Karanga grammar

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Material Information

Title:
Karanga grammar
Abbreviated Title:
A grammar of Central Karanga.
Physical Description:
3 v. in 4 ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Francisque A. Marconnès
Donor:
George Fortune Collection ( donor )

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
grammar Karanga language

Notes

Abstract:
A grammar of Central Karanga.
General Note:
Information handwritten on enclosing envelope describes work as the original manuscript for the 1931 edition of Francisque Marconnès' "A grammar of Central Karanga."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001040539
oclc - 29713690
System ID:
AA00000057:00002


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Other substitutes for agltan, Ajeoatives.

( Certain Pr.lilsr adjectlvee can also be rendered by:

--A. *trVe as in the rcllowirg:


Cr.i no tacs,

Zva ka falKS,
wa ka jFjaj
'Ura 3k rurams,.
CaH2 t kombltias,
.'a-rs 1 I i atat
Ndi rno rryewra,
HU. gUf W"a l L'AjZit.G ,
' 1 : a tctseBa,


"lt 18 haruI;
"I te )i eavy or aif'lcI.it";
"it is gooa, rlce';
"be is tad";
"It is straight';
"lt 1s crooKed";
'te rcrad Ie .trrc l";
"I a; sici*;
"te fela ise cosrrso80
* ri.e" ;


- B. "Tne prr :tcsitir. na (wtl,.) followed ty a rxun;,'.

do hLu karl, "-rtel, ferocicuE";
UI ZCU chwa;e,'tw"iche*J, M.allcloL.a;
e futal, fat'";

Is asia, "aisry";
A tsa "dirty";
A : 2. aro, ":rt dy, voraclc-i.E -C. fc.
C. "rie pOssesslve InIefl: ite- proz.<.Lur; ga followed ty a round or
In fir tlve".


i u-.a rut. a, cir

My a ez, or
Ja l i .lLcr:?,
pya ku-:'bo-rwha,a


-1.-2 1 ruta,
rge ra r.'ditvu,
Ua &.a2 voti ,


"fat"
'ior.g. btEirie4";
"*ic r:.-itred, lhalry* ;
"verqctL ., '.reeay";
" ct. o;e wnc na,; roug.ht before
.tC -C


S ThbiiMa car. Qalr p',rc .deoa ty v- a, 1, ru, c, T.uS:
VS naa i.u-itna-;s- i-lJa, "evil dci-r'"




-,-*. "Any otler gasesolve pronoun followed ty a nour-,rifli.lte, aIverb,
S-repos-tlonl pr-asee*--
D."AYar.C-'L:'-"- "-' proou roioe ty a no:-I~~.t, aer6,0


Saaa ET mU ,epf "soft. borelessmeat";
'vurE yo kT nao, drinkingg water" ;
u nuo Ku 2 Sa t3eneat ar. urgrateful man";
L E;1 nea Eas "ar. cld tree, r the same tree


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rl de r4-eI va *I am greater you are -a









aS wa Iam 4 o grea after than'
,~-' M....
ko //. 6f Ad;;' & L4 et' g





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4.- ,"The pog ltlv followed Ty the kre.cslt Icns uba, aFea, t'y T1h ~
side of*.
Bi3za 1 puru pane m'ecr. cro, rir.f horse Is 1M ger than the dor:key';

Ir1l ro d patY uy par- "I like this cite micr, thinr that one";
U rl mu -11.4 1L r o, nr pn r, rl,""Yoe are sa.aller than 1";

1Adl ri iL; reftu a Lu ri, "I ae. taller thor.a ycu".

N4atf pana is n.ore uL.se ir. ?qr:. -i x.ur. Itr u lu.
IIr doda I ne ita radila kur c a'far--, "-A -mar is strc-: tt-r tLra1 a boy',

C/- VerbS ucr as: pl2S1 pid, ifuhnr-a, "'.As., .
!-.urira, "be greater r tknrU, ovtirco,"; i;

) lI.as, "hea3t, exCel l
A no r.dl .lind1a Ao u rebit, "!- la taller than I',
flC u arlra oC iL. refu, (iLit. he boats lme
.hlun8da iC. refu ,., IL helt).

31za 1 rurufu aura ta.I't.Ltorc -". e noroe is lilger tnan the
a odCtr.b TaiIiLt. _Ct. So Fs Lo surpaas tre aLo-rey).

..-"'ut'titIt a rfor Lr"e ULe&rlaL ivye.

48a. 4l.- vaor L.ne ...ujerlr.tliVc t iela ive U.ee the sant forCts Ba for the
coL .-ratlve, w th thre arTilTloz. Of oose, e3se, "all".

'us: .-'-zona i uru ljilc- i.' u9LCs P
N' z ato 1 :o n;i 1s ;'' a a ('se r o Lu .u.rl,
N "~ 7F .. ,.uru,
.0 tiO l. TrU ri .c
"T.'e in-lch'Ar.t ls tsc- -tl'tIe t of -all trd e ~Tr.i aiR',

A- For the ruperl:tive AtLsolute (very, exc-el:'l ely) use

S) ucL -'r4as ea kwazvro, "i'nleed3 truly",
z Wluru, greatlyy',
ajl,11 "uucr".
A ri mu Kuru iiazVo, *Fo'e i very great'";
Va no rrhara zTViruru, Trey re very sick';
'vvura TrS 1isa ka.tr1I,1,'l e water Is very hot".

5) Verts like ryarya ku,or .ya':yo, "ao to excess"( Zulu:iu tl nya
wanza _u or wsnzo, "cause to abouzd" (wianao
Tiva kuor iswo, 'do badly,apoil' (L fully
.i t56 ..f.. ; l.t. O... L"ril/ y
hailrophks..a~~~ ~ ~~ as s.,,r ;l:.- 1 ,gs








Ta ka pyarnya xu kura, or
Wa kTura va aka yany8a, "re is excedlngy tall, or too tall';
& i- -arnze -u taFurwna_, ,rjs is rot said iucn-;
Wa Re vaEza me'vtura, "You put too much waLer";
Wa" iTa rO naka, "It is awfully nice";
3Td o isvc W- T KYU ta fmb5,,I am, norrbl': fond of dancing'.
CTii ro spenga riaLa, or no XL naL",IL is ioaly rice".
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".re tes ued 1r farrge wn c t cr xSawinfl the -c.. Secul-u -
ve numbers are

I* Boah R ctro 1v-L--. GLJ1 ---A S 1



36 C noa 1360 is 4U Taer I tlia




6. Tanatu 1.. -aaec




9. Pru(baomwe IO,_G_ _._._ aLaa_ _g
410 e teG l is, U. 2.ana :ra a zL anazana -
vI nu~ors are'

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Ua ralwe, "onie horse"; 'lIuJzi ime, "one goat*.
nave, OflG arty rnukb e and
iaganxad Marylkaseven say uminwe, Rm e, At- mu.%e and mamwe. wh4
he the only forms used by the Centsl eraranas.

pin the saere of"otherp Is or.ten placed 4 .ef orer the principal noun; i
rumwe ,mu b "OLc.ter tree';
vaQiWp 7va nu, M *,tnier Lmer;"
&abe m'bi4 1i, "Otnrr Tciats .



-41 1
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ettrtr


)-.Iristead of pri, use vlri nlcch t thte ei iAenmer regularly
become:3 ,'ilri.
""Us: Va r&ome.a va yirl, "ti-c toys";
'tfwa mrbl1, "t*wc aog",
6)-ouml and 2a a are alwvsy rl i.ou s; ch'uru cbi k ltl ealays
keep ,., i. zri. ?they -a.'. tc lsce, h ae other r.F.erals, arter
the principal rout,; where placed befof~e, 1tie all nouns Ir appo-
altlot, trey arc follow'.'i iL-v thle poeste:-lve, as t E r.glsre: *a
dozen of".
T..us: Ero -r iBi 1 or Gu .i re TY1 iro, "l :lr";
S'Tudal Ia.fl I r.e re C'tL, i, "I', wooats"
3ayi1 a -Lku'l Ea tatu or 1a 1nur.l am9 tstu 3 a 19130
The "odd urits" (mi raLLdLS, z'1 i. r ~,d, Z1 r ) abcve the "tens,
,hundreds, trous ras" are .iclr.ea to ter. ty the preposition na or
n, sometimes prcceJ@ed thy Lre .ror,curs rl or a.
.Thus:
is biiza g!ui a tatu or L il rfi a ta tabu, "15 horses";
lt a Nfa ml ia tatu ne ml t u, or
,..... ..* a rQe- aT ." tr~ *
-- -- w e


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aV tia-at *A nt u- -
y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 ;ka''tf^.nw)T<% /<-net^t~.iCfl *** ^a >U/)


.- "Card1i;al imierlPs, Aavertb".


To nr-e'er the .C.''eti C. Fs i'jarVi C.c maIy tzieay" use the
same forms as 'for thz :vcirs, i Lt ltr. F& as e r.a arLtcle, even before
gelfumA^a aSma 4a -h./,-'/^^^^& W .AXr 4 "L Zj. .,4 M7r0L
.LaSte or aE eCiett, "Cojcet;
.a sraiL, LU V1 ii'Llt-'b;
it LuJL iS Lb tute, "Ltlrter ; tiks -8; '
s -.r L a tit tuS n .a L sere,"t:1 jirS llut tileB";
Sa aIt a a Aga L ar n, "Ltr Luulr-us of times;
JL .I."1'.1 t -.l e" ;
g :' on. "fvs Eimfe". ,
N.B.4The Tarr"yr ; or VitcCL.rti, as notred -fCorec, eiersli replace
ka by Ir. T.Ln: L It. ruI tatt nrerLt '.Tiril Ir do it three times?',
Or else use Utre 'ord -u t1, "a Lte"' (p1.. i!c sl) as iL Engliagl or
the worz zuva, "dav".
LP -- 1 (k-


- "Ordinal Nuier


.1 s- 1 tatu
Mil 1 l1 -lJ ". aIIy tI.ues";
i 1 1 rl ags trl, "ttl.erp ltruout rurFber";
Szauv'i i "asays 8 rocn,: tou- ourss.
flP .


The nu:Lerals expressing tr,e order in nlcin a) an obJect Is
place arflret, eecornd, twerti.t itr, or I-) S autlcr. taxes place as
'firstly, tirdly, the tenPth tlme" ac. are rendered Ir Karanga by
"possessive expressions" euilvaler.t to: "Fe (it, they) of number on
-or numb-er to, c.-. -"iTe 1t.. c4mtr ,,rii., of r Lr.mbr two, &c. Beance
I
. "f'or nrcure-*
I.Se thf- possessivee pro.rouLi" of tne UW -i&.et gender as the 4
prir.clpal nounr adding to it o.;e cf tie Ler;Cs u ESa r. cco-secutlve 'A
Courntlig". "T,'iee latter t;ier.. refrerally trLe LT ur, exce!.t ru sere
g_ & azar.a. C l ra ar c.1 no1r-'e ao ret cr.agt.;,
Thus:
Biza re cnrl otq-, "trn' flrst norse";
Imbfa ciii 1jr, *t.u record Louse";
iir, rehle .um re' chi shajnu, "the fifteenth ture";
Gore re chl na, "tr.e fourth year'; i
Zuve ra ru sere, "the elgnt4day";
TD (r.; i zTana ne cii tatL,'tne 053rd. page". _









Use Ke In. the same way.

; Ye gb otel "t lie first tlUie, firstly*;
Sc. ,na "the fourth titre, fourthly';
ruseres "the eightAtime, elgtly"';
Spfrcame, "te I nthi t time, nilrtt ly";
r Cuhl ne ciL plr, *Ine twelfthL time";
a al U 4a tatu, "trio thirtleth ttie".
I.BA, I).- After tie.,first decade, the same foris as for the cardinal
nuterals may be place arter the poCi.sselve proiTout:. .
Thus: Ku nu we cual ne chl Ptsl,
or F nu we g&ml o ugj chete, trie eleveLttp man';
L'bUdl ye zanne te ci krl, pi
or Y'tuGazl ye aa ne Ira' lr htne nuirdred and eseoon geo

2).-The cl Is 80soetla.es l ft out and the a of the possess-le ...
pronou r roC 'cor:tra, ted as if the r.uerail were a proper BnoqPui.

