• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Part I: Phonetics
 Part II: Etymology
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T~ou? ?>c^� 4 4^W-^ "^ ^^"
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cab !r (.,A/- ~U 2~. ' - d







edL kA^ , ya4- iE f^ e?^-d /�<^S^ �c~n6









Other substitutes for agltan, Ajeoatives.

( Certain Pr.lilsr adjectlvee can also be rendered by:

--A. *trVe as in the rcllowirg:


Cr.i no tacs,

Zva ka falKS,
wa ka jFjaj
'Ura 3k rurams,.
CaH2 t kombltias,
.'a-rs 1 I i atat
Ndi rno rryewra,
HU. gUf W"a l L'AjZit.G ,
' 1 : a tctseBa,


"lt 18 haruI;
"I te )i eavy or aif'lcI.it";
"it is gooa, rlce';
"be is tad";
"It is straight';
"lt 1s crooKed";
't�e rcrad Ie .t�rrc l";
"I a; sici*;
"te fela ise cosrrso80
* " " ri.e" ;


- B. "Tne prr :tcsitir. na (wtl,.) followed ty a rxun;,'.

do hLu karl, "-rtel, ferocicuE";
UI ZCU chwa;e,'tw"iche*J, M.allcloL.a;
e futal, fat'";

Is asia, "aisry";
A tsa "dirty";
A : 2. aro, ":rt dy, voraclc-�i.E . -C. fc.
- C. "rie pOssesslve InIefl: ite- proz.<.Lur; ga followed ty a round or
In fir tlve".


i u-.a rut. a, cir

My a ez, or
Ja l i .lLcr:?,
pya ku-:'bo-rwha,a


-1.-2 1 ruta,
rge ra r.'ditvu,
Ua &.a2 voti ,


"fat"
'ior.g. btEirie4";
"*ic r:.-itred, lhalry* ;
"verqctL ., '.reeay";
" ct. o;e wnc na,; roug.ht before
.tC -C


S ThbiiMa car. Qalr p',rc .deoa ty v- a, 1, , ru, c, T.uS:
VS naa i.u-itna-;s- i-lJa, "evil dci-r'"




-,-*. "Any otler gasesolve pronoun followed ty a nour-,rifli.lte, aIverb,
S-repos-tlonl pr-asee*--
D."AYar.C-'L:'-"- " "-' proou roioe ty a no:-I~~.t, aer6,0


Saaa ET mU ,epf "soft. borelessmeat";
'vurE yo kT nao, drinkingg water" ;
u nuo Ku 2 Sa t3eneat ar. urgrateful man";
L E;1 nea Eas "ar. cld tree, r the same tree


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a mi t . / . nPLo mfl -- ci de . & As. a..ddl /
, /.m e 4e L.'w.� . tou- mpakl -L�he - h ivAd nB c;


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.. _ ,.0_, P&L.44.d z,, .


rl - , de r4-eI va *I am greater you are -a









aS wa Iam 4 o grea� after than'
. - , . ,~-' . M....
ko //. 6f Ad;;' & L4� et' g





4.-Ufib~t1LuB iforM mhe C tl0e.
( t1EL e ?~rOt BU U%^ei ^^^J^)(J^^<^^^













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4.- ,"The pog ltlv followed Ty the kre.cslt Icns uba, aFea, t'y T1h ~
side of*.
Bi3za 1 puru pane m'ecr. cro, rir.f horse Is 1M ger than the dor:key';,

Ir1l ro d , patY uy par- , "I like this cite micr, thinr that one";
U rl mu -11.4 1L r o, nr pn r, rl,""Yoe are sa.aller than 1";

1Adl ri iL; reftu a Lu ri, "I ae. taller thor.a ycu".

N4atf pana is n.ore uL.se ii. ?qr:. -i , x.ur. Itr u lu.
IIr doda I ne ita radila kur c a'far.--, "A -mar is strc:A tt-r tLra1 a boy',

C/- VerbS ucr as: , pl2S1 , pid, ifuhnr-a, "'.As., .
i-kurtra, "be greater r tknrU, ovtirco,"; i;

) lI.as, "hea3t, exCel l
A no r.dl .lind1a Ao u rebit, "!- la taller than I',
flC u arlra oC i.L refu, (iLit. he boats lme
" " " .hlun8da iC. refu ,., IL helt).

31za 1 rurufu aura ta.I't.Ltorc -". e noroe is lilger tnan the
a odCtr.b TaiIiLt. _Ct. So Fs Lo surpaas tre aLo-rey).

..-"'ut'titIt a rfor Lr"e ULe&rlaL ivye.

48a. 4l.- vaor L.ne ...ujerlr.tliVc t iela ive U.ee the sant forCts Ba for the
coL .-ratlve, w th thre arTilTloz. Of oose, e3se, "all".

" 'us: .-'-zona i uru ljilc- i.' u9LCs P
N' z ato 1 :o n;i 1s ;'' a a ('se r o Lu .u.rl,
N "~ " " " 7F ' .. ,.uru,
" " " " " " .0 tiO l. TrU ri . .c
"T.'e - in-lch'Ar.t ls tsc- -tl'tIe t of -all trd e ~Tr.i aiR',

A- For the ruperl:tive AtLsolute (very, exc-el:'l ely) use

S) ucL -'r4as ea kwazvro, "i'nleed3 truly",
z Wluru, greatlyy',
ajl,11 , "uucr".
A ri mu Kuru iiazVo, *Fo'e i very great'";
Va no rrhara zTViruru, Trey re very sick';
'vvura TrS 1isa ka.tr1I,1,'l e water Is very hot".

5) Verts like ryarya ku,or .ya':yo, "ao to excess"( Zulu:iu tl nya
wanza _u or wsnzo, "cause to abouzd" (wianao
Tiva kuor iswo, 'do badly,apoil' (L fully
.i t56 . ..f.. ; l.t. O... L"ril/ y
hailrophks..a~~~ ~ ~~ . as s.,,r ;l:.- 1 ,gs








Ua ralwe, "onie horse"; 'lIuJzi ime, "one goat*.
nave, OflG arty * rnukb e and
iaganxad Marylkaseven say uminwe, Rm e, At- mu.%e and mamwe. wh4
he the only forms used by the Centsl eraranas.

pin the saere of"otherp Is or.ten placed 4 .ef orer the principal noun; i
rumwe ,mu b , "OLc.ter tree';
vaQiWp 7va nu, M *,tnier Lmer;"
&abe m'bi4 1i, "Otnrr Tciats .



-41 1
S / 4j ^ zozd -t72cttf aw'C fltctg -, ^ ^ *^ #' P






Ill/nat )4LaaE~kAJ, tM <'c/C/ h : .Jy C4#dgtf


&k-4 4 >c�- e- w .Ar


a


AU Aaak��P~r C


4,
ettrtr


)-.Iristead of pri, use vlri nlcch t thte ei iAenmer regularly
become:3 ,'ilri.
""Us: Va r&ome.a va yirl, "ti-c toys";
'tfwa mrbl1, "t*wc aog",
6)-ouml and 2a a are alwvsy rl i.ou s; ch'uru . cbi k ltl ealays
keep ,., � i. zri. ?they ' -a.'. tc lsce, h ae other r.F.erals, arter
the principal rout,; where placed befof~e, 1tie all nouns Ir appo-
altlot, trey arc follow'.'i iL-v thle poeste:-lve, as t E r.glsre: *a
dozen of".
T..us: " Ero -r iBi 1 or Gu .i re TY1 iro, "l :lr";
S'Tudal Ia.fl " I r.e re C'tL, i, "I', wooats"
3ayi1 a -Lku'l Ea tatu or 1a 1nur.l am9 tstu 3 a 19130
The "odd urits" (mi raLLdLS, z'1 i. r ~,d, Z1 r . ) abcve the "tens,
,hundreds, trous ras" are .iclr.ea to ter. ty the preposition na or
n, sometimes prcceJed b thy Lre .ror,curs rl or a.
.Thus:
is biiza g!ui a tatu or L il rfi a ta tabu, "15 horses";
lt a Nfa ml ia tatu ne ml t u, or
,..... ..* . * a rQe- aT , ." tr~ *
- -- -- w e


I 4!p









aV tia-at *A nt u- -
y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 ;ka''tf^.nw)T<% /<-net^t~.iCfl *** ^a >U/)�


Kt CrsdQ~;al Ibirerels, Aavertb".


To nr-e'er the 4'I'etiC.,. Fs i~jari . "i. maLy tizea"a use the
same forms as ifor tr.; :;,cu vs, iLt. rILL. as e -r.a article, even before
gel�fumA^a aSma 4a -h./,-'/^^^^& " W .AXr 4 - "L Zj. .,4 M7r0L
.Liase or siauae Ctt, "Cocjt;
a saiL, LU V1 ii'Llt'b;
tn LuJ^l L b. tutu, "Ltlrtter tiksf-';
s a.L-- a tiC Ltu ;a,. Sere,"t: r- sliut tlileB"
Sa aIt a 2a ga Lar� n, "Ltr Luulr-us of times;
JL .I."1'.1 t -.l e" ;
g :' on. "fvs Eimfe". ,
N.B.4The Tarr"yr ; or VitcCL.rti, as notred -fCorec, eiersli replace
ka by Ir. T.Ln: L It. ruI tatt nrerLt '.Tiril Ir do it three times?',
Or else use e '-,utree 1 or u 1, "a te"' (ep.t. i!c sl) as il LEnglas, ,or
the worz zuva, "dav".
�7 LP- 1(k^S


- Ordinal Nuirz


.1 s- 1 tatu
MJ Q 1 -l l "f ;arI y tI.es";
.i 1 1 1 .gs trl-, "ttl.ep rlttrout r.uFber";
SI uv "aays " rcse, tou- ours)
flP .


he nuLerals exprc-ssing: tre order In nlcin a) an obJect Is
place aufrlret, eecornd, twer tis-tr ", or I-) 3S actlor. taxes place as
"firstly, t irdly, the tenth time" ac. are rendered Ir Karanga by
"possessive expressions" eui valer.t to: "'e (it, they) of number on
or number tio-c,..- "i7e Wt. cirit-r cnt, of rC rm-ber two, &c. Beance
o I
. "for ncur-er* "
si.e thE. possessivee pror:ouL." of the o-n.et gender as the.
princlpal ;ouar adding to it o.;e cf tie Ler;2s usE3a r. cco-secutlve ',
Courntlig". ':eiee latter t;ier., e;rerally trLe LT ur, exce!.t ru sere
gE & zar.a. ClA ra ar. cr.1 nor-'e ao r.ct cr.argt.;e
Thus:
Biza re crit otq-1, "tri,' flrt norsae";
Imbfa e cii r, "tri. record iouse";
iir, rehle .um re' chi shajnu, "the fifteenth ture";
Gore re chl ra, "trie fourth year'; i
Zuve ra ru sere, "the eignt4alay";
.TD (Mri e zTana ne cii tatL,'tre o03rd. page". _









Use Ke In. the same way.

; Ye gb otel "t lie first tlUie, firstly*;
Sc. ,na "the fourth titre, fourthly';
. ruseres "the eightAtime, elgtly"';
Spfrcame, "te I nthi t time, nilrtt ly";
r Cuhl ne ciL plr, *Ine twelfthL time";
a al U 4a tatu, "trio thirtleth ttie".
I.BA, I).- After tie.,first decade, the same foris as for the cardinal
nuterals may be place arter the poCi.sselve proiTout:. .
Thus: Ku nu we cual ne chl Ptsl,
or F nu we g&ml o ugj chete, trie eleveLttp man';
L'bUdl ye zanne te ci krl, pi
or Y'tuGazl ye aa ne Ira' lr " htne nuirdred and eseoon geo

2).-The cl Is 80soetla.es l ft out and the a of the possess-le ...
pronou r roC 'cor:tra, ted as if the r.uerail were a proper BnoqPui.

Thuas: zuva ra 2ts1, rra Irl, ra tatu, ra chl P.a. ra
re car[atu, ra crhi zomnwe ra ru sere ra p a
re g . *-
SIdlomatic expreselorL:'"v_45u, "tne crowd, the common folk '
'_t litt. "trey of tie ten,"rot necessarily the u ppe ten@


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n u a~~ i yat ' ~" lu--~ &/ ^1"
uy^'^: ^- 9^ts-^g^j4W^*^e^ iee-^Zc^
^fer~teiA- Az-< ��tpl^ ay?& ^-'^ii^ c ~-i~c^N^^ s^^-jfaf^,
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e,. L ee"j;&& d /4I - i;ad �1~k4ed 4~ Rj











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h-R JC ^^ - d /?~ /CIY~C .I-OCCIYW
?y~~a oU'fT^^a*i^4/z^^<-�<^ <(z L^^:^
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It- - ,a~z 41xa O-et
re-p '-


I. (nl)

2. [mu

3, 0n1


4, (ri) 31

5. Ra

6. ru

7* 73u


Uu)


cha


r f a


cho


lyo

lye
iwo
lco




iro

ino
irfo

itwo


rio


ye (.e)
wo


-4 44


dzo


ldzo


dza


I. (dzlnl)

2. a


3, taa
3-Zv


Iwo


. maa


iti:ao


5. tu

pa

E u
-P


zaa

a

t@ttL


lvo
iyo


i wo


Zwo


-to


pa Ipo po

Lwa 1&o o 0

aa 10o n| o


-T xpT'Panra itorUeO aia. u-e!r&ls. !-

The distinction betweer."Ccr.junctiveO & "ls.junctive' Pro Sbi ,
'A gfored in so-called classical Fr4 1 lwhichl would have us say:
"It is I," and not:"It is Le", is as Importartt l. KFararga as It I a
In French, because In botr, these languages, trose two xinds of
pronouns have "distinct form'. s"

."Misjunctive Pronouns ,


1rs iunctive pronouns either stand alone as In a kind of paea.
theals emphaticc) or come after "copulative verbs" % "preposltionsls'~
Thus: :.::I
&eau kiomana, 'lies the boy" (rTench: Lul (not 11),Le ga
I.tl 'It is rot he"( ' Ce W'st pas lul,iot'
Sbt. Itth hima' ( AVeC lu,aot;:aveos
-4 ..H� -.e ; a . ._ aL . .. ..-_ -:- .;


kf.


dk-�




~L.~m


- Tc.1unctlve _Proncuns".


Conjuctive prcnours mii1t be called "Mv-rt ai proouQrias",becaubse
tney only accotparny a vert, t always '~reueie It" g both a:
"sub ject" or "ot-.ect". . , rantu lnouri "only ranes" the person or tnigj;,
theroreore 11ie "Lite utlsjurctivt-", it car. not 10 ri: .;ur.ject of a verb.
This It re-erve'.i to tro te "cr. wicxure pPo'.our".
Thus: do not, 8.y:
JPu nu rl a, 3'-ut: 'i,: nu a ri j.ro, '""r.e fail it here";
lye ri TaLo Ie a 1 ao, "rIl-s;ef Is nere";
ltrudz1 'ar o "'..iji t ii .ar.r, "'T e t'oats, they are
!CM oar�o roa, C1. n-areo cl- -,o reiza, "'71. c-Fir, i t ls eavy'
ch no t- ra, 7. cth1 rao totatirE, "dozI.-y, it Is swe*t";
lva I\ycQ ta. ra tilC .E ;c t'T'., 1 'c-' little chlcx, it
r 4- pVst 'Talks."
, )9.- Thn Lublect prooiurf la 1 iba.va t e Ljt. 'L.roroI:r. InaIedia-
ely befor1- the '"va r. pr crl1 i.t. after the verbal particles A auxl.
11artee. hue:
c- Ch no rmu neti'j, "'it 9�!!'ioys nbl";
& ca ml uz.-, u'L*: %illi tell . l;". presently'"

8).- yarar:ga will not have"Lr'o object proreoi.s" direct t &. Indirect
nbi4.nt ) hor^ra th -. vnrh- i-s: t a: "':


%v 4 u I ' -


BUt N�4.


I;o r;u cnl BS, (as in }res.cr:.j) vous le done) '":10
Fno .u Zi lu-.l, .jive it you'"


4or r- 1 r chi ;Lj UL. ~: e,



*a4- - z
The 1 F.L or i ris ut- is tre :. 1 wrd, Sas in
fliglish: I j1v0 tt youi 1 1: 1t(2 ;u" tflis
rz~- -S-uw~~ccr LB-ec5~ r~~-Q~a~B


~U, bd~C~L ~2LLLIZL I
____ __ c-ntt, �
t~i-d-n .lbCC~ a *~-I�


ei/-N <^e'r-wBO fc Ca/ft^r: 2t H4Mec,,4 52Ar,
4e-a d^ i rd=- ~ - -f s -- ~ -


/^ t J7 AtcM /i4^ ,A5. 2fc0






*< - 3A - L. - 3-ste- *v I^ *U' -~

.^gA-/ t;�- 7oe-^y ^tinic / /L'- e -S*
;Y t> Y"44.


.3.


7
~


















Poss essive pronorl s" Lz 1 :arax-a, it a lau general T:,
refer to & agree with ,- not! ti-e possessor, ut the t -lg osesse.
They are mea e up of the tconLnctlvQ" proiCen telorr4r to the name
of tre thing peessed, Ate part cie "o

ea is for _u-as, y for A-e, _a for i-La, Va ror a-a, _a for ka-a,
a for a-_, ja ror �g-a.
TFhe final a of eal rCne t.oeesseves tecomee a or a by contraction
with the disalpearea reIltll u or 1 of the rollowinr- srtlcle, just as
na, "ith, it & sa, mile" become e7, ne, so, ase.
Tiese p;os~:eeslve I.rot.AL-s are naturally followed by Mte Loui or
pronoun derctlr.- the possessor. The latter pronoun must be the "dis-
junctlve" pvrc.oun, as is t,* ca-e after ot nr sreposltlois.
T1usB: S
vu anla e s bata, "L3. tater's childl"(1t(llLITe cWlla.bhe ba


n Of--- . . d ye 4 - -. ,

i3 hajt COIitui; tr .e c.U lfferT'co 'trat; the "to for_
of dlsi.clve roc.rn� & .., i4,o S to Ic. .is sli. ly that eu-
phOnic j (sc'mnetne- L as asee. iI. L4va&s, uLaio & li, the 3Tq~ia1i ;j Senta
'gg - "a cuse" r frr w.1cr. mtost 'sItua
tt :.rl>. o every u.cr.DPl'.-.t1e n eimpha-
� r o ..lzed o ialol. o * h t , h *LeriL v-" or iaonoevllabic verbs
8 ra, "die, iY.l "eat " , "t . c.E" takt t.rt euir .cnic


�:de "dl(tJiou ).

* ^ /'^^eat' (flA ; .
Thl aginir expiq1ns the 'Iirferev-ce hbtwee the "full 3ewonstrative
thelr',cltic forms,. -uch t1 also the probatle orlir of what
t S* Joneston calls "pre-prerlxes", A soue believe to te tte
ItieLea (e up m ).











1LY I'Ml ylylyttyl lyyl yo, lyoy1, 1yoyo0 yosyeyeyo
*^ ---~.--^---^^ c^^ -^_.'"
In o;i itic [ /ruj hflcl
lyiylyi yyiyyi y iy iyo, lycyt ivoyc yoyeyeyo
uyu, uyuyu yu,yuyu,yuyyu oY, u..oy S, iLyeye yoyoyoyo
uyuUYUyU yu,y uy,yuyuyu uyo,uyoy , uy oyo y o yoyoyo
i ch i lchi hi lchnichii 1CiiclUA lcjo, ic~ onci,lcrL;ocno cr.o,chechecr o
lrl,1rirl ri,rrlr,rlrlrl iro, ror , roro ro,rerero
aka, aaEa rataka ,axaka , aXo, aaxa,ua lto o, (kaicako,
ukato)
ujcako )
urwu,urwuriau rfu, riuriu, rurwur-wu urio,urworwu, urworwo rro,r-orworwo
thu, u1Zu hu nhha, huhu, u, urho,uh-olu, u'oiAc hoLolho
1dzl, iiz dzl dzldzlai,dtazlddl z eo, ldzILodzLc ,lazodzo dzo,'dzedzedos

Ysa! ' L a,vaVa,vav a a avo,uvava,uvav vovavavao
lyl. Yy l,ylyyl.lyyl yo, yoyi lyoyo yoyeyeeyo

S i.IZiZwzwIwl zI wlJZViZAl izVcl . iwoz.i, lC Z ozc zwoLsezwezwo
a'ye au,~ ,yayay ayo,uaya,uayo yo,yayayo
ut. auOuatiCt. tuii, tut u, tut;u tu utic,utwotiuutiof 4 tio,titfotwoto
Sapa.papa. pa) papa,papapa apo,paapapo po,papapo
:ia u (ku) kukurok o I Uk i O kooko c k okoo
UIaU Mt( mu ) momo LUo, imoo mo, momo, moolom.:



-:*S t trat Iyve -r- r, ou..

