A Letter to RT Hon E Cardwell Underhill


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A Letter to RT Hon E Cardwell Underhill
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National Library of Jamaica ( SOBEK page | external link )
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National Library of Jamaica ( SOBEK page | external link )
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1. Falmouth .....

2. Waldensia, et al...

4. Bothtephil, et al.. ..
0. Stewart Town, et al ..
8. Rio Bueno ......

9. Duncans, et al .. ..
11. Montego Bay, et al ..

51. Mount Cavry, et al ..
S. '. Shortwood, et al.....

14. Salters Hill, et al .
1 Lucca, et al ......
',. Mount Peto, et al.
2 3. Savanna-la-Mar ..

'1. Fuller's Field
'i. Black River......
a4. Bethsalmn, et al. ..
'8. Kingston, et al. .
:,0. Annotto Bay....

'31. Buff Bay, et al ,. ..

33. Boston .. .....

34. Belle Castle, et al.

:0. Spanish Town, et al. ..

,38. Mt. Merrick, et al. ..

41. Hayes, et a.......

1i 5. Four Paths, et al.

50. Stacey Ville, et al. .,

'62. Port Maria .. .. ..

S I. Mount Angus ....

55. St. Ann's Bayg et al..

'7. Moneague .. ....

1. Coultart Grove ....
*,. Brown's Town ..

3. Salem, et al.. .....

( 5. Clarksonvillq, et al ..
". Alps, et al. .... ...

:9. Jericho, et al. .


Now. Formerly. Now. Formerly.
"' ---- *-( -
Pay. Task. Day. Tak. Day. Tk. k 0. ',k.

Is. 3d. to .. .. 9d. 2 tjg,.;. ..
ls.6d. 100 I ;.
l. I. Gd. to .. .. 6dto 2s.6d.i.,5 ..
2s. Is. i
Is. 6d. .. .. .. 3s. 1il.t I '
Is. 6d. .. .. ta t<. Ii. l. i
.. Is. 6d. to .. 2s. 6dto .. Is.
2s. | 9d.

is. is. ld. to ls6d .. .. s. 24chn s..
Is. 8d. to2s

Is. 6d. .; 2s. 6d. .. Is. 3d.
ls. 3d. 100. .. 2s. s. 24ua.ns, .. Is. l.

is. is. 6d. 100. 2s. 2s. 100. is. Is. 30 chns 1s6d ls6d20chlns

is. 6d. 100. .. 2s. 6d. 9d. 20 chns ..1

Is.. l. 200. .. .. .. ..

Is. Gd. 85. .. .. .. 9d.to 1 s. 33 ,
to 40 elms.
.. ..s. ls3d

9dto .. ls3d .. 9dto .. 1s3 ..
is., to Is. to
ts6d IsGd
s. 6d. to .. 2.6d. to 3s 4d. .. ..
8:. Od. 100. per 100. to la

I. 6d.00. .. 2s. Gd. 100 4d. .. Is..

.. .. ." .. .. .. .. ..

Is. 2s. 100. .. .. la. 20s.25 chns ..

.. 2s. 6d. 100. .. .. Is.

i.. s. 100. .. .. is. 8chms. .. ..-
2. .. t& .. .. l.
.. 2s.to2s.6d. .. .. .. 5s. to 10s. ..
100. per acre.

6d. .. ..
2s. 6d. 100. .. 3s. 100. I .. 8s. pr. acre .. 14s.pr.acre
I s. 6d. 100. 2s. 2 d. 100 .. ., ..
.. ,, .. ,. ., ,

Day I T. ch s,

.. 1la. 2lcha8. .


l 18 cl

Us. corld

9d. cor

S. I LA I ,N ;I P ,

,,u:41. Nwr.

Tr,,l l, .. .

. .. 'L;,' [

2 ,1 ; .. .
0 I

Formn.rly '.

9,. .. .

18s. chnls .. 0 ,.

is. 30 ch ..

.. tf
Ss,, 6i
ls, bundle. ., n

is. 30 a. .2 ,,..6

1.8. 30 s .. o


.k(. i: I.

6d. for 120.

is. 30 chus.

4d.tol s.Gd.

6d. 26 chns.

Is. 25 chs.

Od.per 100.

ts. per 100.

9d. per 100.



K 2 .! d..

.. la.


.13 1. .. a. ..



S6; Ap. .5!

i0.!. l,.y 'I.'

''hII. 2-1. hisool.
l, .! la 21 lu .
2 1 .. 3,1.
. "lh.h I ls Gd.

I '33 lu 3l.(

il d

22. '

t 0 33.l,,od.


9,t. 1. I .6,1.

,, 3.4 i( r. loui4


Fo '

,,. )



1" I



* 142




3d. to 6d.
fl.. to 9d.

ld. for 120.

.. ..
30 cl s. ..

d.tolen d.
I s6d

'3,. 23cins,.
1.26 1. ..e

l8. 25 chs ..

d.pr 100. .

Is. per 100.
1 0
1 Kl rrlo .



Day. Task.

.. !







Day.i Task.

Is, .. 1'I,


9d. .. .. ..

IsOd 3d. turn. .. ..

Is. .. .. .

l3 d .



I to 2d. load.
2d. to 3d.
3d. 3 loads.
2d. to 3d.



d. tol.6d,

3.pr. load

.. I1s. 2 loads,

3d. per pan ..

ls. .. I s.

pd. per pan
3d. per pan

Md. per paij .. ..

9s. per wk.

i 3perload.

is. UU

Is. per c.





1is.8 1

Is. ls.3d. c.

Is. 6d. c.


4jd 100.

6d. 100.
.. 3d. 100.
.. Gd. 100.

3d. 100. ( ..

6d. 100.
.. 3d.tod..100

3d. 100, .

Ls. tu o"i. Gd,

Is. 6d. ..
per acire.'
Is.to 2s.Gd. .

2a. to 3i..


ls. to 4a.
Is. (d.
Is. 6d.

Is.6d t2s.. ..

0,1 to 1d

I 8s.

Is.. .acre

.. .. .. ., .. "9


Day. Task.


Now. Formerly.ow. ow. r Formorly. Now. ormly. Now. Form

Day. Tah. Day.j Task, Day. Task. Diy. T iask. Dy.! T k. ai :. 'l k. ly. Task. Day i

.. 2d. to 3d. .... l. ord. .. .. .. G,. 1 )0. .. I. Various .,
pa la.tols. 6 .s.6d.to 3s.

3d. .. .. 1l tols.Sd. .. .. .. 6d. .. .
3d. Is. tols.6d.
3d. .. .. .. la3dtols6d .. 6d. .. 6d. to Is. .
3d. .. ,. .. Is. .. 3d. .. .. .. Is. to 5s. .

.. lid.cyphn. .. .. 1 i.. i .. .. d. 100. .. I. to 2s. .
per acre.
|1 3I . .. .. .. .. .. ..

ep. cyphn.

6d. to 8d.

2d. per pan

2d. per pan



,.-aerly. Now. Formerly.

Task. Day.1 Task. Day. Task.
3. ---- _- . .. .- -

3d load.

I .. Gd.
I .. 4.d.


d. yo il
fiit Isi

Is. 6d. per

Is. p

26d ..

per load ..

3s. 6d. per



Day Task. Day

2a. 3d.
.. 6d. to is. ..
2s to 2s 6d ..
2s Gd.
d. -oushel..



3d. d.
shl bshl

.. 3s. barrel.

.. 9d. bushel. ..

2s. barrel.