Thuas: zuva ra 2ts1, rra Irl, ra tatu, ra chl P.a. ra
re car[atu, ra crhi zomnwe ra ru sere ra p a
re g *-
SIdlomatic expreselorL:'"v_45u, "tne crowd, the common folk '
'_t litt. "trey of tie ten,"rot necessarily the u ppe ten@


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Lr their com1Cat -.s.-,,- !



ma for gone_. The lef V"aw.ardm /ara is lso call ru m' sw i1
S trt oreft to te g-nger,:
ir t-Lwo ; t to t -. leftt id.e-' ser: tat,- ,)atiree- ";/ hen to the. l
Sfor9ftIg'.er. an rn, "fC.our. I. .ar.yl .ay: r-;o mu 4a ,ch Cles---
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lbes the rtir for- s in a row )zrrca e tIva ior, P : ien tt e
Cnscthe le:,tcZ <-* Ze.c. ,tas k.' wrt, f 1 on a











Se 1 i.Zttle- 1rer, or tAe rt/ id toUc.c. tr a Ve / o tb '.
r- tar afr







ir their COe Il crS riL o/e of he e rr t I's







mrk yhap bFetgibn 'ireot niner $ L At ore mt'r 1% tel tie m
iI g efri e r of th e c p er. et t ct. u xi C r & t R rV
noun .m r& 'trt9 -r' ta 9s r^ /.s -*/-- -
Iosa 4 ares them, the rat tubng turne under uma')

i nr t teren rtr left iaie- cgepp taL., ,t rere'; hen to th a*
ttore-rirerona, *tQc f~lyiZ'8yln: nal u rtleko rrU La lc^ Gee-1
tbose the' tr oir s ine oreains clappeM aga.st each oter ('g ,e
t he left c aenda wit t "na tt.b delrt Cer fl t l GDgr SI
r t trie-d the or the ro4rtln: f e tolt.. t ty`rte kin ot rt ta rt,

pi f fgri: plit "fto-tixwre .rtt2.tLr ,*lt:: um rte xt flrg cross-.
SAll os tte 1etr I and. io& (j- ^^'s/je'reer (ru Jacr), at vi-
our baa is t'), is c snow -ty the t eei or..gi'Ytje C tle ri .Lt n
w2th t tiae T&laid crurise iog tiile Cfr tne lfIr cee-t-

sit. rirersB or ^e o-n; iekch-rsr-a / tne fole% ;g fIt ~B eretiea
laY4 laacr~c~ss tMithe ~irit tji ir~iglnc / intu.red unuer /(iff.ibS). '
ten*' ie eriown .y tne two/palns clacped agalir~t eachi othts-r (Fulass
It against'".). i







k/1Dn. Cd t 4 n4ud4 i ~^ 4 ,u
-IA,4, ea- wf nuae.














44- -a2g utu 4^ 4-
Lte C 11 fI r d -/ &I




o^~Re9711 1-40 44,0a 41* .
/4: l ^iz #1'^2 >I f &h1-A1 Z^ d^r'










n u a~~ i yat ~" lu--~ &/ ^1"
uy^'^: ^- 9^ts-^g^j4W^*^e^ iee-^Zc^
^fe~teA-az<< ytM* a ?$& pM-"'^-i~zi c il^T^^ s^-jff
Ssi^ ^^9-h,~i^. "aflt, ^ik^ICt4^ ^krff'. ^:>rlg^g *t< f8







4 (/ t ,A I,/ ,-) -L-~-, ,







47A.



a^ / M A ih- ,. ~- ,_.-,.; ,, ,,....
~- -~, -/- --'





^^yY ^A^ Q/LRumr <'_f^ SL V- ^/ni k4'kfl' k
e,. L ee"j;&& d /4I i;ad 1~k4ed 4~ Rj











1_ /^: ------ ---- ----. / ^ -

L__ I~AS -L <
A Z4
't/,k,-e.. ;44







SJ/2*, '' j 4) ^i
^^ 'kZ 'AA^tj ^S-I^CL f t at t (

<^^!t.~g ,^T^~o *^ -C^ ~

L Pdt- fr9^ -feL t U0 0Q ef
i32-<-c* <<,toZ<-S-- v~-^.C^-*-TC .^B^<^ '---i^ <'^^
^SEt^Att^ ^ ^%'<-i_0 .~ CI~~ GaS~ 2
^Ze~dr /~ n~-h L^ ~Cl OI- ~ii







:- .-.ld ,, :









lee-- of i -O


~~, c., O-e-,~L
&/.- ^-" '/4~ *Ic /r 44 4/ j


^ fST-____ 'a 6'- 7'-ucx' '9^ Jty6 -f S c V%4 -4) -
/~~ k^~uC ff /U~ ~~-C~r
h-R JC ^^ d /?~ /CIY~C .I-OCCIYW
?y~~a oU'fT^^a*i^4/z^^<-<^ <(z L^^:^
^l/ ^., ^^t>et<^, &<^h~I~ B"" j~^^-.* ^c-.^j Ske--A



a

/ ;.8 /76~~u~R yrb ~i~buff
^%





It- ,a~z 41xa O-et
re-p '-


I. (nl)

2. [mu

3, 0n1


4, (ri) 31

5. Ra

6. ru

7, 73u


Uu)


cha


r f a


cho


lyo

lye
iwo
lco




iro

ino
irfo

itwo


rio


ye (.e)
wo


I 44 I


dzo


ldzo


dza


I. (dzlnl)

2. a


3, taa
3-Zv


Iwo


. maa


iti:ao


5. tu

pa

E u
-P


zaa

a

t@ttL


lvo
iyo


i wo


Zwo


-to


pa Ipo po

Lwa 1&o o 0

aa 10o n| o


-T xpT'Panra itorUeO a3i..l-raos !-a

The distinction betweer."Ccr.junctiveO & "ls.junctive' Pro Sbi ,
'A1 gored in so-called classical Fr4 1 lwhichl would have us say:
"It is I," and not:"It is Le", is as Importartt l. KFararga as It I a
In French, because In botr, these languages, trose two xinds of
pronouns have "distinct form'. s"

."Misjunctive Pronouns ,


1rs iunctive pronouns either stand alone as In a kind of paea.
theals emphaticc) or come after "copulative verbs" % "preposltionsls'~
Thus: :.::I
&eau kiomana, 'lies the boy" (rTench: Lul (not 11),Le ga
I.tl 'It is rot he"( Ce W'st pas lul,inot
Sbt. Itth hima' ( AVeC lu,aot;:aveos
-4 ..H -.e ; a ._ aL .. ..-_ -:- .;


kf.


dk-




~L.~m


- Tc.1unctlve _Proncuns".


Conjuctive prcnours mii1t be called "Mv-rt ai proouQrias",becaubse
tney only accompa.ny a vert, t always '~reueie It" g both a:
"sub ject" or "ot-.ect". rantu lnouri "only ranaes" the person or tnigj;,
theroreore 11ie "Lite utlsjurctivt-", it canr.Tot 10 roi: ur.ject of a verb.
This It re-erver.i to tro te "cr. wicxure pPo'.our".
Thus: do not, 8.y:
JPu nu rl a, 3'-ut: 'i,: nu a ri j.ro, '""r.e fail it here";
lye ri TaLo Ie a 1 ao, "rIl-s;ef Is nere";
ltrudz1 'ar o "'..iji t ii .ar.r, "'T e t'oats, they are
!CM o aro roa, C1. n-aro cL ,lo reiza, "'71. c-Fir, it ls heavy'
ch no t- ra, 7. cth1 rao totatirE, "dozI.-y, it Is swe*t";
lva I\ycQ ta. ra tilC .E ;c t'T'., 1 'c-' little chlcx, it
r 4- pVst 'Talks."
, )9.- Thn Lublect proourf la 1 iba.va t) e Ljt. 'L.roroI:r. InaIedia-
ely befor1- the "verl. prjcr "1 it. after the verbal particles A auxl.
11artee. hue:
c- Ch no rmu net,'j, "'it 9!!'ioys nbl";
& ca ml uz.-, u'L*: %illi tell l;". presently'"

8).- yarar:ga will not have"Lr'o object proreoi.s" direct t &. Indirect
nb4.nt )\ h forr th virh- i-i2s: t a" :':


%v 4 u I -


d il
But Alt


r;o r;u cnl BS, (as in }res.cr:.j) vous le done) ':1 '
nto .u Zi lu-.l, .jive it you'"


4or r- 1r chi ;Lj ULL. ~: e,



*a4- z
The 1 F.L or i ris ut- is tre :. 1 wrd, Sas in
fliglish: I j1v0 tt youi 1 1: 1t(2 ;u" tflis
rz~- -S-uw~~ccr LB-ec5~ r~~-Q~a~B


~U, bd~C~L ~2LLLIZL I
____ __ c-ntt,
t~i-d-n .lbCC~ a *~-I


ei/-N <^e'r-wBO fc Ca/ft^r: 2t H4Mec,,4 52Ar,
4e-a d^ i rd=- ~ -f s -- ~ -


/^ t J7 AtcM /i4^ ,A5. 2fc0






*< 3A L. 3-ste- *v I^ *U' -~

.^ A-/^ t 4U je ^ y j t ^tinic/ /L'- e -S*
;Y t> Y"44.


.3.


7
~


















Possessive proLou s" 1, .:arax-a, it a lawu genaralf le:,
refer to & agree with ,- not! ti-e possessor, ut the t -lg osesse.
They are mea e up of the tconLnctlvQ" proiCen telorr4r to the name
of tre thing peessed, Ate part cie "o

ea is for _u-as, y for A-e, _a for i-La, Va ror a-a, _a for ka-a,
a for a-_, ja ror g-a.
TFhe final a of eal rCne t.oeesseves tecomee a or a by contraction
with the disalpearea reIltll u or 1 of the rollowinr- srtlcle, just as
na, "ith, it & sa, mile" become e7, ne, so, ase.
Tiese p;os~:eeslve I.rot.AL-s are naturally followed by Mte Loui or
pronoun derctlr.- the possessor. The latter pronoun must be the "dis-
junctlve" pvrc.oun, as is t,* ca-e after ot nr sreposltlois.
T1usB: S
vu anla e s bata, "L3. tater's childl"(1t(llLITe cWlla.bhe ba


n Of--- d ye 4 -. ,

i3 hajt COIitui; tr .e c.U lfferT'co 'trat; the "to for_
of dlsi.clve roc.rn & .., i4,o S to Ic. .is sli. ly that eu-
phOnic j (sc'mnetne- L as asee. iI. L4va&s, uLaio & li, the 3Tq~ia1i ;j Senta
'gg "a cuse" r frr w.1cr. mtost 'sItua
tt :.rl>. o every u.cr.DPl'.-.t1e n eimpha-
r o ..lzed o ialol. o h t h *LeriL v-" or iaonoevllabic verbs
8 ra, "die, iY.l "eat "t c.E" takt t.rt euir .cnic


:de "dl(tJiou ).

^ /'^^eat' (flA ; .
Thl aginir expiq1ns the 'Iirferev-ce hbtwee the "full 3ewonstrative
thelr',clnilc forms,. -uch t1 also the probatle orlir of what
t S* Joneston calls "pre-prerlxes", A soue believe to te tte
ItieLea (e up m ).






/L4. 4' taC tt 'fPLy i






Wyu, uyuyu yuyuyuyuyuyu uyo, u.:ioyL, iyeye Yo-yoy0yo
I chI, IchI ch ,chichich ich1C ecio, icS on.tcl IroCno I ochecrfecho
4-*a/,r %iira- ^^^; -fVf PC Uw / CM s

In o;i itic [ /ruj hflcl
lyi,2ylyi ylyiyiy i yi Iyo, lycyt o iv oyc yoyeyeyo
uyuuYuYu yu,yuvu,yuvyyu L o. L u.7cj Lyeye yoyoyoyo
UyL4,UYUYU yuyuyL,yuyuyu u Lyo,u voyi ,uvoYo yo yoyoyo .
icki I lchiohilohi,cnci ,101i hiclii lncj iolc ocitC lc;ocno Lcroucjechecrio
irl,1rirl ri,rrlr,rlrlrl iro, ror roro ro,rerero
aka,aaEa rataka ,axaka aXo, aaxa,yua lt(o o, (kaicako,
ukato)
ujcako )
urwu,urwuriau rfu, riuriu, rurwurwui urio,urworwu, urworwo rro,r-orworwo
thu, u1Zu hu nhha, huhu, u, urho,uh-olu, u'oiAc hoLolho
1dzl, iizdzl dzldzla.i,dtazlddl zl eo, ldzILodL, tlatodzo dzo,'dzedzedos

Ysa! La,vaVa,vavava avuvava,uvav vo vavo
lyliyi t l,ylyyl.lyl lyo, yoyi lyoyo yoyeyeyo

l ., w1iZzwIwl zI wlJZViZAl izVcl iwoz.i, lC Z ozc zwoLsezwezwo
auye~i iya ayayay avo,uaya,uayo yo,yayayo
ut. auOuatiCt. tuii, tut u, tut;u tu uticutwot ~ ,utiof 4 tio,titotwotwo
Sapa.papa. pa) papa,papapa apo,paapapo po,papapo
:.aXu (ku) kukulok o I Uk i O kooko c k okoo
UIaU Mt( mu ) momo LUo, imoo mo, momo, molom..:



-:*S t trat Iyve -r- r, ou..

All decns8natlves ir. 'isar,.ga are "pronoas" for tar *aa
sta lone 11x any other proniout. i.ie nourzs tney caLnot be sub .o
atf a #tiib;-(Do not say: L'yu ri par.o, trils orne la w-re', but: Iyu /
p jIet, :'Matl one, he Is here" )- tut, like ncurns also, they can B
I bJeot after a verb.
! Thus:
'1 2 da mu nu, 'I tlke the sar.;
da .gu. I itte tnis one".









h. en6itif to a ZiUL tl e,' are P. y-. j.ri.loto to -L, to
therefore 1le place:j be'rcre or avtlr It, wi'LL tAr.t irrerence of Ieari14
erplealed 1i. 4u1. 111, :tr:e rfirt wor1. 1i' t!ea"prr.cipal' Or em-
phasized dord. T-us:
U .y.U _u, L. it. tr L s one, a SManr";
tTu 1._ U iri UVu, '"t';e ia, jr;.r.Lt or.e .

