Karanga grammar

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Material Information

Title:
Karanga grammar
Abbreviated Title:
A grammar of Central Karanga.
Physical Description:
3 v. in 4 ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Francisque A. Marconnès
Donor:
George Fortune Collection ( donor )

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
grammar Karanga language

Notes

Abstract:
A grammar of Central Karanga.
General Note:
Information handwritten on enclosing envelope describes work as the original manuscript for the 1931 edition of Francisque Marconnès' "A grammar of Central Karanga."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001040539
oclc - 29713690
System ID:
AA00000057:00003


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PL
8681.95
.K37
M371
V.3








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<'LdI6& 4.dh A

n]. ~ d!DS. '. ^s-i bt^ ,


V/'1- .^ n. /_/ -In A A A< "fi| ^ A7't 440


P




---~~~~~~~~ -- ------- _r- -~- j~ C I~4bj


M WL-A, JfL4d, /tA4 dtL 4 .n .

- J(/& Au ar


h1a & L '-.^ ."
ids ~L ~ ~ c~rc~L~.1


/y. vfS^^ .3w ~i --
^.-^ere., ~~~L A.. z

Y- r .,~~, s~r~




/4y- ^ i~-h~f^^a 2& kL-C~k/ J~l.
/

' fl4 ^. tn V ^ 2 A <)t.y- ._ ? ^
c2 s 2 .~~~ l I ~. .2







. hkjA. h ,... ,./. /.. s.. .


. ......--- -- ----- -- /


.,i4 .c iu- .**h/. A.
4t- ..)' -- -a.n, ,.
-----f- LWOW&.-^ AV -
-rkL~w 94k __ 4'tLOB













2 n -C d -
JLeY+ CL;LhLl /je*^ao^/>l -




^zz^_/ //dt^ '. /^^r^ ^
-..r & o A A. .' ^ ^








t AP-. j ^tS C a, ti i--A




( -4JtCl .4 J. y.Sk, 'e,4 4 vaj..^
tcy*k QWeCL < C'i:kCfLa^. -4Cat a' e^ ^- d/Srt a-as -













i't/^bl^ ry i^ L^<^^ L^t^ /lu~ r '~s-oe
^^-^fh-r ^ci^<%^t : ^y7tU4 ^y/^CL/r^ay

















\?e/ __<- /gt- 1. CPtz4- / z hiza ita &t tL A








ia 4 4 4 *' ZI, < 4-
c2/a- ; -.-. .iu -L- *2c&.. t/ '&* 7<







.Sfc ):k /r..irka. aJ k ^aM .
/74 ~a/-d. t*m/ jlE *
------------------









Iff~fi^ ..: hfc^ ^A ^t. fc^fc% -44


A4 4V^ J AMLV tSka
*7i^^ 4J t0-^^ u.r^ &^ L


















nd sl. :. at""s i ne inal ---T-.
/y ^4 .s ^ca ver s acfn ebcza 42,n CR^4 9ial aScr e--c
















e a'vel r searwel (,y) a L, tae onl.y lwa_. Cus:-






















steal" Ila, "te stolen"; ia, "loveS, as, 'be loved";
raln- -nia, *be rained'; TyLn. eat, ynflwa, "te eaten';
S leave, -was leftt; wa "ri', wn 4 wa, "be Atrunk ;
, remap" koh1wa, ne reaped'; YZia el1, rhwall be affected by
a Smelll.
JTowever verbs in a take both iwa c IL to Wh
A^. U.7 c--_^^^ '

















"peal', mayfla or mer ywha, "be peeled';
r -'rus' fanyliva orwwhas "be crus ed'.
$, '/1vp', makesiw o O a







sy r v **' fate ^---i^ or i^^ .ua (|r








-A -other" verbs taxe regularly boM 1ia 'wiiib ut the Inautrtxi rr
oa subljee te the "general laws of raranga upicr:y' explained In Ch. I1
7ne phonetilc modifications accom;,anying the sutrlxing of wa are
following:
'.After the la8ale b j" v becomes i(L,).-


Tamblwa or tamfba,
Rapiwa or raPia,


' e played";
"be cured,"


.Af'ter the dental t a da Qnd the stbilants ,san.ch,_,AL,jj,also r.
Becomes Wha.