S2. to 2s 6d

. 6d. per

:: 2s.to 2s.6d.
per barrel.

..is. 9d. bri.

2s. 6d. brl.
SIs. 6d. bri.

Fornur'y. I.

1. ,1 : uy .i .

C i

I . .. .

l i
1s. bushel. H.. ..

S s. to 5s.

s. 6ed.

2s. barrel

2s. barrel

ri '1 I


. N0 K

S12 bs.
>r lit.

.. 9d. bushol. .1

. .arrel. ..

.2s. barrel.
. 2. barrel...

for I
.*i 1

.. 13s. 6d.

2s. ba

]*1 liCKING.


Iiy Tii~k.


The n

id. no,







___________ I I I.

: .h f'r,lr; 2 'ri 2%., are now I,. C. Wages coei.: 'ion
S o p ltttgain with it. In thein n, ;i n por

I' .. han b.'n lowered within the space of ten C.r i.'.een years

S, ; .;is 6d. to 2s. formerly, areno I.. w'oi en

S,' :. ,. ,n onU0 estate. Is. 6d., 2s.j, r...., 1s 1now

S' d.to I. Women formerly Is, 1.v o 9d.
SI pe tday.
S. o Is. for an able-bodled male, and h4. r F '' lldo

4f wages is From 9d. to Is. The want of employmlOit is renterr
thi variation of wages.

us of the people cannot feed and clothe them. Is. to Is. 6d. for-
,31. to Is. 3d. no.

of wages is very Irregular. From 25 to 50 per cent. less ,au
inter years.
'o unuch the rate as the class of labourers employed. )ito. .1io
lI;ve Is. xol. once, are glad to get Is. 3hI. now.
aluIouorer received I. a (lay, now 9d. to Gd.; in some inlstaces,

Sastrong man got Is. Gd. to 2s. A woman, Is. to 9d., now a mni.
k. per dlty, and a woman, 2s. Od. to 3s. per week.
y tI strong man got Is. 6. to 2a. A woman, Is. to 9d. Now a nlia
I. per lay, and a woman 2s. Ad to 3a. per week. I kno .
el working 10 lays for 2s. 9d.
Zt, oa. ,es rlly a a as a few years ago-viz., Is. I day.
eni get d. riklkninny o... i t. ld. aday. Iflilthurel 'of
*s on estates generally :1. .. in former youra sve ov tnc-
ng per cent. less. Pen work is reduced. Wall building 5'; per
Pimhncntn picking 25 to 50 per cent loss.
.a day is now 6d. Day's waget formerly In. to 2s., now FId. generally

4le sno 11,t1 weaafy both for Job ud.nlay work are from ouno- frtah
I,1 rhlr :I,.. with lis elxcepieon ,f rol.. 'ticklnf" whie h i 1 il1
. *. .. n..r. .ltla firn.rly. I'li. r. i tllu o **f
Sklsos pbnetur sHn psa se for Pimastn sliAklng. X H' 'cnn
Spayne ftoe a work tne igslnegeg then one.
jr,lnt Is. to I&I.., tew I. dally, when labouro Is otequr.

M t ptt s wsof we som Midj
go out to ltbpr. sub luiBa a f ld ofblls own to s1Lt.*
ft a -e laro ibennrmetly.
It seem to employ about the smial number of lAboaremr, rad to
aram rate of wages an they have done for several years.

n -- r



Wo ,.g f.Iln c ,iC .I ,1 >, L ..Ti ,o well renninrenttoA''

ray ii.r 3. or l ri,.'t. rn--y 1" l to lay, mail d. to 14,

Cd I I ..Ct : iI :. "; is IL 1, 1 1 adto6

11 C .1i'r 'in on'i ar, an I th laI. W uae in tl irtolhiaveobaenr
i i t ( i.tm- v.';fo f..f r* t'i pvrl,,niilu 0ic f ri duce win or<'rlng eu x-peanes
S.*) e-. "TJlia ti."ir i to have b'en acconplilhied in part by a
rJ'in. I ,t'o" q', hit mtull hl more (1] By reducing the i ,- tillour of
Trnlot,, 1.1 Is., and of women from Is. to ll, 21 By am-
Iyo,, ell children in day labour. [3] By r oig the
anot,. I r ltk on certain kinds of work; e..., clino h!l" ig ing
l s'it I ; it i ., Is. 6d., aud Is. 3d. [4] By getting a larger
o Li. r; j' fo the sanie amount. The liabcurer report that
hI', t i, I' I property lhave lhensoeIullnrg{. tn. I' ibreas
frmi i ,v ', .. k' tr.ni 9 to 12 cyphlionIt 1dt1'. rley i -.1 l ,' ,only
:. H ,1 '. 7 I o .U r'i .. at the sanc i noni, ri,, tiley
itn ,o ,yl'dg .. .. i money. They also m) tlhat t11
url i,, r,' '.,,,'l iI hi loaded hulf 5 faiall again as tley t. t.e he, said
I. Co much caiinot be earned. Laboour.r- li- d over-
11 that there is coriderably leo dav lhouor, and
wt 1 -1 tu formerly.

i"t .t .>y' i-'". l d for several yeors, at, 11 d...- .. r I. r
S'.. i [ F' .]. I have b en .. I I .1 t- 1,

g l reduced at leoost 25 per cont.
T.or yl' -' i verd much dnili: tl las few
S'i -l obtaining 2s. to 4s., vl n' l.v get li......



The Jamaica newspapers immediately entered on :t
discussion. For several months* the su'bj'ct occupied
almost exclusively public attention. In all polrts of the
Island public meetings, variously convened, were held to
express the opinions of the negro population. The
resolutions adopted at these meetings were, I believe.
inR every cae.. transmitted through the Governor to the
Se l;ptary of State. A; a specimen, I append the resolu-
tions pa sed at a meeting held in Spanish Town,, the seat
of Government, in which I am given to understand not
a single minister, or missionary, of any denomination
took part. I also give the resolutions of another
meeting. held at Lucea, on the opposite side of the Island,
where tie resolutions were moved by thi Rector of the
parish, and by ministers of the Presbyterian, Wesleyan,
and Baptist bodies.
The excitement created among all classes of the
community by the Governor's distribution of my Letter,
was increased by the issue of a placard, of which the
followg is a copy:--- :

" Sov.Sec. Office, 5th July, 1865. '
Various Meetings having recently taken place in i
verbal Parishes of this Colony, in reference to the Con-
on of the Working Classes, and the Governor having ot.
ason to fear jhat many of the Peasantry are under con- -
erable misapprehension as to the relative advantages .
y.enjoy, or the disadvantages they labor under, in "
ca, in comparison with similar Classes in other.
ries, his Excellency has directed the following
~~ Ot ,

Reply, addressed by the Queen's directions, to a Memo-
rial transmitted to Her Majesty by certain poor people of
the Parish of St. Ann, to be published for general infor-
By command, -
"Gov. Sec."