All dedcnsnatilves ir. ain sar a are "prononas" for tarE *
sta lone 11xe any other proniout. i.ie nourzs tney caLnot be subton
at a, #witb;-(Do not say: Lyu ri par.o, trhis orie la hire', but: yu s
pI e T',hi1 one, he Is her" )- tut, like curns also, they can
! Thus:
�"1 2 da m u nu, 'I ike the sar.;
S da gu *I itte tnis one.








9, a -i -fl6 o z.- TeAliBn traT-tfvs.
The cormpouid prorours are jot directly ada wholly derived from.
the saltple aeoeLnstratlvet:, tut are LmL1Je u6 cr tne'"cor.uAInclivee pro-
* nour.s" . a distinct "puffflx", :;ae sa.e in all Lenders.
'he Ineeirnilte r.u.o i7t.r, et:,.dc-r ) I9 oT'te-r used witt. adverbs-
1'ast iiUc "T is very day";
.'winC o -UlO or / uPrL'Io. ., "T 'jI very i i star.t
.,B. w e sufftixe, ".ere" . le or va, "t*uere" correFpo.d$, exactly to
th;e Frencrh cl (celul- ) Latii. cc (ti-ce, ile ),
,%. p (celuli-f) " Le ( 1-1i. ).
I nterrogac I s.
Thie sutf g1 rIlcn mefts :*."rt-re"i I evidei tly a contract
Hton ortga-y-T" '"~ wt (place) It l. i.LLe er.cilLic tor:. orf W1 ,
".hereT" often eed IL ai.ytiAa n, well as lyn, I.ere. .:er.ce nene /a
reno, 'Thlrs n aro Lir;t, L.re .. Ltere, .. every-vt.ere". "
n r aCdded tc tit "cOr. ,Lr.-ctlive" 1rcIcyt., If. makes tpe
interrogat & ! "vIQc" (afcr rA9isera ). 1
r / Two other 1 .terroCt.Live proull.c r.ux U 1.1 Yr1 as
noted fore (0. /}'t l e 'llt-a p t 'fif or I. PlaIr!. X\-
the 1terrcgative a rb r:1 cr rlr. *, made up of t-
pr our.rt % trie 6iterru, yve nil I _ '1 Lence in the 1laterr sgatir e
antl "Who, or ~ t" or.- s torTeu r -alttait or tle prozao a nhe or
soie" . would zrere apply person s crlr, r;.u t ist sod-iL ract
Ltm . 9t.t1er-c6 stire1 trva tr.r.e lI-t-rro i-itive?,--�
au r lt " ct.. roc.. (&.c*rb, trr lot )z, .-re 3la t?" /
S_ (. at particularr ) t ooi t" /
Bhu ' at sort rt tcoi'V S /
t 'o^Ar It'
.3. S, g r' arin w earns: '";Fose tooain
o- buau Y6 y? t "A coO cf 'hatr vr:C 1.at dubL.)f9e i

Zits ra Io n3re rl l' "..r, l ct is vcr ra c� ( aCIO t tn7ee)?*"
Nit: ra Cb Idl anIt P rnat iF y;sa r r.air.e
it ra hao i "tiat sort cf. ieniie oI .lursi ',Tat /.fnatp
The "lztyerrogatlvesdy peated A jcire tLo.s L./er Lwtnit WeF osltion"'I
nJM, cor espond to thCnn/L, lF I expressioz.s "*wyever,/ haItev -, wihooeveT
lt oer Cc' totly s "irterr native 1rcdet'1: lt1 pryn Lb. Trius:

&'Aa, a t s "h' ever likesT or nideoev ies'";
flIflI T panog," at ever is heret?./r wti e r is here';
=a Rf krhloh ever iara cr 9ever mi*
7. "re




7-


VJ&p-7~


( de 4t&4.6& Alf

4v -* ,a ka ip


S--- ---


at �' : ad amtu AI" Az, aia /,hf /A /
7 A <2ws4� /1' ^ __



"kh .k6e~ It /Au
4 aA^u ki' i4d. /-,Ce Ae? 47 _r



. -_. 41 / , /{d --A
Ad . ^f .t j - /&-,t - - rr <. a .4 e t^<










6 ---44------ A/? ^ z s ~A v
<,^^<~t' ro I .


-. f r-


L~~~~~~~ ~~~ to*^.* ,,.~:*/ =s~ ..,; . :... ; . ***






at Ara S -2m * _ .

1ALLo. 4. e-"- )
Xwo., aI, PeZ. v * fA)/ "A-A?' &A/- A S
2 - r -v i ol do z e
-: ,~ Y~C~ ~__ * {t----a.A- 7






CD ZLfAA ? �1,I4AI hl.y44e~ AFa f -71'j


7 AY(1Aty , - IZ, I 7e tWY74,^ /-h2e


Ah Lw ^., app fa^ f a.t - . 4 -.




"A- f &-A) 2?-. ;M_ C-4
],. # A l. *~ ,.., 4 -"* . . L . -44 L

-& .- e - 0 .i,



ia I 1a ..L^ -,, . I" . ^ ji,
--------i^ - = isB AV i4 fe idf


r






�d 2A- -4 , A -
"2 ) 4 "'* e' . i- / 4i e






717-
71 - 4r /Ae a'4f' A A














1& v4f4At A4 /
w- ,. 4A"7








^A /^,^,/^ Ir/lA & ogtA-t , I 4AOm 44ga/ o4�0 /
-- or --
;tl^L) futa ; ?I f 9






<%&*o A" f^ ^ ^^' < .^ d cAft"







ko .7A







A- -- wo 4 4




^/^JIf ' ,d , . 76 /M/si

_ 4 ^ . --=f /2E 4 ^1 - /(L'I" iL *I A,'
71Z� t/rt 1 % yc ;





^zoz /^ ^ ~ J








Stallarly titnl na rli men eve or wrhen*
Sma ri- alFrtL or, a jgfr evrr .

s.s7 Ntatlves are onEi- or es-linlz by nmers of interrobatlvese . aa

n Ip payiY CiI ri tl? " alere ia It? i.e. Ttiere is nothing, I t"flJ

ge, * Kr CE rt', as weli as cfa, "alor*, .2 00, Ge, "all" S
to bie only*satlfixes" as Ltzey are jo10-ed LoL tL trie irLile, bUt to t
the "conjunrctive ipronur,". m .La ;
S4. *I a


L I


ldose
Toe �


uaer t.uahi aioULer uat� g
"Ali roads'".;
'I alore, or yearl " ;
".,as, aiore" ;
"'e-:.ou alcrne, ourselves,yourisivete*
":y Whcile 8sellf";
*t'ie all, cr cur WFhole aselves',


To express "sel'r te 'axytka use tt.6E word abu.r*, the t ,raneas or
victoria have mer:e. noth rords eviuex.L- i; ci:e rroi tne Esame root ne or
e9, In mbbu e wr can rec.'- lee tMe co L itlve fernm or the Tcr;ga article
u for nu. h set is pRother foriL c-l the inr9 .,.xL MU teL. (pl.v'ene), "lord,
aster', trapf (Travels . 1sicarv lat.,urs , e7.) ,tves as the
onortifc title or the i irst of i .-.t ara: -1i:ba i(ar. t-num.ba) Wae neB
explain it bt: "*he llit, tLe -a.ster, the true ilcr., tre licn lhmse11
Thus L-tanyle. a:
Tt da Its int ui--.- or ix btmL., "I did It myself*.
S ' Tarargae: -da ka ita naOgQ, "; did it alone";
:i.a ia t 1a xiaoIrr natl ere or Lda iiene,i" did it
.No. _ .i ,s i ere " cae a yelf" ; c
Ch LEart .. oit.ere r c l m ,eijt"'n"b ctsir itself*;
ikt kiato r'r.a kas er!erf i9o'ts^^- 'a-


jsSL or Ese is used In tte rolowling tlicmatic sexprssitrs:
ts ni na an C pi T Ce rotnt a&t 911';
a J rose re xcvura ra ti no ioa,"'ot a single ro or rain
S - - -w- "-- -. e see";
Na l3f O 0aa O, . wIct at all";
-1. igk-Ma oe B, "In no ma8neAr tat. ever . .

,^ - . 'y :.= - 1 el --- .--- -. ^ .









~ Proe j I7 at AR
I 1.V-cL I CCiO, vVC la
71 rcie. L r,, 7 !c











kn 5 1v,1, a
13 1 t ., - .CY UX.c; '-ie:, c clc



Ch L f L 1. C .. ..LAY e


v d �,aL I ; nc-10, ~ IN,

a i n IV ST. 01 ! ,3 c R. 7 1 1Y a










holm, 091W. C'. .I~gya









* ~~re Frcat1c Frtio ue

InClude ULh vert "Lo te" or ivc iLer vertz ai~u corres.yuitu to *kie
1mn,611aL., "hare lot r~iere are; TIherr, 15, L.-.Er,6 are; -ticre i.,oes A.C
In Fr~rinch ' void, voila* are or Ovols ci, v .ir, rre see. ;-
thfrew TA; &LI. 00A cul sl.-, i Ii-11LO









*1 01- rdCa~ iL k. or: li. y-.AAI fowl";
P- er 5BTy S a 1'. rag is: LU. Q. -1-( p.
Lu Oa, !ja LU ai.1-re you name~ t-dr",




Peeh.. / O9.A K











^// z ed. , ao>�^^^ .



1n4 '- 6 AL, -4 74)� u ^2 4�e
/ f 41f '/ ; 7 / --^--- - -



/ / - / - -i -,-- / y
S'^v/' zd&w a CI^H s(4.. ^^ i LLI
7l^^^,P uJ ^^^T/^ t^^"; 3LfeZa-,>^~ A
aU/lcei^,^^2y isL^" '7^ ^^x-~ "sC f^L^ ^e~^







7A~nI A A 2, , ,


e .lh , ." 4 � -------



&E.... O-.- L L ./. 4x/' I=- i. *a A4Zae,
�., ,t i,^ i w /Z1 a ^/ ^ ; G










___d_ 4r a e -rA e r detd-- 241-.
- >- - A^, _




.?.-A^ o r1 jf4i^Li�er^ 4 <- ;/_
^T�3_ /^tL 6-' #'^< 67 rj Y- i^- ^^.:





/ ' ---- --^ -- ' / ----- ^' ---- '^o -
/ZZt-c�< s. a(^ lSt>UL. <5t pZ�^ ^ l ^ ^fcct~ leM- U �/6<
*djtjto i c h ^fvM^ -2^ ^%�-f^^










\Q ; " Ar~ l"Z C

A_ as-AEL c . U-

eAdu , 7i <, ton4S" . x - .




7J^ 3p- . oa Wt ef ! .c.
<'4t^>mf^ eL > ,� <-4t^ <^-as �>tJ, % sfe�..ad. ^.

---- --- ^ ------ / -lA4Li4 L/A4 d ,

? j^ y' a-o / "^ ^h-i^^ ^^ ^^-^L









*--- -3d'- --1-44W d-




yj /c 3.^L~ u^ L^ *r~~~
^-(SLW^S-Z- ,Uzeka~- I -~~<^^<�^�cL
/f 1L~g-a u^ �^-~ r^^~ fa /t_^l�ai�- ~a ~ ^ -~~ -- " ^ - ~T
















L CA -ta c~ ,
to, I


hz~c ~',C (*c-Ije-


l-Il

/Zd


All


^ ~-I / 7--i^ - ~----- ~





' L Y 6r~~~
,"�


/^ ________'f___-_________W i _ -____- . I '


7 - n C At

2 eI-^f(rirte; oe^ 4


/I , iJ t e~w^^. ^ AJ^)
R,-, -i. . - ,' A d. , .



r-4A d- -. 6 /ei 2?dANZtb )


�)SC rz u �ra -L
�.h. *tsa u ^j_-aR /i ~ AC~ ' / ^ / / f


"f4Zt


^-


GC~-C~f~ I


~h~-- t-


QWa, I AW�
6f^<-a4 �t_









Aoe ,O 4- C i o- . * ,qA, � V


Sieu. �a/ �z,,. #4, _ _

4 , A. e < , ~.d. -,




-a ~QM --/-, 2, r/- L.d -



ad .. ,, e., .o /2 . a .- ' ., ./t, . ,, , .
Sug 7>c*t '7i4^^u f- L-etf ^' P/fc . /c�L- z' /f tcZf )'
SZ4 - _'___







bfj ,, /, I 'ItdJ~ n 4t 4x '---.,,-, .
-----P y-----/- ~,iX-i------^-;----




' ^-c.- -a-L. ad / yJ - Mid- - . '
L -B
, .<. , )v , ._.A . s^ a ^. ,, .<. ,,.'
;,...- 2Mt' Alta- SML- (WL.. .X z

)l^- H^f^L ^f/^z- ^-^S^ <^.'^^<
















~4-/


Ae,
/ v- z _:- i F y . ; 7 /-e

]/^ ^^V> , < ^^ ytSbeJ 32^CLcU*^- ^ }zL4/-


y )



* * '
(^t.~ �0^ ^^u^-







^h-it*^l utaz/L�i ��tl-a- /�. - -.










4Za iW4 2-9.F/u�lZ uL- A4d /





of A ,/ 6 ) ,
/T -za-wa - ..� / A



/ytCi �-. -':d &-;u 1-^Zh /* /az��;



IZa^ �4; A l
_______ eyle 'A a .
,-4L----







a/lPr, i9JA 4 ^O^L. t;d &



yL. ~~~ c= 8 2_^^^^^^.








Ta ka pyarnya xu kura, or
Wa kTura va aka yany8a, "re is excedlngy tall, or too tall';
& i- -arnze -u taFurwna_, ,rjs is rot said iucn-;
Wa Re vaEza me'vtura, "You put too much waLer";
Wa" iTa rO naka, "It is awfully nice";
3Td - o isvc W- T KYU ta fmb5,,I am, norrbl': fond of dancing'.
CTii ro spenga riaLa, or no XL naL",IL is ioaly rice".
-J







SI----1. .

7 . .. . ... z , �t d- 1






".re tes ued 1r farrge wn c t cr xSawinfl the -c.. . Secul-u -
ve numbers are

I* Boah R ctro 1v-L--. GLJ1 , - ---A S 1



36 C noa 1360 is 4U Taer , I tlia




6. Tanatu 1.. -aaec




9. Pru(baomwe IO,_G_ _._._ aLaa_ _g
410 e teG l is, , U. 2.ana :ra a zL anazana -
vI nu~ors are'

i. IiY~lh a, PG^tU I' i 1I- ^1 Lf- �i "- .-" .


















. * . " . . � ...., . . .. � . . .' .. "- . .
64 Tsoatu rl>. Lnaena





Ir~4 -- a bna62 91 r, and't a








flAf-d . - *7v 3z4*a...4 ? La.* a ,- J
M*-d I fA /
/ a ;---- -T -- ': k O'f --- --* _ _ ___-- ------

dAy






,_. I, _ ' .j ~ , 7

//-� /,
\&)g- 7cfg~. u>4o/A L/. ^-^e^�_ ^L ^'^rtt





Sr





* " " ~ h h --- 4
, e. < 0 . ,
M . ftu J-- ,^ * ' s
P- x. wj^ &.o4 , popPve"4b)




i^'t ~C 3~2r ^fe- i ff Z� eowuf~ a~Lfkb : 4U






4L ^ L





4^-// -1% lfk#e t Mfz jm .









_ 2 f ,I .L M ,'. .. L l . L,
Z4E Jceet va 4 AI





I _,____ f: / ___
' . _ i 12 ,,._ i. df y T .. [a _.~ .







MA-- -.a It&) , <. It, 4l, 'h L

.- --Y ( ,.^ ^ .-- .- " . . 1. .- . ... ,^ ir, .
B^r^ciM L 0t <^ i
v^. / <
^^ '%^ V'^ta. n te~'13r ^ rf 13ta^^S^oi^^ e^s^












d4r - . z- - -f" -- i *












la- re &,I
| n4 -r ty .4y -1 -
/ 7 /c-* k�D & 7 . 4



/7_ .;;ka , 6iUt /Zmme4 it le t
/ _/ >




7wa 't/L 4^4-^^-,' ^ ^^t






. .7u. Aaior A 7 i 7~~ i,
Cw d , gkz-V. :u A A~. L.4 *
S -^d.. 'el / X ..c ."A 4 <"

C/dm t*4<< E2 - ' A 4, -41t/ h ^E^C" s it







/ 4
, * Ai, CL~ k I se-



ce t o ^&)) /o r 0 '
24, - e' h �, I Lz-�L g}^ > -t .
- /4 __ _ ___ - - -I1 *:-", .";;*"_















7-%^Y :~ .S vA








C 4A----^L^.-/ I .-/ 4 - sa-w








t .1ioth.er to }oCur.. 01_5jPotCy 1e ot.t,,ea )y Or"ixing _, . or cha
t -the orditq.ry alejunctive. it mearns "rea.l, true.
Thus:
9o m'1VO .wa R- , o)r cna Iwo, "arcr:.o, Ud Ln e -rt truly" =-i
- .t -.4 � ---'--- ,





. 11 -a e or c,. 'V@, -; rent true ma:""
I/B. . Another uoi~u~cur. ls qjjiur.Ctlte is otLat&aeu 1*y ,rSiixlr n Xa. or chSa
Tbthe ordlxiu-y aIFjduncclve. IL uueans "rfcd trurbi". L
Thus:
32 m'ovo twa �o, or cr 8a iwo0 "Frci-. Lrid ne:rt truly;
u nu ___m rZYe "r crhsie, *, reci truie rnai:";
blza iwe ro or cha ir, ". rrl LLort-".
i.B. _wa ie mear., "at r1 jlace (Cnez lul );
wa njU "St. .y place (cne4 ,.o );
Pa cies du, "ami.orgst OL;urselvef;ta;-z -. r-e-ro
P7a ca vy, "a:..orLget teLser~elv.e' IV a - L - .
" Beeldes tie e.:ir.nitlic":Ir1, "I , 'i.lfr", I wee, "t.ou thyself"
I'Vee.",e l:;;.seitt, u l t, "* yourselvesae;
as i;: Vs nu ll,( or VO Y;u rl ! ):i nui iP. i i "Yu C .eU " ----
--thle word "j (cf.indefri�ie .vle or J ~Oyia' piscec before most
dls. ur.c t ves:
vl : , le ', .vE mi, Ye au A, even tel'ore
adverts :lwe rlinr, "ti.ls very instant'�
lye na 1, "tiie very iay".
�arytlka and 2lnrlae r.ave li-stead: lo '- lro0, h1io .rj1.
2) Petlexive rLroicugs.
a )
- The reflexivee Pronour." 2.W (.erLa,cl,, yete tLt, "or-.;a o. zulu wi4-)
is used for . "i pierfccrs -. r.L4rttere ari cesi-.s sl:u;t.y selff.

d L -C zwl 4n8, "1 love .ayteLr'";
6 2 AQ ig 'as "tC� lC've yvcurseii';
V1 �1 .' N ai , "Trey U'v-' these 1vs'.
a no Awl kui.a, "'-e �tnAes nir;soer lth' .,(re is proud
A Lo zai ynaj,( oilouilai ) "e I. vailn(.Le eats hlselr)'
A r2o �1 itsa .u rUfi, "r;a(Mark.Ge !ri-S.elf) ,piFes
h . eilf off as rich".
Notice that awl li also the luiral cf LtHe neuter cril;
Therefore:
A fno awl da can also wean j "ie llea tiose ttlnel*.S
--' -' "'- . .-.. , - .