Tancta "drive aay', Tardlwa or tandaiwa,


"be driven away";


Bata,
Basa,.

Gocha,
Batidze,
.ledja,
mra,


catchh,
"tarow away,
"nur t",
"roast'
'help",
politr,
'pour',


Batiwa 0r batuna, "be caught";
Raolwe d raswna, "be thrown_ aay;
Ywasllwa or washwhia "te hunted;
Gochla, (goch t roasted"
atldaiwand tatidal ha, "be helped";
T edi11wa, died wha, "be alit";
Drlwag, a_ dirana, *be poured".


,.. Those aspirates wha ; ia are strongly marked amongst the s .
ice the incorrect spelllrg or scme gramiars: Tambga, Raf a, Tand a,
ikwa D f, RaskEa :sc. In Asanyika the same words are sTimly r
a, raa, tandra, batwa, dirwa, raswa. "re-
1i


Verbs.ln va drop the ha
Vsrba.l vs droi t e,. v.,... "-- .


gia=, "stop, block", dzivlra or dfla, "'be stopped, blocked";
Roaw, "beat", roviwa rowa, "be beaten*.


In Victoria v becomes b; dzibt rcbia.
--a _..---c i bj--._ 7-,._ ~._ --_
rC. _, ^^^^^ -z-


As
H^^y R- -. /^L=lb~cw^^/^^/^^. --' --7
LL.^1 ,.'^^l~j &c-. ^W/c atr ;> < ^^*^-^-


dtstSA : ibC*L 3dLtC/G~
Ylt C L W t t A cL qe^ rw r
icns/ Y fl4c4j 7. $onct ant.


Tamiba,
UPatia


Splay',
"cure",


-----~~~- --~--~~--~~----~


""ll&-Nlr- lhlU~lllllg~im R I--V


r


r ~Y/ 1W








A he ,t roeslve Z for&e, bA cAanc, ne eu.tinq a ,*to _la













_a, ek. after a syllable h 9_or rbs I. ora,_r make O3au -.











z 4see", ,"'one af "44et seai.t
/il7 -7 / / / ff


















S- oreantr7 of thne 1rogeesive or".







\ *u!t general me. li.a of Lt fe't of verbs 1o t'.t of an actionZ
n "if*ra.etitve actieson" (co flrmed tby th &le.l.t); .I
...t.. v rL4L.kae t- .g,
) a "r .iaftive passive, in watie n 9- e object becomes orLe osa ects of t2





Mat tu iin -u connoei a or tr~ene agent ~ jt to,
',a ogrtl y 1 --et srit: ;f
a' "see", O L,
,crag sreakL", e actl ^ rflat Ok*rcuert";
) ua utantka t IuIualk or tur(uw, brlukeal lt ot";
; ------"----- 8









'M-\ "^eairin^ of thie Profgeslve orm".




) a tr--anltive actlTBe"o (wIt? a-et.L iL. cl.,ect);
) a wtrazslt vI pass e In wicn tie object becomes t e si.b.ecT. of tM
v r Wt* b1Ut1ithou-l connotation orof te agent. ( -P^







a) "Progressive lIntrameltive".


"go out",
u"breath r.ard",
"rfutter 1iZ tne

"spe .k"


BuaGl e cr
}esmerexa,
i 1r.a Pe~pgrea,
LeLpta,
'.ev etekE,
tor reveset&,


buri.a, "'ett out*;
"part';
"rlutter avay*;
*eet Ihevy";

'"tal, ct at .


