de pensiones militaaes: Ley de Inmigracin : Ley de pensiones civiles : Ley sobre delitos de empicados pblicos y -otras personas en el desempeo de sus cargos y profesiones :
Ley sobre allanamiento del hogar:
Cdigo de Minas:
Ley que trata de delitos con-


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