"�he ref lxlve prc:our. L,togeter wit.n th
iaf'orrm of' tr.e v-er' mates laioLacicet expreser rera very si8 lar to.aad.
corr'~iLoordlr.e titn-T.renuen locUt ona. Tr,UR:
. a zwl frltire, ".'ll ali 111 proi,.er";;
SlWr-tndera. "Iil s'en e0. T all";
Va i f-r o '! : .l'ar'r tre, lia e s:-nt ,us";
S.A . r.r., "VCLu v.eus rte.ioulrL"; ,
7a .^"m v51ra a .^.. S'Qous .nou sei-'j!, acuiajL-.tes. ;. 1
i Cc,*. 'par the *r, ,.is I i ,. s ions: "s I: " i- r It et "..etI.1 i l ij
" be, ueti nil ,pIa", , var, a k i " ra L~
.. . . . .- '










. then . re , , ch, tat ) is te sut'ject" of
-1,C11 - / f.









the reHlafN claVse, it i8 ex.rcs:ed i ara, ty 'the ortiTRY 'con-
Junctive procoun". Tnus:V"Tre man who died rose ag1r.n" Is rendered by:
-.. . .. - ru we La fa we ka -ukS. Litt. the man he
aied ,re rose again).
similarly: Va ka ta.za, va no ri.iALsi,"'hLose who aid wrong will beto
--- ---PurisneAi . (LItt. They did
N wrong they will to punished).
Therefore tv relative clause is alst igu1sne ra not" tey a special
pronoun, but by belg placed 'before" the principal clanse. To empha-
size the diastirctio: between tne two, the coptula 1i)( followed by tfe
disjunctive proncu,, tay be placed before tht-e prli:cipa clause".
Thus:
s ia a l:_a, ad1 Vn o va n rli.lslwa, 11"tL.e .ey have done wrong,
wt o s they will be punished).

AIt is tO&eyt&lll &a pui4(ht ir)


Vtt ~te *4 t4ote -






^ n^^^^A'^---------- 1^- -
,mv ana we Bata,"Tr.e chilld(r ) of trhe Yatt.r", t'.xy ~sy llxe'ise:
tu aa wa r.dt n.o da,"The chlld(ne) of 1 love,I.e. wfcrom I I lve".
Ndi no tora zsa E!iu ta.e iy things( uL.e t:i':ge C'f me )';
Sl1 rjo tor ri r.l n re cr.naQ'I taxe the Lr. l's 0r.lc I Fee(of I see),
M'1Ct:L Va ] 8 tr.ca 1 j .'lLP iZ ",r ya ro,? lFt cc t;i- ?cLu 'cu touoCt has
lts calf' Jitt."WTr; cctr it of you tob.a.rL, It ir.s t Le calf itL of it";
CrlI gar a cr a I .a its aSr tyh A h ?5dt_10 I lr cho Y
MTr.e cr1r (it ro) you .sdde has gL.t ItC le , trct.-I".

';. 2 iven wfh~;:. the r latlve Frol.C.:- IL ti.ie (t JeLL, 1Yj T .8.as nave a pecu-
liar cor.' L:u ctic. I t WUricL ti ; t-J. "cAr.l: L-r ' r:;slJ 1 s.Ct J.ttve pro-
r.ouln" c.lY:. '"'us;

Iarlrnyl A t re ita batia vw rvu ".e. aw.at \tour }atte-r does" better
rend.redA ty tre Irnch: "vcy e o F, ra tL vYc rt he ire"; tnLe Eul.,iect-
Labta e =.u, Is Lt lest, I. t, r relait v "ot iec;,il nt is rendered by
the ordlrary col..i.l&ctlve t i1,a ti 1 CO r i.ciVt: i rojC .urZ.":ut.j ect a,#h0,
reing croitted. lzflarly:
bis . rlc r'rr %'Lt A , TW�' ] c.^-'i -'* ' 0.1lc> tn. o.LL 114.:&t it".

"Ti- eiRmAe i r. ro. ric I foulirj 1t Zulu:

Izl nkomo a ,i Trli f . i:. 'f%3t, ".'.e aoit.i L tt.l:- .: tl - oPfan saw*.

.- 'rhe t.; relativee is :"ovu:riF-i y' a .r Fcpsi.ic.L1, tas:v' t whom,
Ill'!ty iorlftE r.tts serep lve ;.rcr-oit. 1.; ,r.iCt rir-st A ti.e jrepcstit ior.
followed b. i-. tLi. .:frt l o rctlve trcIi v'i e-t Li ., t~1.Q c, f . - suorterce. Thus:

eU ::u e w'a di': 1 r nd a ,8 v'el"TA I.qiaj WL 't.. I In-.,t1t;Ltt. "rfie man
he of I yet-t ,it:. hiL';
.u kadAl 4 vna s ron:wa rA ve?,'.r. vo i.sr. ly. vi.or, taepy were berwtc.ed".1l
" * ; '!.te of t :eiv iere tr ltc.he. t h er";
ar.ura ca Tndl ra chrioca U tsl ra CI.L C ' rL.at I nave( t of I am
,Ilth it )trait( it or ,u n . ave r(.ou re a :ot withn t".

M.B. Zulu rer.ders tr:e flrrs two enlh4.ieF aiL[.st(.t exactly lite Lne Farangs

bLth r.i.U C Y.r'5 r^s.ta i Vyi
Lr'faLi a ia Lazat ra ll ye.

It also turns the relativ- li to a potesslve wrietLer it sa subject
or object of a vert. Thus:
Subject:I : 'vue z_ L.l t.. i 1 'e sheei (ot ev thn aled*;
Aba tu aba hambile, "mhe ie.;. If ry1c/ eent";
Otbect: ba r:tu e pStbori leYo,"Thie e einfoL. - sS' "Lltt.'Of 'e th3em 88o
Iz i 7i c7no c 8 1 b oVle vy o ,% -galf0
S~ 'Ve."ie cattle IrntLl
Tr-; \ -'..'' e tU *fjJ.







Aiil&s either the ppossesolve" notr Ole riclncu S pUronoutpr
i' o _nstatratlve,. just 1 e th.e _4i;11lsa 'that'. Mus:
m gu u_ ndl ri ku ticna, ii LanTLya, "Ththt I see (Ie) a ManyLIt,3
Th la s the relative as objectt', for the relstlve as .sub.je.t the
demonstrative Is placed before tne iourn. Thiuse:
� u n u wa 1a fa, wa Fa rL a, a Trw, man that dled roseqa
2rburLl dR a9 a Ize i.a, d u azoal "The - ,oatR that ran axq^ 4
__ --- _r .iave returried".

fT _ _ - B a )






* - u . . f --- -6-^. 44)^r
4^4 44- df ^J;i-e~iSTl4 L(4A4A kft
(3� 7.}















(Swahili a. onga C.3, Congo JJ ) Is a defective verb, usid orly
the present Ir.dlca-lve (am, art, Is, are). ,or tle Past & Fuar i
tenses as well as ror the imperative, but.junctive a Infinitive
Moods, it la replaced ty the vert v4, *tecon .e" nlcn is a regular
and coniFlete verb.

InralcaLlve: Na l o -va, " t ecoLe, I shall be'; A
ii1 cILh8 0 Va, "I s;al1l tecome, I shall be';
a s5 Va I , I tecamie;
fcda 1 vat, I was, I used to be'.


Imperative: Iva,
SIvaub:
Subjunctive: dl vo,


"become (tnou), be (thou);
'jkecouie (ye), be (ye),

*"et Mne becoiue, let me be';


Inflr-lttve: fu v_ , ct,-.,-bcume, to be. C.c.

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70-Ti&U-B TiV a- - -- , - -pa
�bSa Ma mu kuru kawzro,
aT�a Ke hou ,ru chete,
jTMA uu.


"n-il-s tree (1i) iT1 bd-wld tree ;"
,yv fattier ( s) a very great (man)';
",is taggage (Is) only meal';
*whkatl It Is r1ript".


But n 1 A ri nounraused as P take the copula 1 before lsma;

ir l nubair, "~ at big animal is a lion';
a l. *Thlas animal is a snake";
I b�12"Its house Is a caveat '
S"T5he goa tas e ia Msnay",


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Mew= -- -- ' ni- "t'f7- AV" - s
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jsne. l e t ?4a.
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nh/aita na.h(, vet)fal ' parti g A iarl y^ bec - oe bu.so
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/h^<- )e"_^, IMs;i w A- -^^� t h ee I n i t4a n ah ( v e r4al p ar i c l h PL, A 4 ay









Ma.uI (or ) /d ez ( ) )I Is the )a? "







Vu nu 0 uno (h !g uno) *T1s is the nmanm.
I'aIia'Tgl (" Id s ) ")icn Is the road?O
S) " Ee r' ricrl 18 the horse?"
4 Mu (or l 5S--i "iese are the horses".
^-**^i~ "*'** */U *d -*�- ---- "*""" *'ah - -- _ . --




Q!


. R1 In eigastle Clauses

Iff.- A). )"ILr principal clauses'- (those not deperdei.t on other clatsi l a
Ir the same sentence )- the negatic-n l.roper to rl is the double "i
advert sa...3l (or z ), ha being placed at thcr begl,,ning of the.J
clause * sx TFr z ) Imredlately Ntfore rt.
ndl al (t ) rl mu t.rlj " ami ra: t a JLuge";
u sT2zl--1 Wlior r'ire), 't is rot you';
a sai )i rFi Pg. "JI is not tne ilac";
Sad1 l S1 a "Iit it not I";
VSa c a 1 ri a.u m a, "Tney are io lworen in tne nouse",

--., )--*l suberd lSate claees (.th-ose that aepena on the principal vr.
verbb-P$ 4-4-- en ie) dejicte Ll;e "cordi1tloi, ot.jecL, place or
time cr trie prl1iclpl aulicr,), the n&e~atton or ri is si only,
S.as tor other verbs,

ia a vi .ya di si ri mtau ba,"ou casue wh tC I as r:ot (iltt. I aIs m
li. trLe. I;ot e1";
g i rdlli sl rl -.u romate, -La 1 u , "d re I net poor, I would
eaVOe ivetl. you";
ds .- a n s. 1 rI U a bagaa, "I wBs not aL wor&,(Iltc. I thappen.edA
I aL -ic t Wt wcr )".
-C.J-"'i may be osltEtl before cur:s pror.ouLrs 11. zAegative sentences
ea ti sl va nvayl or Fa tl rl va r.vavl, 1"'e are not slaves';
S-zT''m ura or 1 1 ri m'vura, "It is not water ,

- ) 3 tfore the preposition na,r Ie rn ever expressed, & -in niigat
clauses, it takes only tihesTlEgle i:egatior' ha (lle oralry~ .
(verby
' no hope here? "Are you sleepy? (Pave you eye-l1da?)
ap--oT "I as, (I nave themm;
a- nai na, "I am not, (I nave rqt)"; .
fiM Sah Ia (V iot.) "It is empty' (Thsnofl4a.-4e no mor

. ) The three locatives ?2,. ,9-- In regative clauass Nay be lA.f
trued like the preoeltior. na.


Ea ndi po, or ha -ndl l ril a 0, "I ak.not tbere"- .
Es oa Moa i j 1as ri o, REe it not tr
ya e1 (for Chli ot 't
or Ta T fa i 81 rJey are no more tho re.
But in affirmative clauses they require"ri.
A ri mo, '*e Is in'; VS rf I,' "Trey are there'.


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Shma gop iiragara, "'ltluie he is restirn; i bit";
iu naze a rng sa ra, "Tell , ni. to stav o long'.
. -- jio doznoreras, "'e keie- lo'r.irln atcut all the time;
Mdl caa Eajo ag 1rat,'" shall prepare feaFnhrilie";
A chMa L ta1, "i',i.1e e 10e till .ei..iin";
We n~o Ite Yi ".'L',t aqve you IcO-l th- ;:1eU";
Cni no ng Luhab, " L as..eiis all t e tit~e";
'a r herekala ta tur julIo� " -e ruIt st L. tiae ..s cakie here;
cL.va ri 0 4 bj L_.u,t au9t .rlaci,(W.hile u.1.- 1uz rises)";
vu e*zl Una cl E,&rU, ";..a. ,t.o-, (V -ila tri i oon is viollng )
IjTMi ruQ 2 E11M il -c-i r.br1, ".1 trsvi bte-r. rorasting sbout al
SI.ai:~ta sl . Io .. 'arai, - "Taabe J1.s are 'r.r th9is"a t lme tie

Va ka r&g v a -.1s l ra^Lrs, T'hy uere 'ilr. .1.h st that
r. e.'o /p : ? rvery lpt .e"
- -Lo regg r-: r ..itta il a t,, C '*ur.. t.u ftal. &T ..a s
ftor tre particle tc., Lo ner.E'1 .lIt a tlle' . v itn a recatlcn:
not a it, rLot at all"
Eu to ni Qi rzC.: , t.c_:c-! "'c i-z.ac.'ri.ta i I.at tc. 1-,1.t tic, rot hel
". a to ro tUiL. , "' ct c.t :ct c: n, at t a st ll"
S1tr do tre sernge is prceflit tie ZQlWs.

andl do ssee ks-P,, "I dr. r:ct wsi.t Et all to , la;t: to-daay~, '!--
- no!f y a-I '4/ 4- -
Irstead of do ofio r e terrs QalsC. ,t1 . fC. &t a1r r.

ICAE Llu Ya, "Just try tc ccca. ' CoLe. If i' u idare!";
a barato a (Viut.), "I c't r: r itxcJ' '
SL 2 Ug. ha . r1c, u rc vliz.g- tl'? *Yuc , nave ttU cnek- tc come- here,
L^OC. --- ^,,a �_,,--wr:.t. cr. earth . dc y.ou rant?"

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_ / - -- / "-/ /^ ^---^ L C-T
q�&rjc. Gr4 o sw


___ _s____- _ _______ - - A









7L a ..A.. A IA
/v4~ k&^M I^ t^f v^Z s^jt <�t i,^-�h




- - 4 /--






6 . -�. /A&t ) 14 VTk-G &4'tr
/, a A e , k a. -s, 4, S, e.




W<__C / - - 1 r-
U)





i c' go al, a* o /e- A. *& dk -4 tf g




& . SH' <-- -0' <7-.t, _/_

cSBT4z. &. Wt * /,t ?
'^<^jmeLh_ 1 Zct ^2g^) 1Z-4o i .�j^ /4kJ^ b Xd/#SL, SL*ep n*c L-





M? 4A/4o d ,4 " 4la424L*




(lr. Swlt() a. 4 7 i - oze.4 ;
>_._ _ -, 641deE4A- Ar 4 eeod t4b /-









7_____ .-- /a
7'/Cte-^ /6 Z �.a. k t-; t7'f islaei~-a (1/us. AL/eI), , -







f: e3-~ A'flHto , Wlo , 2r-/JI S/Zmsa Z&p 7v 2-



1ior l'io a t2&~ i ____















lea,-a





,�""""CA""" ,> 3, o , IAt s* t*/ %-4 filt-, - A


____ tue4_dov-/




a^^^^^-'A a^sp~~c~ ^/g ) g ^,/^ U~es,<<^i�dha^






S NGA .C.A
t verbal tpar t icBI A Ai.tr "lC M
PfVotertall : !i n& sr;r "T I may (iuust ,C ) 8;c0".
-* UOptastiv: y fndl er.de, ",Lati. o i.L r e B"
!r-A'"A aux1112r It lhel]:' to r-ae several forlia of trie "past Indicatives!

d cY1 enIm "I avli ieee . I actlf going*;
lda ka � _i nd chi en1z . 1G, "P . a ..I -; .,
a a eilta "I iai i C'4,ii1tTl ras tn--. a4& that i have
lda ln nad tl, "I F.as : ciL: to p.V", gone*.
SI). Tr.e auAilliarv .a ioo eArnet" ta~e arr or te- vertal particles
excepti'r.g . u. i. -.- r. to Jlc .t -r beforeC It, E
la used l1Itesd of 1g, ii, .I -e i . u Lth s:-:;u.e r..e:a';ln.:..
i ILa ltug, j .e .ia
or fa ia t 112 a1m LGa,) i*t. :XrJ aL Lt allt v ccL.. ".
Va t e _e fVa '_ )
orVa v. tE o .1ie ,/ ' " .V juat ,. r..
9,, Injay sll a i . y. '.--aL;: Vrrce* rgO aLakes
after it tile "subll'juctive iL the endlrs; c iyi oirs-tu--tC4M-e
in SvatLlll, lulu te.a .sr' -a of qflcct. it Is follosea by the rnfl-
tlve" as Io ofter, tit- c'ase lIt. otner verbal i'tr:cle..:
td i rga Lj _(&VLt. ) .I w.t O1,


Q.nffLO^ H/t~ q- 'LS~t ..r, 1a L
qcj,3 1qY4 Fm ai pri I t VC11e
In 44%a& thT-'t- ? . ttI e di.t rtr1' r E. r tt-e :.;.e t & :, t e
4etdfA) k8 r-e:a a bstaha n eijg, "l.t ? n fallen. 'aiwep",
ara Jl fMi a tlg rt e tIOtr1 '>L- FOe1%.:.1 3PIS T :"


<^L cj*fi A* it- A
L/ 9C ^ C-^^K eA- 1� 2


/ pa.,c.t "/'r- *r
er4� dk~t:; LasZht U d~


'i -,t c .- - 4 . 4- Mo . t
/z al Lz;~qiji-L-Cj a?


tbiL .







K^^^fc^^ M;_ n* ~~~�_ci;- ~ l :^- wt * "^^^ - ^^"


9i- c/t^Wjfc. ^^ JX>/7 'e-s


^y�-f'w^d^ ^t ' y f X/cl'<^ I/ .

A.~~~ .-�12 /^/.<-C~a ^. ~ fj


/,_ _-- _7 , ----
Ilrkslfc n t^L�. "d^' U < * J-~ --- �t~ ~'. d, L9C /


JP _sCl evi v
'.Q. -//~ AL 4 ^^-M ,TZH-Z -,< ,Jrlit ^. f_^^^vz< �.


o~ :~cy


141.; :Y, /?A- Z ^,
1^'. : n^ 2^.


b~ci/~2. 3py

44_4A2i


,E-~A- fA- A .- :/" � _"

Aa I va (ve or vo) .I;i chk r.L, .i va (ve ar vC ) i LZL;
"I was (used to le ) 8 cr.liA, I rave reconme a MI. (Far:,)';
T 1 ve 2sitzara hurtw "Thlre RB's Pr*vAt frmir.e;
Wa 1 ma Vc i jj SL ave v'ct. arh&p (vJ r eit t . ,.re?"
w-"AS aurlliaries1." I1 - Va are L.'e"'ritir L 1ii1 1 ~lit'llt.~e I to form thOL
S present past progresslveo.
-i11 ri Ju LStaEA,-s& II am juslt 7alrIn6";
S amba, "I wrs walli, used to fEulA";
f.l _ .aS, "I r1 ave become atlle; '
ra va su Su - Heaven l on the point of rfallln*
., as at~itisr ..ii1. . E - .. .0.1 . .,nue A . ae


j


___l���C ~ �~i _ ____I L� __I ~_ __ __I�_ _~ __


r







211. 73v/4.

Ir *k cosne away, turn out(&ence bVisa or bleat, "te out, 4tx* as
1 coma0pluete & regular verb. The imperative, v, uave ; not 'u.st
t.Med with the verb RU Itvas, 'Lo be ripe, coote"4 although tky k fey
ev' denltly cognate verbs.
SAs auxillary" It menri "cojse3-enLtly, thereupon, then".

' iEg 25 IS �sI "Thereupon LfIey died";
" S 1 t "Com el mindd) Glve us. Ycu it.ut give ues;
va -da Li: *I ter. ay: (.ConiequeLtly I say"
.i s ba naa endan, "i may thoer hiave gone".