Te'the o e"cltlc deLo].st.ratve a~re oz.ly fcLunrl i.eiulately after

%ikana r "t i't (r ti e,t ) i, rL".

(]^ (>VlL>f-'31^


SaDJIo S-





U: c
(I uic












I
5 ctilc

p ri&.o
u rkc |

7 hu o


i ailrO.o

var:c
ine

Sarlr.o



.5 tu2c




{ ltAYI

Biann C
'.' -^ ..j


tratIve%



lye-a


uy&-s
uCaye-a
chiye-a

rtye-a

kaye-a

ruy e-a

rcy e-a
ii

datye-a

vaye-a
tya-a

wltye-a

aye-a

tuye-a


paye-j.

ialy eA
age


ater t I.on,-
Uat.1q lof
L, Oga^*e

1l1 yogaO -

L l noa

chiI i cncL:a

rit i roga

Za il L. ioga

rik1 rc
rapid r0moga

Liup1 wo .a




vapt voga
1pi | yoga

Siptl z"~woga

api a g

Sti. tfhcga


Spar f;oga

jjupt Loga

;,

All

0 5e, .re


rose





roce

v a '' e


rose








wos 'e
V oCe: e
i o-e






tw:ihO:-:


Iosoe


C? ILr .? e .
Il GL .

rli.fi



rulwer

)I fv"e


dz.1. Ce

V F.ji
I -.v e



mani, (vsif )

i^:...C


pawr. e


Lj tr' e


I








9. ~-- ug-i ofl traYaTv-s.
The cormpouid prorours are jot directly aJd wroilly derived from
the saltple aeoenst:tratlvet:, tut are L:L1me uJ cr tne'"cor.uAInc ivee pro-
nour.s" a distinct "puffl"x", :;e sa .e in all Lenders.
'he Ineeirnilte r.u.o i7t.r, et:,idc-r ) I9 oT'te-r used witt. adverbs-
1'ast iiUc "T is very day";
.'wiFoC L-Uo or .uzo'.C., "TJ Ie S very ii star.t.

.1,B. w e suffix ".ere" le or va, "t*uere" correFpo.d$, exactly to
th;e Frencr, cl (celul- ) Latii. cc (ni-ce, ile ),
pfi (celuli-f) Le ( 1-li. ),
S I terrogac I s.

Thie sutf g1 Ir lc mets : *"rt-re"i I evidei tly a contract
ont ort a-.yt"' wht "(place)t It lI..LLe er.cilLic tor:,. of Pi9
".hereT" often eed IL ai.ytiAa n, well as lyn, I.ere. .:er.ce nene /a
reno, 'Thlrs n aro Lir;t, l-.re .. Liere, evert.er. "
n :r aCded tc tit "cOr. ,Lr.-ctlive" 1rcIcyt., If. makes tpe
interrogat & "vIQc-" (aacrf rA9seral).
Sr Two other 1 .terrotf Liver prol.cu r..a' U 1.i Y1, s \a
noted fore (,. /}' a lie il'cti:l pf or I. Plal yaI !. \-
the 1terrcgative a rb r r1 r1 i. *, it made up of t-
pr our.rt, t rt 6irrut, vte nil I '1 Lence in the 1laterr sgatir e
ant O "'ho, or P t" or.; s toru T revrlttato of the prozo i a nhe or
sf.e" ar would %rre apipy p.ersos cr, r.ut it lstVe iS f act
for S4AAwl l 'te r'OIUJb uxhii l1e. ill (/ta r- surfticieLtly


axu rl It ct. roc (&aror, tr C lot )z a-re 3a It?" /
S_ a ( at ( partl1cular ) looi .t"
B7hu h' hat scrt of t-oi' /
S .3B, gkU r'aril .i-ears: 'iose tooai"
*bueu re yU t "A lcoO cf nhattr -r: v.at Lub.)lf9
Zita ra n3o e rl 't "..r 1ct is vC tur rfa c (c Ioo t tnree)?*"
it ra ko ridl anIt 4rnat is y-;or r.r.e
Yit ra k0o 11 k07 "iat sort cf. i.ae le ii .f-ursti aTat /.natpu




iea a ,s "h ever likesT or iifeoev ies";

.--k-.a r .- -h. lo..0h ever i.ar. cr- everg' i*. '




7-


VJ&p-7~


( de 4t&4.6& Alf

4v -* ,a ka ip


S--- ---


at : ad amtu AI" Az, ala /,hf /A c
7 A <2ws4 /1' ^ __



"kh .k6e~ It /Au
4 aA^u ki' i4d. /-,Ce Ae? 47 _r



-_. 41 / /{d --A
Ad ^f .t j /&-,t rr <. a .4 e t^<










6 ---44------ A/? ^ z s ~A v
<,^^<~t' ro I .


-. f r-


L~~~~~~~ ~~~ to*^.* ,,.~:*/ =s~ ..,; :... ; ***






at Ara S -2m .

1ALLo. 4. e-"- )
Xwo., aI, PeZ. v fA)/ "A-A?' &A/- A S
2 r -v i ol do z e
-: ,~ Y~C~ ~__ {t----a.A- 7






CD ZLfAA ? 1,I4AI hl.y44e~ AFa f -71'j


7 AY(1Aty IZ, I 7e tWY74,^ /-h2e


Ah Lw ^., app fa^ f a.t 4 -.




"A- f &-A) 2?-. ;M_ C-4
],. # A l. *~ ,.., 4 -"* L -44 L

-& .- e 0 .i,



ia I 1a ..L^ -,, I" ^ ji,
--------i^ = isB AV i4 fe idf


r






d 2A- -4 A -
"2 ) 4 "'* e' i- / 4i e






717-
71 4r /Ae a'4f' A A














1& v4f4At A4 /
w- ,. 4A"7








^A /^,^,/^ Ir/lA & ogtA-t I 4AOm 44ga/ o40 /
-- or --
;tl^L) futa ; ?I f 9






<%&*o A" f^ ^ ^^' < .^ d cAft"







ko .7A







A- -- wo 4 4




^/^JIf ,d 76 /M/si

4 ^ --=f /2E 4 ^1 /(L'I" iL *I A,'
71Z t/rt 1 % yc ;





^zoz /^ ^ ~ J








Stallarly titnl na rli men eve or wrhen*
Sma ri- alFrtL or, a jgfr evrr .

s.s7 Ntatlves are onEi- or es-linlz by nmers of interrobatlvese aa

n Ip payiY CiI ri tl? alere ia It? i.e. Ttiere is nothing, I t"flJ

ge, Kr CE rt', as weli as cfa, "alor*, .2 00, Ge, "all" S
to bie only*satlfixes" as Ltzey are jo10-ed LoL tL trie irLile, bUt to t
the "conjunrctive ipronur,". m .La ;
S4. *I a


L I


ldose
Toe


uaer t.uahi aioULer uat g
"Ali roads'".;
'I alore, or yearl ;
".,as, aiore" ;
"'e-:.ou alcrne, ourselves,yourisivete*
":y Whcile 8sellf";
*t'ie all, cr cur WFhole aselves',


To express "sel'r te 'axytka use tt.6E word abu.r*, the t ,raneas or
victoria have mer:e. noth rords eviuex.L- i; ci:e rroi tne Esame root ne or
e9, In mbbu e wr can rec.'- lee tMe co L itlve fernm or the Tcr;ga article
u for nu. h set is pRother foriL c-l the inr9 .,.xL MU teL. (pl.v'ene), "lord,
aster', trapf (Travels 1sicarv lat.,urs e7.) ,tves as the
onortifc title or the i irst of i .-.t ara: -1i:ba i(ar. t-num.ba) Wae neB
explain it bt: "*he llit, tLe -a.ster, the true ilcr., tre licn lhmse11
Thus L-tanyle. a:
Tt da Its int ui--.- or ix btmL., "I did It myself*.
S Tarargae: -da ka ita naOgQ, "; did it alone";
:i.a ia t 1a xiaoIrr natl ere or Lda iiene,i" did it
.No. .i ,s i ere cae a yelf" ; c
Ch LEart .. oit.ere r c l m ,eijt"'n"b ctsir itself*;
ikt kiato r'r.a kas er!erf i9o'ts^^- 'a-


jsSL or Ese is used In tte rolowling tlicmatic sexprssitrs:
ts ni na an C pi T Ce rotnt a&t 911';
a J rose re xcvura ra ti no ioa,"'ot a single ro or rain
S -w- "-- -. e see";
Na l3f O 0aa O, wIct at all";
-1. igk-Ma oe B, "In no ma8neAr tat. ever .

,^ 'y :.= 1 el --- .--- -. ^ .











e (Volct I rr, re i C, ( Volta


i-:v 1 i c 07 0, f .: co.
hI ne u, i CLiC i'OY L o.Vy.


3f rl vt,1, .1A.0 ru L.: c lJ. :
71 r l r .Lr er i', a





'* I^ ~ I.L t %* A. c- i t 4.c iV a
n 5 1,77, a

L -,etIl, C.vlstWi .v to, ~rnVyl-


t i| LOV Cht :D .OV0 !...la
h 1 i., ;ea,.c c.c o, .c.L ya

i.av, tv ard.o ave c ja
II 1 ae n i V .e.l0 r... "c, R:.,v 1Yy a


ok 1, :..so u t "c :. ,-7. : o si e


>In F ritch 'oi, otlai. are for ols 1, l










ik *, r rL i, c l..- ,Lro- -r.,nauy
Shol, 0aA1W., L'.et urvtya


Predicative Pono uns.


Include the vert "Lo te" or ace i heylr vert eau corres- ; to Wie
En1ls5, "h-are io, .ere are; TI.Cerle 15, L.A.ErlV are; re es .C.
In Fr|ach a vol%, voila* are 'or Ovols cl, vcln 1ar, aO riereqr se ; -E
thfsrew The Lati& 10ac0e-i-Ge)' 1 e curl usl.-,' like IO-11-L

t t l0 y ,, "i-eore ln y,.,rr' t'ow.L";
h nB ;ga .c i-o"Th -re, iitpsr. 13 r
.-------------------------- _________________________




Pe ya Fe1 'T.r a go i:3 L. Qool.
Lonrl !jai ar a "ivre you name t-eIdr",




Peeh.. / O9.A K











^// z ed. ao>^^^ .



1n4 '- 6 AL, -4 74) u ^2 4e
/ f 41f '/ ; 7 / --^--- -



/ / / -i -,-- / y
S'^v/' zd&w a CI^H s(4.. ^^ i LLI
7l^^^,P uJ ^^^T/^ t^^"; 3LfeZa-,>^~ A
aU/lcei^,^^2y isL^" '7^ ^^x-~ "sC f^L^ ^e~^







7 4 ,a 4 IuL.LtZ h-f.t L h 4,, 4Wehe



e .lh ." 4 -------



E... Ad-hf/.. SL a > x A~V. 4~-. -e
., ,t i,^ i w /Z1 a ^/ ^ ; G










___d_ 4r a e -rA e r detd-- 241-.
- >- A^,




.?.-A^ o r1 jf4i^Lier^ 4 <- ;/_
^T3_ /^tL 6-' #'^< 67 rj Y- i^- ^^.:





/ ---- --^ -- / ----- ^' ---- '^o -
/ZZt-c< s. a(^ lSt>UL. <5t pZ^ ^ l ^ ^fcct~ leM- U /6<








0- 4a. "- ,?-A





SAo -, o
-&1- A- ----- 44, --d-
---- /r ------- "" -- / -y.--,,-

/ t. _:

,-- -- --I / j m




; t4E-.- /..J ,_ ,
- /h A 19 / 2>r Ai,


/.- I /.. '.










^Lh2^ ^^'^ ^ A2 e hE o i.6, ^










\Q ; A r ~ l"Z C
_ zas EL Ic i


^<*4< )tje ________ IAWWz cL^ b^rrfe 7L."yiL..L7 ay -e...


~J r A-w- LtJLIAL 'Lw e^2t"~v.L fj-e 6f. ^!IAc*E
<'4t^>mf^ e^L^ f~ ^<~La-^ <^-^ >rtJL, A sfe& Z.,v

---- --- ^ ------ / -l i- /--- ---









___.-_ _e4__- 7eU- A4
? j4 y' -o / ey IC4i^ )







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vJ~Jg-i~ e>i' <-a' feff' ^
^*&*^-' ^ ^9
y~ L / .^ ^ ^
^-(SLW^^SC~-Z^- ,ue~/ A-^~ r-aten-^- <^^^fc^L.
/f~6cg C -^-^ ea 2t T^tai >^ ^^~J_ /Aa^at--.
















-L r ~ CA a
to, I


hz~c ~',C (*c-Ije-


l-Il

/Zd


All


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L Y 6r~~~
,"


/^ ________'f___-_________W i -____- I '


7 n C At

2 eI-^f(rirte; oe^ 4


/I iJ t e~w^^. ^ AJ^)
R,-, -i. ,' A d. .



r-4A d- -. 6 /ei 2?dANZtb )


)SC rz u ra -L
.h. *tsa u ^j_-aR /i ~ AC~ / ^ / / f


"f4Zt


^-


GC~-C~f~ I


~h~-- t-


QWa, I AW
6f^<-a4 t_









Aoe ,O 4- C i o- ,qA, V


Sieu. a/ z,,. #4, _

4 e < ~ _. -,. .