. Iveirelore or syilaties are inot rare In varaxga:;e.vevAeta becomes even
reKetaeXW J&ketsin Victeria "ete )

? ) ProT.er.sive transitive Nctive',
r2 tvUfYe-C Ia,~ ea Jeet< 9nawQ'- euwsenaa> :,
Lla, i--' aSr-, ta rg )aoeea
La, f tie" tadl^Ua "e'ttle lew a
8a "lr flat,slep4E ljauq,"cause to li on j.~Sa "lasettle down
8, "layv down" ilnz.lia, "ia' out flat";
a "t te' luf .1a, "lte. rtt, cuL.";
a, adr' u..( r:a~.irp,) pastk, "warv i (ovTr tb-. fire) toast';
a, "set up,rlant" lAika, "i 'art LtreF, t.oles";
P, "place dcrr* T.rg_.-. l*ace I ilr (as a pot);
a "rest a trlreg" turike, "set u.(,qs a p.ot cr: sheir ),suspend.

e, Thpse progressivess alkA.' aviLg a "trar.sltive rrear.ing" carn again
e the endirf wa or -: f L paastvi- proper.

Chtl.iiWkrS, "te laid across";
Gadzflwa, oe settled";
a.i-MTie "be settled dot.r (to sleep); *
Ei.zla9, "te laid out";
FuMi 1W a, t b m1ttten cut, cu. 'L..d*;
gauia, "te tcastea (lljKe -reau);
S~lakia, "be plaLted";
TereX F, "be place or. thb fire".

c) "Progeasive transitive .asbive" altttCLL coLnLtaLtorl of an
ent (neuter passive), except wr.erFtWrTuffx E! Is superadded.


"eaten",
.L "split"(tr. )
"do",
"be said",
"hear, u.des taBa",
S"rut' off" (tr. )


3bi sa, "*et stclel",
baLlka, "6et cauhrC'1,
b~wzuxia, "spilt"( 11.ti )
Itla, "get aoRe",
EziGa, "aet sal, rAciutrta', c
LtL~LabS, "Le l tfr(,d ierBroo(",
Pruu-ix.fnrutb clff(1i.tr )


Amongst these we find the fcllowrix; '"Raslves proper":


01UWa,
Pfudtlkwas
1 trwa ,
Nhita
HzrhU'5t


'get etc'lei. tv eoiLeone";
"eet rustaoff by so0etCody";
"get dcr.e ty somecne";
" et hear, urnerstocd rt- people'.


Biuda,
Fere$ra,
Peerg,
eva I
_ie e ,


~- ---~ ~- IIC ~--I-








A redlplicatfte suffix ikil.a is found in certain vebba:
r1t1a, "ge-t out finally, or rignt out";
X r, "place right againet,(mtae bite rito) or ges bitten rlght outt,
get cupped". (.'dado, "cl plr.g rorn").
j oae progreselves" can Lave rotn a transiaive active" ad a 'neu-
r'passive' meferig. Thus:
Chin,1ka, lay across A get laid across;
Gadzla,(tr ) "settle";
Gad_ ia-nea "get settled s-tr 'fi
or.ela, "see+ person off get seren*;
RUv-la, "bite out,. get bitter1".
Shne corresponding Latlzin a Greek forms in, sco, 11 e#virAro, pubesco"
Latin, "hebasko" in Greek tLough gsarFA1. 1 Intransitive, are also
times transltive:'concupisco', "Heslre",metLusko,"Ilnetrlate".













rrespbningtstif suTfix _2 though ge'er.ly'intenslve' as Cr o 'run
-----------------




-~---










ltTo kbte friles2' rresfloestso e kite;
'tur, e ontr' u 'ruause to urns'e ao, ac.
tice also thit in Vnaisf l many vsrbs rnave two sueD meangls one


The o r'turfs ee"turstre oue
t Bmtu Grammars are I Cal in every^ ^










As the surrix Isoidentical for both torors, ture Bsuould b te TTiaa-
ental beaning coi on firto bothrn. Bg .a e .
--- v- -
Lntasl zoantrig camm~r, tO bn ~~~~~Fth-C ~.











Sem~ah4, V 4rAts .4i4' d
fAre
^A V





Sf t,- -









// = /A0 40- -r -----




(7 k, V--.,-- *-
PA 4L" Sa. se I*:" C-^^*- m ... s.. As.," -- ^c- 4 A'r



?-^/3LSi A,.sde k^/ ,^;/, 4be yrih *



/-------->V c w











- tn C2 a /R .d >A @, a& sbe, dr s- l
S/.











n / d* Is.A






/)4 *d A~ ncA~------------ e. .k ___*
flc d dLA L- ___ 14AL9 a L- .