S A6~.t-Ater the auxiliary 1.a tne "perfect' n lav I used.
iru enters Into tio !olloowin cor: urnctions:
Idokubvva va rhna, "TLereuFpon, coiXeijuently they fouflti
Iubva ndr 1 to ie arira, "Ir fact I Tas orly waiting".


rw .r..e, "Seeln,l,ap;jear, rfeeritile,1s, 11. israi.Fa, a ccaplete verb
irreclar it twat it keeps t-he final p all trwroughl.
aIninltive: J rAie lkiperatlve: jaIge, s&a . i.
:.Sajuntive: 4~ ngla. Indicative: Ma Igj or .i1 M Mei* El B a a*
i aL a Bin.* AlM nn ad Ia. o*. a

M mnu ka I "l.ook a rel m 'an";
~ri(or kge) 1e vlt "'wat daoe the place lo.ok L1e 2
~- �"As auxillary" it maan&s: "apparernt.Iy, ltely, perhaps'.

ta na u ri La elila 1iure, "'ie aoes OI. t~teefiL t&, nave gone far';
g k.a jgg rnda pedza bsat, nal t.va ala a1c.,"i hver I ao finsh that
-or i,, -I go-" ; -v t_
aS ze gge rz c riza rini ko "Anr-e as s i tl,..e- to nlave
ne ng fi ta Izl vane j~i "*r.ere is it likely wFe nave got those
Se Mt ran er:ne ~.? "il:ere Couldu poswIcbly haveo.De ; g
&B wa e Te u el na d nva l "The village seeeej deserted'.

e g helps to form the conjunctions:
ng , f S 'if" Sokiue, "as if. doktun1e, "It is ao It".
~!- -









c tI O .ct'v." e:, , , t . ,, n, a,.- - . ,, ,



I /finitJve: f..Z l i .



operativee: ill , 8 MY._ y -__ "1








Sub tur.ctive: :ial _t! -;a! rl
Indicate ve: .l C t1, � 1 6.11t .-o &L -O t . or :-i_ n.o sA 42.5 0
Zthra4 y-r tJ9 sooe -


















Nui~a k8 t 1 .... &
A 7 khw l- - e - V ' ,V aw/i ktr





I- Actuive, a ri.r bLS
Ij
irSinl'Cle: L l ?
nlyaperoatve; Ipr, LoI lsltr ,y te
a Subjur.ctlveLi: re v ! "I :; o
S Indicative: ui r..l " cLr z I or .ai a;e i. i
' - ia rail
lsa U. A1 -, 1 I1
L-,i,.o t i -C An





..- t1tud vjr[" 7_ is?'r o <" Is iused macor-
dxig to to e Vcl.lv InCv rIulee ct' Ijioz Y

a) Ti, !etflctit tre sutj.lct 1prc'oLr.ltaS6-i rtort' its irS Irtrect obj'ct
only a personal pro.our, 'i-.t' �'ttr lt is i~lace; hot oi-ly the direct
object of Li''tlir^n, ht. also soc-tlies thu. IJircL cbcelct or the
"peraonr" 1r
Uno mil ti: 3S. ei: 6OO% aiC3r�IVUie: O
JCIa kI E.u t 2re 1 zvT& o! "Zi n-.ld LCo ih -:QQl 1 V.l!
wg '.a i i Jvi l i tci \'oU or S1iid TLC VoL"A
Ida .a tt lzvi ikune at iuti iu lve, " told you t esbe thi D that
.'.. 'O LoEIZ . .now".






INVl T- .~r;in ngli itns (I told hiat to stay),, buat titer Ia
-.bijstbJntctive or taperative or ialcastlver (Direct speechl.
e a mu 1 a Mare kag, or s ra s arl "I told als'that he stay l*
or stay rinrel
.a gfl Ind tl: elyal *"le said to me: leave it_ .
L.u uj or ka nzl (Vict. Lta nzLL ) ne tabat: fval FYaer says you must 4I
"- -- coe !
Notice the diflrence tet eern Ce t oilOlRlI6 senter-les:
B _ ED n jf1 1 l .u temas, ""'zt'ev esay (yvtu are said) you are sad."
B - U- u( Letze It t toe a fact ),
Ug n Zi u ite (sulj.) v'go L tl.a"itrty Bay tmat you are sad" ( IA
o t Y-a�r. to -eileve it).
|Idloatic !xYpreBselic'4t
M1a nal c.-e i-u buda! "'rcetlr;gu to all'l (You are all told to be
SCL - L al cut, t tce Laiy ).
c),uhten folloreid Tb the irterrc,.atlve yl, _ is chLIel i tto di.
Mdi z0 di y17 "ihart shall I do?" -W z
Snio zWn 1 Wl1 17 "I ;:at do (W1ll) vcu .o w'it.h Wi"
Ch 1 Lu !lt li l � 71* kL __'u Ji ;I l, j'7 ".:.at iV it for?'
S -- "" h~t doer It meant*
ZV �l t LU 0.1 I.1U ( 11C. ) "What does it t.fe".r.
fl.b 1I for fL is a iulicB.

d).t In moat, ir nrot all, Bar.ti. lars:u.rl;e+, tbe bert, ti Is used to Introdue
*onomsatopoetIc wcrdi'- (pIr.nrLlbc 1ittic:.s otr actlons ). Comsjare the
F'nlsien:"'e tning Vwer. b :r., crash, flop sc."

*A 12t12ta u :: t1 ri or f�rer2! "'tfl utt Et's 'fe! ie-rerel"
l fi ho or 'iro clr z-il.. "T'o t:e stll.rn, ir.' il"
Very often t-~ nc.r.c.iator.-c.lc tnor ir s C v ar.attreviatloen" of
an ordinary verb.
Nda xa hone kin j180o .u Li -av1, ,(lr.ia, letterer" ) "i saw a small ye.-
tlr.Li r.g";
K. tl viul (vuvuta, t o blcwi "To tiow in 6uatste.


Breniif rz i a zl a u sania,d! "Nine babcor got i sa'iaCk(dlirAda) On
tn_ lAqck'..
instead of a srse abhreviatlcr.,the vert folloairi& L1 often tates the
:tform of te Ct.j]Uictlv (rEit .out sul.tect 4ronoJ,).

a achi nzl Le n'aiaras_-hln9y (_s-iya)'& ,ct ecratcned by a claw"
M i EUEY yl _ abVu "I ,ust C.icxke the ball'.
Sometimes the t is left out.
iagO r xwre yl (*hlra), Tme nare at once to cilbab.' (se-u -b ) j
Bl S_ ' *:'' * �- " ' ^ ........... - ...... . ..---.. . . .








-- '----AS a'xillary verbt

a) Ti mkes a kr.d orfsus~senlve1 terse.

Ndi tl nde enda, "i Rnl. .clrg to 0o";
Ndt Oha tl (n-a lo ze tt) rdce tr.Lea,I ertall c. by. .: t";
T1 cha t a er.I.., "te sia-ll I, gC ioe gresentLy";
miura sya t1 ZY r.a heret "I it t'Clz. to rslr tre-es-r tlv?"
a me ti mna endat "YcL. :lnve rot yet gcre";
1 a we ti or FR ua ( (a) tle .E fzlva, "ot .ac., not yeLt s ;o";
_w'vurm ya l ya na here' "I as it t er q:ctbali rlr-lrg? or
- '! - s it rslie. yetry
b) 1i alwaEve itrodluces treo vert. oft er tr:e ccr.,iujxtlc'r kutl In the
sens cfrur:tilI "1

Kuti wa � 1'a Pr-as, "irrtil yc'I b-Ive gone";
Kuti hu .lklu a- L. ~i a w Vep1k, _''.til tr,.e lt6r.t arrives";
VJ ka t: tl tl (btJ t8 l u.e ,ey "T'I 2alu;1le~L e .o or ur-til we
-rrlv e".
- Tl teras i.cLo tr.t fliioboifl cot. ;t LCLoL:;

Ut;l, *"TP it' 1it. ErLn: iiiali after vte.:l of "Lix'.l r.l1; , sayliz .C"
I -,1 V " "; 1::.1: i', con: ianrdl: g ,ce"
"If or wLran" c; ifriv ir Myl-.a.
11'l or nriQutl (-Janyik3:r#Ixatii :c ..iiaa ) LiECr.LB".
Euzoti follolv'e-.: ty tr.L - jrrect: r.' r , Ii e r L. .'it..."

*I. - .I





PA. Y, .ii, 0,L9. :$L.JLoJO

SismThe ftrst eile-r;t of ,11 te .- co.-T.o nd -vcri- l (.11ijl) or rather
Its fornM ta (a ) flour i tV Nvarnla, "etfe 1. ,ena: I tal.1 FaA. , U y
S "to do or any rfnpt?" ;er.c t.c L i . srL.a Lv.ri ai 'rr!'so lo' also's. a g

Ita ciln rmato ch-9 ko, "ayv your prayrrA";
ji no Itwho ei(ManyvlR & Tonra, i te,"call') or cl1 .1 iAt , 'That I-
It calledT,
E.. In somali the vert dah, deLQ "to sa" makes In the past:
g I, I satd"; *1 d1, ."hou.say ; Yi di, .t; said" .c







Further proofs of the cor.'oslte ntLure ro ti'-ne ^�rds are that:
a) I1. the imnerallve, thev all trvfilx tne eue'.;cr Ic 1 of mior-0ayilarlesa
Ida-ro, r1. IJia-ro-", "io ..r say tnat';
Ida-v Ir-- '1 , "r sr x:. !-L1"";
Ida-ilVt1,' I-ySj-l.l l,"i'o or saL', c- - L..--s!.

.b) In the passive trf, flrs5 eleei. o:.iv cia1. es A. iio o r.l the paselve
or it.

Acttve:u da-v.1,""u ac cr sy-v t t~L";
Paass iu r~�8-z1, "l'C t- sli *r :r- JC& L.ie",
sare icrever Uaz a dolt,'i cha:re Ir tr.-A ,aIsve: L.1arvflo.
Fence izartrwhr tihr i vtr e of Jar*Iar, iroi form of aFr.

Ta a r.arr-rxtrte l judi-l,.era? "� b.y 5as i.e alin VLaJajeLa (,. ite hkalir)ri
..B. In t;e l~; eraive, Itrnteao of lda-rc, dh-y t ic. Lne natives often
sa. with a ;(-, ,& QLstralii ve. -.e tir.:
Zlr i. 1iJ hai i( r( as.li sou., ' iV )
Plur, Ido--l r.i n " " )

The sec t!':. eies.ejft of tL.ci- e CCI" :-r.T. v'Jer! 10;
a) Si four.n lInrc~t re "' tLIlr " a- I zvIli-rC-z..sa-Wvo, "the very tUingsf
[the als lunrctlva ,troi.c.UXL Rc{( Ziulu I.J-lo, .tLruly".
"1il. tLi.at".
b ) Y1 tns il.der'l Ite prerrui (CA-'n) & L-t ( r.i or Lcr.1.i

c)1-o a y a, th- surrixes, as ir.: Inc, %ja, .Iur.e, u;
T'rno, 'ouna or. i PCV . :;lu.t s:we, se"-'. to re crly r. aSxiiay,
meaning,7i (1e if vl or dez.1 "aut.'CB1a , i1".

erq g 1 's ' "i . I Krc'wr, FL;cspe i ar. iowni".

Teya,( flct. L21:t's rV-' ) r.'er.s ":o as Tefore'".

rla l f'T as . S i O , "I.al a..air. iit' th0at";
-_i. sa Il ozge, "*rc aae lrA tberore";
F!atb, dica, "".9lk. as' before'.

" 2.,- "Apart frc'u the atLve Irre:gulartlis", tLiLo' jiffe0t'r.t ver2-s are
complete vtfrle a regular 1j. evtr, cotjer res,.ect. Li,.e ti, Lo-ever,
they aco i.ct unait,.e tr.eir er itlr: ii tLe sLur.Juctlve or ne0ntlve:

a Eil sreo, "I uo j-.o do so';
Sd o .L ,a u IJ iue auro ho, "I want tLat y-u do so too'.




C!


ti--They help. to form the fcllcwilrg a1verliai or adjectival expressIons
i.aadaros, "I that wPVy, like ttat";
firadayl91, zvaad1cy 1, "ilite ihle";
f.&s.iey%1. "As tbefr 1L Lwa .a dlEro, "A riar lite trt, sui L, ot aOr.",
'I-Mie '.Al 1aZ ts di liz, "oOats 111i~- t.&e".
ti troLaL)i ruJvi, " '" ; (ie tr.ls )";
eyr, "AS terore.

rinF1 is uIea :e:rly i e.,rc3:--Eo:i 2L0c7| at t-, auf '. i11 "r1 -'.

Fudarc ( Vict. ruI r ) utSd .- .l ne, tor t ti.'. r, 19,lr.l9rI : of "1 prlr ipeal
cl.5tre 1.p.i s ";r rr.:,.r,~

u-c i rir ( ula )ra eg.0, "P-rr.oi a a ct.et pJ

---- I~ t al-r' i..t, .C�l.oe-. 1Pi4 tual d .9 LEaiar"altChoughf, it

St-aro , (n.ldaR aVl ) ,a ca rc l, ia lo ir, 'lthoug ne cas
. ao.e, i rerai.n.
LA 11 A1 l:ata v!, A Lea I " -.Vru if (ithouLgii) ae were,
LLo t x live tar avway, Y.2 ouaild jLot nrt..r6t It it the least.
AYI Auxili arK.
[23.- AS ait auxiliary, 4"1 giel.s tLo forMi:

a) A pote ntial, . ht 1, S:.O. d, u,0 11i.L:

Sgg davi t1 cl qac i.'. s:.-oia jovte Ce ai.oc:er";
� Ea d1 e rega i l Is � L oron v ;cu gould hi9ve let us orf BCnool"0
Va ne i gyl va .a b aLfna, "Trh:,y tOild r3aY tec 6i c'iu� XtL.

b ) Ore or bot. Lea.ter. sir 1jc of a coC it1onal sCr.tezica.
A .dla t 1a . a L d.i . _ _ e .L jiSLiswe cula Lot die1;
Nda 1 daX, L a a g, "I k'.lu :ave rflle utorw*;
Eg y a r.1 i fa, 1 va dvi va la,"Ca it lr. tt. L. for tryltr n.ctner,
- thev WouLi have died";
a11 a & A ., rra, rid& 1 diav& n1a. is mu i.onrs,"I'i I ailted, I Vl-ould have
- -- r-.1
a1 ta rEgo _Lvta, o ger.da not "l'a4 we orn.oWef 1souiid hFAAe eOne too00
A fl na kXu dtcka, rde 1 dnyi r4da a none rt1oL ' oid rie not come back,
S-would ihave got into uisBortune'.




- f ZOf P. Z V OAo tAal IEA o.

\ �, p t--sgu ^i3J. fio M" fie^-^ .0 s, i.






,-- .-'-. - -- "-- ----- .... / 4 , b J

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^^cz~c^- ^i ^tZa^L^ if^t e^^.4c oCe^^t-eM* yM-s
^~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ 1~ / ----- .. ----^--^^ ---- ------


r^ 4' \


h


a
; ~ni~-&47t~pg;y r
e~'d~d~L -'~





9-es e - , h ..


" ft * *
. - - s -- eovju o-,-,-, , - A ,>-



f - . ____ _ _ _-._-,_. 94E c,,,, _ , L c
..-.^ ^%At - L < e- f- .," y. . ..:,. . -,




2y.4. ( 'I o44 Zk-. 4e-- .*t qO;L- vewe ,-
Qw~t-44 6 A V C4S- A, 4", <



a -.Lw% ..,s - f t6,lele Sff,- y^efvu^�ji As-u _ zA

A4 . at L- W^ e /4o a-fe .t^ie*- : ^

z: v/.'. J od fe e tf : 7/^- L^ - s kes *
^ki^-s h. , ;e, ,c4, ,.f P,,M. .�- c ; , _

---/ -A l --( .dr 1/
-[ ,, � -




c, - s^ ', /*A f '
<^











e/ ; L64.s. __;. ' 5 ; 11- ,- Uit (is "_
I A< 7a : ' <7f A - n,,,. ,e.-













-. The Warega negativee particles od subordinate clauses' are used4.
as f ollovs. "



Wa a a t ( u ri Mu l "You were I-ot bigg.


.:. u el , "if' You have not, or none";
. ..e ,ow it J �L, t If you do not g1ve me;
We SI Sa 01ve, Owom I do not kxnow uw ocre'.
3) 9, before tihe lnfintiv , I ( soameti mes
the particle ) �~-
n. a/ to i enda * Not to ,a at al ;/-
;/Litv _2"�. _U^ub";S S4ta e z 4i /atu L
IL /q / Z /

















'\M, 39C^^re^M.'^^^ '*ycr ;f , " J n ^~ ic�n4,~ Cwit~T'va~iw^,�









. Thiifen -6I tO a l OUL tl' e','e are . y 1rIj.-i.loto ito , a .
therefore 1le place:j be'rcre or avtlr It, wi'LL tAr.t irrerence of Ieari14
erplealed 1i. 4u1. 111, . :tr:e rfirt wor1. 1i' t!ea"prr.cipal' Or em-
phasized dord. T-us:
U .y.U _u, L. it. tr L s one, a SManr";
tTu 1._ U iri UVu, '"t';e ia, jr;.r.Lt or.e .

Te'the o e"cltlc deLo].st.ratve a~re oz.ly fcLunrl i.eiulately after

%ikana r , "t i't (r ti e,t ) i, rL".

(]^ (>VlL>f-'31^


SaDJIo S-





U: c
(I uic












I
5 ctilc

p ri&.o
u rkc |

7 hu o


i ailrO.o

var:c
ine

Sarlr.o



.5 tu2c




{ ltAYI

Biann C
'.' -^ ..j


tratIve%



lye-a


uy&-s
uCaye-a
chiye-a

rtye-a

kaye-a

ruy e-a

rcy e-a
ii

datye-a

vaye-a
tya-a

wltye-a

aye-a

tuye-a


paye-j.

ialy eA
age


ater t . I.on,-
Uat.1q lof
L, Oga^*e

1l1 yogaO -

L , l noa

chiI i cncL:a

rit i roga

Za il L. ioga

rik1 rc
rapid r0moga

Liup1 wo .a




vapt voga
1pi | yoga

Siptl z"~woga

api a g

Sti. tfhcga


Spar f;oga

jjupt Loga

;,<�f soga� .


All

0 5e, .re


rose





roce

v a '' e


rose








wos 'e
V oCe: e
i o-e






tw:ihO:-:


Iosoe


C? ILr .? e .
Il GL . .

rli.fi



rulwer

)I fv"e


dz.1. Ce

V F.ji
I -.v e



mani�, (vsif )

i^:...C


pawr. e


Lj tr' e


I








0- , 4a. "- - ,?-A





SAo -, o
-&1- A- ----- - - 44, --d-
- ---- /r ------- " "" -- / -y.--,,-

/ _ _ t. _:

,-- -- --I - / j - - , m




; t4E-.- /..J , ,_ ,
- /h A 19 / 2�>r Ai,


/.- I /.. . '.










^Lh2^ ^^'^ ^ A2 e hE o i.6, ^
















_- _-_ . .-_.- - .. . . ___ -__,
AL - O w" Az













- ._. - _-_ _ _ - - ,
-&e "-/ P LC9ej. c/ 7,f .-








a. _/-
4,Z ,, - ,.,B7 ,-e4






-^- VI-,, f6 - : '





~cak.0 VM^. ^et^A**. AZ,^^T^^/^^^a^^








�< ..,, _,-/-:3-, C ,t.,', , ,_C. , C .,. Z l ^

.. .
44z




, .


S. L ' - . ,
/ -- . W 4 -















: 41- - i.,, .


AA 4
t4J A^ - -


























lBotlae besldee that trite enclitic yj lt not conlfined to the 4od p
plural of verbst, or to the Imperative only. us: .