-a ~QM --/-, 2, r/- L.d -



ad .. ,, e., .o /2 a .- ., ./t, ,, .
Sug 7>c*t '7i4^^u f- L-etf ^' P/fc /cL- z' /f tcZf )'
SZ4 _'___







bfj ,, /, I 'ItdJ~ n 4t 4x '---.,,-, .
-----P y-----/- ~,iX-i------^-;----




' ^-c.- -a-L. ad / yJ Mid- '
L -B
.<. )v ._.A s^ a ^. ,, .<. ,,.'
;,...- 2Mt' Alta- SML- (WL.. .X z

)l^- H^f^L ^f/^z- ^-^S^ <^.'^^<
















~4-/


Ae,
/ v- z _:- i F y ; 7 /-e

]/^ ^^V> < ^^ ytSbeJ 32^CLcU*^- ^ }zL4/-


y )



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--.^-_== ---*^---------



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A"A-& A 4 dw< A M *- L# kw, se .^ l *A


















f s hignp, fy. /a- f, '/30 W A vtOA00/fr-l
ve S Iv ) 'o ao /e .
)L'tJA1 9-- A* i /-- Iy^ / / y ^ ^














1 ^{5Do I z f I (f 4 ., o lnu^, 730 teo~odonj, ^ [^,/fe^ .
















_- _-_ .-_.- .. ___ -__,
AL O w" Az













- ._. _-_ ,
-&e "-/ P LC9ej. c/ 7,f .-








a. _/-
4,Z ,, ,.,B7 ,-e4






-^- VI-,, f6 : '





~cak.0 VM^. ^et^A**. AZ,^^T^^/^^^a^^






4^-// -1% lfk#e t Mfz jm .









2 f ,I .L M ,'. .. L l L,
Z4E Jceet va 4 AI





I _,____ f: / ___
' i 12 ,,. i ~. &'. L [', _..







MA-- -.a It&) <. It, 4l, 'h L

.- --Y ( ,.^ ^ .-- .- 1. .- ... ,^ ir, .
B^r^ciM L 0t <^ i
v^. / <
^^ '%^ V'^ta. n te~'13r ^ rf 13ta^^S^oi^^ e^s^












d4r z- -f" -- i *


|p--C~j~ ^-^^-C^ b^x^^c A41_^^^^^^A^









la- re &,I
| n4 -r ty .4y -1 -
f/- /4-* kdDz-4 4 8L -








/ _1

77' a dat./(AL 4-,^ ^^






. .7u. Aaior A 7 i 7~~ i,
w d g6-~1z. : L L~4. *A4
S -^d.. 'el / X ..c ."A 4 <"

C/dm t*4<< E2 d *'A7,41 0-414/ ES ^ hi,







/ 4
Ai, CL~ k I se-



ce t o ^&)) /o r 0 '
24, e' h I Lz-L g}^ > -t .
/4 __ ___ -I1 *:-", .";;*"_





"f^








7-%^Y :~ .S vA








C 4A----^L^.-/ I .-/ 4 sa-w








t .1ioth.er to }oCur.. 01_5jPotCy 1e ot.t,,ea )y Or"ixing _, or cha
t -the orditq.ry alejunctive. it mearns "rea.l, true.
Thus:
9o m'1VO .wa R- o)r cna Iwo, "arcr:.o, Ud Ln e -rt truly" =-i
.t -.4 ---'--- ,



11 a e-o1r c. 7V, r tre a""
I/B. Another uoi~u~cur. ls qjjiur.Ctlte is otLat&aeu 1*y ,rSiixlr n Xa. or chSa
Tbthe ordlxiu-y aIFjduncclve. IL uueans "rfcd trurbi". L
Thus:
32 m'ovo twa o, or cr 8a iwo0 "Frci-. Lrid ne:rt truly;
u nu ___m rZYe "r crhsie, *, reci truie rnai:";
blza iwe ro or cha ir, ". rrl LLort-".
i.B. _wa ie mear., "at r1 jlace (Cnez lul );
wa njU "St. .y place (cne4 ,.o );
Pa cies du, "ami.orgst OL;urselvef;ta;-z -. r-e-ro
P7a ca vy, "a:..orLget teLser~elv.e' IV a L .
" Beeldes tie e.:ir.nitlic":Ir1, "I 'i.lfr", I wee, "t.ou thyself"
I'Vee.",e l:;;.seitt, u l t, "* yourselvesae;
as i;: Vs nu ll,( or VO Y;u rl ):i nui iP. i i "Yu C .eU ----
--thle word "j (cf.indefriie .vle or J ~Oyia' piscec before most
dls. ur.c t ves:
vl : le ', .vE mi, Ye au A, even tel'ore
adverts :lwe rlinr, "ti.ls very instant'
lye na 1, "tiie very iay".
arytlka and 2lnrlae r.ave li-stead: lo '- lro0, h1io .rj1.
2) Petlexive rLroicugs.
a )
The reflexivee Pronour." 2.W (.erLa,cl,, yete tLt, "or-.;a o. zulu wi4-)
is used for "i pierfccrs -. r.L4rttere ari cesi-.s sl:u;t.y selff.

d L -C zwl 4n8, "1 love .ayteLr'";
6 2 AQ ig 'as "tC lC've yvcurseii';
V1 1 .' N ai "Trey U'v-' these 1vs'.
a no Awl kui.a, "'-e tnAes nir;soer lth' .,(re is proud
A Lo zai ynaj,( oilouilai ) "e I. vailn(.Le eats hlselr)'
A r2o 1 itsa .u rUfi, "r;a(Mark.Ge !ri-S.elf) ,piFes
h eilf off as rich".
Notice that awl li also the luiral cf LtHe neuter cril;
Therefore:
A fno awl da can also wean j "ie llea tiose ttlnel*.S
--' -' "'- .-.. .








"he ref lxlve prc:our. L,togeter wit.n th
iaf'orrm of' tr.e v-er' mates laioLacicet expreser rera very si8 lar to.aad.
corr'~iLoordlr.e titn-T.renuen locUt ona. Tr,UR:
a zwl frltire, ".'ll ali 111 proi,.er";;
SlWr-tndera. "Iil s'en e0. T all";
Va i f-r o '! : .l'ar'r tre, lia e s:-nt ,us";
S.A r.r., "VCLu v.eus rte.ioulrL"; ,
7a .^"m v51ra a .^.. S'Qous .nou sei-'j!, acuiajL-.tes. ;. 1
i Cc,*. 'par the *r, ,.is I i ,. s ions: "s I: i- r It et "..etI.1 i l ij
be, ueti nil ,pIa", var, a k i ra L~
.. .- '










then re ch, tat ) is te sut'ject" of
-1,C11 / f.









the reHlafN claVse, it i8 ex.rcs:ed i ara, ty 'the ortiTRY 'con-
Junctive procoun". Tnus:V"Tre man who died rose ag1r.n" Is rendered by:
-.. .. ru we La fa we ka -ukS. Litt. the man he
aied ,re rose again).
similarly: Va ka ta.za, va no ri.iALsi,"'hLose who aid wrong will beto
--- ---PurisneAi (LItt. They did
N wrong they will to punished).
Therefore tv relative clause is alst igu1sne ra not" tey a special
pronoun, but by belg placed 'before" the principal clanse. To empha-
size the diastirctio: between tne two, the coptula 1i)( followed by tfe
disjunctive proncu,, tay be placed before tht-e prli:cipa clause".
Thus:
s ia a l:_a, ad1 Vn o va n rli.lslwa, 11"tL.e .ey have done wrong,
wt o s they will be punished).

AIt is tO&eyt&lll &a pui4(ht ir)


Vtt ~te *4 t4ote






^ n^^^^A'^---------- 1^- -
,mv ana we Bata,"Tr.e chilld(r ) of trhe Yatt.r", t'.xy ~sy llxe'ise:
tu aa wa r.dt n.o da,"The chlld(ne) of 1 love,I.e. wfcrom I I lve".
Ndi no tora zsa E!iu ta.e iy things( uL.e t:i':ge C'f me )';
Sl1 rjo tor ri r.l n re cr.naQ'I taxe the Lr. l's 0r.lc I Fee(of I see),
M'1Ct:L Va ] 8 tr.ca 1 j .'lLP iZ ",r ya ro,? lFt cc t;i- ?cLu 'cu touoCt has
lts calf' Jitt."WTr; cctr it of you tob.a.rL, It ir.s t Le calf itL of it";
CrlI gar a cr a I .a its aSr tyh A h ?5dt_10 I lr cho Y
MTr.e cr1r (it ro) you .sdde has gL.t ItC le trct.-I".

';. 2 iven wfh~;:. the r latlve Frol.C.:- IL ti.ie (t JeLL, 1Yj T .8.as nave a pecu-
liar cor.' L:u ctic. I t WUricL ti ; t-J. "cAr.l: L-r r:;slJ 1 s.Ct J.ttve pro-
r.ouln" c.lY:. '"'us;

Iarlrnyl A t re ita batia vw rvu ".e. aw.at \tour }atte-r does" better
rend.redA ty tre Irnch: "vcy e o F, ra tL vYc rt he ire"; tnLe Eul.,iect-
Labta e =.u, Is Lt lest, I. t, r relait v "ot iec;,il nt is rendered by
the ordlrary col..i.l&ctlve t i1,a ti 1 CO r i.ciVt: i rojC .urZ.":ut.j ect a,#h0,
reing croitted. lzflarly:
bis rlc r'rr %'Lt A TW' ] c.^-'i -'* 0.1lc> tn. o.LL 114.:&t it".

"Ti- eiRmAe i r. ro. ric I foulirj 1t Zulu:

Izl nkomo a ,i Trli f i:. 'f%3t, ".'.e aoit.i L tt.l:- .: tl oPfan saw*.

.- 'rhe t.; relativee is :"ovu:riF-i y' a .r Fcpsi.ic.L1, tas:v' t whom,
Ill'!ty iorlftE r.tts serep lve ;.rcr-oit. 1.; ,r.iCt rir-st A ti.e jrepcstit ior.
followed b. i-. tLi. .:frt l o rctlve trcIi v'i e-t Li ., t~1.Q c, f suorterce. Thus:

eU ::u e w'a di': 1 r nd a ,8 v'el"TA I.qiaj WL 't.. I In-.,t1t;Ltt. "rfie man
he of I yet-t ,it:. hiL';
.u kadAl 4 vna s ron:wa rA ve?,'.r. vo i.sr. ly. vi.or, taepy were berwtc.ed".1l
; '!.te of t :eiv iere tr ltc.he. t h er";
ar.ura ca Tndl ra chrioca U tsl ra CI.L C rL.at I nave( t of I am
,Ilth it )trait( it or ,u n ave r(.ou re a :ot withn t".

M.B. Zulu rer.ders tr:e flrrs two enlh4.ieF aiL[.st(.t exactly lite Lne Farangs

bLth r.i.U C Y.r'5 r^s.ta i Vyi
Lr'faLi a ia Lazat ra ll ye.

It also turns the relativ- li to a potesslve wrietLer it sa subject
or object of a vert. Thus:
Subject:I : 'vue z_ L.l t.. i 1 'e sheei (ot ev thn aled*;
Aba tu aba hambile, "mhe ie.;. If ry1c/ eent";
Otbect: ba r:tu e pStbori leYo,"Thie e einfoL. sS' "Lltt.'Of 'e th3em 88o
Iz i 7i c7no c 8 1 b oVle vy o ,% -galf0
S~ 'Ve."ie cattle IrntLl
Tr-; \ -'..'' e tU *fjJ.






Page
Missing
or
Unavailable







Aiil&s either the ppossesolve" notr Ole riclncu S pUronoutpr
i' o _nstatratlve,. just 1 e th.e _4i;11lsa 'that'. Mus:
m gu u_ ndl ri ku ticna, ii LanTLya, "Ththt I see (Ie) a ManyLIt,3
Th la s the relative as objectt', for the relstlve as .sub.je.t the
demonstrative Is placed before tne iourn. Thiuse:
u n u wa 1a fa, wa Fa rL a, a Trw, man that dled roseqa
2rburLl dR a9 a Ize i.a, d u azoal "The ,oatR that ran axq^ 4
__ --- _r .iave returried".

fT B a )






u f --- -6-^. 44)^r
4^4 44- df ^J;i-e~iSTl4 L(4A4A kft
(3 7.}















(Swahili a. onga C.3, Congo JJ ) Is a defective verb, usid orly
the present Ir.dlca-lve (am, art, Is, are). ,or tle Past & Fuar i
tenses as well as ror the imperative, but.junctive a Infinitive
Moods, it la replaced ty the vert v4, *tecon .e" nlcn is a regular
and coniFlete verb.

InralcaLlve: Na l o -va, t ecoLe, I shall be'; A
ii1 cILh8 0 Va, "I s;al1l tecome, I shall be';
a s5 Va I I tecamie;
fcda 1 vat, I was, I used to be'.


Imperative: Iva,
SIvaub:
Subjunctive: dl vo,


"become (tnou), be (thou);
'jkecouie (ye), be (ye),

*"et Mne becoiue, let me be';


Inflr-lttve: fu v_ ct,-.,-bcume, to be. C.c.