"The Right Honourable E. CARDWELL to Governor EYRE.
Copy.-Jamaica.-No. 222.
Downing Street, 14th June, 1865.
SIR,-I have to acknowledge the receipt of your
Despatch, No. 117, of the 26th April, enclosing a Peti-
tion addressed to the Queen by certain poor people of
the Parish of St. Ann's, Jamaica.
2. I request that you will inform the Petitioners
that their Petition has been laid before the Queen, and
that I have received Her Majesty's command to inform
them, that the prosperity of the Laboring Classes,
well as of all other Classes, depends, in Jamaica, and i
other Countries, upon their working for Wages, not un
certainly or capriciously, but steadily and continuously
-- at the times when their labor is wanted, and for so lo0
*. 'as it is wanted; and that if they would use this industry
and thereby render the Plantaiions productive, th
would enable the Planters to pay them higher Wages
the same hours of work than are received by the
Field Laborers in this Country; and as the cost of
necessaries of life is much less in Jamaica than it is he
they would be enabled, by adding ltence to indus
to lay by an ample provision for Iamons of drought
dearth; and they may be assured that it is from
own industry and prudence, in availing themselves of
,.means of prospering that are before them, and' not

any such schemes as have been suggested to them, that
they must look for an improvement in their 'condition;
and that Her Majesty will regard with interest and satis-
faction their advancement through their own merits and
I have, &c.,
Governor EYRE,
&c., &c., &c,"

This placard was sent by the Governor to every part
of the Island, in large quantities, to be posted il public
places ; and the clergy and ministers of the various
religious bodies, were requested to use their influence
that it might be placed in the hands of every family.
Another placard of similar tenor, headed The Queen
to the Peasantry of Jamaica," was also extensively
circulated, and posted within, the walls of the Court
House. But the discontent was not allayed by these
placards; it was increased. ".. ,:,;... ", "
In his recent despatch to the Secretary of State,'. t'
Governor Eyre does not scruple to assert, that although .
"no reasonable and intelligible cause has been assigned
as tothe Origin of this most wicked and wide-spread re-
bellion," he "cannot doubt that it is in a great degree
-. due to Dr. Underhill's Letter, and to the meetings held -
- in connection with that Letter." -
But the publication of my Letter was the Governor's
Owa act. The meetings which sprtpg'up, and at which


he says, language of the most exciting and seditious
kind was constantly used," originated in the course the
Governor himself pursued. The responsibility, there-
fore, of creating that excitement is his, not mine. My.
letter was addressed to Mr. Secretary Cardwell, not to
the people of Jamaica. Governor Eyre gave it pub-
licity, a wide circulation, and the great importance it
has acquired. I will not bear a responsibility which
belongs to him alone.
Among the parties who have taken part in these
"nefarious proceedings," as the Governor terms them-,
the despatch mentions, without naming them, a few
Baptist missionaries, who, like endorse at public
meetings, or otherwise, all the untruthful statements or
inuendoes propagated in Dr. Underhill's Letter." I have
not the means of filling up the blank in the above ex-
tract. This, however, I know, that my correspondence
with some of the missionaries has been intercepted, and
examined by Governor Eyre. If he expected to find in
it treasonable matter he has utterly failed. -
Whether the statements of the Letter are untruthful
I may take another occasion to examine. Certain it is
th t, with very slight exceptions, they were endorsed,"
as G~^ ernor Eyre well knows, by every public meeting
that was held. In order to show more fully that they
were not without good foundation, I have printed, with
the Letter, the reply of the Baptist ainmi'naries to t1J
Governor's Circular. Its moderation and candour, the
carefulness with which the facts were collected, ad i
conclusions formed, will commend it to the Engli
'' --r


. ,- < i. .-*- '. _. #- .* -- .

people. To show that in their general views the Baptist
missionaries are not singular, I have added a collection
of passages from the reports of other missionary bodies
labouring in the Island. : ..
In the district to which the outbreak has been con-
fined, there are no Baptist missionaries, nor any congre-
gations connected with them. So far as I know only one
person, a member of .the Baptist Union, a black man,
has been suspected of participation in the plot said to
have been laid. The Baptists spoken of by Governor
Eyre are Native Baptists.. They originated in the
*preaching of an American negro about 1783, thirty ..
years before the Baptist Mission sent: any agents to
Jamaica, and with whom no union of any kind has
taken place. :
I now leave my Letter, and the unscrupulous and
.unjust accusations of Governor Eyre, to the judgment
of my countrymen. .I have done no wrong, I have
broken no law, and I indignantly repel the charges'of
Governor Eyre. My Letter was not written for pubh.
ton it was not _published by me, it contains no sedi-
tion, nor incitements to seditions t suggests no pro-
s a any torture of language can e ca led1
farious."Ahe Government f Jamaica has rejected
ry warning, until discontent has deepened into resent-
et and grievances are transformed into wrongs. i.The
umstances now peremptorily require of Her Majesty's
rnment, that which my Letter 6nly suggested,-a
.hing inquiry into the acts,past and present, of te
t of Jamaica. as well as into the condition of


the people; and especially do I now demand in addition
that Governor Eyre be made answerable for imputations
on my conduct which are baseless and unjust.


Nov. 24, 1865.


'VD ER ]

"... LETTE
1",, T T E ,








7 L' 1" iT' T / /:'


LL, 18 ]B<)1 \EK'N E S'r IE TJT .


33, Moorgate Street, E.C., Jan. 5, 1865.
"DEAR SIm,-I venture to ask your kind considera-
tion of a few observations- on the present condition of
the Island of Jamaica.
"For several months past every mail has brought
letters informing me of the continually increasing dis-
tress of the coloured population. As a sufficient illus-
/ tration, I quote the following brief passage from one of
S"' Crime ha fearfully increased. The number of
prisoners in the penitentiary and gaols is considerably
more than double the average, and nearly all for one
crime-larceny. Summonses for petty debts disclose
an amount of pecuniary difficulty which has never
before been experienced; and applications for parochial
and private relief prove that multitudes are suffering
' from want little removed from starvation.'
S "The immediate cause of this distress would seem to
S be the drought of the last two years; but, in fact, this
S'has only given intensity to suffering previously existing.
All accounts, both public and private, concur in affirm-
I ing the alarming increase of crime, chiefly of larceny
S and petty theft.. This arises from the extreme poverty

- 1. -- y ''*I ** *- ;

of the people. That this is -its true origin is made
evident by the ragged and even naked condition of vast
numbers of them; so contrary to the taste for dress
they usually exhibit. They cannot purchase clothing, ,
partly from its greatly increased cost, which is unduly
enhanced. by the duty (said to be 38 per cent. by the
Hon. Mr. Whitelocke) which it now pays, and partly
from the want of employment, and the consequent
absence of wages.
*'" The people, then, are starving, and the causes of
this are not far to seek. No doubt the taxation of the
Island is too heavy for its present resources, and must
necessarily render the cost of producing the staples
higher than they can bear, to meet -competition in the
markets of the world. No doubt much of the sugar
land of the Island is worn out, or can only be made pro-
ductive by an outlay which would destroy all hope of
profitable return. No doubt, too, a large portion of the
Island is uncultivated, and might be made to support a
greater population than is now existing upon it.
"But the simple fact is, there is not sufficient em-
ployment for the people; there is neither work for them,
nor capital to employ them.- .. .:,, .
.The labouring class is too numerous for the w6rk 'to
. "`''be done.'- Sugar cultivation on the estates does not
p"*'it ahsorb more than 30,000 of the'people, and every other
,species of cultivation (apart from provision growing) 'A
cannot give employment to more than another 30,000.
-'.-i.But the agricultural population of the island is over.
-+4:00,000, so that there are at least 340,000 whose live-
,- lihood depends on employment other than that devoted
to the staple cultivation, of the island. Of these
'3-840,000 certainly not less than 136,000 are adults, and
Scapable of labour. For subsistence. they must be en-