I n41 ende 11 ftLet me go, you fellowsl .
op4 X1 beat hYs C y4 u fellowsto
Ja a te w e YIE jkr(! "I saYs you fellowS! let LIM be beea dett .
N.B. B t1 end e y1, "L et us go" to often ocatracted lIto >WWOd'I or-
j - .nd.-







.Tr1s Is evern o ur d!n the nitfmtiv4* whiLch by Ite very e "'i- .
:1 has nYo Person or ru bter
T La e a lcu u tara �-t, "wmeca to stee you' .
ann tensa^ dw~i *f u sorAl sayuelos etie/C, bean
tLU- - eue-i-t~t^ ---)v^ LiL











%ztw / tnde*T 4y 7 '4 47r/ir~4







e-'






-be negatlor. used wlt, tne 'lr.f lr-tVi.e', as seen Inr tre last two
OxaaLe1Sffi1 FS _8,2 cci�r.g Ii�;isaiaiai after xu:

usa enada,* '0o to rc (lltt. to rot go )
se ch erda. "Not to go actually row'.
--------------- __ ---

The e.ccr.-d rer.so. ?lrc:ular 61 tae 1.-ierative Lr. Fairanga as In
mcst other llrTuaies, ei tre baRre rcot fc t:h verr.
Yu Cr.A fl ""0o se"; ions, "r. a, f' (V t.cu);
"Fl Lr1'D, "C0 C1re"' ; L. la, "cc; " .

Ir the plural Ynrmra aUs Lie e::cillt .,Y (1.":i. y ). (n:-a3 s
r.&a Yl, C e' y.L


Ar Basrt nave a rcrror rcr u.c, :syilt3ia lekE ts;Li.. aiore'*, "i.onosyl-
latic vert.r" ac~e lite euptc'nic Iatthe la:i.erativ~ evt.i, lr, tLn plural,
(win ch agael sr;ow~ ~t ls rot Q:ri r.f]exior, ruL ,. "erlciltlic~gte
r. ace t of its o,! , like te r-, i. _g)

zu ra, c Ite"; i- pcr.: Irtl ";r t c.u)'; .Qa hi, "':e ye "
Yu rnA -.s, "'- neir ,'; " I:._"..al 'ie. r . P' Li.ua vi," 'ear ye!'
'.ost or tr.a vertai ;-article? c; preceje th�e itper. tcve.

_o kira, "Jst sitt" C.r1 . -I�J , "c iu4e r: !" " LSwiJif,"L'.c *o. searob'
i abo rOnd1 ,'i" ie pe give ::.-' " ..' :1 -.t. .. "'-tt eat";
'_o .sI *"Iie .w'w*;"*1. F,'^itac faisit?., B i-L .,1tlty;l.Y".
Th;e rnepatirici. pros.pr tc Lnr= 1r,;.er:tlv,:V i r


P0 i 2 u1 I tia To' :C.ot ( 't ) v .c c t i1

s.a. Instead of the *'ICprative~, tr. Lijulr.c:i ive (cptatlive) 13 ortBn
used, (more ac ever, th.rtn ti LStlr). ('o;.- :-b')i .tuive ).






z-^<^c$fc d/<<^ f^ ^A-^^^^_, "kLJCk
'^g L~5erC-B"- *r;^<~t~L ^E; -^0^ ^W^;; ff^^ ^A
-yb &~~F~ ~ y^~^v/








A/. -- --- "t #- ___ Ye -4~




fpA . . /. . .f








.- ,. Tr' e, tel.se ha. Ircorrictl) v be-, called tfe" perfect". te Per-
f ct terse CdI~.cte 'n a~ctlo ; t1.t lj"flr ltsh " a~ thra repei:t time.
I nus:' I nave waited, I ve- stayed (a lc:. -. time )" s1 In Krar.ga:
- .i ra, ndu .rSi*v n're, ). tsc rJd ;diAre .,are: I am
vaiti-ne S1d^ "I a ,itlTrb (stayi a;_,lr- remalnirng)
J.1kewzle thr so-crlle. 2ula perfect liu ..il' r.eal.j, ^t*( It ) riha
been rood, stral~nt t t:"U(1t) I~ oCl, �i lt." G"(i' lt ) is dead
Site static gerl;t 3ec-te- sr.. ct31 Itci; a.uat 1isoCr.leto" .uLt "per
slstirng, "a state". Ir. ?ulb -. several rtf.er i:at.-u i.:.i-uagese it sl
formed ty clh-igir.K Lth fiTr.l I 1IrC 11i:
LUr.plle IS frcr. At�,a"'te :tBzlzi trt, rif qr ,";
Filo fu " "a .
l1. Tcr.,Ga *'e lcee t.ne for,-.. le t.lcr. 1ws 1 :e .crCa tic e.,uleaiert
of 14e, Ire, It jha also ar82?tTrer for. ccrsistiLr.; I: a dcut:e a, one
at the etrl a c.d ozt a S tre teCr-i;;;~.r tro irl et.
,B. '-&Llsh nhas ealc t1'e. li.tper .a char es (t b, tr2d~;strivestrcve )
trilch are aue p.rc.ttly 't I -o a rcrL.er re..eltlcir of tLre radical, as
still seer. IL several forI-x cT r..c teZ lic V -r.)

on.ga: boa, "-ee, -ui a.a or .41 Ie. 1 " ave )ser.'.
lOta, "Sit", s d sei z , wi at sdt-lib";
iat.a, � "rrss3" ^fte, ,I ". Jr"? -6d",
ILE F-rar.! &a the for& Irv cLuila ore. aLi_ r.cc:;.i:l('ert loutle or
h presernt Eut�urLctlve of Lt.-,i fcr Ir. irF. (See .X E) eI.cX- we find
rly tr-e seccra cr t:.e oor~ a, or t1 le 1I, a every rew verts cr ly'"
Q tplloQw1tr arr tshe comitrcz.ft, If Lr.t L,,e o- i' r:. s:

. e -: Gara, *:-lt,reat,rm-tarin, . Lt.r, i *, sitting., c.';
Rar" : ae fu;l r . aai1 tZre., I a:s. Til'";.
Ran?, I ,le do r.W, il rre, I e. ly int: do-w;",
Y uafe, c-,leep'. 1M11 leite "a zs sleeitIn";
rggg2'tagae sllernt,qatet", 11 r ,yerer,i as sllert, quiet".
, to i . .EL;*,-7^ ^ z_, . . . .. . _ _ - __ - - .. .. ^- ......... . . . ..-- -









tFe 442



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q, nfj., 0 adL
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"I . A6-trLz 'f a i /ka /ta <7-~d ^^LriI~ ~bI









c<_ ____e^ < ,4<%�. �h-5C-
-'Ac~ 24z- ^e ft~kA^'e I. ~a* 4.








' -? - yeLc 61QJ /L-~ ) 4

~~dcg- fDLted 4%41.:
/nh4-k~ ~dL ___ ,/~e "$ "9 1e~



4~:ki lt> /At V2PL~ _____Ua lln-~ ~C~Z C ~ Lb
h,4 Aa� Ak4. 64 - W ^ -to6z-^ AltoI-/o- ^f






-.^A� I'< .WOLC* ^Zw, g11^�/ .^ f^^ *^- fe-j^*'i i
:Iv7' l 4- � vr� zf"
^








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te, JL - -_ -__
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^L>~t?~X -ic^e^^S.pje 2Sf *^^�c^i^ � .-C /l' � ?~e./?a





hde 4-Lot� -^ Zi�-~c~ke^- P^*x- 4^-^^^^S ?so! *^�""- < ^Wt^

-z^"/ �/~'&Y ^Lc~ a .r ; ^^n^ff^'k j^^y
Q-*- �A^^^A� /^CI~s^^-a^^? ;r-'1-
^



jZ Z.l^cL^^^^* f^^^- ^Atetf~H 4&*/-^&y S^.~;
)? fsL~he 3PU^^L,^^/'^* e^�^9^S�S '*.:*.









A� ^ (gC't i4)/tjf 4- Y ieC& iS dgEJ )c -tueut
4 7#




A Nu42 4at d / 4t /vs *^-4irA- kt ) e�i j J 41S




* ALdc/, & /t 4! sz.: lap r .





FZ24 - __ d


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Kd&ZL h4 A AkUL


h4drn L1 1
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tLek&A 7
It4 IlaL hkg jl Id
Ia lsita- (J 34
hdi- lAYL- ALk4


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tAA wdLir &.ItC& tW d

C oaL2AA~W41 h 4akve 3at~)~


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nJautd eL ikwaJ124Ae


htba Wc tnt kfl tAK


n da leex V, ku






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h4~Ld~h4Af1
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ui r PLp M *d


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/LI. C Lcfl naA dk, IAsm


rL4di VLl4
1. j r hr VLIA


711.


w. ~.4 4 4' 4Aa~ai� .;k~LaL)-�_; C~?L~�C;L.k~


t n* -L aa� kxk~cr~d P~re

YL udi t3 i1.�-i-pi �km VI M&L 9k



a�C cj,� ji &Z kx 4


A nA eL i zi ku Luaca


J4 i4.liat,4 tm WdO&.


)40 n4<~ hd ~cXc


_d L4~LAi
W~~nn~N.hi&ak-L

~laka~i"AlZc~z kudn


t; la Mcl.~~-~~b"Yku. c

RAO-14 Uli t hr

Jh X a~wL


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nXh� nAenk4A-L Mr
___uwhr, -K"-, PAZ- R A K


~a X~�_~ TlmJ ed ve/,0 da/ cAk


J6 La,




JnjAAA n C&ornLnhli

n4 k44-o ~a d t IK


LL 4141


~ M~~ LULIO~t"-4-O~

~ta ~k__


fmnai ve- ntL &Ka
dvqy) nlMVL& J a
~1hM4A CaLa)iitL~ o- ~Z
flLhq 4


.Cl ~G re~~v- a -


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i~ vlL~ethdryL nd. AAnJ


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h'*b #,,v �4.lbt


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~-~c-- ~4kad ~C?~, ~�cfit~~�;r~�.aA~~A~~A~~A~~ ~ 41~A~ ~~)l~AA. nU490;-C

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] ni-A, Atl/mto 4)44 Y4i9 i6 40 -




_ Y7Sa a 4, 4- ?L&cA fI *ai uJ7 jL z 2f4dc it. 2e* l 504 < bi m &








re,1t II AAWud _R -7_ e__L4i&







S i. e wiwpv '" )


A,, MAW .O. ***e - - K .

"4w'e ^^ ^^^-r^ .
'T^Awst2 r4A dL Cr� S
^g94Lx,~5 W^k'fc. -dMAeIt;�~ LL .'7/A^ ^^a-'- ��5t t~cMatA:%<*-><
~ C~tb-- --- ^ X I - =- ---. ^C~L L ""^ --- =====- ---- -y~tt~tt~t~~ts� ,-













2 n - -C d -
JLeY+ CL;LhLl /je�*�^ao^/�>l -




^zz^_/ //dt^ '. /^^r^ ^
-..r - - & o A - A. .' ^ ^








- t AP-. j ^tS C a, ti i--A




( -4JtCl - .4 J. y.Sk, 'e,4 4 vaj..^
tcy*k QWeCL < C'i:kCfLa^. -4Cat a' e^ ^- d/Srt a-as -













i't/^bl^ ry i^ L^<^^ L^t^ /lu~ r '~s-oe
^^-^fh-r ^ci^<%^t : ^y7�tU4 ^y/^CL/r^ay

















\?e/ __<�- /gt- 1. CPtz4- / z hiza ita &t tL A








ia ' 4 4 4 - *' ZI, < 4-
c2�/a- ; -.-. . .iu -L- *2c&.. t/ '&* 7<







.Sfc ):k /r..irka. aJ k ^aM .
/74 ~a/-d. t*m/ jlE *
------------------









Iff~fi^ ..: hfc^ ^A ^t. fc��^fc% . ' -44


A4 4V^ J AMLV tSka
*7i^^ 4J t0-^^ u.r^ &^ L


















nd sl. :. . at""s i ne inal -- --o
/y ^4 .s ^caMna f^ eb ,4cn CR fina if4c^4 9, --c-
















e a'vel r sear wel (,y) a L, tae onl.y lwa_. Cus:-






















steal" Ila, "te stolen"; ia, "loveS, _ as, 'be loved";
raln- , -nia, *be rained'; TyLn. , eat, ynflwa, "te eaten';
S leave, -was leftt; wa "ri', wn 4 wa, "be Atrunk ;
, remap" koh1wa, ne reaped'; YZia el1, rhwall be affected by
a Smelll.
JTowever verbs in a take both iwa c IL to Wh
A^. U.7 c--_^^ ^ '

















. "peal', mayfla or mer ywha, "be peeled';
r -'rus' . fanyliva orwwhas "be crus ed'.
$, '/1vp', makesiw o O a







�* sy r v **' fate ^---i�^ or i^^ .ua . (|r








-A -other" verbs taxe regularly boM 1ia 'wiiib ut the Inautrtxi rr
oa subljee te the "general laws of raranga upicr:y' explained In Ch. I1
7ne phonetilc modifications accom;,anying the sutrlxing of wa are
following:
'.After the la8ale b � j" v becomes i(L,).-


Tamblwa or tamfba,
Rapiwa or raPia,


' e played";
"be cured,"


.Af'ter the dental t a da Qnd the stbilants ,san.ch,_,AL,�jj�,also r.
Becomes Wha.


Tancta "drive aay', Tardlwa or tandaiwa,


"be driven away";


Bata,
Basa,.

Gocha,
Batidze,
.ledja,
mra,


catchh,
"tarow away,
"nur t",
"roast'
'help",
politr,
'pour',


Batiwa 0r batuna, "be caught";
Raolwe d raswna, "be thrown_ aay;
Ywasllwa or washwhia "te hunted;
Gochla (goch t roasted" ;
atldaiwand tatidal ha, "be helped";
T edi11wa, died wha, "be alit";
Drlwag, a_ dirana, *be poured".


,.. Those aspirates wha ; ia are strongly marked amongst the s .
ice the incorrect spelllrg or scme gramiars: Tambga, Raf a, Tand a,
ikwa D f, RaskEa :sc. In Asanyika the same words are sTimly r
a, raa, tandra, batwa, dirwa, raswa. "re-
' 1i


Verbs.ln va drop the ha
Vsrba.l vs droi t e,. v.,... . "-- . .


gia=, "stop, block", dzivlra or dfla, "'be stopped, blocked";
Roaw, "beat", roviwa " rowa, "be beaten*.


In Victoria v becomes b; dzibt , rcbia.
--a _..---c i bj--._ 7-,._ ~._ --_
rC. _, ^^^^^ -z-


As
H�^^y� R- -. /^L=lb~cw^^/^^/^^. --' --7
LL�.^1 ,.'^^l~j &c-. ^W/c atr �;> < ^^*^-^-


dtstSA : ibC*L� 3dLtC/G~
Ylt C L W t t . A cL qe^ rw r
icns/ Y fl4c4j 7. $onct ant.


Tamiba,
UPatia


Splay',
"cure",


-----~~~- --~--~~--~~----~


""ll�&-Nlr- lhlU~lllllg~im R I--V


� �r


r ~Y/ 1W








A he ,t roeslve Z for&e, bA cAanc, ne eu.tinq a ,*to _la













_a, ek. after a syllable h 9_or , rbs I. ora,_r make O3au . -.











�z 4see", ,"'one af , "44et seai.t
/il7 -7 / / / ff


















S- oreantr7 of thne 1rogeesive or".







\ *u!t general me. li.a of Lt fe't of verbs 1o t'.t of an actionZ
n "if*rar.etitve actieson" (co flrmed tb �th, &lie.t); . .I
- ...t.. v rL4L.kae t- .g,
) a "r .iaftive passive, in watie n 9- e object becomes orLe osa ects of t2





Mat tu iin -u connoei a or tr~ene agent ~ jt to,
',a ogrtl y 1 --et srit: ;f
a' "see", O L,
,crag sreakL", e actl ^ rflat Ok*rcuert";
) ua utantka t IuIualk or tur(uw, brlukeal lt ot";
; ------"----- 8









'M\"earini^ of trie Profgeslve �orm".




) a tr--anltive actlTBe"o (wIt? a-et.L iL. cl.,ect);
) a wtrazslt vI pass e In wicn tie object becomes t e si.b.ecT. of tM
v r Wt* b1Ut1ithou-l connotation orof te agent. ( -P^







a) "Progressive lIntrameltive".


"go out",
u"breath r.ard",
"rfutter 1iZ tne

"spe .k"


BuaGl e cr
}esmerexa,
i 1r.a , Pe~pgrea,
LeLpta,
'.ev etekE,
tor reveset&,


buri.a, "'ett out*;
"part';
"rlutter avay*;
*eet Ihevy";

'"tal, ct at .


. Iveirelore or syilaties are inot rare In varaxga:;e.vevAeta becomes even
reKetaeXW J&ketsin Victeria "ete )

? ) ProT.er.sive transitive Nctive',
r2 tvUfYe-C Ia,~ ea Jee�t< 9nawQ'- euwsenaa> :,
Lla, . i--' aSr-, ta rg )aoeea
La, f tie" tadl^Ua "e'ttle lew a
8a "lr flat,slep4E ljauq,"cause to li on j.~Sa "lasettle down
8, "layv down" ilnz.lia, "ia' out flat";
a "t te' luf .1a, "lte. rtt, cuL.";
a, adr' u..( - r:a~.irp,) pastk, "warv i (ovTr tb-. fire) toast';
a, "set up,rlant" lAika, "i 'art LtreF, t.oles";
P, "place dcrr* T.rg_.-. l*ace - I ilr (as a pot);
a "rest a trlreg" turike, "set u.(,qs a p.ot cr: sheir ),suspend.

e, Thpse progressivess alkA.'�� aviLg a "trar.sltive rrear.ing" carn again
e the endirf wa or -: f L paastvi- proper.

Chtl.iiWkrS, "te laid across";
Gadzflwa, " oe settled";
a.i-MTie "be settled dot.r (to sleep); *
Ei.zla9, "te laid out";
FuMi 1W a, t b m1ttten cut, cu. 'L..d*;
gauia, "te tcastea (lljKe -reau);
S~lakia, "be plaLted";
TereX F, "be place or. thb fire".

c) "Progeasive transitive .asbive" altttCLL coLnLtaLtorl of an
ent (neuter passive), except wr.erFtWrTuffx E! Is superadded.


"eaten",
.L "split"(tr. )
"do",
"be said",
"hear, u.des taBa",
S"rut' off" (tr. )


3bi sa, "*et stclel",
baLlka, "6et cauhrC'1,
b~wzuxia, "spilt"( 11.ti )
Itla, "get aoRe",
EziGa, "aet sal, rAciutrta', c
LtL~LabS, "Le l tfr(,d ierBroo(",
Pruu-ix.fnrutb clff(1i.tr )


Amongst these we find the fcllowrix; '"Raslves proper":


01UWa,
Pfudtlkwas
1 trwa ,
Nhita
HzrhU�'5t


'get etc'lei. tv eoiLeone";
"eet rustaoff by so0etCody";
"get dcr.e ty somecne";
" et hear, urnerstocd rt- people'.


Biuda,
Fere$ra,
Peerg,
eva I
_ie e ,


~- ---~ ~- IIC ~--I- �








A redlplicatfte suffix ikil.a is found in certain vebba:
r1t1a, "ge-t out finally, or rignt out";
X r, "place right againet,(mtae bite rito) or ges bitten rlght outt,
get cupped". (.'dado, "cl plr.g rorn").
j oae progreselves" can Lave rotn a transiaive active" ad a 'neu-
r'passive' meferig. Thus:
Chin,1ka, lay across A get laid across;
Gadzla,(tr ) "settle";
Gad_ ia-nea "get settled s-tr 'fi
or.ela, "see+ person off get seren*;
RUv-la, "bite out,. ' get bitter1".
Shne corresponding Latlzin a Greek forms in, sco, 11 e#virAro, pubesco"
Latin, "hebasko" in Greek tLough gsarFA1. 1 Intransitive, are also
times transltive:'concupisco', "Heslre",metLusko,"Ilnetrlate".













rrespbningtstif suTfix _2 though ge'er.ly'intenslve' as Cr o 'run
-----------------




-~---










ltTo kbte friles2' rresfloestso e kite;
'tur, e ontr' , u , 'ruause to urns'e ao, ac.
tice also thit in Vnaisf l many vsrbs rnave two sueD meangls , one


The o r'turfs ee"turstre oue
t Bmtu Grammars are I Cal in every^ ^










As the surrix Isoidentical for both torors, ture Bsuould b te TTiaa-
ental beaning coi on firto bothrn. Bg .a e .
. - --- v- - - -
Lntasl zoantrig camm~r, tO bn ~~~~~Fth-C ~.