T ~ b~y SL~zt- SL 0



_-e_ _____ 9- /^ .. >l Jf 37,Z^








,. c A^ ^, ,tiC7 ,

y > 1 "- 1-t






.- *, A L .
~h a4 1 e eGG~ Zu-C F~


h;
rd ~i
--


I


I `. ~








< ..,, _,-/-:3-, C ,t.,', ,_C. C .,. Z l ^

.. .
44z




,


S. L ,
/ -- W 4 -















: 41- i.,, .


AA 4
t4J A^ -











dr. -



-% -^-- ; h^/(A





ade



















AP,
kE*--------. 2s 2* ---- ^-f 7ee* p I
htA <* a,, k' *0 4^e- 4^: t ^yA/t








A W-4














---""^ "" l .







ciL ,- *O~~r 71 LC~~-ai Li)
______ YL4-iP;r 6,- s


7-
-


4k'44t. kw e CI2# tR4^/ a&^A e 7.*9'


'IP'7 A14A44-eI Am


A-'^0t^ Gb9 ) -/S^ _t & i- 4l '4

^a2a 4 t-^ zsC~ot cL, d/7 y' 5 g /~ rt. ini~ ab^4f
/6 2 4 f A L Jr C i. -
/Wt-,,/c~4e-, &ttt C^t^Urs^ A2 *^ J

^*.~eS~~64i wyajtlke At ^ V
~c ~c~-,6t"X-


Z &, -Z^ki' /u4{Jlf t 2' (u7 APA eA/Ac 07Ctel.
d4, /" -4i
hc~OjeR.-k2t "'Wf CAUt-f- 6-7ta


<64 ---/-< ,^ e<-.4,.I <., e A r4-4,
-4-~~I.....................4


70-Ti&U-B TiV a- -- -pa
bSa Ma mu kuru kawzro,
aTa Ke hou ,ru chete,
jTMA uu.


"n-il-s tree (1i) iT1 bd-wld tree ;"
,yv fattier ( s) a very great (man)';
",is taggage (Is) only meal';
*whkatl It Is r1ript".


But n 1 A ri nounraused as P take the copula 1 before lsma;

ir l nubair, "~ at big animal is a lion';
a l. *Thlas animal is a snake";
I b12"Its house Is a caveat '
S"The goa tas e Ia Msnay",


Raftll,-4


c






lotA-_______at____o,7 &&LL.


I I > -a- 14 I


S_1- __l -wA v i -I




U1.. .A-kJ. .Le ( 7 .4., &





____ d -t?- 9e T /- wC-u ,v 2 bh L .
_-^_ q_ A .4JA -
Alf 7"OU'V^ /-94 /U' ^^^r^.


A- dc i tf ^ -ii "JiL fj^ ev^,^






^A^^^/L^v. Jv ;j /u- ^<
TOL 000
A h4--
MdLNtL







nft nAt^~~~~ h .. ...., /7: 4, A 9 4,

'-i, n ,' _ .


/ Z, n d e u, a _ j4. < W ? # _
bf U- .d fi- d_ ^74 ,' -77Le^s
---- ?,---- ~c e--e' iZAt e






/ /c< A' a Aw*^ > e4 ~


A n 71,u J-4, 0A n
-*-
Ut..d ^1A 4M /UE_^-"f z'Ce i es!ku r










K 4 -i



/ -~ m zz
.944 4.te- ^)ac 3i pit- zL'O O A; AL At I TJ A








I /ltAtL Al 41"as rc. Ct^.. td .'. -
Mew= -- -- ni- "t'f7- AV" s
/. / )2i- ^ / r 4, J--7^jl __
7. < 7--L /- ---Z- _^ 4a-: ',
-y^^ ^ yI* s tWTyd ^ %^'^ f







4do Id iO^ lc4
*-- ? "/&t -- -- / --fn .f p& ---




_d _--Z4 AZ "s e
^9 A'k -e i--sg^ tAf # #




jsne. l e t ?4a.
/%A4 ad ____ __ hL ___ & O A4 Td "4A P; 2M
J"a Ad *2, 2" Lu u ?>"


mea- -O ka4 c A-- A ve z__ ce 4_







J'f;/CL 2 za- e- o t WeK n r. //f





1zSe-/~. ( ) X4 n 440-a-- 4A
Ago- "~-- ---- / Cso)








7/4








Se net o o&'u;f



nh/aita na.h(, vet)fal parti g A iarl y^ bec oe bu.so
__-_ --_ 6




MRA,, A.s w-r ) hc4 04 eq




/h^<- )e"_^, IMs;i w A- -^^ t h ee I n i t4a n ah ( v e r4al p ar i c l h PL, A 4 ay









Ma.uI (or ) /d ez ( ) )I Is the )a? "







Vu nu 0 uno (h !g uno) *T1s is the nmanm.
I'aIia'Tgl (" Id s ) ")icn Is the road?O
S) Ee r' ricrl 18 the horse?"
4 Mu (or l 5S--i "iese are the horses".
^-**^i~ "*'** */U *d -*- ---- "*""" *'ah -- --




Q!


R1 In eigastle Clauses

Iff.- A). )"ILr principal clauses'- (those not deperdei.t on other clatsi l a
Ir the same sentence )- the negatic-n l.roper to rl is the double "i
advert sa...3l (or z ), ha being placed at thcr begl,,ning of the.J
clause sx TFr z ) Imredlately Ntfore rt.
ndl al (t ) rl mu t.rlj ami ra: t a JLuge";
u sT2zl--1 Wlior r'ire), 't is rot you';
a sai )i rFi Pg. "JI is not tne ilac";
Sad1 l S1 a "Iit it not I";
VSa c a 1 ri a.u m a, "Tney are io lworen in tne nouse",

--., )--*l suberd lSate claees (.th-ose that aepena on the principal vr.
verbb-P$ 4-4-- en ie) dejicte Ll;e "cordi1tloi, ot.jecL, place or
time cr trie prl1iclpl aulicr,), the n&e~atton or ri is si only,
S.as tor other verbs,

ia a vi .ya di si ri mtau ba,"ou casue wh tC I as r:ot (iltt. I aIs m
li. trLe. I;ot e1";
g i rdlli sl rl -.u romate, -La 1 u "d re I net poor, I would
eaVOe ivetl. you";
ds .- a n s. 1 rI U a bagaa, "I wBs not aL wor&,(Iltc. I thappen.edA
I aL -ic t Wt wcr )".
-C.J-"'i may be osltEtl before cur:s pror.ouLrs 11. zAegative sentences
ea ti sl va nvayl or Fa tl rl va r.vavl, 1"'e are not slaves';
S-zT''m ura or 1 1 ri m'vura, "It is not water ,

) 3 tfore the preposition na,r Ie rn ever expressed, & -in niigat
clauses, it takes only tihesTlEgle i:egatior' ha (lle oralry~ .
(verby
no hope here? "Are you sleepy? (Pave you eye-l1da?)
ap--oT "I as, (I nave themm;
a- nai na, "I am not, (I nave rqt)"; .
fiM Sah Ia (V iot.) "It is empty' (Thsnofl4a.-4e no mor

) The three locatives ?2,. ,9-- In regative clauass Nay be lA.f
trued like the preoeltior. na.


Ea ndi po, or ha -ndl l ril a 0, "I ak.not tbere"- .
Es oa Moa i j 1as ri o, REe it not tr
ya e1 (for Chli ot 't
or Ta T fa i 81 rJey are no more tho re.
But in affirmative clauses they require"ri.
A ri mo, '*e Is in'; VS rf I,' "Trey are there'.


ZN







yrA- 4,1

IA^^ --4^


a7 77 z/
%,ta- k' ^t4>, a- ,


~C~C '.4~, 672*~
-rf JM Wu c



OF


7XeC~)oi~4 7ACt-~.s~ ,*s4 ~c~6 vt h Cu~
/ f 4^1 33--Z2^-- i^^<^^S^^

de
S^Z.I^^*r- g^~'^Z^/^^-^~lbu 6C ^~~^^t^A- bfe*M -

//C~lb-c /.~ss Z/ &d--3/ /u~,
/?<2-to~t^ ^^^Qf L~jv -z* '2t Cyiu ^ ci& k-tL e'
)2^^Uc~ -it'L. a f >t<^ aL ^ ^7At4^_^ /2^fc-ee^<^ ?^ cr
;b^>-BCsr ^- .^fecc ^af-i ^^^7^ c^ pji~/lCiy~ e>&^e Cttz-^^ir t j^'^Z^^^--^~ ^>*^
&at/r'i^ iX t^c-At ^ijo-u~ ^-* ^o^r;~ ~-i/^>4, ft~~i^ ^ b^^-tf^K MtA^.L -~ Lti~j




t. ,+ '!z-
~-if-ebf ^L;l &r<'4-^-^-%,O~%*.- cAfe^





9t4 .#1t^Fvkti 'it d *JrM4tAC OLL s-
-I A.l69ha!,a /' -ty --

aA -' / ? r < -
*^^tf<-t^<^^e^^^ eJfJt^sIvt^^ i-fk^s'^tt~vt^i^S.cS^



























lBotlae besldee that trite enclitic yj lt not conlfined to the 4od p
plural of verbst, or to the Imperative only. us: .

I n41 ende 11 ftLet me go, you fellowsl .
op4 X1 beat hYs C y4 u fellowsto
Ja a te w e YIE jkr(! "I saYs you fellowS! let LIM be beea dett .
N.B. B t1 end e y1, "L et us go" to often ocatracted lIto >WWOd'I or-
j .nd.-







.Tr1s Is evern o ur d!n the nitfmtiv4* whiLch by Ite very e "'i- .
:1 has nYo Person or ru bter
T La e a lcu u tara -t, "wmeca to stee you' .
ann tensa^ dw~i *f u sorAl sayuelos etie/C, bean
tLU- eue-i-t~t^ ---)v^ LiL











%ztw / tnde*T 4y 7 '4 47r/ir~4







e-'











* x;Y) a by 4/4 yL7















If fT W-t. 73&.k4 A -4---

__ & e4I- .4&4





q, 1 4, sCEL
<3k-Ut(/y A, a> ..S AV^4- <9-b >-





Ujt^^tc d 47,... ^h.st-,. 9 4 ciy^- ^fe>








V- 6 9


&P


EL ( c rc( )


|-d4 ,n cv ) -L?
J--- 'rIISLnL- -___-


S)eLYd .L~~


g~44u-.



~ifLh


Khl f) nJ-& f
"A JM41, ena-.







"-ya kd n4"I' *
- l u ls. *.
J)Q~Lk ha W nL unnj


.Ha r-U LC


tt n4 noY k- A kLL
%iJV nj e-14





JA rnA2 AL4


fi LL >VA- 3 .
UB jj ad no l:


.--^.^^^^^^^^%A^SZL --
JfZ4t 4Lne v 6 vL
~e~fL~-~ ijLdL -- ,_1
"Hryi1 i UI^. "j?,wi w-y^*


Ndieyc ~t444Ld 16a
J~f-~ fAZ
_ _ __.

U "4;) 14 Aiv dii5Id~


I


SndA h a--
>~)3ZJ50JA4L., ,J U..g


~


7, Pel l'


.uk. 9.


I





C~jJ7iiii


Pad. VLI

















Re4.-.






'hdujL. .



Ttjec4JA4.


& n w, *
A*A
nl; ka-n4*M^


^ jJLy nl .~L
ancwA Yidi C~w. ne6ei, h.
on.]



** I9 >^. '
^lw..cL, h
4'~1"-LL(---

i km;l- ^uy- /


'fv-'

Jc~j


-
njtr-iA^ \ k
- ^vw^anTrls njt^/.: j


J, ^ t/vUL j
^Jejiiik^) ioeC YL)f.

W & I ,t n ^ < L h Iy ) t
dan- Wtx *
A 0t
g""OY~i


9id/ na 6 A. Lie4- ,





_ } .:. a




~L
'AhC ;


S--- "-
-d tJ4 A.7^-- /
1d /^-t- .i~i''^ t-^ t 4 9?.


h f ki w
^)b kdAW^.
ti~ Ja~d~il^^ftLSL
H 1L~DrW (t,~tjjj- kuiyyyIL.^4
^^-- >I ^ lfff/w.
Z'c W{&^Q.M^)^^^H^.ij


-' *1.