tirely dependent on the provisions gi-own on their litti-
freeholds, a portion of which is sold to those who find
employment on the estates; or perhaps, in a slight
degree, on such produce as they are able to raise for
exportation. But those who grow produce for exporta-
tion are very few, and they meet with every kind of
discouragement to prosecute a means of support which
' is as advantageous to the Island as themselves. If their
provisions fail, as has been the case, from drought, they
S must steal or starve. And this is their present con-
dition. The same result follows in this country when
employment ceases or wages fail. VThe great decrease.
of coin in circulation in Jamaica is a further proof that less
money is spent in wages through the decline of employ-
ment. Were Jamaica prosperous, silver would flow into it,
Kr its equivalent in English manufactures, instead of the
exportation of silver, which now regularly takes place.
And if, as stated in the Governor's speech, the Customs'
revenue in the year 'gone by has been equal to former
years, this has arisen, not from an increase in the
quantities imported, but from the increased value of the
imports, the duty being levied at an ad valorem charge
of 121 per cent. on- articles, such as cotton goods, which
.Wbgave within the last year or'two greatly risen in price.
.I shall say. nothing of the course taken by the
'Jamaica Legislature: of their abortive Immigration
'\ Bills: of their unjust taxation of the coloured popu-
'lation; of their refusal of just tribunals; of their denial
of political rights to the emancipated negroes. .Could
the people find remunerative employment, these evil
:2 would in time be remedied, from their growing strength
and intelligence. -The worst evil consequent on the
proceedings of the Legislature is the distrust awakened
in the minds of capitalists, and the avoidance of Jamaica,

with its manifold advantages, by all who possess the
means to benefit it by their expenditures.
Unless means can be found to encourage the outlay
of capital in Jamaica in the growth of those numerous
products which can be profitably exported, so that em-
ployment can be given to its starving people, I see no
other result than the entire failure of the Island, and the
destruction of the hopes that the Legislature and the
people of Great Britain have cherished with regard to
the well-being of its emancipated population.
"With your kind permission, 1 will venture to make
two or three suggestions, which, if carried out, may
assist to avert so painful a result.

"1. A searching inquiry into the legislation of the
Island since emancipation, its taxation, its economical
and material :-"idition, would go far to bring to light
the causes of the existing evils, and, by convincing the
ruling class of the mistakes of the past; lead to their
removal. Such an inquiry seems also due to this
country, that it may be seen whether the emancipated
peasantry have gained those advantages which were
.sought to be secured to them 'by their enfranchisement.

,i." 2. The Governor might be instructed to encourage,
by his personal approval and urgent recommendation, !
tihe growth of exportable produce by the people, on the
S' ery 'numerous freeholds they possess. This might be /
--done by the formation of associations for shipping their-
produce i n considerable quantities; by equalizing duties
6 ri the produce of the people and that of the planting
interests; by instructing the native growers of produce
in the best methods of cultivation, and pointing out the
articles which would find a ready sale in the markets of

A: .'.I :

the world; by opefiing channels for the direct transmission
of produce, without the intervention of agents, by whose
extortions and frauds the people now frequently suffer
and are greatly discouraged. The cultivation of sugar
by the peasantry should, in my judgment, be discouraged.
At the best, with all the scientific appliances the planters
can bring to it, both of capital and machinery, sugar
manufacturing is a hazardous thing. Much more must
it become so in the hands of the people, with their rude
mills and imperfect methods. But the minor products
of the Island, such as spices, tobacco, farinaceous food,
coffee, and cotton, are quite within their reach, and
always fetch a fair and remunerative price, when not
burdened by extravagant charges and local taxation.
3. With just laws and light taxation, capitalists would
be encouraged to settle in Jamaica, and employ them-
selves in the production of the more important staples,
such as sugar, coffee, and cotton. Thus the people would
be employed, and the present starvation rate of wages be
In conclusion, I have to apologise for troubling you
with this communication; but since my visit to the Island
in 1859-60, I have felt the greatest interest in its pros-
Spety, and deeply grieve over the sufferings of its
* coloured population. It is more than time that the un-
Swisdom (to use the gentlest term) that has governed
SJamaica since emancipation," should be brought to an
end; a course of action which, while it incalculably:
aggravates the misery arising from natural, and there .
fore unavoidable causes, renders certain the ultimate_
'ruin of every 'class-planter and peasant, European
Creole. : i
S Should you, dear Sir, desire such information aas
may be in my power to furnish, or to see me on the.

I shall be most happy either to forward whatever facts I
may possess, or wait upon you at any time that you may
I have, &c.,

P.S.-I append an extract from the speech of the
Hon. A. Whitelocke, in the House of Assembly, with
respect to the condition of the people:-

He (Mr. Whitelocke) would make an assertion
which could not be gainsaid by his successor, that taxa-
tion could not be extended; not one farthing more could
be imposed upon the people, who were suffering peculiar
hardship from the increased value of wearing apparel,
which was now taxed beyond all bounds. Actually they
were paying 38 per cent. now, whdn 121 per cent. was
before considered an outrageous ad valorem duty. Cotton
goods, including Osnaburgh, and all the wearing apparel
of the labouring classes, had increased 200 per cent. in
value. What was bought at 4d. per yard before, was
selling at is. per yard. 'Therefore the people -are now
paying lid. duty on every yard of cloth, instead of id.,
which has been justly described as a heavy impost. The
consequence is that a disgusting state of numidity exhibited -
itself in some parts of the country. Hardly a boy under
ten years of age wore a frock, and adults, from the ragged *
state of their garments, exhibited those parts of the body ;
where covering was especially wanted, The lower
'*classes hitherto exhibited a proneness for dress, and he
;.could not believe such a change would have come over
them, but for his belief in their destitution, arising out
of a reduction in their wages, At a time when every
article of apparel had risen in value. This year's de-


crease in imports foreshadowed what was coming. Sugar
was down again at 11 per hogshead; coffee was falling;
pimento was valueless; logwood was scarcely worth
cutting; and, moreover, a sad diminution was effected
in our chief staple exports from a deficiency of rain.' "

At a Public Meeting called by requisition to the
Honourable Richard Hill, held at the Court House,
Spanish Town, on Tuesday, the 16th of May, 1865,
Andrew H. Lewis, Esq., one of the representatives of
the parish in the chair, the following resolutions were
unanimously adopted:-
1st. That this Meeting deeply deplores the present
depressed state of the inhabitants of this Colony, and
takes this opportunity of expressing its sentiments,
especially at this period, when the philanthropists of
England are trying to alleviate those distresses by
bringing the same before the British Government."
.' ".2nd. That this Meeting views with alarm the dis-
tressed condition of nearly all classes of the people of
L this Colony from the want of employment, in conse-
. quence.of the abandonment of a large number of estates,
and the staple of the country being no longer remune-
rative, caused by being brought into unequal competi-
"tion with slave-grown produce."
S -. '" 3rd. That this Meeting feels seriously the distressed
,"state of the mechanics of this country, who are suffering.
from the injustice done to them by the Legislature
having imposed the same import duty of. 12 per cent.
o. on the raw materials as on the manufactured articles
imported into this Island, not only from the mother
country, but also from the United States-thus para j
*.*;*-- ,\ .. ^ .* '* *3