Sem~ah4, V 4rAts .4i4' ' d
fAre
^A V





Sf t,- -









// - = /A0 40- -r -----




(7 k, * V--.,-- - *-
PA 4L" Sa. - se I*:" C-^^*- m ... s.. As.," -- ^c- 4 - A'r



?-^/3LSi A,.sde k^/ ,^;/, 4be yrih *



/-------->V c w











- tn C2 a /R .d >A @, a& sbe, dr s- l
S/.











n ' / d* Is.A






/)4 *d A~ ncA~------------ e. .k ___*
fl�c d dLA L- ___ 14AL9 a L- .



>A :-a
-'** . . - - --- - -------^c--/4(










-7
, t"/- - / 2 1; ` / e- `4"





p-.:oosyvlat.ic' ~~~r -Vrbs with a "~Ve~wl tefc.r'~ the fi.al a tame
0orl the fcrr ia . "T.P:
a, '"die"*, Fir, "cAue to die";
i "oeat", rvlSe, "at ucat cause to eat, i.ciLp to eat";
rha, rTear', r",1 sl, *fear grk.atly, cause to fecr,frighten w1th
Bva', "coaie aray", Bviea cr t1n,"c'ause to ccme away, take ayay';
T-rn *love", Tia, "Ilove Lreatly, cause to love";
0 , ele Svo, e t18y , "caLse to leave";
L ,ryarLt.r, TanYs,,Lrun ht-ard, cause to ruL,*.
Also verbs wltr a stlilart before tr.e flr.ai a.

paaea, trrcv wapy, Icse"r, T1isi. "cuse te t hrov away or to lose";
Tas~a,"r1de, Taiss , "riae rlrd, cause tc ride";
Tila, "rtar aay", tSa, "lull away rast,cauee to run away'.
S"Folys llat'c vertg take ISa i sles or sea sisa.
Ltote a ) v'er.'bs havir4;. g or g in the pe iti-mate iIL.eac of is_. often
tare esa.
Neta, te tlrea", 1yetisa, YeLesa, jetsa, "tire, annoy";
Rta. I!-vaI, dreIOt,1 sotbs , ite ,ot:,"dre-aL Ic'o, or cause to
-t- -.areamn, cr tirn to nothinb,"'
A'" C.- 1-'ee ra &t
-."After scit c r.son a ItaL- :. �. teli' reccrsea as so'tJ tne suffix
/- ,
rhue: I) The endlrt 1i'a a Xia t~ rco; L Ms.

YVUaq "agree*m ivLii;a,5 "imabe agree&T, kv.iLLa- "ass";
VanIaa, "atouna" anr.~lsacr wv.za, "be very ~iu.aA.t., cause to around,
ELaa, "ile aozi.",- ..I ,is or rinzaj "lay dowri".
2) Thie erxdlreg ,e o. ir'4 z va. , , . j, ,. ). ,}
'OV1,bP soft" --b .1
OVaO t:I ' eats InrLtr %A . RfoVv , "eat hard' 0
"--va--'- " .. "IozVa, 'churr, or destroy'.
e, -T..eves., "Bpek X uch, cu-" .
_-teyc "taie. to sleep",fu






: ) The r of tihe ending ra is turned into d & gives oa*
broad or-
broad or happy'ar isa a or fadaG , 'atae broad or rappy,be Very
&* or get big"' urisa.or adzal"ake big,(honour)or be vey**f
WaUs, 3btay', Garsle or gadza,asettler.

i/frbe ending in fagant h(r,.03 ) generally take only a (Is)e


Sbe long", Rbelsa, lengthenn or be very long";
9i 'begln", TanGsa, "cause to begin*;
" go out', Bidis, "cause to go out';
Swco.wn-" has a JIja, "cut everythlrg aown (in a field,for
SAfter hard co aonantse', # can be placeldafter t only. Hence:
- take
I) Verbs lrU ta can t�eeaes tsa,
ta, nota;Rota, rotsa;(see atove)
a, bl tsg hence bateira, "helT'.
2) Verbs In ka also take tea.

aza, 'be nice" Nalase or .atgis, "mate nice,bless or be very nl
a, "laugh", eklgsasexeaa or s.tea, cause to laugh, laugh sac
a reach', swilisa or aslta, '"cause to rsacn';
aruJa. "get torntParatisa or parutea, "tear, be very torn".


est I


as h ;
rhi;


jT TciEga :x Victoria eften change utea into usa.
Fu5nurusa for kuniuratesa Af.
b &ocaa,'roas-" come from eta "te 2tf e ' , fotire'*
IBa or lah, za or IL% are tUe (&oes1) suffixes Irn PwaftI.il


3) verbs in pa make

p laor v bpae )" ,
a, "be t nbl "',
a "'blow',


S1a.


ggla, or lam
Tlasa, or a,
tepbsa or tepva,
eaa - - - -


'"lacken, be very baW*';
'be very bad, make bat';
'be very thin, make thin';
*vlinow, fan'.


--*The reduplicative" islsa (Tonga Is l) or sgla eeans either great
intLenslty, or make anot-er do inteneely:

,B I~~. "lookL very hTd, or ma:e another lone nard;
Xa naaIs * it is veryMn ce';
a 'larraLge nicely or make another arrarge';
S, '*be very very long'.
Bspatlaes the forms In lea a sa have diffrerept ameanris

..h. ' e atrating", Ratga, "crave greatly", ig. it'v@oit';
y .ron4d, ' o teua, "go right round'"lotag, *'iss';
*19. !im ', T M A.




Iv


2it. e^tad izAsL C & &) V-.
-14 7d-oKT , d6ICrfL 4bttw -eflA... ~U-ciM~ oL-D2^DEa_^J /.- )aI^ _
( Mr-sg - ^ s� :, of-d4ta- A.-t. ea. ^J/iL&/ - 2 2 -^

441 -*-Gt4ce4 As*-ya --zc4 442'2 ._ _




k . I . e.. ,





/ / 7



/d; r >"-, el ,-D9 /o4 T , 4 /
^ /- -A/

/4--- ---, ,^---y- /W�


73C ^Ci-_ aZ�~~~Lc/Cj




\/


944rest a t'. *",O r MC 9A, ."rt& toL 4lt oherLh
rL , oc, 1 , Pfrurutra,*' no out, scatt ty Lting






Bvurunur.,o"pll about, disnevel".
y'oAntlo , r c/eori^ ^^or -, ^^.t, . e








Tne simple surrix of ti.e ;erslve Veri is _a, i te ease
of verbs nav irn an in the A u e), ;e reduatcated suffix is
Turra ororat teng", moT , iftrleli nL lt un.ura, tor
Tra "ILecip u so'll", P tur.rtura,'ursoc, ou,scatUr ta v L"u irtn ';;
3a, rollede ind", MUonor, or1 ';ra, "unroll, unwsndL;
, Ma uendu, ,orcura, "pubend, saragthtnvel




Br reside tqL L- iEvnorsl for urura . orora, other onetle hange
tr apo stlooe suyllax of tn.e ftersv e Ycrf Is e orra ain of the s




Wvve Form.
f verb having an in tfhe tu;i r ateu e re) locatedd breaulkx
iurau, oror, often iodl'ieda into unura, qIora.



atas "*hesl tu soiler, i, Bad ra iubataur, urqu "part asunder";
hi eavel , entwi en, uonoreura(q rur ura, unweave, iseunwire";
olj', "'gtend, Xotorora, ""nturi overrit
o Besldee a P o ora for ur na aurora, )tntr upsnetcd orhang
d& trstepositiorsot syllables orttn taxe place in the rornaiotlin of the


e1. Irle out
fsOulds, Badura ?yr Tatura) l or sucate b looea en;
' "hcld together', Ba1ar.urat/ taianura ) "part asunder;
fl c, 'ave�r, fntl'uurda( k ur8 uura 'unw ea.e, draentwueur;
, 'go In", Pindura,'turr over",
Pfdirt a (tor pilndurkrs) 'tt-rn upside down, or
C-.~ l..&l' ae out'.
'"ind', �,ura _ Ur'.UJ a (ror surnura ) "loosen';.'
coverer, cuvura,/ _______ a r fu^uduraur ra
"ur-cover";
MESS 'be heavy', Reruxa, (for remu a) "toe 11gt",

e-l '74X orty-a5it; a -�4 -<- eC i tfl;^^t V at







UT. d *- I 2ak . __________

�72~

2z A JyEhA , A* I/ -7A
&1TS /j. . /?,


* A eo7ax.1eZ/ .








of ~/AAeu/ v~4. . .
"" ^ta4-fJ' 2c)VA* .- 7 ^SL/ 24c'.z^ tJ- */QP^^~*Pe. ^V^^ f-^




/ 4fW "
47( _^ I. _ / ^ k ' ^
-^~ ^^e~ kLi */~ r /^- ^^auI $Z- '-�ac ^^&-



Ir
-Z^^^^Cfu /Z\\�t-�t�<^w ~P/-^e--, tat �&J^. ul
/A* ^'C3iL Cduv_^-��- ^'ubflE- k^^ >WASv~vit^cr :~ /L ty.^o
^t^.~ ,d / <'<�->�-* -2c ^- Z^-,"if^^A c^/ a




T , ^^ < -^ ^^-~ ,~�~ ^fs;^Lefi^ y -, -^^ <%- ^i^tCj^.A^



^/r�i4. ^^^^^�� C'^SZ. Ql^^z-/ L^y ��*zu ^JIu^ i&~ ^f�e;







- nlbI(. I6zfSCo*~ elA4A4r4:
q4, .< A t h45/

/r �
- ie ndrtu^ A.-. VfU/^ii.f e^_i^ A4-�da A:..



;t- a, ~Laed- 6-)
-...^---- ---^-^;---~--~- ^- ..

J2't'or o . f/ 4At Ef .
. -9 2 A - , a .. f ?
fe v yvt s^ ^/ /^<^ ^-^ ^ L-^ '


a~ se , ne. t ,>*.







- ,_, __- " _ - 'nd h-- *tL . --- c,-2e-L - U-Jr e "
,-. , h ~ ., eh_ . .


� "l hj~ A,*.ft&1: 6 7, &-~C 2.,* 9



''/" '- - P


" i
7-n . v. ( //, l-.o - . ." .,. / gg/ -.,' ts - .

- -,::- " lcJ .._ s/ . ,,-�P 1.~ _., -.:..




T-




EZA- %4' ' f 4 ..: A - A.4. V i4.*1 ;,



/OL"LJ vp, /~. ot e&4.L~~ak m~.s s&Xi~~; cLs~n aL'~


-~J~u- ~L - Iko.~b~~~CC ~cLC







passive: Gar , RSe Inati ted*, crwhie,. l(t ) It iLa, iteid".

naurple: U1 Xt j s lina eger� .e 1 �2fg I. ri r arat
V"*e tree 11s tetuZ i riabltedl a t L... 1 'srocicus rnaw.(ru od U )

A9 -Ir th.e vertb :lra, star , walth ) ti.e'tatic IreSeent" is allie In
form to the I. T B jucr:ctlve.

-.1t otri ', =. .: . st rry:tnd , weltlr;6g ;
hjal Iare, or r..a idl ,lre, ":-t - e .'tal.a,, RIlt".

Va, "I'ecoLe" rn'? also a fori. 1:; e tit L-ea oriLJ as perfect.

Nda Te (or Laiu V )_ E KLrL, "I r!-.e teWk c71e (a) great';
Sve (Y : Vj) L.I LLW As i h0oshftiter a: fVew jays (lilt. hley have
tc dCt*?rci ?�-�* ^*-VP, )"R

3.5. - Tse"atcl i.reo -.-tle al.c fcLiXd Ic. ccIac:.c.ti tieens.

Naa 8 ail �reor a� nab Ladi ciL Iara, "I wa8 stayln&'.

'It can take different verbal particiesas in.:. "

Ndl1 chl 6ere, "I am still staylng(or not yet done with)".

3).- Te "negation of the static present" is either ha at the beginning
or L1 before the verb.

ha ndi mire, "I am not standing";
" l fl- c nt Dtayiag ({or sitt ig dowA)";
Nda Ega ndi 1 Sr l "I was not staying( " "
_LL _ J f,."~ a 3 4 , tte U'e- t p t ..- -...



,Formation of the Subjunctive".
The Subjunctive is formed by changing the final a of the
Infinitive into e.

Ku va, "To become"; Ndl ve, "That I become, that I be";
Ku nzwlha, "To hear"; U nzwheI "That tri'u near".

te.- The verb ku tl ! its compounds (daro, dayi 9 C. ) do not change
for the SubjunLctve.

0no da kuti ndl ku ti: v.azia ylI "Thou wantest me to say to thee (as
to a superior): be ye greetedI"
1 no da kuti u daro, "I want thee to do so".
- - - - u ._ �




Lzt
JIW
7m~ofLS~"\S .0M imcT�Pne rpe


� * * - - '*--


The Subjunctive, as its name implies, Is subjo.ned to,& Oe m-
dent uponanother verb whicc Is called the "principal verb". It s1 "not I
the subject or direct object" of the principal verb. This is reserved,,,
to the"Infinitive".


Subject.
Fu dzlhldza ku no netsa,
"To learn is tiring";
Ku imba ku no naka,
"To sing is pleasant";


Direct Object.
Ndl no da ku dzinldza,
"I wan to learn";
Ndi no ziva ku imba,
"I kno r R ) to sing".


It Is the indirect object of the principal verb, & is placed after iy
either immediately or preceded by a conjunction, chiefly kuti that'ss
in order to".
Hua u hone, "Come and see (in order to seet;
A no sara a tore n'umbi, "He stays( in order) that he may taXe the
Va no -~mbura uti ndi ended, They ask that I go (that I Ngoods';
may go)" (This is the indirect ob jct ).
Va no ti kutl nd1 ne enrda(ihdic. ) "They say that I go"(direct object

I,- "Subjunctive standing alone". "Optative". "Potential".
AS in English, so in Yarangathe principal verb is sometimes
understood, especially in the case of verbs expressing I) "a desire,
command or entreatyv 2)"a contingency or posslbillty." The Subjunctive
then stands alone & Is called in the first case, optativee subjunctive
t in the second, "potential or conditional".


"Optative Subjunctive".


In Fatanga the particles r ra, nda or ha corresponding to tnt_:
English 'let" are often used to Introduce the optative Sub.unctivemi
MSSgS~i~ r Nga used "after" the conj. pronoun makes the Potential.
A hue! or Nga (nda,na) a huyel "Ist him comel;
Ndl vel a 7 (Oa a ) ndi veaI "Let me becomelLet me bel
Va gare pano Iy (J f )va gare pano! "Let them stay here"

P- In the leecoQd person', as In other laij-uages, it often replaces
tne,*mperativen, eiJ.rsslng ttezn rather t~ " ritreaty than r a coa-
man b *
U drA batidze, "'elp me"; M' u tUyei "Ccue yel"
k.I). In the "Optative SL0tjaLlotiVe", the subject prcncur:s u (tou),
a u (you) are often omitted, eepeclaily before a pronoun object,
provided there be no am~tiulty.
d p o (for u nal e ), "Give me";
t tiize, (tor g jdi bat1dae ) w"'elp ime".
fl B j beat dZe may also mean "That 1 give, that I helyp.


r�







3 (ye is. (ye) 1 th.qkplaced by tt enalit . S, ..
IO fl. " "Give ye to me*; :
.'aNd "'G elp ye iMa.
.,fr{E- this gfl:.J . ba.. aed even in the e ISt A4 .a.
LoB .f t-. P ago!1mat I go, you fellows"; .;-'
c a1 Let them eatt (you!let them eatl)

.0.3)'.ffl itPGV 0B, ubju ;sttve l more polite than the imperativeii.:
Wii1 Ei Zl are seldom, if ever used Irn Yarainga.One can say

a! af ( l) u .~ sat S s a, "Give this man por 'ge".
A further softening ls obtairea by the use of the enclitio MgtB...AQ |
S g" l g j. a s2 , id I o l hdi E , ' Please give melt
Potential kr Oeagitloaal Subjunctive.
Tf. e . potential subjunctive'expreBasa by 'aay, lmght, og~t0i0"M
itht odit1onal shouldl, would, aust' are obtained by piac e
' oal.e ,a t. be seen also later as an auxiliary) after the. fltbit
WlhiouIm (not k*Wor*W as in the optative).
Sg , f*Tly may alt can, c, migft, Ca cu would, O anould, mus e*.
tle difference between these various meanings depends on..te'~
O. fxt, the circumstacnes x sometimes also the tone of the voice,
j S .arlrer , 4u 'gE qo , "Look at him a you may or-can ee.*;
t k k iAr ere &wae a laa, "You should or must listen well'.
l, itingfleBh gainr the 'conditional aubjuncive*, Karanga uaes the
fiary aggy, which lile dare means:'do 0so, ma8e it so'.

da l ti hM dana, "'e should, must love one another*;
B 3 a a o huravlwas "They would have 4111ed bitmmf
- ..ks Is ng ,dT "I shoulG have gofe or would have 4o e1
( ee auxiliary go
, -'verb d a means not only 'to love, to like,Ibut also '
iia the sense oflto 3-wl1fr to nave,or to require, to need'. (Sb
96. a Uai t want' -4a the sease o 'f"to be without, to misales, to
a da* 'Father wants you"; .
. T.ey want you out.e.. � .,
to the r ht word to e.. . .f Stet toe. .
* ,0J- go .a * L -








se Thre ie In Kararga a peculiar y.t ccair,: ue- or th ' "opKtative sub-
jurctive tnd. aprsor:,. It mLi.;ht be caiie.1 the optative or ilneratlve
ofoquick narration,, Tlhus:

T'sok.LaC a 1t t L Lu alrdaa "The mc.rLey1 releaieoa Lne snare,
I-it. 1-T3LipulLLe 0l. ;! )"
,a Lya lv d.tiLre i _a .t ':ec ~ag, "'-e caie - str'.lit away atucX4
r,, asset,.cis I. tiv te rcur.c4 (lit. hre:-�lajt ye the asreeals ir. the
:da sslia _O uv. r e kIare,r'� e a hsers ko fLrue s9rwera ko^, rcuruid)
"I arrle p. there tr,e snae da.,Jy k stayed tlere t-c days, (9-t. get upI
spoen the auy tthereI ,et u-. ai 'alr.1 F s-er.a tr:e day theree).
Nd a a hor. lla -'Rma. . lu-e n.'ielrt, huve t*oro, "I car re.ad 'IucK, also
lt. come ! tlKer, also (co-ez ) e oodct C
1vc. er..de vi x Sz-.r,:t "Tr'ey cietrAra cffr (lit, thvy:;.o ye to the veld)
t- *no: the vZrii.)',s "ver!t'l ] rticles* (e.-01 are usej %vtr, trie Pub.iunc*l
tive, thr v rtp retains the er-tdiI. a of the flrfirltve. It Is as if the>
verbal p.artlcle, Licir. orltiiallv ta also a 'vert*, still acted as
p prlnc-pal vert*, t.~h r'Pql vrrt folkoilr:. belrg -*ovrI.e.I ty it In the
'Irrir.ltlve".

iga ti :hi e., (not -ed e) In " ti cri e ulda vil (not Z 'cIe l) "Let us gol
- ad1 gg,(-ot -A) " l- ase -iv- _ _;
:a tl 0.ao teow. a ( .t- t aI .e ) A.uit:, I.i- G - ...)cc-~. for .ire-wood";
Ndli .t o Uf ti Loia I(..ct ..e ), u *I Raj t you t1, ;,c .- gee ;
"r.e s..e ap-All-E to Lf.t.attle clauses.