__M lv^te ,
Nca 5 'hAi /
4-"^ ----~


I_


-Am I
^^i thwha4 mwy L.-Ac l.
7 L/p na i' Alt^iaw,
^Ti~,nA' Jt





f it2





.-U
"g777^ ^J_ ^^i f --- ^Rg-Acd









The Inrflrltlve.
T*- he "r.firltlive" Iit.r e.-ce; tlr. of1 !L ti "to cfay" or "d.o', the
compounds of }u t1 ( ,u darc,_ 1 nyi, .-c. ) s _a-, "'to bte l1.e, to
resemble', always ends Ir a.
FU hoLa "To see"; ho-. o, 1 a. "'To ta seer.";
ru ad lz "TC eat'; F i dvlt)I%-, "To b@ ester.";
Sais, "'"c come";
ru RpAyo,"TC run'.
.e 2ior a 'Verbtal rOL!j,", it is use3 exactly as a rour, and Il
always preceded ty tne particle IU (ilte "tc" Ir hn'1i i. ), even were
inr Fingllh "tc" ocL1d te ciLae.
"1 car run", IL C! jL I s & i- ya (not 1a ao pfa );
'You must etay#, U zo d ku e ara r.ct U L, go e ra ).
This FL Is used not crly aes as article tut also as a pronriun
.(1lsjunctlve foroT l o, possessive relatlve: APa, kwe(lercre e or 1),
or ko (before u), Io (te'cre anorIoL r ),


raL /L f Zt t- -o -;, k t
n i'|ko '*j& ime na/et. / I ka. A -1 4 1Z f
AA&-




rts Q^A~ kc ^Pa MCC ^fe- 4Uiy 74ta p
es .- ri --- --- 's7 /. fy







A-c c_,nlek /fAe :4t A _




9AS verbal noursithe infiniti ve car have I iurais:
U fa yU virl, "*rwo deatnra'( T ra ka virl-ito die trlce');
s ,a d --- "me reesto (ni azj-' *to be not ); *.
____ta, "At~rdar.ce" (Fu gut, "to be satiated,);
-j Bvtra uI e sze "lawr." (T'e ccmig to be light);
p ndl zl e mu shamtira,"I don't kxnov swli:.iir,'; .
nar ma bitra ma IInji,"You have many copojlr.is": -
. ..c....a n.. .u.-.. .... .. 'u %.. a ..e.ad... .. .



4 ,t / ,,d, /..~e a

-x ._ c r y ;*Z

zu freln'4t a "/c.C. ee a t
1"/gL '4, 7


-s 2atM~u k4 c

t4 _g /6~n, ^tt44 j^4. kch tM zLui Jrua2,ye
(^ j /e<.%y^,4'^-e-i ci4r7 7

In Keranga the infriniltive'(l le trhe lnsperative" ) naes ic"teanel
Its tense sl Inaicated ty the 'o"r.ncipal" vert which it accompanles;
l d ku d pa,tYcL ougnt to nave flnieaea(you rated to flrilshi)'"
or else it at cnargod intc tWe "ti.altcativ":
.l is &ood for you to tave se.r-, 9 a ka n-a autl wa nc a,
t sl gcoa for yiou that you nave
It has th-erefore'no auxlliarle"', but it car, take .seenl.
ACftically all the verbal particles:


Al -


i1di rl iu cl1 nd.a,
i u naR U arc ho na
. u g | padalPat
as tso M0 dva lra
Y1 8B XU fsa~s


UI a- actually E.lOiZ no,";
"Y'L ,ave rct ( juat ) seen";
"TO trier' go .4 do it abalr.';
'To be able to :et up early";
%"ot to lI.ow at all";
rqhy not (come to) answer,.
(seea. veral =Maki09aL


I I~IPi&T~UPS~a~Lij(jrr..;l. ..,...,.


-


e*X-






-be negatlor. used wlt, tne 'lr.f lr-tVi.e', as seen Inr tre last two
OxaaLe1Sffi1 FS _8,2 ccir.g Ii;isaiaiai after xu:

usa enada,* '0o to rc (lltt. to rot go )
se ch erda. "Not to go actually row'.
--------------- __ ---

The e.ccr.-d rer.so. ?lrc:ular 61 tae 1.-ierative Lr. Fairanga as In
mcst other llrTuaies, ei tre baRre rcot fc t:h verr.
Yu Cr.A fl ""0o se"; ions, "r. a, f' (V t.cu);
"Fl Lr1'D, "C0 C1re"' ; L. la, "cc; .

Ir the plural Ynrmra aUs Lie e::cillt .,Y (1.":i. y ). (n:-a3 s
r.&a Yl, C e' y.L


Ar Basrt nave a rcrror rcr u.c, :syilt3ia lekE ts;Li.. aiore'*, "i.onosyl-
latic vert.r" ac~e lite euptc'nic Iatthe la:i.erativ~ evt.i, lr, tLn plural,
(win ch agael sr;ow~ ~t ls rot Q:ri r.f]exior, ruL ,. "erlciltlic~gte
r. ace t of its o,! like te r-, i. _g)

zu ra, c Ite"; i- pcr.: Irtl ";r t c.u)'; .Qa hi, "':e ye "
Yu rnA -.s, "'- neir ,'; I:._"..al 'ie. r P' Li.ua vi," 'ear ye!'
'.ost or tr.a vertai ;-article? c; preceje the itper. tcve.

_o kira, "Jst sitt" C.r1 -IJ "c iu4e r: !" LSwiJif,"L'.c *o. searob'
i abo rOnd1 ,'i" ie pe give ::.-' ..' :1 -.t. .. "'-tt eat";
'_o .sI *"Iie .w'w*;"*1. F,'^itac faisit?., B i-L .,1tlty;l.Y".
Th;e rnepatirici. pros.pr tc Lnr= 1r,;.er:tlv,:V i r


P0 i 2 u1 I tia To' :C.ot ( 't ) v .c c t i1

s.a. Instead of the *'ICprative~, tr. Lijulr.c:i ive (cptatlive) 13 ortBn
used, (more ac ever, th.rtn ti LStlr). ('o;.- :-b')i .tuive ).






z-^<^c$fc d/<<^ f^ ^A-^^^^_, "kLJCk
'^g L~5erC-B"- *r;^<~t~L ^E; -^0^ ^W^;; ff^^ ^A
-yb &~~F~ ~ y^~^v/








A/. -- --- "t #- ___ Ye -4~




fpA /. .f








.- ,. Tr' e, tel.se ha. Ircorrictl) v be-, called tfe" perfect". te Per-
f ct terse CdI~.cte 'n a~ctlo ; t1.t lj"flr ltsh a~ thra repei:t time.
I nus:' I nave waited, I ve- stayed (a lc:. -. time )" s1 In Krar.ga:
.i ra, ndu .rSi*v n're, ). tsc rJd ;diAre .,are: I am
vaiti-ne S1d^ "I a ,itlTrb (stayi a;_,lr- remalnirng)
J.1kewzle thr so-crlle. 2ula perfect liu ..il' r.eal.j, ^t*( It ) riha
been rood, stral~nt t t:"U(1t) I~ oCl, i lt." G"('l lt ) is dead
Site static gerl;t 3ec-te- sr.. ct31 Itci; a.uat 1isoCr.leto" .uLt "per
slstirng, "a state". Ir. ?ulb -. several rtf.er i:at.-u i.:.i-uagese it sl
formed ty clh-igir.K Lth fiTr.l I 1IrC 11i:
LUr.plle IS frcr. At,a"'te :tBzlzi trt, rif qr ,";
Filo fu "a .
l1. Tcr.,Ga *'e lcee t.ne for,-.. le t.lcr. 1ws 1 :e .crCa tic e.,uleaiert
of 14e, Ire, It jha also ar82?tTrer for. ccrsistiLr.; I: a dcut:e a, one
at the etrl a c.d ozt a S tre teCr-i;;;~.r tro irl et.
,B. '-&Llsh nhas ealc t1'e. li.tper .a char es (t b, tr2d~;strivestrcve )
trilch are aue p.rc.ttly 't I -o a rcrL.er re..eltlcir of tLre radical, as
still seer. IL several forI-x cT r..c teZ lic V -r.)

on.ga: boa, "-ee, -ui a.a or .41 Ie. 1 ave )ser.'.
lOta, "Sit", s d sei z wi at sdt-lib";
iat.a, "rrss3" ^fte, ,I ". Jr"? -6d",
ILE F-rar.! &a the for& Irv cLuila ore. aLi_ r.cc:;.i:l('ert loutle or
h presernt EuturLctlve of Lt.-,i fcr Ir. irF. (See .X E) eI.cX- we find
rly tr-e seccra cr t:.e oor~ a, or t1 le 1I, a every rew verts cr ly'"
Q tplloQw1tr arr tshe comitrcz.ft, If Lr.t L,,e o- i' r:. s:

e -: Gara, *:-lt,reat,rm-tarin, Lt.r, i *, sitting., c.';
Rar" : ae fu;l r aai1 tZre., I a:s. Til'";.
Ran?, I ,le do r.W, il rre, I e. ly int: do-w;",
Y uafe, c-,leep'. 1M11 leite "a zs sleeitIn";
rggg2'tagae sllernt,qatet", 11 r ,yerer,i as sllert, quiet".
to i .EL;*,-7^ ^ z_, .. __ .. .. ^- ......... ..-- -







passive: Gar RSe Inati ted*, .Irwhe, l (t ) It iLa, iteid".

naurple: U1 Xt j s lina eger .e 1 2fg I. ri r arat
V"*e tree 11s tetuZ i riabltedl a t L... 1 'srocicus rnaw.(ru od U )

A9 -Ir th.e vertb :lra, star walth ) ti.e'tatic IreSeent" is allie In
form to the I. T B jucr:ctlve.

-.1t otri ', =. .: st rry:tnd weltlr;6g ;
hjal Iare, or r..a idl ,lre, ":-t e .'tal.a,, RIlt".

Va, "I'ecoLe" rn'? also a fori. 1:; e tit L-ea oriLJ as perfect.

Nda Te (or Laiu V )_ E KLrL, "I r!-.e teWk c71e (a) great';
Sve (Y : Vj) L.I LLW As i h0oshftiter a: fVew jays (lilt. hley have
tc dCt*?rci ?-* ^*-VP, )"R

3.5. Tse"atcl i.reo -.-tle al.c fcLiXd Ic. ccIac:.c.ti tieens.

Naa 8 ail reor a nab Ladi ciL Iara, "I wa8 stayln&'.

'It can take different verbal particiesas in.:. "

Ndl1 chl 6ere, "I am still staylng(or not yet done with)".

3).- Te "negation of the static present" is either ha at the beginning
or L1 before the verb.

ha ndi mire, "I am not standing";
l fl- c nt Dtayiag ({or sitt ig dowA)";
Nda Ega ndi 1 Sr l "I was not staying( "
# _LL _tJ fe,. -"ig~ a 3 4 tt ue.- p-.. ...



,Formation of the Subjunctive".
The Subjunctive is formed by changing the final a of the
Infinitive into e.

Ku va, "To become"; Ndl ve, "That I become, that I be";
Ku nzwlha, "To hear"; U nzwheI "That tri'u near".

te.- The verb ku tl its compounds (daro, dayi 9 C. ) do not change
for the SubjunLctve.

0no da kuti ndl ku ti: v.azia ylI "Thou wantest me to say to thee (as
to a superior): be ye greetedI"
1 no da kuti u daro, "I want thee to do so".
u ._




Lzt
JIW
7m~ofLS~"\S .0M imcTPne rpe


'*--


The Subjunctive, as its name implies, Is subjo.ned to,& Oe m-
dent uponanother verb whicc Is called the "principal verb". It s1 "not I
the subject or direct object" of the principal verb. This is reserved,,,
to the"Infinitive".


Subject.
Fu dzlhldza ku no netsa,
"To learn is tiring";
Ku imba ku no naka,
"To sing is pleasant";


Direct Object.
Ndl no da ku dzinldza,
"I wan to learn";
Ndi no ziva ku imba,
"I kno r R ) to sing".


It Is the indirect object of the principal verb, & is placed after iy
either immediately or preceded by a conjunction, chiefly kuti that'ss
in order to".
Hua u hone, "Come and see (in order to seet;
A no sara a tore n'umbi, "He stays( in order) that he may taXe the
Va no -~mbura uti ndi ended, They ask that I go (that I Ngoods';
may go)" (This is the indirect ob jct ).
Va no ti kutl nd1 ne enrda(ihdic. ) "They say that I go"(direct object

I,- "Subjunctive standing alone". "Optative". "Potential".
AS in English, so in Yarangathe principal verb is sometimes
understood, especially in the case of verbs expressing I) "a desire,
command or entreatyv 2)"a contingency or posslbillty." The Subjunctive
then stands alone & Is called in the first case, optativee subjunctive
t in the second, "potential or conditional".


"Optative Subjunctive".