>A :-a
-'** --- -------^c--/4(










-7
t"/- / 2 1; ` / e- `4"





p-.:oosyvlat.ic' ~~~r -Vrbs with a "~Ve~wl tefc.r'~ the fi.al a tame
0orl the fcrr ia "T.P:
a, '"die"*, Fir, "cAue to die";
i "oeat", rvlSe, "at ucat cause to eat, i.ciLp to eat";
rha, rTear', r",1 sl, *fear grk.atly, cause to fecr,frighten w1th
Bva', "coaie aray", Bviea cr t1n,"c'ause to ccme away, take ayay';
T-rn *love", Tia, "Ilove Lreatly, cause to love";
0 ele Svo, e t18y "caLse to leave";
L ,ryarLt.r, TanYs,,Lrun ht-ard, cause to ruL,*.
Also verbs wltr a stlilart before tr.e flr.ai a.

paaea, trrcv wapy, Icse"r, T1isi. "cuse te t hrov away or to lose";
Tas~a,"r1de, Taiss "riae rlrd, cause tc ride";
Tila, "rtar aay", tSa, "lull away rast,cauee to run away'.
S"Folys llat'c vertg take ISa i sles or sea sisa.
Ltote a ) v'er.'bs havir4;. g or g in the pe iti-mate iIL.eac of is_. often
tare esa.
Neta, te tlrea", 1yetisa, YeLesa, jetsa, "tire, annoy";
Rta. I!-vaI, dreIOt,1 sotbs ite ,ot:,"dre-aL Ic'o, or cause to
-t- -.areamn, cr tirn to nothinb,"'
A'" C.- 1-'ee ra &t
-."After scit c r.son a ItaL- :. teli' reccrsea as so'tJ tne suffix
/- ,
rhue: I) The endlrt 1i'a a Xia t~ rco; L Ms.

YVUaq "agree*m ivLii;a,5 "imabe agree&T, kv.iLLa- "ass";
VanIaa, "atouna" anr.~lsacr wv.za, "be very ~iu.aA.t., cause to around,
ELaa, "ile aozi.",- ..I ,is or rinzaj "lay dowri".
2) Thie erxdlreg ,e o. ir'4 z va. j, ,. ). ,}
'OV1,bP soft" --b .1
OVaO t:I eats InrLtr %A RfoVv "eat hard' 0
"--va--'- .. "IozVa, 'churr, or destroy'.
e, -T..eves., "Bpek X uch, cu-" .
_-teyc "taie. to sleep",fu






: ) The r of tihe ending ra is turned into d & gives oa*
broad or-
broad or happy'ar isa a or fadaG 'atae broad or rappy,be Very
&* or get big"' urisa.or adzal"ake big,(honour)or be vey**f
WaUs, 3btay', Garsle or gadza,asettler.

i/frbe ending in fagant h(r,.03 ) generally take only a (Is)e


Sbe long", Rbelsa, lengthenn or be very long";
9i 'begln", TanGsa, "cause to begin*;
go out', Bidis, "cause to go out';
Swco.wn-" has a JIja, "cut everythlrg aown (in a field,for
SAfter hard co aonantse', # can be placeldafter t only. Hence:
take
I) Verbs lrU ta can teeaes tsa,
ta, nota;Rota, rotsa;(see atove)
a, bl tsg hence bateira, "helT'.
2) Verbs In ka also take tea.

aza, 'be nice" Nalase or .atgis, "mate nice,bless or be very nl
a, "laugh", eklgsasexeaa or s.tea, cause to laugh, laugh sac
a reach', swilisa or aslta, '"cause to rsacn';
aruJa. "get torntParatisa or parutea, "tear, be very torn".


est I


as h ;
rhi;


jT TciEga :x Victoria eften change utea into usa.
Fu5nurusa for kuniuratesa Af.
b &ocaa,'roas-" come from eta "te 2tf e fotire'*
IBa or lah, za or IL% are tUe (&oes1) suffixes Irn PwaftI.il


3) verbs in pa make

p laor v bpae )" ,
a, "be t nbl "',
a "'blow',


S1a.


ggla, or lam
Tlasa, or a,
tepbsa or tepva,
eaa -


'"lacken, be very baW*';
'be very bad, make bat';
'be very thin, make thin';
*vlinow, fan'.