Tl sa nc- rl~.a, ('or ri.,a vi)! "Let us not go : vork li; thB 1 1elas"'
V sa arSo esria1 "C r.ot tarrt -. ,o a'..:y (t'efore tnr, propier tl.e)*.

Note. It -'~:!-lll, ilu . the Y'rsL&a cr V1ctcrla, tr;e -rticle ra
of the subilurctive fcllos t;:e sl;slme riula.

Aa.1 1: A L S . * "L*>; U1.r.t or rl..c. 'e";
7.ulu: 41 tIana. "I ;.ay lc-ve*;
victorta: !:di r:.s trda, "I r.:v eo",

Fence lr. vicltoria: K1 iu rcve, "let me test VC:u";
Il (g ~u rovaj "I :;:,a te:.L, you".
There also thRis a;.lies ever. tc kts i-t.;.c-tive O.n

l a SB Lal ba, *r, L u iut tr-t steel";
B e r(i b ata, "7c not tcch imet,








The negatf8. usecl with the Butl.urLCete is Ea ( or
reg ku, al (soe tllie? 2 t before gg.
A S3 ha or rege 0L-_ ru-:ai "lJt )'l:; rnot cone";
Va n~o da tut ntdi Bes oLe cr ,ll E1 j Lri, "ThEy Eint t:h. ~ I iay not
t u as mutse L..u soro, or tuu re iU ,..utaeth SforX,c a.O et loft u&p your
.____ L ead " .
Bote I ). The negative ciauL hlS i. : tI g eran. ccrre.icinds to a
"partlcli.lal expre9sPlcrn 1i illegilsnQ, ii.-t a& the "arffiratllve. ieindl-
catlve hlti crt :
Affirle: _a ka ita Ichl adl cli ziva, "I i1 Lias kxo.izi;Jy(I iLowing)
Begait: iaa z It-a jl % -t i, t d t 1 , r i 1V- E v 11," i ils .ot s.:.o ilr.g'.
2 ). Irst.~ Mi orf Lt I t r, N3I1 c1 u:k.a r, ol.B, il ; 8a ZLve,
Marylkass *. Eararzaa or VIctcria asy: t At T sT rAT noni
tfi.-. IA .1zf. In these dia.ts-cs, as Ir. Tornga *~ . ?uui t-e. negatlvl
verb alvQys ends in i, whl it li'; ~ it o.oe:rally enda In e.
:e IBe crLal er E.,


C/. _ 4^rL eo-zd^ pi ,I � t ^ ^-z~4 -d
al. -7


n- A_' k.-- - A- - " -- X4 ;







* . . . \ d




A-A



L i~-. .Iiy / j , I I/

"L "....4 _ . _ ("?- *e � _ _ __
.6 I2-- 4 _4 - a7


�IA~$4 / L-OF~D104L4g /P4- Z.E



,,, C. ;. ----7 iS 4 -- "
__ AF17e, Ap j zd:ke<�f
fQ---nd ~^ � /-l- t- 'd .//f---^t ^ f r ^ A- ^Y~P
^gg'w Z�*yr& g^ Tfe-CT~g^^ty b w24 ^^ a99r^~ ^iC^C&r^^^ ac^
aoc*^--* <%^" aMjFi^ ii^COv^ tt,43�;1f3
^^~ 6CY( 4fo tc^- i *ct^ ^. yiit ^ x^^. ^^^f ^
. y . ' . v ^ yV ^<~~'' 'S^'^ ^ ^'~~7
i^J; ^/JiCet* /-w<&<-4 f< ^yc ^ ^j&.S -^ ^^
_~~14 i^^ C^^^^^^^ _ % f ^^^ *









x, m4- - k - -4 ., - 4




f~L4/1�CSt 1tdL, ~L~a~,r Ai~L C~zo 4-


~ YA 44 pltlIC ~ /~~L he~lj~ tYBILR44A*4 d4








";A4 SeY WI -/AL A0-1
--L j'jh 4, ,o-lj- 4AAA o













dl2u /J d 4 7A1 da e ; ~~~~ f 7G- ^ ^ c t-A ,<~ 4. 2 e t &_ / L 4 ,e�UM ,,e�<� ^ac-- ^
^ , y 4 ^ ^ L
L�. *L~ .~~ ^LCG~ ./d-~h y~Yaw- ^Ur i~d~~~
<^�~ *s-ii~~JcM. uuY~CJ~ricL.f duj*^ ^i d iii,'~. ~










J--J A^ 7HL At--.-.E - i %< - M ^
-edC- dip z-^
'EPi )4f�e e^ ^c7 ^e&^ XIC *
A^^yu- ^c~kv^ (S^i^'i r-^y^A a new^ir^ e^Ke^ ^7-iptaw^. � ^�_I- r^''''^ ^ ^


ffL~ f ycc~~d / ,~~p --u~+
&9Se^ 2c-&Flr^ ^'tH~ir 2r^ f^ ^r^�s^-


^:. __ ^o- k^^ W^
yi pd ^
-*S !cJ L4 ,^ ^Lw.gC^







,(a,0w �- ,



4 It ldr c .







2 -A. 4. 9t - A -).

aA stands for na as-o stands for no. Nda is for adl ra, fa for au gM
a a Is for nd1 Doo, w for u no. -:c. T7i6s is prove*- ty the negative;9i
nda ti (or ha rdla na fi)nd ira, "1 heve rot yet gone'
"3 11ena fi. Me "pave yci. gFore" L fi. L7 L I.v, "i nave Cot gone'. I
That for'if in--a derotee toe e preerset ,jrtrct", I.e. an action WhiCh
is actually rllir end,i, c.t t lilr.,; as a etate.
- \w1mira, "i have/Aitood ( taL stfaIndrlnt) ;
h'd nuyaras, "I r& cor ( or ar nere )'
S'tudZA~~~ a l, e oat are d-.-";
,Us da a, '. e e ae riia ;5 . -aw



/U. .tA~t~ */ �s- .,,. ^ ,^ <;












_4,, + i t% #nu9
fifk - Ak /efl/tt. h, �

So s /A49 / t






, / * , _,7, - ..A . ,., ,. .. _.-.e ,'.' . i.
ez4cu&4 fre-tS ak , du/-

r -- ~ I4, " )





. ya, - h ,
ak�As& fI , 4 MA t4 " 7( AK a --- - -








_____-/ /j4 / -.
;,V /. ) 7,4, y / k, -- . , ;.


" -//a nA F^ 3^�^-4- - **2 .

7A, 4AM, rA * ZA , fflAh












?2~tj ,z ** " '* ~, )*wi^c^ ' ne-iU ku. ^a.LC ^^-'izm r-^f- A^/ifew -^-
^ B? -- : -- . -- '^











X'L "-r' h icg^/fc^^:. /^~ ^^^/^^ hcbtj










k A ZA'
n1. ^M4
dZ2 S /At / & C' _











M -Al.todyu








r olo te wanil ccr.tr to 1.e. leaves out tGe rnfi ntiv~
E before the verb, & sd)ys:

rI . Vc Mar va i teraie, 'ri ' ot oid usEW to telleve";

A. 2 . g �. uILs a "AR, I Cole o you
4I .^ .'. a "'It , W8 aotL t e U10 time *;
ON.l� VA~~- �~. .,..:. .~.~-? �5~~e~,~CiZB~~ �_�i/~~y� iL�iLj~.~~










^ . ~ taa /4. g le (X.)


S4 /z a -. 9IC te
i ~ ~~~ ^� //^Z-A ^^^^-, /' ^ ^L<^ ^

Py<^ ^^~c^ ^ -^<(^Z*4 -/f "^ ?. �%r &�>^^ JB c


IAt4a4.


v. CHI S -S / ,AJ54 .


T'.hetner etyl-olc lcr1:iy' ccr;:ect.e-a or x.ot, thr*vert-al- partilel .
n1, and tnearticle"C-I. art- ail e .cLn itr. irili.. - i.rc.ilunclation. .
(in Sua!illi loth are Aour 1, I rn ts?- the article Is 1s, t the velrbla
particle 81 ) The verbal -nprticle Ctil mear.s "row, actually .
" nv are actLully going" . ;
Va rl ku chl rlda. t
Nida a va h:ora a va ct huya."I saw them coming'";


Cait enda vl! " " ot!l" C1 a atiral "aJt Dalt!";
70if 1 ' erda r. ".all c.. " . i.
"�/^ )2C^-'/^/9 4"^^O~I ^^^: ...^-^^ * 8A- -
I eF--- t fnotee . actl cx ersoie _rat.il, czr co:coA.ltart* v Itrie
anroer act Ionr: �If EY X ;--
Id CBl C a c'o '" have S0.tl &bct iL(-I-E-b,-s--i!t5 alt-);
dl4 n. chl iau ioLna, 1 I Lusiail seJt- 0IA c 4jC 4si u.aiA . ' a
ZVi no cri ara aio "'Triese th LiL.S are uaially L-ere".


Ir.steai or

� e t! ab _ x to
- --.'
:�.~; i VaB �rs �� H~ sl 9


n 1 the ;sr-, ias cr .Iccr a of Lte, use ~ . cr "Z
"It 1a you WhL. Lre alw.aye stLeili"
"ea ao zOt come usually (*e Seldoa core )'.


.I This~ z1 wrilchr they also use as a cortractic. of zivi (regatlve of
Zlva,'a tl zi, *we don't txcwv, curiously coincides wltl the
agr ka expresalon: sea ndl 1vl. ha, "I didC nct come, or r lau-
d 4 -,..A.....* . -,". 6es .. _-a-S_!.L- on4 ;y ..~---
4-ae-Wna4 tu







1.t,dL
C;~R*p~~ ~"" -R Coz�t~(7f*ws(Aj w&dIc),/-v~~f.


'I , 2H


_ _ _ _ -t.- /t ^ L ^JCL ^ f if o
(/ ^''^C.^ 6e L^a a hf/'�~^C~i-;~ V


o- Ca (-Ziu: e, Fua il1: F* j II-Irs "still".
A Cha dVna, " i stili 61r"
Fare rnd cr.h tazs:s8 ' . l:.dn1 ":'cr, I e-cs ,.r s till te;irning
l'a Edi cha -or.e, '" cs8a r. iLor(:,ot sillj'o learn i
Fa tl cna ai, '-te jC L.ct ile &i.y 1.jCL't ".

"- -- isi.ecially I, cn.lur.ictio'r. 'wln Zc_, CMla tcrtei rxpresses
tne fute
Zvl cna o it its, "It will toe onej~ It still COmI4


Ioote. C hi chr are someti;m.e IiLercI.a.I; d.

"I chi gr or 71 rca i;re, "- ar eStIl EtaylLE; (or r.ot Cdorie with);
Ti cri sora cr Ti ct.a nara, "' are stil .re-:.ii.i::.: ( cr ,ot rinished)

. S� 1 - SE a re crfter: used Ilz.ati-.-l c.r c1 j,.r, eIpecially Iz connec-
tlorn wltr ti. .e ,LaLlvr i. The vErbal ai rticlce cr.1 or si is i.laced
before tie r, egat Sts CL or sa ar'ter.

Fa mut chi xS,
or Va eU cr.a 1 ra,
or P mi sL - � i "ra, 'Ie lis *iL y, il-t, Ter: I. Lc mLoIre Ir;icde".
a-~
,u ru w % r:il sl e,, (or �na LlvetA an w3r1..; I dO rot �-;w 31ay BoOre";
Va el 6 1st a n _ ve, '"Tfey net xt-.wir-t., r.i . ay ;:ore".

Note. Se sometnime used 9s the iheat or it-elf.


U sa 1e, r-^ - ) --- - -YBc .ct st:i'J1"
U sa inda t ss9a eide) - -"To not. e'*;
d a _ hor.9 ~ - -- -'I rot -eai ";
or -_0 '-� S re,---- ---'- -


*


!ell ku anrara u ka sea r.i 4aiS0? 'I-ot Is it tnat we meet . you
-- --- - r- ot salIute *iet"


..I _ _ adoe-


I


i








~-A._ 1 4 eoA
I O O .' - .o
tldo ie for ernda hu -

l ndo hona, "'.a c > aee (we to see)';
;1. d cha abo ndo tarlra, "I shall .)usL gC . Be-a'
i s often cor tractel i.tc. oA whetr rot easily :tistajtble for
_ - - tne ng of ithe Iresent futLre.
FU nS -ss5aY (or kU ndo kYasna) "TO o og hurjst";
a rime (or ma ndmo Trlia ) ui~i. ': here did youN go r digC?"
l 1 no 4 dyaru LurzFirje du, "'*e Eo get warn (itr ) our fire-v
- ... - - -.
*.- sZ8tar-ds for zu �u, 'come to'. (n".e i.-i u Tori,a La or isa is In
FeLa UQS, �.Vanllii j ta, .ju Lt lite tn- article it is dLl In Sena't
SlA I- 1 Fv.. lil ), If iseldo LL useE ii. .farar.ga .. tI archalc,
belvE cbleftv' fourid ir foLiicre storlk . proper iaies.
Ha ri ze Lan "aio et nlm coae nere!"
Iwe wa za,_Ldl r ru -.brave yNi, f youL cooe, I may kill ycu";
)u-aa-ne-.amo, ie wico comes, with adversity ;
mu-za-na-r;o, "!-e vlo ccmes Vlt., det.vt'(1lz the time
a-" W. d ! /aat t fI-r ---j i_ O' epldemic).


- _ _ _ -7 / / *, _ _ 0' . , ac

,___._ Csa. SZ $osw,- e

d7R ----
klefr kaei Ic wnt--eJr a 0t




-'I- - -- - 4
J^^U_ A^ 5^ cgt. "f*mod /w^ ^^ ^ ''


^>0 ^/^ ^ oc ^ ^-,<*? ^^f^�e40 a^" dj







S nda ke dyha mu ana we NanliAu nda ka lo itwhlg Xl?
"because I ate the child of tne Ying( ) ) hat happened to me
ir consequer:ce?
'S hula ku zo tore,. "Me came it order to take';
Pa a na Iu z0 mbo enda, ".he never once did go, 5Aa*- t -o;w.
However when thetlime sequerJli not otherwise indicated to be in the
past, It e r.atural thaL it should eXLress tre"Lfture".
A C-ta ZC hUva, "'e will couie (Pe still Is 1 olng to co-e)';
radLza rl cha zo r.aa, "Tre pcrrligc- tll. be good";
U no zo ZE v, "You wil e OverIr. (ti',hv I1i give you)";
Fa Va r o Z jiEs "'"bey r.ii lict fir.ieL";
Marnz ha 1 zo rtra, 'Tre trv:.-et Yill Lxt sourd".
-r1 d4eA o n4d' Zwnc i&#
cO.









hU no o L , "ayou car. coue, You will Qomel;
! ende ? a ".f-ere ca yu ave gone c


L tendw-a r.'i- --o ca-- r-eleve It?#








. M o .
(*' '59-wts. zot cc





o 4 tars, � *Thn survey k:e Wil. te V~pyr � %;?
; _S_ c- eI hlall *hdr cari yu r"ave ore"1*
E-Srce the C1..lUrsctlons...r^tjz ?:r^f'cnti, PCLLlf PugCtl, 'Ffter'

^^^^^/ ^-7244 Conzz_...


Atto. "'T.k-�4r, "dftat /tne.JeX h o








i l cht mba rid inda, (V ct.) "I shEall proceed to go";
2 Ua zbaa a ni-la " "He then went.;
jg Iq g Vairn .1apa, "(BeCore ycu Oc) Just ceiep t ereatout'.,,
- -Hence a I~a-iu-e-av "ThV r .ivz] (prog-resz. torards .lay-ligt )".





IfA&�e- Ytl I'amt d ZA.

la! ti mb c' ha vi., to L e2..1a, "LeL ue proceed. to eat, trer. we can go';
lia un r u rtc 1di uJd, "o,-.u I.ever told i.-e before";
pa VS amto :pLS9, "Thev never coeo tc t'e rich*;
I tle @s 2I�1i.ia' "It was or.ce vlr.Z-Ls s1tot ,ere";
Ya mbe n g va rt to, 'r".w.0v or.ce app:are;r.ty teree";
A no farira Yu rbe el1a kw t_0a -o,"e is qlad L:.: t: yu (tla oC:';
tbo mirral "ut altl 'ait a tit!"


'70- 6. L^^ ' ^-
To comes from a raualci ele.le: mIiealI1L& 'Lo UL down, plase."
ru tl to . t-ya.kr a aquc is tc. rallyl or let rall'. lieLce terea
' put Lte pot cr' tne fire", L_ e ra, "S Ill cS." It der.otes an
action '"ust fir.lsTed or done or,ly once" anr corresponds generally
Ito the Frglltln adverbs ".}I3st, 1 l Ly" .. .,.)
&a to siV , "1 just arrlvec ,
S- --
4Ln to vo a ndl at r. barqe, "I .Just napper. .Lot tc have s 18.fe";
Ku to darc4 zj du "Just to eay so, so tc spea";
Vda to abo ti: rdo to wi, "I o:iv sIald, 1 laut fall';
g S to di fl? "we car v'e just ao'N"
MdO t. pRua sa z*ant Ye -uta "'1 cnl1y tet a small quall's egg';
We teo ge, 'You just locK as I'".

.It also den6tes astonlBnmeft . is then well rer:dered by :'Indeedl"

S11 t ra.L "You nave got rat indeed!"
to4 g P s D a u frJola "You do lag a great deal';
i:. d .i i ma a ae to to ita la ;yvxaurota we du, "I dor't knot what
.noe just went & did, that areamer of ou~,*
. . F 1 . .







-XJ . ./5o. lVO.f .


qe9irL w 4-f~f e jay -4 ,'/ gtij;Z a4L Z <'4-t -










A; - to


4.- . .. __ JEL . ,$7Y4 ,Ao ka-ZA47 -
7.- - t . t h. _ sZ







-b - 4-' /%a '





/-: '.e.o 7 TOM0o, 1 Y -0 J. AN@o 4 A ' o ,-AN 0 -

1 N& connected i wit4 Lou igiVE, (or r-Lrij) ntLihe% ,A tr verb
W'Uvas "er.dures la t, ' o as ir. W r.g a Erda, "r 6cie0 time
i he went,. It la even soametimes useQ ac Iur.a
Gore re cthl _n_ "Ir. ut te year of ion ag01t
ilb m>l_ O cha nde a ha uva, fl a�ce I caye". ,.f
As a(s0 vb ftO )n!iJa.O_ a k.aPeo-t rh leta . momen
lAs a verb� l partlel ri meannh: ttf lvr^a ie.1, J0. tie momentr,
'{k MLe1e. I very s oemer t*.