In Fatanga the particles r ra, nda or ha corresponding to tnt_:
English 'let" are often used to Introduce the optative Sub.unctivemi
MSSgS~i~ r Nga used "after" the conj. pronoun makes the Potential.
A hue! or Nga (nda,na) a huyel "Ist him comel;
Ndl vel a 7 (Oa a ) ndi veaI "Let me becomelLet me bel
Va gare pano Iy (J f )va gare pano! "Let them stay here"

P- In the leecoQd person', as In other laij-uages, it often replaces
tne,*mperativen, eiJ.rsslng ttezn rather t~ ritreaty than r a coa-
man b *
U drA batidze, "'elp me"; M' u tUyei "Ccue yel"
k.I). In the "Optative SL0tjaLnotiVe", the subject prcncur:s u (tou),
a u (you) are often omitted, eepeclaily before a pronoun object,
provided there be no am~tiulty.
d p o (for u nal e ), "Give me";
t tiize, (tor g jdi bat1dae ) w"'elp ime".
fl B j beat dZe may also mean "That 1 give, that I helyp.


r







3 (ye is. (ye) 1 th.qkplaced by tt enalit S, ..
IO fl. "Give ye to me*; :
.'aNd "'G elp ye iMa.
.,fr{E- this gfl:.J ba.. aed even in the e ISt A4 .a.
LoB .f t-. P ago!1mat I go, you fellows"; .;-'
c a1 Let them eatt (you!let them eatl)

.0.3)'.ffl itPGV 0B, ubju ;sttve l more polite than the imperativeii.:
Wii1 Ei Zl are seldom, if ever used Irn Yarainga.One can say

a! af ( l) u .~ sat S s a, "Give this man por 'ge".
A further softening ls obtairea by the use of the enclitio MgtB...AQ |
S g" l g j. a s2 id I o l hdi E Please give melt
Potential kr Oeagitloaal Subjunctive.
Tf. e potential subjunctive'expreBasa by 'aay, lmght, og~t0i0"M
itht odit1onal shouldl, would, aust' are obtained by piac e
oal.e ,a t. be seen also later as an auxiliary) after the. fltbit
WlhiouIm (not k*Wor*W as in the optative).
Sg f*Tly may alt can, c, migft, Ca cu would, O anould, mus e*.
tle difference between these various meanings depends on..te'~
O. fxt, the circumstacnes x sometimes also the tone of the voice,
j S .arlrer 4u 'gE qo "Look at him a you may or-can ee.*;
t k k iAr ere &wae a laa, "You should or must listen well'.
l, itingfleBh gainr the 'conditional aubjuncive*, Karanga uaes the
fiary aggy, which lile dare means:'do 0so, ma8e it so'.

da l ti hM dana, "'e should, must love one another*;
B 3 a a o huravlwas "They would have 4111ed bitmmf
..ks Is ng ,dT "I shoulG have gofe or would have 4o e1
( ee auxiliary go
-'verb d a means not only 'to love, to like,Ibut also '
iia the sense oflto 3-wl1fr to nave,or to require, to need'. (Sb
96. a Uai t want' -4a the sease o 'f"to be without, to misales, to
a da* 'Father wants you"; .
T.ey want you out.e.. .,
to the r ht word to e.. .f Stet toe. .
,0J- go .a L -








se Thre ie In Kararga a peculiar y.t ccair,: ue- or th "opKtative sub-
jurctive tnd. aprsor:,. It mLi.;ht be caiie.1 the optative or ilneratlve
ofoquick narration,, Tlhus:

T'sok.LaC a 1t t L Lu alrdaa "The mc.rLey1 releaieoa Lne snare,
I-it. 1-T3LipulLLe 0l. ;! )"
,a Lya lv d.tiLre i _a .t ':ec ~ag, "'-e caie str'.lit away atucX4
r,, asset,.cis I. tiv te rcur.c4 (lit. hre:-lajt ye the asreeals ir. the
:da sslia _O uv. r e kIare,r' e a hsers ko fLrue s9rwera ko^, rcuruid)
"I arrle p. there tr,e snae da.,Jy k stayed tlere t-c days, (9-t. get upI
spoen the auy tthereI ,et u-. ai 'alr.1 F s-er.a tr:e day theree).
Nd a a hor. lla -'Rma. lu-e n.'ielrt, huve t*oro, "I car re.ad 'IucK, also
lt. come tlKer, also (co-ez ) e oodct C
1vc. er..de vi x Sz-.r,:t "Tr'ey cietrAra cffr (lit, thvy:;.o ye to the veld)
t- *no: the vZrii.)',s "ver!t'l ] rticles* (e.-01 are usej %vtr, trie Pub.iunc*l
tive, thr v rtp retains the er-tdiI. a of the flrfirltve. It Is as if the>
verbal p.artlcle, Licir. orltiiallv ta also a 'vert*, still acted as
p prlnc-pal vert*, t.~h r'Pql vrrt folkoilr:. belrg -*ovrI.e.I ty it In the
'Irrir.ltlve".

iga ti :hi e., (not -ed e) In ti cri e ulda vil (not Z 'cIe l) "Let us gol
- ad1 gg,(-ot -A) l- ase -iv- _;
:a tl 0.ao teow. a ( .t- t aI .e ) A.uit:, I.i- G ...)cc-~. for .ire-wood";
Ndli .t o Uf ti Loia I(..ct ..e ), u *I Raj t you t1, ;,c .- gee ;
"r.e s..e ap-All-E to Lf.t.attle clauses.

Tl sa nc- rl~.a, ('or ri.,a vi)! "Let us not go : vork li; thB 1 1elas"'
V sa arSo esria1 "C r.ot tarrt -. ,o a'..:y (t'efore tnr, propier tl.e)*.

Note. It -'~:!-lll, ilu the Y'rsL&a cr V1ctcrla, tr;e -rticle ra
of the subilurctive fcllos t;:e sl;slme riula.

Aa.1 1: A L S "L*>; U1.r.t or rl..c. 'e";
7.ulu: 41 tIana. "I ;.ay lc-ve*;
victorta: !:di r:.s trda, "I r.:v eo",

Fence lr. vicltoria: K1 iu rcve, "let me test VC:u";
Il (g ~u rovaj "I :;:,a te:.L, you".
There also thRis a;.lies ever. tc kts i-t.;.c-tive O.n

l a SB Lal ba, *r, L u iut tr-t steel";
B e r(i b ata, "7c not tcch imet,








The negatf8. usecl with the Butl.urLCete is Ea ( or
reg ku, al (soe tllie? 2 t before gg.
A S3 ha or rege 0L-_ ru-:ai "lJt )'l:; rnot cone";
Va n~o da tut ntdi Bes oLe cr ,ll E1 j Lri, "ThEy Eint t:h. ~ I iay not
t u as mutse L..u soro, or tuu re iU ,..utaeth SforX,c a.O et loft u&p your
.____ L ead .
Bote I ). The negative ciauL hlS i. : tI g eran. ccrre.icinds to a
"partlcli.lal expre9sPlcrn 1i illegilsnQ, ii.-t a& the "arffiratllve. ieindl-
catlve hlti crt :
Affirle: _a ka ita Ichl adl cli ziva, "I i1 Lias kxo.izi;Jy(I iLowing)
Begait: iaa z It-a jl % -t i, t d t 1 r i 1V- E v 11," i ils .ot s.:.o ilr.g'.
2 ). Irst.~ Mi orf Lt I t r, N3I1 c1 u:k.a r, ol.B, il ; 8a ZLve,
Marylkass *. Eararzaa or VIctcria asy: t At T sT rAT noni
tfi.-. IA .1zf. In these dia.ts-cs, as Ir. Tornga *~ ?uui t-e. negatlvl
verb alvQys ends in i, whl it li'; ~ it o.oe:rally enda In e.
:e IBe crLal er E.,


C/. 4^rL eo-zd^ pi ,I t ^ ^-z~4 -d
al. -7


n- A_' k.-- A- -- X4 ;







* \ d




A-A



L i~-. .Iiy / j I I/

"L "....4 ("?- *e __
.6 I2-- 4 _4 a7


IA~$4 / L-OF~D104L4g /P4- Z.E



,,, C. ;. ----7 iS 4 -- "
__ AF17e, Ap j zd:ke fQ---nd ~^ /-l- t- 'd .//f---^t ^ f r ^ A- ^Y~P
^gg'w Z*yr& g^ Tfe-CT~g^^ty b w24 ^^ a99r^~ ^iC^C&r^^^ ac^
aoc*^--* <%^" aMjFi^ ii^COv^ tt,43;1f3
^^~ 6CY( 4fo tc^- i *ct^ ^. yiit ^ x^^. ^^^f ^
y v ^ yV ^<~~'' 'S^'^ ^ ^'~~7
i^J; ^/JiCet* /-w<&<-4 f< ^yc ^ ^j&.S -^ ^^
_~~14 i^^ C^^^^^^^ % f ^^^ *









x, m4- k -4 ., 4




f~L4/1CSt 1tdL, ~L~a~,r Ai~L C~zo 4-


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A^^yu- ^c~kv^ (S^i^'i r-^y^A a new^ir^ e^Ke^ ^7-iptaw^. ^_I- r^''''^ ^ ^


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Sf4eEe
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5 4`7
vx_ o-x "A u. -eA ., < d' 4











S4 7 I _1 iL .

pr 2. h4e-' *At. ,a (Ae& &)A t
---- ^^* -- ^ /^

7^-/-&^t.*fc^^-<^ )I '/% A'-^^.^~~ ^A^4 kr^ ^ ^^^^^^^/^ <







clauses o o exp c neeuence, a poss llty, a condition
















U no sara we tor.a(tr u tore4) numb? dza eg, "You stagy behnd o take.
y th 7gs A;















-_u not ma ?meansoA you say you arrived


ST o i-s.ftn la, drpd the eoa e wt happear'.s
i noe T (or tf di no i o-t- (or to _io a) bas_ a no_ to; i u n






laus"eat wore are we qoeing? or shall we do? "
SNdo ne enda, "I gon; nde henar "hall I get 'thr aI 'cI"L
STe same rule applies ofte to other verbal particoalese t te subject

pro nou enda, or ru mo eno, fTo o o proceed ta no ); ubord te
Sclauses oa o exprer a a,('I thoinK), t ahe y were here s onetime ago
l e no Usra ro ,ora(Or o "You just ooua(you o lookstay if you tvere
zy thirXs"; I
ika- nd a ona, (he or i ) I get tere I see";
o &an fi g2 gaja"When enl does come s-*e live there;





6 The a do no eo ththe oer nt theaau. -.
S.no. .ha ner i "Shallni t (for omay) I comeba? noa.
cid ne edya heruf go eans "Aien I co"n al i? o""
N do elik sndka honoiLo "I(o you h earn Joaa you fot tnere &' Isee";
U M bu no td ma oYria mbeeans "T yo g say you arrived ?
|-w---JENo & sut 'ix-o generally become ne --e before Is llables W) G fr
In ab e ---vThey always do tok before the verb Bne m appears
TI ne 1ta (or ti r Ita), %L It& (or to Ita basa ripl?
"^'1Iat work are we loli.-E? or snail we do"ri
1 -l ai-a .d-av "I go"; Nde anda'r "Snall I 6olf"
j na &e Rge (or pe at) 2p a s na. T'mere seeias to be no wore".
T-The same rule applies to other verbal particles ending In o.

. Mb ve enda, or ku mbo enda, "To go (to proceed to go )1;
r SB abengXe _a rjl apapa,"Il think) they were here sometime ago";
htoe ElOe 3! no pgbja, o"u just looy(You ddc loO. )as If you were
:UB B ....nda cade A i Where couid I pcslt-ly have gone?'" -aS <
.0"- --- -. .







2 -A. 4. 9t A -).

aA stands for na as-o stands for no. Nda is for adl ra, fa for au gM
a a Is for nd1 Doo, w for u no. -:c. T7i6s is prove*- ty the negative;9i
nda ti (or ha rdla na fi)nd ira, "1 heve rot yet gone'
"3 11ena fi. Me "pave yci. gFore" L fi. L7 L I.v, "i nave Cot gone'. I
That for'if in--a derotee toe e preerset ,jrtrct", I.e. an action WhiCh
is actually rllir end,i, c.t t lilr.,; as a etate.
\w1mira, "i have/Aitood ( taL stfaIndrlnt) ;
h'd nuyaras, "I r& cor ( or ar nere )'
S'tudZA~~~ a l, e oat are d-.-";
,Us da a, '. e e ae riia ;5 -aw



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fifk Ak /efl/tt. h,

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. ya, h ,
akAs& fI 4 MA t4 7( AK a --- -








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?2~tj ,z ** '* ~, )*wi^c^ ne-iU ku. ^a.LC ^^-'izm r-^f- A^/ifew -^-
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k A ZA'
n1. ^M4
dZ2 S /At / & C' _











M -Al.todyu








r olo te wanil ccr.tr to 1.e. leaves out tGe rnfi ntiv~
E before the verb, & sd)ys:

rI Vc Mar va i teraie, 'ri ot oid usEW to telleve";

A. 2 g uILs a "AR, I Cole o you
4I .^ .'. a "'It W8 aotL t e U10 time *;
ON.l VA~~- ~. .,..:. .~.~-? 5~~e~,~CiZB~~ _i/~~y iLiLj~.~~










^ ~ taa /4. g le (X.)


S4 /z a -. 9IC te
i ~ ~~~ ^ //^Z-A ^^^^-, /' ^ ^L<^ ^

Py<^ ^^~c^ ^ -^<(^Z*4 -/f "^ ?. %r &>^^ JB c


IAt4a4.


v. CHI S-. S/ ,AJ5- .


T:.hetner etyl-olclcrtii:y ccr;:ect.e-a or x.ot, tr*vert-al- partilel" .
n1, and tnearticle"C-I. art- ail e .cLn itr. irli.. i rc.ilun.clation. .
(in Sua!illi loth are Aour 1, I rn ts?- the article Is 1s, t the velrbla
particle 81 ) The verbal -nprticle Ctil mear.s "r-ow, ctu lly",
"Tnhv are actLully going" ;
Va rl k chl or da.
Nida k va t:ona a va ct huya."I saw them coming'";
ae.: t alnia r- e1 39 ).
kl clh ri-i lu taia, q 'I am .jlut row (Ytll) 1.efle-,il.g ; 4
Chli ended vl! ot!l" CA1 ato airal aJut viat!";
70if 1 erda r. ".all c.. i.
"/^ )2C^-'/^/9 4"^^O~I ^^^: ...^-^^ 8A- -
I eF--- t fnotee acl cx ersoie _..rat.l, cr ,co:coA.ltart* v Itri
anroer act Ionr: It ;- t
d CBl chi a c'o "; have 0.1 biot & tL,(-I-E-b-Lk --Li!t5 a t-);
dl4 n. chl iau ioLna, 1 I Lusiail seJt- 0IA c 4jC 4si u.aiA a
ZVi no chi ara 8iao."'Tr ese th LiL.. are usually L-:ere".