--*The reduplicative" islsa (Tonga Is l) or sgla eeans either great
intLenslty, or make anot-er do inteneely:

,B I~~. "lookL very hTd, or ma:e another lone nard;
Xa naaIs it is veryMn ce';
a 'larraLge nicely or make another arrarge';
S, '*be very very long'.
Bspatlaes the forms In lea a sa have diffrerept ameanris

..h. e atrating", Ratga, "crave greatly", ig. it'v@oit';
y .ron4d, o teua, "go right round'"lotag, *'iss';
*19. !im ', T M A.




Iv


2it. e^tad izAsL C & &) V-.
-14 7d-oKT d6ICrfL 4bttw -eflA... ~U-ciM~ oL-D2^DEa_^J /.- )aI^ _
( Mr-sg ^ s :, of-d4ta- A.-t. ea. ^J/iL&/ 2 2 -^

441 -*-Gt4ce4 As*-ya --zc4 442'2 ._ _




k I e.. ,





/ / 7



/d; r >"-, el ,-D9 /o4 T 4 /
^ /- -A/

/4--- ---, ,^---y- /W


73C ^Ci-_ aZ~~~Lc/Cj




\/


944rest a t'. *",O r MC 9A, ."rt& toL 4lt oherLh
rL oc, 1 Pfrurutra,*' no out, scatt ty Lting






Bvurunur.,o"pll about, disnevel".
y'oAntlo r c/eori^ ^^or -, ^^.t, e








Tne simple surrix of ti.e ;erslve Veri is _a, i te ease
of verbs nav irn an in the A u e), ;e reduatcated suffix is
Turra ororat teng", moT iftrleli nL lt un.ura, tor
Tra "ILecip u so'll", P tur.rtura,'ursoc, ou,scatUr ta v L"u irtn ';;
3a, rollede ind", MUonor, or1 ';ra, "unroll, unwsndL;
Ma uendu, ,orcura, "pubend, saragthtnvel




Br reside tqL L- iEvnorsl for urura orora, other onetle hange
tr apo stlooe suyllax of tn.e ftersv e Ycrf Is e orra ain of the s




Wvve Form.
f verb having an in tfhe tu;i r ateu e re) locatedd breaulkx
iurau, oror, often iodl'ieda into unura, qIora.



atas "*hesl tu soiler, i, Bad ra iubataur, urqu "part asunder";
hi eavel entwi en, uonoreura(q rur ura, unweave, iseunwire";
olj', "'gtend, Xotorora, ""nturi overrit
o Besldee a P o ora for ur na aurora, )tntr upsnetcd orhang
d& trstepositiorsot syllables orttn taxe place in the rornaiotlin of the


e1. Irle out
fsOulds, Badura ?yr Tatura) l or sucate b looea en;
"hcld together', Ba1ar.urat/ taianura ) "part asunder;
fl c, 'aver, fntl'uurda( k ur8 uura 'unw ea.e, draentwueur;
'go In", Pindura,'turr over",
Pfdirt a (tor pilndurkrs) 'tt-rn upside down, or
C-.~ l..&l' ae out'.
'"ind', ,ura Ur'.UJ a (ror surnura ) "loosen';.'
coverer, cuvura,/ _______ a r fu^uduraur ra
"ur-cover";
MESS 'be heavy', Reruxa, (for remu a) "toe 11gt",