lyzing the industry and crippling the energies of the
tradespeople of this country."
4th. That in consequence of such distress from no
work being obtainable, many of the inhabitants, chiefly
tradespeople, have been compelled to leave their homes
to seek employment in foreign climes, and many others
are only deterred from doing so, because they do not
know what is to become of their families in their ab-
'1 5th. That as an illustration of the general distress
-this Meeting gives as an example:-That there are in
Spanish Town, the capital of the Island, nearly 150
carpenters, 60 masons, 91 shoemakers, 127 tailors, 772
sempstresses, and 800 servants, amounting in all to
about 1,900 individuals, out of an adult population of
3,124 of all classes, many of whom are without knowing
where to obtain their daily bread, and all of whom are
suffering, more or less, from the higlh prices of food and
raiment, and excessive taxation."
6th. That whilst recent legislation has been directed
to endeavour to reduce crime by increasing the severity
of punishment, no attention has been given by the
Legislature to the establishment of proper reformatories
anid a sound system of education."
"j,7Tth. That in,reference to the letter of Doctor Under-:;
1 addressed to the Secretary of Staie for the Colonies,'
& eter 'Most Gracious Majesty's loyal subjects assem-
bled this day, do corroborate the statements mide by
it enitlem&An, ind most cordially record our grateful
tnks to him for the warm sympathy he has evinced
.owards-suffering humanity in this Island.". "5
8.Sth.- That a'copy ofthe'Reshlutions of this Meeting
respectfully presented by a deputation appointed by
the Chairman to His Excellency the Governor, to be.by
ihim transmitted to the Right Honourable Edward Card-
trll0 Secretary of State for the 'Colonies; and that a copy
be forwarded to Doctor Underhill, and that the same

be signed by the Chairman and Secretary on behalf of
this Meeting."
"9th. That a vote of thanks be tendered to Andrew
Henry Lewis, Esq., for his impartial and independent
conduct in presiding over the affairs of this Meeting,
and that three cheers be given in honour of Her Most
Gracious Majesty the Queen, and the philanthropists of
Great Britain, for their watchfulness over the interests
of the people of this Colony."
10th. That the resolutions of this Meeting be pub-
lished twice in all the newspapers in the Island."
A. H. LEWIS, Chairman.

In consequence of a requisition, presented to the
Hon. H. A. Whitelocke, Custos of Hanover, with which
he cordially complied, a public meeting of the inhabi-
tants of the parish, "for the purpose of giving distinct
expression to their views in reference to the present
state of the country," was held in the Court House,
S.Lucea, on Wednesday the 17th instant. .i;,?
-* 'The resolutions, which were very ably moved and
S'seconded, were'cordially and unanimously agreed to.
: 1st. That the present state of the Island is so de-
p" "pressed as not only .to cause much hardship, but also to
'" awaken the most serious apprehensions,' in regard to the
future; and although the descriptions which have been
'publicly given of theextreme distress existing in other
parts of the country do .not apply to this parish, and wi*
would deprecate all extravagant representations on thi
.subject, such. as are fited to give erroneous views %

our true condition, yet there is at present a greater
amount of poverty and hardship experienced by all
classes of our population than has existed since the era
of Emancipation."
2nd. That this gloomy and distressing state of mat-
ters, although it may have been aggravated, has not been
occasioned by any recent circumstances, but has been
gradually coming upon us; and that it appears to us to
arise principally from the facts-that our exportable pro-
duce has, in most instances, been unremunerated; that
thle amount expended on the cultivation of our large
properties has, in consequence, been greatly diminished;
and that the price of necessary articles. of clothing,
which have unhappily been of inferior quality, has,
during the last few years, been much increased."
3rd. That very decided measures of relief are now
imperatively demanded; and whilst we would deprecate,
except in extreme cases of poverty and destitution, the
bestowal of all eleemosynary aid, as calculated still fur-
ther to degrade and to pauperize the people, yet we con-
sider that the taxation of the country is greater than
its present circumstances can bear, and that the same
ought accordingly, to be reduced in a way as may least
affect the security of life and property." ,.
"4th. That thi Meting would specify the abolition
|bf all export duties"on produce, the free admission of all
agricultural implements and machines used in the Cil-' I
|tivati6n 6f the soil and in the preparation of its pro- ..
fduetions, and the imposition of only a nominal tat on
h6tse kind aiid asses used in agriculture, and in the con-
'veyance of produce, tq the market---as measures which
uoight'o bi adopted as soon as possible for the purpose '
o0f increasing .production by stimulating and encouraging
the industry of the country; and would also suggest
the propriety (if at all practicable) of suspending, for
a time at least, the import duty oh calicoes and the
careerr fabrics used principally for clothing by the
bourmg population."

. WIMillH

5th. That a memorial, embodying the foregoing
resolutions, be prepared and transmitted through the
Governor, to-the Right Honourable Edward Cardwell,
Her Majesty's principal Secretary of State for the Colo-
nies, and that he be earnestly entreated to take the case
of Jamaica into his most serious consideration, and to
indicate to the Governor the vievs which, from reliable
information furnished to him, he may be brought to
entertain of what may be, and ought to be, done by
the executive authority in this Island (for which, under
our new constitution, is endowed with so much power);
to prevent the continued decline, and to revive the lan-
guishing interests, of this country, which has already
suffered so much from the munjust and unholy competi-
tion into which it has been brought with slave-grown
produce, and which is now so deeply depressed."
"6th. That while this Meeting feel it to be right and
dutiful to adopt these resolutions, and to present the
claims therein specified, they would also, with deep
humility, acknowledge the Divine hand. They desire
to express the fear that the afflictive dealings with
which the land has been visited have not been sanctified,
and that there is sad evidence of this in the prevalence
of crime, and of many forms of ungodliness. They
.would, therefore, humble themselves under the mighty
.hand of God, and beseech Him to visit the land in
( .. mercy, being assured that 'righteousness exalteth a
S nation, while sin is ,the reproach and ruin of any

pe e.'. --... ".1.


-. :::.+ +,,+ 7

Governor of the Island of Jamaica and its Dependencies,
and Commander-in- Chief of Her Majesty's Forces,
4-c., 4-c., 4-c., 4c.

WE have the honour to acknowledge your Excel-
lency's Circular addressed to the Secretary of the T'%maica
Baptist Union, transmitting a copy of a Despatc, from
the Secretary of State for the Colonies, with a copy of a
communication enclosed in it from the Secretary of the
Baptist Missionary Society on the present condition of
Jamaica, and the distress prevalent among its coloured
Population. Your Excellency is pleased to'desire, for
+thie information of' Her Majesty's Government, 'the .]
opinion of the ii ministers 'f our body as t 'how far the
-;remarks of Dr. Underhill's letter are applicable the
labouring classes of their congregations, and to receive -,
any other observations which the subject touched upon +'
f Dr. Underhill's letter "may suggest, 'or their own
al experience may enable them to offer.
c. 1. Your Excellency will allow us to assure you that
-the subject of your Circular is one. which lies near our
,1earts as Christian ministers, 'concerned in whatever .
relates to the Atemporal and eternal interests of those


i. *committed to their pastoral oversight, or to the social
well-being of the country in which they live. We beg,
therefore, further to assure your Excellency that we
have given it our most patient and anxious considera-
2. On the receipt of your Excellency's Circular, our
S Secretary at once communicated with the ministers
associated in the Jamaica Baptist Union (as also with
some other recognized Baptist Ministers not so associ-
ated), forwarding to each a series of questions, with a
view to elicit the information desired. Answers having
been received, a meeting of the undersigned official
members of the Union, as representatives of the entire.
body, was convened at Calabar Institution, on the days
of April the 19th and 20th, when the letter which we
now have the honour to address to your Excellency was
agreed upon.
3. Your Excellency is aware that the Jamaica
Baptist Union comprises seventy-three congregations,
including about 20,000 Church members, and upwards
of 1,500 inquirers, besides a large body of persons in
regular attendance on our religious services, and nearly
S.:',, .,10,000 scholars in our day and Sunday schools. These
S,,congregations, as will be seen on reference to Schedule A.,
in the Appendix to this letter, are spread through every
,.county and parish of the Island, with two exceptions';
L and in these, also, there are recognized Baptist congre.