Ir.steai or

e t! ab _. t_
- --.'
:.~; i VaB rs H~ sl 9


Sn1 tire ;sr-, ias cr .Iccr a of Lte, use ~ 1 cr Z1
"It 1a you WhL. Lre alw.aye stLeili"
"ea ao zOt come usually (*e Seldoa core )'.


.I This z1 wrilchr they also use as a cortractic. of zivi (regatlve of
Zlva,'a tl zi, *we don't txcwv, curiously coincides wltl the
agr ka expresalon: sea ndl 1vil. hva, "I didC net come, or l sa-
da D4 .. S..... ... ," _!L*-F_. on. ...--
4ae-,n a4!-






1.t,dL
C;~R*p~~ ~"" -R Cozt~(7f*ws(Aj w&dIc),/-v~~f.


'I 2H


_ -t.- /t ^ L ^JCL ^ f if o
(/ ^''^C.^ 6e L^a a hf/'~^C~i-;~ V


o- Ca (-Ziu: e, Fua il1: F* j II-Irs "still".
A Cha dVna, i stili 61r"
Fare rnd cr.h taz.;8 sl.:dns ".:'er. ,r I 'v t.r ; still te;irnirng
l'a Edi cha -or.e, '" cs8a r. iLor(:,ot sillj'o learn i
Fa tl cna ai, '-te jC L.ct ile &i.y 1.jCL't ".

"- -- isi.ecially I, cn.lur.ictio'r. 'wln Zc_, CMla tcrtei rxpresses
tne fute
Zvl cna o it its, "It will toe onej~ It still COmI4


Ioote. C hi chr are someti;m.e IiLercI.a.I; d.

"I chi gr or 71 rca i;re, "- ar eStIl EtaylLE; (or r.ot Cdorie with);
Ti cri sora cr Ti ct.a nara, "' are stil .re-:.ii.i::.: ( cr ,ot rinished)

S 1 SE a re crfter: used Ilz.ati-.-l c.r c1 j,.r, eIpecially Iz connec-
tlorn wltr ti. .e ,LaLlvr i. The vErbal ai rticlce cr.1 or si is i.laced
before tie r, egat Sts CL or sa ar'ter.

Fa mut chi xS,
or Va eU cr.a 1 ra,
or P mi sL i "ra, 'Ie lis *iL y, il-t, Ter: I. Lc mLoIre Ir;icde".
a-~
,u ru w % r:il sl e,, (or na LlvetA an w3r1..; I dO rot -;w 31ay BoOre";
Va el 6 1st a n ve, '"Tfey net xt-.wir-t., r.i ay ;:ore".

Note. Se sometnime used 9s the iheat or it-elf.


U sa 1e, r-^ ) --- -YBc .ct st:i'J1"
U sa inda t ss9a eide) -"To not. e'*;
d a hor.9 ~ -- -'I rot -eai ";
or -_0 '- S re,---- ---'- -


*


!ell ku anrara u ka sea r.i 4aiS0? 'I-ot Is it tnat we meet you
-- --- r- ot salIute *iet"


..I adoe-


I


i








~-A._ 1 4 eoA
I O O .' .o
tldo ie for ernda hu -

l ndo hona, "'.a c > aee (we to see)';
;1. d cha abo ndo tarlra, "I shall .)usL gC Be-a'
i s often cor tractel i.tc. oA whetr rot easily :tistajtble for
tne ng of ithe Iresent futLre.
FU nS -ss5aY (or kU ndo kYasna) "TO o og hurjst";
a rime (or ma ndmo Trlia ) ui~i. ': here did youN go r digC?"
l 1 no 4 dyaru LurzFirje du, "'*e Eo get warn (itr ) our fire-v
- ... -.
*.- sZ8tar-ds for zu u, 'come to'. (n".e i.-i u Tori,a La or isa is In
FeLa UQS, .Vanllii j ta, .ju Lt lite tn- article it is dLl In Sena't
SlA I- 1 Fv.. lil ), If iseldo LL useE ii. .farar.ga .. tI archalc,
belvE cbleftv' fourid ir foLiicre storlk proper iaies.
Ha ri ze Lan "aio et nlm coae nere!"
Iwe wa za,_Ldl r ru -.brave yNi, f youL cooe, I may kill ycu";
)u-aa-ne-.amo, ie wico comes, with adversity ;
mu-za-na-r;o, "!-e vlo ccmes Vlt., det.vt'(1lz the time
a-" W. d /aat t fI-r ---j i_ O' epldemic).


-7 / / *, 0' ac

,___._ Csa. SZ $osw,- e

d7R ----
klefr kaei Ic wnt--eJr a 0t




-'I- -- 4
J^^U_ A^ 5^ cgt. "f*mod /w^ ^^ ^ ''


^>0 ^/^ ^ oc ^ ^-,<*? ^^f^e40 a^" dj







S nda ke dyha mu ana we NanliAu nda ka lo itwhlg Xl?
"because I ate the child of tne Ying( ) ) hat happened to me
ir consequer:ce?
'S hula ku zo tore,. "Me came it order to take';
Pa a na Iu z0 mbo enda, ".he never once did go, 5Aa*- t -o;w.
However when thetlime sequerJli not otherwise indicated to be in the
past, It e r.atural thaL it should eXLress tre"Lfture".
A C-ta ZC hUva, "'e will couie (Pe still Is 1 olng to co-e)';
radLza rl cha zo r.aa, "Tre pcrrligc- tll. be good";
U no zo ZE v, "You wil e OverIr. (ti',hv I1i give you)";
Fa Va r o Z jiEs "'"bey r.ii lict fir.ieL";
Marnz ha 1 zo rtra, 'Tre trv:.-et Yill Lxt sourd".
-r1 d4eA o n4d' Zwnc i&#
cO.









hU no o L "ayou car. coue, You will Qomel;
ende ? a ".f-ere ca yu ave gone c


L tendw-a r.'i- --o ca-- r-eleve It?#








M o .
(*' '59-wts. zot cc





o 4 tars, *Thn survey k:e Wil. te V~pyr %;?
; _S_ c- eI hlall *hdr cari yu r"ave ore"1*
E-Srce the C1..lUrsctlons...r^tjz ?:r^f'cnti, PCLLlf PugCtl, 'Ffter'

^^^^^/ ^-7244 Conzz_...


Atto. "'T.k-4r, "dftat /tne.JeX h o








i l cht mba rid inda, (V ct.) "I shEall proceed to go";
2 Ua zbaa a ni-la "He then went.;
jg Iq g Vairn .1apa, "(BeCore ycu Oc) Just ceiep t ereatout'.,,
- -Hence a I~a-iu-e-av "ThV r .ivz] (prog-resz. torards .lay-ligt )".





IfA&e- Ytl I'amt d ZA.

la! ti mb c' ha vi., to L e2..1a, "LeL ue proceed. to eat, trer. we can go';
lia un r u rtc 1di uJd, "o,-.u I.ever told i.-e before";
pa VS amto :pLS9, "Thev never coeo tc t'e rich*;
I tle @s 2I1i.ia' "It was or.ce vlr.Z-Ls s1tot ,ere";
Ya mbe n g va rt to, 'r".w.0v or.ce app:are;r.ty teree";
A no farira Yu rbe el1a kw t_0a -o,"e is qlad L:.: t: yu (tla oC:';
tbo mirral "ut altl 'ait a tit!"


'70- 6. L^^ ^-
To comes from a raualci ele.le: mIiealI1L& 'Lo UL down, plase."
ru tl to t-ya.kr a aquc is tc. rallyl or let rall'. lieLce terea
put Lte pot cr' tne fire", L_ e ra, "S Ill cS." It der.otes an
action '"ust fir.lsTed or done or,ly once" anr corresponds generally
Ito the Frglltln adverbs ".}I3st, 1 l Ly" .. .,.)
&a to siV "1 just arrlvec ,
S- --
4Ln to vo a ndl at r. barqe, "I .Just napper. .Lot tc have s 18.fe";
Ku to darc4 zj du "Just to eay so, so tc spea";
Vda to abo ti: rdo to wi, "I o:iv sIald, 1 laut fall';
g S to di fl? "we car v'e just ao'N"
MdO t. pRua sa z*ant Ye -uta "'1 cnl1y tet a small quall's egg';
We teo ge, 'You just locK as I'".

.It also den6tes astonlBnmeft is then well rer:dered by :'Indeedl"

S11 t ra.L "You nave got rat indeed!"
to4 g P s D a u frJola "You do lag a great deal';
i:. d .i i ma a ae to to ita la ;yvxaurota we du, "I dor't knot what
.noe just went & did, that areamer of ou~,*
F 1 .







-XJ ./5o. lVO.f .


qe9irL w 4-f~f e jay -4 ,'/ gtij;Z a4L Z <'4-t -










A; to


4.- .. __ JEL ,$7Y4 ,Ao ka-ZA47 -
7.- t t h. sZ







-b 4-' /%a '





/-: '.e.o 7 TOM0o, 1 Y -0 J. AN@o 4 A o ,-AN 0 -

1 N& connected i wit4 Lou igiVE, (or r-Lrij) ntLihe% ,A tr verb
W'Uvas "er.dures la t, o as ir. W r.g a Erda, "r 6cie0 time
i he went,. It la even soametimes useQ ac Iur.a
Gore re cthl _n_ "Ir. ut te year of ion ag01t
ilb m>l_ O cha nde a ha uva, fl ace I caye". ,.f
As a(s0 vb ftO )n!iJa.O_ a k.aPeo-t rh leta momen
lAs a verb l partlel ri meannh: ttf lvr^a ie.1, J0. tie momentr,
'{k MLe1e. I very s oemer t*.








Shma gop iiragara, "'ltluie he is restirn; i bit";
iu naze a rng sa ra, "Tell ni. to stav o long'.
-- jio doznoreras, "'e keie- lo'r.irln atcut all the time;
Mdl caa Eajo ag 1rat,'" shall prepare feaFnhrilie";
A chMa L ta1, "i',i.1e e 10e till .ei..iin";
We n~o Ite Yi ".'L',t aqve you IcO-l th- ;:1eU";
Cni no ng Luhab, L as..eiis all t e tit~e";
'a r herekala ta tur julIo -e ruIt st L. tiae ..s cakie here;
cL.va ri 0 4 bj L_.u,t au9t .rlaci,(W.hile u.1.- 1uz rises)";
vu e*zl Una cl E,&rU, ";..a. ,t.o-, (V -ila tri i oon is viollng )
IjTMi ruQ 2 E11M il -c-i r.br1, ".1 trsvi bte-r. rorasting sbout al
SI.ai:~ta sl Io .. 'arai, "Taabe J1.s are 'r.r th9is"a t lme tie

Va ka r&g v a -.1s l ra^Lrs, T'hy uere 'ilr. .1.h st that
r. e.'o /p : ? rvery lpt .e"
-Lo regg r-: r ..itta il a t,, C '*ur.. t.u ftal. &T ..a s
ftor tre particle tc., Lo ner.E'1 .lIt a tlle' v itn a recatlcn:
not a it, rLot at all"
Eu to ni Qi rzC.: t.c_:c-! "'c i-z.ac.'ri.ta i I.at tc. 1-,1.t tic, rot hel
". a to ro tUiL. "' ct c.t :ct c: n, at t a st ll"
S1tr do tre sernge is prceflit tie ZQlWs.

andl do ssee ks-P,, "I dr. r:ct wsi.t Et all to la;t: to-daay~, '!--
no!f y a-I '4/ 4- -
Irstead of do ofio r e terrs QalsC. ,t1 fC. &t a1r r.

ICAE Llu Ya, "Just try tc ccca. CoLe. If i' u idare!";
a barato a (Viut.), "I c't r: r itxcJ' '
SL 2 Ug. ha r1c, u rc vliz.g- tl'? *Yuc nave ttU cnek- tc come- here,
L^OC. --- ^,,a _,,--wr:.t. cr. earth dc y.ou rant?"

/4f 4fn^^a>5z A frnt a / eez...c Qcvrn- tandt "I /

/I ".011w. Ave" .w *




-As
~~~~~~e~~ 'S29& )Qe% ~~~~ChL A 3iL'fYr.-~si:z, Y







xu. ,iAi'o i24i^O Sat_ r j oa

*ft/ freAA14/S^ /t~*&l&, e. i e le)



A _____ A ,





/ -- / "-/ /^ ^ ---^ I L-^T-
q&rjc. Gr4 o sw


___ _s____- _______ A









7L a ..A.. A IA
/v4~ k&^M I^ t^f v^Z s^jt



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6 -. /A&t ) 14 VTk-G &4'tr
/, a A e k a. -s, 4, S, e.




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Full Text
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