e-l '74X orty-a5it; a -4 -<- eC i tfl;^^t V at





3'-bt~t EBJIZtM4
~a~~$,~o~;;~us~-~/ Bdt.~O 1Zt~t~.r

;-~~4z~~~PP~ letS /Li~-f~ Lkn L~aae~ ~ CLj~L
?u) htu44L~ee., )/44Lvsc







__ ... .. ../ ?Z.


,i fanaura,'pluck orf entirely";
a "spl t, reak, bancdura or taL;dara, spllt up,treak up har -
9art',canrgeturr cover anaaura, *crhage altogeLner; ground",
A_ r, "bind"' SQrura or aujgaura, "uifaste.n"; 8n '
d iturbatir, O yu11rb,8irb t vuirdura tvuncdaura, "ettir,(muddyA ;
=8 "'pull downoverthroi ,'aura or paa ur "pll. daow altogetnero;
a. "cast doai.,flinr", .laura, "cut rignt dcvGi topipe overt*
Mal, "wlnd4, ocnora or mionaora, unawiid";
Iya sprinklee scatter, a kwaura, "scatter away,pull aYM
7" ____J.__ ,,., -:,.,





--e: W4


7 ?-e 7. Awe




; -/ __ / C_ d
4r.. C4/ ?S-_ *Pg AZ,.' /-,



/~Wk4e <4Ii eaJ4t-e-: z?'/ u Alf"
!- lef/iau~c~. 's ^ 4 ^^-, *













C;tZL L In-- ors are






=C-_o, rc s
,.11# .- d_*. ---- ^- / -- -- -








!a or- ,,s n- K V I o e f- i c t )
-/ / /





w cr.atlr. of t.. O .. t cs- ,rr:. ,
'A ) ---- a




E!t6 M id rtC -L c. v:. va i ir. t t- o1veFIEt .c p r C- Me
ntI le 7 t. .ly r.&ly f..".4, t.. to the *: :::: I "Ie a el-
:.-'- cli1erut are :

1rt0,'.c (cr s.',-) so', rc )^^ <^9 (or MY) So to 0c.6 at.ctr:r';
Is__ .,- -. It(or a- .t ( tGi k, t tr ot r-
""p., red v, 1i1c ru.i ,f ''ix 1gu 1, "' a "r, ,ert: le"
/; Jy -










1' ) rc' UjCI 4-4. (- 1 tsar lfa li: I i '; C-L ve *.*> 0k. 1erF a .m
ta3 ir fT c t t JA-t Ll: Iv L t ve .- t L l y

at..te::10 k. ILL' US. x"' :r or*. 'rn :: ..91 CA ex.= womer",
-1Cv-t uersa. t tw.- i '. ,.la, '...o r -



,'-' ,-:s.1-' Clr:. a r ,?.a: s t1.r, .. I Q,.t ... ~-.z I .c-t .. ,; i r
...l0 la tit i Lt .. u(, a. g, t sc tay Le.ie -a .,by -.u -1.9Cltt1rl-:









15 Ir tlur c. ,l.. t.t- re a <.ct c: t,

-- d.- ---c -aar.a = e.- "I rese,.r.- .n",
I^ !.: i 9'S Y s r' arTf -},,--t,- r nu, ,
y :'.. ~ e r. *. i-.u .-v 4e : ,. .1,o u







*T-',.,^*~~:L 3B J3i u 5^ ^ ^ ; *'- *iut~t' t ^-''i**









/32u 4e&^t -/' t_, ,,// c4,< a^,^.,


c) Wrher, derCnot .-g cti cTrrcre to-atr er or ccrj eC tl.V u,-on a thtra"
pr, t)-e Ftc. forr car. nave a paplve.
Ea ti chekar:e aviama "Let us cut the c at tret terV,
N'yqma s I cherar.., "Let t r ae.t .e c',t by Ue (or you) toetzuar;
la t1 ~n r.oUCt6erare, *let US ecitrclie !.t tcieLjier*,
'a_ kba .Se.nmberin-a3, 'Er w0? 9:clrc1tr;led
Ru r~ .1 rnwe rti, ri r: I trar;.z-i 'az:aa Jlr.l, ~.ir la,.- ua.6 t tthe Ct.ject
,S c.5 cl.' i:,a,.. disputes",
d) 'Te e to For ca cai 1e coin-tinea 8witn otho!.Ar fcrtia.
! ,inga, "rlIve ar,,,:~ 1l, alsa "_drlve _aay s.v._ r il t.!l,-. .. i t ci. e r";
, IcV4" /-lErja'n "-cti, ;t.- L:; ; s.e,, -'.. -
"i.r-ctv.; Il I ar.av a .eL Ao.ozI t-,v..er ally#.