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- ..,o conetructlon of tihe sentence Irn t.terroateicne 1a exactly the
same as ror arfirnations .A. .et;attlCos, witr trhe oLly eaditlori of an
interrog'8t1ve werlt "at tr.e er.d".
w ond1^ 1? " - 'r. l . i you ':;c , lltt.you went whereT
L r'C be lP " .nere do you come froa?"
1 ro a R.8 'tual ILL? "A nlcich ,oat do you bnt'"
- ia t.ja e -oUJlr ft ": c .U . y -dr CL,-i-tle d1 you tuy'rF(t14*.
The tnLe:'rrobatl1V VCrd L.ay ltelvq l-l'asiaelj" *Iy, tLe a-a*ition or the
enclltic _k.
Va no de vi io.o "wLat dc t-ev war.ti"
Wa ka S lea i 2aL4, i "':.t-1re *lJd ycu :iuu the ir.iret
A meal vsa k. v2 o . oa riidl _- Y ~- i .oL :.rr mother returnfy

Anf ordir-ary ai'f rma.lve or negaLive sei.ter.ce may be used iLterro-
gatively Wit.L.1t arv lr;trroatlT rora l'eir. us'ed.

p& Lu 5S s't."y . he rot COAe?"
-- n suct. ca6se n.c~vevr trhe rorl here eLy tbe put at the end,
U- ia dyha n -re? "Fave you Oateri?"
- Q1r j, 5caetiLes choere, at the beeinr-.i rg.
g i' n ade i " *dt then; where are you going?"
Chere a no tanga nasi "Tell ire, do you begir todayY"
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pr, t)-e Ftc. forr car. nave a paplve.
Ea ti chekar:e aviama "Let us cut the c at tret terV,
N'yqma s I cherar.., "Let t r ae.t .e c',t by Ue (or you) toetzuar;
la t1 ~n r.oUCt6erare, *let US ecitrclie !.t tcieLjier*,
'a_ kba .Se.nmberin-a3, 'Er w0? 9:clrc1tr;led
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d) 'Te e to For ca cai 1e coin-tinea 8witn otho!.Ar fcrtia.
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Sl na TU I1he aa d verb s:o, IV or o
a uI p up .j p rciuna, round a rounu-I Lt., (- ed loti



Sgo(tr a ourve) Pote, o v_,rourd -POtereira "go roued frounBt
- ... .....---7- rc monerere, "a col"* &


huq t�' forms of Pota given above as 'irtrataltlve" a translated by
eb*teW1'lnrEngls* d , may te used also 'tra.sltively t translated by .
igl;lfh 'prepcesltlor.s'.
P ter ll.a , "Go round tne house"; u,
Poterora fba, 'Go right road thte house. ..







jy changing the final a of the verb into "ra, lr1ra,( era, erera, when i
Svserb has e or . in the e e peulttate. These forms,as noted above,
be translitve or intans live. Thus:
STranltive. MItrnttlVy
, "sitstay agJras. "sit for,or at, watch", 'go on .lttia1ss;"..
S Garirlra,.,atch for, at", "sit on t on';
) 'stand, Mira, "staa for , at", "go on standing wa
Sn _ ra, '"ait for , at", "stand on t on'; .

a t. *turn to, Tendera, "turn towards, tiaz.. for "turn rourn on on oe"
(acknowledge, self) revolve";
believe, than )T sDr4ra _______ ------ 'turn round & rouon


I/Ancz :Y-Vendenes 1c4H'e4 f4-4itg nt 2�an ,D 4 aeadt










n n Ia t
S'stroton out ia, pull oirutW'T istrXI i loe angt.
,Tanara, *
Tanarara, 8straadle,pull the legs apart


*aake a Iknot',


*coagulate, get crusty',


atA 'hide (r-tr. )"
g, *be try",
a be strong",
asa "'be relaxed, play",.


Pfundalrat "wcIt _et's brows, rrown';
Pfundarara, tft the cheeks*
Fwytatra, "becoate quite crusty"; 4


\ataira, "keep hidden";

f~.arara, "be very dry,permanently da*
albaIarara, "persevere in strength*;


Tamnbararat


"spra*lJ play constantly";.


Patara,


"forage about";


." d --- BSomtimses tFhe suflix Ira is added to tr e pasalve:


Sttextliguish, go out",


Daliara,
Datiwaira,


"come tc tt.e end";
rTail asleep";


- oppressr, Takattrat, gasp, pant',
. T~afwalra, "be suffocated, rattle 11ike
a dy Ir. man*.
19. got every verb can take everyone of these forms ana regard must N
Sto. ti ceottei naege, but they are by no means rare a the knowledge of
kIr several meana� g & mode of formation cannot but be of great nelp.
V.I. CO~POSIT '_ VI'BAL FuO.RS.

P A eVaral artlolrs can be corblied toCetner before the same noun,
tevral verbal par les before the same verbso several suftfixes e
je Joined together so as to make a composite verbal forL. Thus:
w9lsgpeaw�, ever:a, "peak for
|L, cause to �e.aax, speak much, ,oud oo ,-z
a a"'go on speaking', (Trogreslve );
fror reveketa( "talx, b bble" (suffix Ita, see )
etra 'go on talking", ( fPra e IV
5, oadaeeause to go on talking" (Cf V -
, xeda,**cause one another to talk munc, Suarreli,(Conjluctie);
, 9..ause to quarrel";
a ra,"cause to quarrel about*;
| g sgteir.a, *be made to quarrel about".
ii. " Bea. lEtaarlaA Or~ e t .aa. uary si stmplt . .
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an into � Wmilst t a elided before another a. The 1 an u nI
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.I. .. , "Qn- the ratherr; " _- c amora., "itr, Clina- ora., because

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enote the possessed* cbJect:
Sohs Babaw ".ae chiair (It ) of tire ahr;
ho~o a ~, " LaeIa (they of se )4;
sraio w u, nu he friezaJ (Le ) of Lr~e mar, ?211-A"
mba ka houu UThe little LCUSe (it) or tie fools"
-e ma I ihsae (It) of tliv f-.oats
LsQwever sll44ra-t c mmust be allowed Ii. the case of zue .Iemonstitl
lve proxnouno: jno 9.yre lentlIP ut~ o 2rEavl '% such 11
In -ulu we findi the anae cozAtractlois a8zs iFraxuga:
Stab&* *t u* ,(w1ti Loes)"8; 1-e zIla,' ldirty,(wItr dirt );
-1Ju y uThe harder, of tre mans.
Ma1n5yja has silpllirted arntters ty uGing n8 oTrly WiU pro
,a A nousus whiackke them, have no article; j pro

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inr Fingllh "tc" ocL1d te ciLae.
"1 car run", IL C! jL I s & i- ya (not 1a ao - pfa );
'You must etay#, U zo d ku e ara r.ct U L, , go e ra ).
This FL Is used not crly aes as article tut also as a pronriun
.(1lsjunctlve foroT l o, possessive relatlve: APa, kwe(lercre e or 1),
or ko (before u), Io (te'cre anorIoL r ),


raL /L f Zt t- -o -;, k t
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9AS verbal noursithe infiniti ve car have I iurais:
U fa yU virl, "*rwo deatnra'( T ra ka virl-ito die trlce');
s ,a d --- "�me reesto (ni azj-' *to be not ); *.
____ta, "At~rdar.ce" (Fu gut, "to be satiated,);
-j Bvtra uI e sze "lawr." (T'e ccmig to be light);
p ndl zl e mu shamtira,"I don't kxnov swli:.iir,'; .
nar ma bitra ma IInji,"You have many copojlr.is": -
. . ..c....a _ n.. . .u.-.. .... . . .. . 'u . %.. a ..e.ad... .. .


4 ,t - , / ,,d, /..~e a

-x ._ c r y ;*Z

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24.* ce� U i)Lf 7/z ico- Zae ft.., Z
u. 4b , c an.., t -c- .....
6^__i /rn ^^A 4~:n urang the i~LtiVE Ilie_ tx^-se- 'in pe<�rat/ ve) ris no' tense!


In Keranga the infriniltive'(l le trhe lnsperative" ) naes ic"teanel
Its tense sl Inaicated ty the 'o"r.ncipal" vert which it accompanles;
l d ku d pa,tYcL ougnt to nave flnieaea(you rated to flrilshi)'"
or else it at cnargod intc tWe "ti.altcativ":
.l is &ood for you to tave se.r-, 9 a ka n-a autl wa nc a,
" t sl gcoa for yiou that you nave
It has th-erefore'no auxlliarle"', but it car, take .seenl.
ACftically all the verbal particles:


Al -


i1di rl iu cl1 nd.a,
i u naR U arc ho na
. u - g | padalPat
as tso M0 dva lra
Y1 8B XU fsa~s


UI a- actually E.lOiZ no,";
"Y'L ,ave rct ( juat ) seen";
"TO trier' go .4 do it abalr.';
'To be able to :et up early";
%"ot to lI.ow at all";
rqhy not (come to) answer,.
(seea. veral =Maki09aL


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U no sara we tor.a(tr u tore4) numb? dza eg, "You stagy behnd o take.
y th 7gs . A;

















_)ay a A naict, "hen /e does come : live thereX;
S..-... ,c e4C*3)te n appear'.-


4a�s-ts A- Aa ca t



S ronoune nd ( for ndi noi , o for no, a) for a no &o; in subordiate
clauses o'a wo express co-equence, ape ossobility a condtihon.l
U no sara ro tora(or u tore) Linumbi dcza u1 "aou stay behind to take.


_O ha heere? "Shall (uor maymo e) I omeed to g5
,i no huya here? Leans"Am (I cothin") they were here sometime ao
Mo tiE ma i a koixoo? "IYo you usear to say you got tloo ere i yo ere
u no i ma flflanmeans'fo you say you arrived

No & sufrix-o generally become le -t-e before jsvllables W G 1.
--- -- - hey always do so before the verb Bn, happeaai.
TI no :ta (or ti no its), Te It& (or to it) basI rsod t
"'lIat o wor are we coicg'E or snaall we do?"
Rai -e enad, NI go"; lde enda'r "Snail I golf"
" na &e , (or .. at)2 i L. 'mere see-ns to be no n ore".
The same rule applies to other verbal particles ending In .
.NU aibe enda, or ku omba ends, "To go (to Iproceed to go );
In ab e gXa r papapa "CI think) they were here sometime egom;

.... . ndae ne Ai "Where coiad I pmessielsy have gone?'" I lS
| . . . .. . . ....





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,i * fanaura,'pluck orf entirely";
a "spl t, reak, bancdura or taL;dara, spllt up,treak up har -
9art',canrgeturr cover , anaaura, *crhage altogeLner; ground",
A_ r, "bind"' , SQrura or aujgaura, "uifaste.n"; 8n '
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Karanga grammar
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000057/00001
 Material Information
Title: Karanga grammar
Abbreviated Title: A grammar of Central Karanga.
Physical Description: 3 v. in 4 ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Francisque A. Marconnès
Donor: George Fortune Collection ( donor )
Publication Date: 1931?
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: grammar Karanga language
 Notes
Abstract: A grammar of Central Karanga.
General Note: Information handwritten on enclosing envelope describes work as the original manuscript for the 1931 edition of Francisque Marconnès' "A grammar of Central Karanga."
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001040539
oclc - 29713690
System ID: AA00000057:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Part I: Phonetics
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
        Page A-5
        Page A-6
        Page A-7
        Page A-8
        Page A-9
        Page A-10
        Page A-11
        Page A-12
        Page A-13
        Page A-14
        Page A-15
        Page A-16
        Page A-17
        Page A-18
        Page A-19
        Page A-20
        Page A-21
        Page B-1
        Page B-2
        Page B-3
        Page B-4
        Page B-5
        Page B-6
        Page B-7
        Page B-8
        Page B-9
        Page B-10
        Page B-11
        Page B-12
        Page B-13
        Page B-14
        Page B-15
        Page B-16
        Page B-17
        Page B-18
        Page B-19
        Page B-20
        Page B-21
        Page B-22
        Page B-23
        Page B-24
    Part II: Etymology
        Page C-1
        Page C-2
        Page C-3
        Page C-4
        Page C-5
        Page C-6
        Page C-7
        Page C-8
        Page C-9
        Page C-10
        Page C-11
        Page C-12
        Page C-13
        Page C-14
        Page D-1
        Page D-2
        Page D-3a
        Page D-3b
        Page D-4
        Page D-5
        Page D-6
        Page D-7
        Page D-8
        Page D-9
        Page D-10
        Page E-1
        Page E-2
        Page E-3
        Page E-4
        Page E-5
        Page E-6
        Page E-7
        Page E-8
        Page E-9
        Page E-10
        Page E-11
        Page E-11a
        Page E-12
        Page E-13
        Page E-14
        Page E-15
        Page E-16
        Page E-17
        Page E-18
        Page E-19
        Page E-20
        Page E-21
        Page F-1
        Page F-2
        Page F-3
        Page F-4
        Page F-5
        Page F-6
        Page F-7
        Page F-8
        Page F-9
        Page G-1
        Page G-2
        Page G-3
        Page G-4
        Page G-4a
        Page G-5
        Page G-6
        Page G-7
        Page G-8
        Page G-9
        Page G-10
        Page G-11
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
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'-`- '" a tb--U zttuBnj -- *.rr^tw: '-.----- --- -- -- --

Ml e, "*'te2lcic' (vl-tb rnowu );
Ml'vura, "rnlt-p asater""-T:..bia-e, .t rula,'rlver" );
N, J,. Carter u, va, ye, vi, it-cc4 bra, be, IA:
*.tqJ ,;?,;:,, nal: (ci.' i -. v LSC .I for sLr-tctr.li.: eilns)
.s g-) { va..ba, .r:.r.c "a rut);
an'1aeC. *a oCuI.m I.r atCr' ," (va-na, Lerte repetatedely);
7'be ttrerr1, "a s.eeir Tve rers 41 dl.i.'ir, i..i asait);
,'ttrl. 1, "a tr'r 'v, a t'.ster (vlrlt.i, r.e told, p~ .aclou j0







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g- 'e ^? c,- .s ...*. p1 'l' e );
a' u ".t..is :.r" c f r t L ., t )
'...r; jale, "tt:-<:ir.--,a(T 'ar.ro, tt; i cr o ,'ta-T .&i iLL-r't .c ..t, Ltr~tc. out );
;'aLQtC .r ',ir;lt* -, lti.Etrv .i ( .fjia,, t_ ..i,::rur.,_ -r,_;, Jr.Lr. );

'T*uL r "lciiy" (i; :..[ L ... ~ ;
v'lvt, r.lde (f'cr ft.vi r ct :. c.1", 1)
.'E._a "t'1~ct." iJ: Lt-iai, It l' .-la );
i S'l* fchin" ;^ t r to ta- U.1,. ).
N'j tu, "thr..-" (fCr I-' LatPL
at u ," selx" (for L'tab.at .

2). P alo t-i5 tsi -earis fter M'.

: 'ara.ar., *f... i-' u t ic.1:c" (. li r 2W]% UJ;
a urn e, or'ct, "a ~, u, .i 1 cc, r t ni..:.. .ra -;r. t ). -


^ gR *" lril" (Rcr :-' Le.a.rn, rio );
'sr alsr, "la:' t L a-nd ( jryi:ti .fi t. .': Alr t r,;-'r. );
S'_., "calf" ( rTr 'Lur T .
',uru'zll or c:'ururu, r.3liicc" ( ..r.rr:.j.s to :i:lli, e );

*tCro (for ,'ia.1, arS, t1, tirce. ),
I =alive*(tor m'jjLyEE ru jj, lire);







..-. .. . ..... .......
Chengit Tj 7

?'dtaau 'a cultlvnrtlc. i(lot" (r l 2 till);
'uRMIo, 'cupi. ; p rorn r. w ( li. cuu); u
rr
ta'ds 5 "strl}, 1ritLVc:" ra ir.i, c.tt i,, f-.l;3);

ui'roU "kjat ,- ." ..u r '. l ););
a Lc.y B I ( rm CL, c( irj I
Jur1' 14.1. "ri t. l F-.jii .=ci 1;s 0L!, t.rut W" ( ^ -2., a t '. L r i1 A. L);
LA.C., "BC'v I. fa rli'" (..i i--u .- );
or J, ; 1, 34.c. 'tr c (r 4A4. ', ,ri, h.c- yri' )-L
'ai-u. '" '. c. 4c e" (rTIn .-' :.':, .. Cfl, k, u, f;);

3lriOV' "T': .*~,. ,O u" I I,-" ( :..ri,)
''da l eg, e" cC .i 1 ier..., r. r.2 ri tr., cu,:.tz ter, A. it.a e );
* or t4'&i f. l artr, t:C.i-i.;:t."
.l,, .ru.;re, )*. Iteati.a 1 :2'.lij" (zru ....ra, s a..);
)r t IC .t CI ct. c- t9in. at
4 ).T ,. K ir. cC l..Lctl.(,'r. tg. ;.;r.- .


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1o.. (
larcs, (

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Hiute,

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ljuiuit u,
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:r r. ku.jA. ) "'C 'i" i .-L .. t ,1.-I )
.' ,. t. ,-r i -" ( nfri o r.i. tle L. F.t b 81);
.Li.. ) Q' t cA t(c. Lt 1 m )
'i ..-. ) L I-X. et I fe L" ( 'et );
T'i.c-l.t,) "} :Tret' i#_. K.G:'le" (red, t ,re .-... );
it' katrna.) t*ioar,S4Alfl ( LA 11'A.na t h&teit ) '
(for ii'^onci ) "\ r" r*ey, He'L jo).
( 'karl ) "pet" (cf. I. ar )?
i l'auL ) "rruit"(,i" Lk.t. u' s.ut. ;
(" x,'aL .-L ) "I'Ire-t-ic.cu" ;:. c1l' r u .uI.1);
(" ,'j.uru ) ",th.". (,ura, to tl ;
( '..'' t'v ) *tzluc." ( er i, ,Z be L: tIc );
(" r'is'.ut L L "ard" of. LAJ uA Lut );
(" Zi'JaQli ) ;al ) t" La.1 ).


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2 ,'a, "ci-v/rx.re, laceri.u l.t" .1. i,'. ~c (for .a al-o. ;
2'a a, "tli., C i.l" -'i. ;.a 'ei.a;
, "ftry i g .2-" I .L
S iuro, "evetlit.'.ev "" ma ur0e, "tvelt l.b;";
' 1C0I "Ry"s E.s L'180, or mt? so (E-ana$,J_ Bspl9ttim~
t 'ioC, "tootL" LA '1r. cr r i r ( ":.C( .a1 .L1 z o,pi.ma
ani "9 '" '1 a'ar.1, (cCr4rJ.1 ali, __-_8, dz'-Jp
It sometl..' eCxey ti,- cra J, (rToiar. f3 nazac a, Jli: sr-ake)
J' tor r." ;... .1, 'e,, je, (kf. _.." e_:_ l .


- f berf or e c I: o]'r.t s":
y r- b reore. sCft Co! a .t1 rt l .is r. i.v arc eI :


spill


bacnd.l, "'r tlr.i spit, fl.e" 'il. p IL..J.1, ( ~ar:da, crush,
Trcl:zo, "Pni~ .IrC sti "( ktl ) L8 .io (CX:1L(:ZE,le-ait upo
TrcRe, "a arop, n" r aci.., (dci a, drop);
Garc, "utt eord" i L (L, slt);
Ggarwhe, "a croccalle" "
Iga, "roat" r;a .iS fled
Gut "at.Lur:dajce" ma utLs, ( :utsbe funli Satil
Grwhas, "rraiterit" t" sa Lurn a,( _ra cout orf ';
Curin rult,(thAcleI _ai L P/t.
.:e i, a a- __"_ ,,3,- ,- aM ., ^ ^ A ,. ^ ^di./ .
S. ef0-i iore nad st gle co i8 i.ntsci FI also dro.ined, bt trhe
Shard.. cone onant la -canged into U corrp 8onfdngE soft consonant


----iLiiIr4 -0 IzLe


A- S- tr g/


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airo, (for
al, ( (
ge, ( "
ooto, ( "
G ( r

1)Jaratuo,

GULL, (
Go&anaI, i
Guru, i


rt paplro "wine." pl. ma aLpapro, (jLas flap); -
S l "brcard" Ila paidi, (i 3Lia, be broad);
T pete ) cockroachh" ma iete, (i eta, told, curl); -j
r popoto ) "ut'lb ub" ( oo ta turnur rum) U2
Fl itlro) "rapl.er" Ua puiro, ( utIra, trap, cover);
"l ulrr) "t.iEhlj ,a T urTFc, t(L-a, tratsr).
(for ri tltwtLazo) f4trllcticr." il. taLrM uJAe.c, (t'amlbu- '
2.Fa, :aIrty, worryy );
for ri Lang) "'etuti to clit ;.. io3 tcc ( ts ;i Ira, levat
" ri LLt. ) "'*i* a tAtL, -tLa, 1ft up); r
* r ^o JL.1 "- l1 vC..2^* ^ --.av I
" rl oa mra t c'y* C i.a o
" rt .'t "t i ;* u ur .


sCor f wor~t ev Ir, rY. cr I.Fve a "nara" ccr.scr-ar.L i.. tr:e root :;ay
still efI;. tnie"soft" ir: tr.e 41kr!is, L I.. L.iI Or 0 4ectie.1 artilet,
correcs.-t .,ll r LC a L:1 t1. cL,.er ?crI.e, L.:

Dare, Irrcn",( -hcot.: frre a. i ; r.u tar ) .- u J a e .. -.t ILa tare.





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