4, Returns have been received from the great majoi
of districts, and but from our anxiety to reply to yf
Excellency with as little delay as upavible, there is'
S-. doubt the number would have been. complete. ;,'
information, therefore, extends to nearly every paft of
country, and it has, we think, been derived from J

4 -" .

reliable sources. It is-of the labouring classes that
Baptist congregations arc chiefly composed. Our
ministers are entirely dependent upon their people for
support; and from their intimate relations to them, and
close, and constant intercourse with them, are certainly
likely to be amongst the best informed on their social
circumstances and condition. Your Excellency will be
pleased, however, to observe that the returns have refer-
ence, not. so much to our .own congregations, as to the
districts in which they are situated.
5. To facilitate reference, the whole of the returns to
hand have been tabulated under different heads, and are
submitted to the notice of your Excellency in the form
of an Appendix. Schedule A. gives the NAME OF EACH
TOWN on STATION in which the congregations represented
meet, with the name of the Parish and County in which
they are situated. Schedule B. RELATES TO THE POVERTY
OTIONS OF THE PEASANTRY apart from the Estates, &c.:
:CRIME .OF STEALING: :Schedule I. to TaxATioN AND .
.LAWs : while Schedule K. is SPECIAL IN RELATION TO
THE.LARGER TOWNS. The topics reported on in these Sche-
.dules will, we think, include all referred to in your
K-Excellency's Circular, as well as those on which we wish
to offer 'an observations, inaccordance with your Excel- '
lency's permission." We therefore adopt this order in the
statements which follow:- .
6. POVERTY AND DISTRESS. It must be allowed that in
Sso4ie respects the outward aspects of poverty and dis-
., tress in such a climate as that. of Jamaica differ from

wwhm - - - .. - .. ., -, --. .7-10

those observable in such a climate as that of England.
But that poverty and distress in some of their most
fearful forms are wide-spread, we believe is not only
f shown in the evidence now submitted (see Schedule B.),
S but is attested by facts open to universal observation.
S Dr. Underhill may be understood to state the case too
strongly when he says that the people are starving;"
but it is no exaggeration, in our judgment, to say that
large numbers of persons, in various parts of the Island,
are in a starving condition.
Nor, we submit, is the prevalent distress confined to.
any one class of the community. The proprietary and
the peasantry are alike suffering. A considerable number
of estates are year by year being abandoned, as public
advertisements and official returns too conclusively
show; and, on a large number, cultivation has been
considerably diminished. Merchants and store-keepers2
state that their trade has fallen off (see No. 1), that they,
are unable to collect debts; and that the people gene-
rally cannot purchase clothing and food as in former.
days. Many persons of. respectability are utterly
ti able to maintain their 'position, -to practise thei
S accustomed charities, and to meet their -bligatio
Small tradesmen and others, in towns (see Schedule K.
Rare reduced to deep poverty and suffering., The house
of many are goimg to decay., IThey are obliged to S'
their furnitiire', and 'tiifling but' valuable articles :
w household use-and ornament, to obtain food, or are co
-;pelled to submit to their being levied and sold by ipuib
I outcry to satisfy their creditors. .(See ib. Nos. 11, 36
As regards the labouring population, while there
many small settlers, who, by their industry, frugality,
thrift, are still in comparative comfort, with others c8
stautly employed on estates and properties, occup

I -

situations of trust, or engaged in skilled labour;-while
this is the case, the larger number have the greatest
possible difficulty to support themselves and their
families on their present low wages, with irregular em-
ployment, and the high price of food and clothing.
This is especially the case in districts in which provision
crops have failed from drought and the depredations of
thieves. And in those districts in which there are
neither springs nor streams, and where the peasantry are
compelled to travel many miles to obtain water even to
drink, their sufferings are painfully intensified.
Amongst other evidences of this state of things we
may especially refer your Excellency to the following:-
(1.) The condition of vast numbers of the peasantry in
regard to clothing. The testimony of the returns we
submit is unanimous to the effect that the people are less
well clad, in every respect, than in former years, while
some speak of rags and nakedness. (See Nos. 2, 10,
11, 13, 14, 21, 30, 48.) This may not appear so much
on the highway, or in public places of resort, but from
personal knowledge we can speak, of illustrative facts in
the settlements and houses of the people, within which
the 'most destitute are hidden. :](2.) The numbers who ,.'
P..bsent themselves from public worship on the Lord's
-.day, which, -after careful inquiry, we have ascertained to "
arise almost. entirely from the inability of the absen- .,
es to.-procure .decent clothing to appear in. -.,(See
os 7,l0, 13, 29, 33, 52, 65.) .,(3.) From this cause,
combined with scarcity of food, parents are prevented
tom: sending their children to the day and Sunday
Schools. In some congregations it has been painful to
observe the almost entire absence of children for the
.want of decent clothing to put om .(See Nos. 7, 11,.
| 3, 15, 0O, 39.) (4.) Well authenticated reports have

largely dependent in most districts; in some entirely;
and ground provisions failing them, numbers who derived
their living from them have been compelled to seek sub-
sistence by the hire of their labour in a market which,
in many districts, is at all times overstocked, and this,
too, at a season when the demand for labour has greatly
diminished. (2.) This has tended to produce another
cause of distress to the labourers generally, viz., the
reduction of wages to so low a rate as to render it im-
possible for them, even when work is obtained, suitably to
provide the necessaries of life for themselves and for
those dependent upon them. (3.) And in connection
with this, and in some measure, though only to a limited
extent, arising out of it, is another cause of distress and
poverty, viz., the want of employment. (See Schedule C.
Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 15, 23, 30, &c.) (4.) And where em-
ployment has been obtained ha some districts the distress
has been increased by the irregular payment of wages,
and in some cases by the stoppage of them on frivolous
pretences, while in others the labourer has suffered-from
estates' managers keeping stores on the estate, thus
entailing the evils of the "truck system." (See Nos.
3, 4, 2.) $1.4 S ,1 *^I E:
,ZBut we cannot conceal fromni your Excellency 'Aur
conviction that there are other causes of poverty and
distress, less temporary, and which lie more deeply, in
.the social system. It will be painfully evident to your
S' vExcellency, -from our Returns, that a large measure 'of
.i-the poverty and distress is attributable to indolence. ;^
- This is. especially the case -among the young. "Many of
' t, hem, having been accustomed to estate labour, when-._--
this fails them, are unwilling to seek other kinds of em-
ployment, and prefer to roadm about plundering, the
provision grounds of the more industrious, who" are.


thereby plunged into poverty, and often quite dis-
eartened through the loss and insecurity of the fruits
f their honest industry. We fear, also, that the same
indolent habits are fostered with similar results by the
small breadth of land which large numbers of small
settlers have under cultivation, altogether unequal to the
full and sufficient employment of themselves and their
Numerous other causes will come under the notice of
your Excellency, operating with the foregoing to increase
and perpetuate the present distress. Among these may
be mentioned the want of medical provision for the poor,
and the absence of a well-digested poor-law; the want of
a sufficient legal provision for the support of illegitimate
and friendless children and of aged persons. It is believed
that a large portion of the young criminals that fill our
jails are orphans, chiefly children of those parents who
were cut off by cholera and small-pox from 1850 to
1852, and have grown up without parental control or
moral training; and also of illegitimate children cast out
upon the world from their infancy. (See Schedule C.