A. 177 *IA
/' ,4-,^ ?e,^- -



I 2,U7 -i t4II-4 st f i __ -__


2 9 t 4 f ^ ~ L t ^-, c- t, -45er





4A L, k4 -4 M ^ V ^ ^ ^ ti^i ^










-r a*(r41 I4









-e s^ ^er4 #:
dbei ;ftnre ^a^L^ ^ .04dc44^ ^a.j.U









P 9 a- .V au _
f M>f A...f r m akz 'U 2't eZaC^i JA t a i '9)










A l _7 J Ay,^^^^'^ ..^.^ s .m .



A- -o.ot.
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Sgo(tr a ourve) Pote, o v_,rourd -POtereira "go roued frounBt
... .....---7- rc monerere, "a col"* &


huq t' forms of Pota given above as 'irtrataltlve" a translated by
eb*teW1'lnrEngls* d may te used also 'tra.sltively t translated by .
igl;lfh 'prepcesltlor.s'.
P ter ll.a "Go round tne house"; u,
Poterora fba, 'Go right road thte house. ..







jy changing the final a of the verb into "ra, lr1ra,( era, erera, when i
Svserb has e or in the e e peulttate. These forms,as noted above,
be translitve or intans live. Thus:
STranltive. MItrnttlVy
"sitstay agJras. "sit for,or at, watch", 'go on .lttia1ss;"..
S Garirlra,.,atch for, at", "sit on t on';
) 'stand, Mira, "staa for at", "go on standing wa
Sn ra, '"ait for at", "stand on t on'; .

a t. *turn to, Tendera, "turn towards, tiaz.. for "turn rourn on on oe"
(acknowledge, self) revolve";
believe, than )T sDr4ra _______ ------ 'turn round & rouon


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n n Ia t
S'stroton out ia, pull oirutW'T istrXI i loe angt.
,Tanara, *
Tanarara, 8straadle,pull the legs apart


*aake a Iknot',


*coagulate, get crusty',


atA 'hide (nr-tr. )
g, *be try",
a be strong",
asa "'be relaxed, play",.


Pfundalrat "wcIt _et's brows, rrown';
Pfundarara, tft the cheeks*
Fwytatra, "becoate quite crusty"; 4


\ataira, "keep hidden";

f~.arara, "be very dry,permanently da*
albaIarara, "persevere in strength*;


Tamnbararat


"spra*lJ play constantly";.


Patara,


"forage about";


." d --- BSomtimses tFhe suflix Ira is added to tr e pasalve:


Sttextliguish, go out",


Daliara,
Datiwaira,


"come tc tt.e end";
rTail asleep";


- oppressr, Takattrat, gasp, pant',
T~afwalra, "be suffocated, rattle 11ike
a dy Ir. man*.
19. got every verb can take everyone of these forms ana regard must N
Sto. ti ceottei naege, but they are by no means rare a the knowledge of
kIr several meana g & mode of formation cannot but be of great nelp.
V.I. CO~POSIT '_ VI'BAL FuO.RS.

P A eVaral artlolrs can be corblied toCetner before the same noun,
tevral verbal par les before the same verbso several suftfixes e
je Joined together so as to make a composite verbal forL. Thus:
w9lsgpeaw, ever:a, "peak for
|L, cause to e.aax, speak much, ,oud oo ,-z
a a"'go on speaking', (Trogreslve );
fror reveketa( "talx, b bble" (suffix Ita, see )
etra 'go on talking", ( fPra e IV
5, oadaeeause to go on talking" (Cf V -
xeda,**cause one another to talk munc, Suarreli,(Conjluctie);
9..ause to quarrel";
a ra,"cause to quarrel about*;
| g sgteir.a, *be made to quarrel about".
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