0aso due to your Excellency that we should refer
S t'lhat the 'peasantry suffer'great hardships '
e yi.dministration of justice in s6me of oui
N also from -the frequently 'vexatious
f epob]i'ce, in compelling them to travel great
.-answer, summonses for taxes which they

~n"' r...udgment, are some of the causes of the
ve~rtyad distress which we are sure your Excellency
unite with us in deploring. : .'
8.Among the foregoing causes of poverty and distress
'have referred your -Excellency to the WANT OF

2' )<, *


IN giving additional publicity to the Letter I tidit',t-i,.,i
to the, Secretary of State for the Colonies on JmI.ia
t.. affairs,I act simply in self-defence. This Litlie i"s v"1'
V severely'ens'ured in the, despatch of Governor i\ rcO on
-- the outbreak in Jamaica, as exciting to sedition, as pro-
'i pagating. untruthful statements and inuendoes, aind as
; promotingthe "nefarious proceeds' which h Ive i:tsued
". in'rebellionanid murder. I deny thecs intipiloiiis., :n
appeal to the judgment of my count I')1llln.'.
: The Ietter was addressed to the Righlit l honral!le Ei.
Cardwell, on' the 5th of January has;. O)n fli 27ih
... .Mr. Secretary Cardwell acknowledged its nrccipt, tind
.. stated that he had forwarded it t, 1 t (overiior out
S Jamaica, with instructions to report ,,n its contents. In I
.Apri I IlMntt that the Governor had sent to the Cus-
todes of parishes, to the Judges and M); istrates, to Ith
',. Bishop of Kingston, and through offici;4 chlincl.k to the
clergy and, ministers of all. denominn'.i a Cir'ul:r
containing the despatch of AMr. Secretn:,' (dwtli. with
my Letter, reqluesting them to l',ii,]h i writh Ili,
materials for his reply.

EMPLOYMENT. In evidence of this we need only r,.
you to Schedule D. of the Appendix, in which y
Excellency will see not* only the extent but the unit r
sality of the complaint. We may especially point out
some of the facts elicited from the returns submitted.
From these it appears that in some districts numbers of
people are known to Walk from 6 to 30 miles in search
of work (see Nos. 2, 4, 33, 46, 65), that numbers, even
in crop time, applying to the estates for employment,
are turned back without obtaining it. (See Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15.) That at the present
time, in consequence of drought, and in some cases from
partial cultivation, some estates are working short time
(see Nos. 6, 7, 8, 13, 14), and that in many districts
Creole labour has been displaced either wholly or in
part by that of Coolies, Chinese, and Africans. (See Nos.
1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 23, 32, 41, 45, 54, 57.)
Our returns, it. may be remarked, have reference to the
present season, when the estates are in full crop; while,
after crop time, it is to be observed that few estates
afford able-bodied Creole men more than a very limited
supply of labour. .. .
But there are also circumstances within the kqow-
1-r' ledge of your Excellency, certified by official returns, .',
7. 7.L'fully .corroborative of the. facts we are representing.
-The present low state of the sugar market, and the low
price of ,cattle, sufficiently, explain the desire, of; the
.,. >-planter on his estate and of the pen-keeper on. his pen to
reduce expenditure:. and one direction in which he is
..obviously compelled to,.do so is by the employment of
S--.fewer hands. ,We may also refer your Excellency, as
: incontestable proof of the diminished employment, of
labour, as well as of the painfully diminished resources
.of the country, to. a comparison of the present -with the
** .-* ",

past in the production of the one staple article of sugar.
In (say) 1830 the sugar exported from this colony was
estimated at 60,000 hogsheads. At the present time,
taking an average of years, it may be set down in round
numbers at 30,000. Now the estimated cost, in work
and wages, of making a hogshead of sugar is 10. The
60,000 hogsheads manufactured in 1830 would, there-
fore, represent in cost of production 600,000 as com-
pared with 300,000 expended in work and wages at
the present time in the production of 30,000 hogsheads.
At the same time it is to be considered that the popula-
tion has increased from 350,000 in 1830, the slave popu-
lation having been 310,000, to 450,000 in 1865. We
believe we are also correct in estimating, as the conse-
quence of drought, the diminished production of sugar
in 1864 at 7,000 hogsheads, as compared with 1863.
This therefore, on the same calculation of cost in work
and wages represents a loss to the productive industry of
the country of no less a sum than 70,000 on last year
alone. Your Excellency will see in this statement
evidence too sadly conclusive of the lack of employment,
a of the impoverished condition of those dependent
k lal b r for their daily bread. -;I:,,, .- ;.V ".;
a'o made mention to your Excellency
W 'DAGES, another*explanation of the lpre-
r. ad distress'.hich have been described. '"
d oeng of this we commend to your .notice the
Ich we --submit in Schedule' E. jWe have
a 'ch pains to obtain full and accurate informa-
o f.bject.Insome cases it'has been obtained
... .rs s and proprietors; in soie from head men"
a labourers; in some from" both: and the figures
oted are based on a comparison of the statements of
terms on the one side and of labourers on the other.

On reference to the. Schedule yiour Excellency will see
that in all parts of the Island a reduction of wages is
reported, in most to the extent o( If'rm 25 to 50 per cent.
In corroboration, we may reIor |.o the Official State-
ment of the Agent General of I mi gration, under date
of May 25, 1858, in which he sany;, Able and indus-
trious labourers may always expect, to receive Is. 6d.
per day for nine hours of steady :nIi continuous labour.
During the manufacture of sugar higher wages will be
paid, averaging from two to four .shillings, according to
the number of hours, or in proportli ,i to the quantity of
sugar made. The tradesmen iotsI required on sugar
estates are coopers, masons, carp'ni tr:4, and blacksmiths,
who, if they are able and hardworkingi men, will easily
earn from three to five shillings a diy, according to their
mechanical skill. Rooms, or houses, with sufficient land
for a garden, and medicine, an4 num'dii.1 attendance, will
be allowed to the immigrant for the period during which
his contract is to endure. Young people are much in
demand to perform the light work o1' cultivation; and
they would be easily hired at 9d. or Gd. per day."
The reduction of wages which a comparison of present
rates with this statement makes so palpable,'is not how-
*' ever simply effected by a reduction of the nominal rate
.-.of.'the wages of day labour, but by various indirect
j.- methods. --(1.) Task labour has super.seded day labour
. to a large extent. "(2.) The .task has in some kinds of
work been increased, while the same amount of money
per task has been" continued. The redundancyof labour
in the market -has enabled the planner to do this. In
S sugar boiling the cyphon or pan has boon enlarged, e.g.
.while the labourer continues only to receive the same
rate per cyphon, so that his earnings art reduced from'
.30 to 40 per cent. The statement made in Nos. 8 and
..r ".


40 to this effect we have reason to know applies in nu-
merous cases to districts, the written returns from which
fail to make mention of the fact. And what is said-of
this item of labour applies equally to others, both in and
out of crop time. (3.) By reducing the amount paid per
task on certain kinds of work, e.g. cane-hole digging on
properties which formerly paid 2s. and 2s. 6d. per 100,
is now on most properties brought down to Is. 6d.
and Is. 3d.
We make these statements out of no want of sym-
pathy with the difficulties of the Planter; and impute
no blame to him for his endeavours to reduce expendi-
ture in the manufacture of an article the price of which
is so precarious, and the returns from which at present
prices are so small. But we wish to lay before your
Excllency the actual condition of the labouring popula-
tion of the country, that your Excellency may see the
general truthfulness of the representations contained in
Dr. Underhill's letter to the Colonial Secretary; and to
show not only how impossible it is for 'the peasantry to
bearr heavier burdens, but the imperative necessity there
"iis for relieving them from some which are now pressing
--so heavily upon them. We are sure, also, your Excel-
lency will see the necessity there is to devise some mea- :
sure for encouraging and developing the industrial =.
resources of the, country, without which, we feel, it will.
be .impossible to uphold those institutions which are :
essential to the preservation of order and progress, or
ven to preserve the social system from anarchy and
mhfusion. We think, also, your Excellency will see the
junwisdom" of continuing to flood the Island with. ,
Foreign labour by schemes of immigration, while the
-inarket is already so manifestly overstocked by Creole .
-'labourers, ., .

Nh .

too well known to your Excellency to need more than a
brief reference. Schedule F., however, exhibits not only
the wholesale, but the retail prices, as paid by the
labouring population. And your Excellency will see
that not only have ground provisions increased in price,
but that there has bcen a great advance in the price of
imported food, especially of some articles; whilst the
price of clothing used by the people has been doubled,
and in some cases even trebled. (See Nos. 8, 10, 37,
45.) In confirmation of our statements we have to beg
your Excellency to compare with the prices quoted in
the Schedule (F.), the official list of prices furnished by
the Immigration Agent in 1858. He says:-" The pro-
visions and clothing which are in general use among
the labouring classes can be bought at the following
r c. d. s. d.
"Yams ... ... per cwt. 4 0 to 5 0
Cocos ... ... ,, 3 0 ,, 4 0
Plantains ... ... per 100 2 0 ,, 3 0
Sweet potatoes ... per cwt. 3 0 ,, 4 0
Rice ... ... ,, 18 0 ,, 21 0
Flour ... ... per quart 0 3 ,, -
Corn meal .* 0 3 ,, (2 for 4d.) ..
Salt fish 0:... ... per b. 0 3 .
S' "Salt pork "o10.-." ,, 0 9 ," 1 0

S.beef ... ',, .0 40 ,, 0o 6. .
Herrings and Alewives ... ... 3 for 4d."
S. he increase which has taken place in the price of dif-
.':i ,ferent articles has ;been greatly augmented by the legis.
.J: 'flature allowing the ad valorem duty of 121 per cent. to.
remain. the same. And as your Excellency has seen, the
S.case has been aggravated to the industrial population by
S the reduction of wages which has simultaneously taken
place; whilee drought has not only deprived them of pro-
;-~M of pro- :

fits from the cultivation of minor exports, such as coffee,
ginger, and arrowroot, but the failure of ground provi-
sion crops has made them more dependant on imported
food at the advanced prices.
The social aspects of this subject, your Excellency will
allow, are by no means of secondary importance. The
masses of the people have not yet advanced far in civili-
zation. Their artificial wants are very few, whilst the
climate is such as to induce habits of indolence. As
long as the people could obtain certain comforts without
extraordinary labour, they sought after them, and were
beginning to acquire a taste for them; but now they
cannot be obtained without an amount of energy and
labour foreign to their habits; many of them becoming
despondent, are also growing careless about the comforts
they had begun to gather around them. Thus multi-
tudh s are now content to dwell in huts which a few
years ago they would have been ashamed to occupy.
Their food is of an inferior description, whilst many are
becoming accustomed to go about, as we have already
shown, in a half-naked condition. Under similar influ-
ences, self-respect being lowered, marriage contracts are
neglected, and an amount of immorality is spreading
over the land most fearful to contemplate. People who,
Then they could dress with propriety, were in the habit
of u ly atteiiding public worship on the Lord's day,
and of contributing cheerfully for religious services, and
o'were mn the practice of sending their children to
ho Iare now' disregarding these duties, and permitting
"ieir offspring to" grow up in ignorance that must be
productive 'of the' most serious evils. 'We know that
taxes must be levied; but we venture to'submit to your
_Exeellency, that they should be adjusted in such a com-
munity as that of this Island so as to foster and encourage,

not so as to retard, the progress of civilization. But 'the
effect of placing heavy duties on the food and clothing of
the labouring classes, has been to check the improvement
which, for some years after freedom, was going on.
11. From Schedule G., your Excellency will see that
we have been desirous of obtaining information as to the
AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS of the Peasantry apart from
the Estates. We regret, on many accounts, that the in-
formation obtained is not more complete. It will be
seen, however, that land may be rented in nearly all the
districts from which returns have been received, and it
will probably surprise your Excellency that the labouring
population do not avail themselves to a greater extent of
this advantage, to raise produce both for home consump-
tion and for exportation.
No doubt, within the last two or three years, the small
cultivator has been discouraged by the depredations of
the idle and the vicious, by which he has been deprived
of the fruits of his industry. But this is a discourage-
ment which does not date far enough back to afford any
sufficient explanation. We must look,, therefore, for
other causes, and we venture to suggest some for your
Excellency's consideration. : Among these we may iten-
S.tion, (1.) The uncertain tenure on which rented laid is
mostly held. On very few properties can it be le sed
'for a term of years; and, consequently, the small growers
i cannot risk the cultivation of produce which stands more
: than twelve months. Coffee, e.g., which takes three
:_ years to come into bearing, and trees of which yield an
annual crop, he cannot plant; he would have no hope of
.-reaping the benefit. In most cases the tenant is subject
to a six month's notice to quit; and not unfrequently, no
sooner has he planted off an'acre of ground provisions,
Than such a notice is served upon him, We alsg know

of cases of hasty and illegal ejectment through the
caprice of the overseer or proprietor, when, from igno-
rance or poverty, the tenant has been unable to seek the
redress which the law provides. (2.) Another hindrance
to the cultivation of rented lands is frequently their dis-
tance from the homes of the people. Their exposure to
injury from the trespasses of cattle is another. And
under certain clauses introduced into the new Petty
Debt Bill, which we believe did not pass through the
Council, the tenant would find it still more difficult to
obtain redress. (Schedule C., No. 34, 45.) (3.) Your
Excellency will allow us also to express the opinion that
the general course of Island legislation, so far from tend-
ing to encourage, has served to repress and check the in-
dustry and enterprise of the peasantry. We venture to
submit that the future prosperity of the colony largely
depends on the encouragement and development of the
industry and enterprise of the small cultivators. Instead
of this, through the unwise policy of thelegislature and
of the parochial authorities, the repair of roads and
bridges leading to the settlements, and grounds of the
.pasantry has been in ma.ly cases totally neglected;
ile heavy imposts' have been laid upon horses and
tsused .by them solely for agricultural purposes.
repressive policy has been most baneful to their
ts, and in no inconsiderable degree ey.lains, in
dur mdgent, the poverty and distress which seem
rapidly advancing to the most alarming -crisis. (See Sche-
tule C.,Noil ,2, 3, 8,15, 34, 36; Schedule H., No. 12 66.)
There is no' denying that' had the people more perse-
e ring' energy of character, they would, notwithstanding
ese discouragements, have accomplished more. But it
iust be considered that they are yet only in the incipient
es of civilization. "We know that religion and educa-

tion must be chiefly depended on for their advancement.
But wise legislation may do much to encourage and
develop their capabilities of improvement; and we ear-
nestly commend the subject to the particular notice of
your Excellency. It is also our opinion that if the sub-
ject of Industrial and Co-operative Societies were taken
up by persons in whose knowledge, judgment, and
ability the peasantry place full confidence, notwithstand-
ing the difficulties arising from suspiciousness and want
of trustfulness in each other, they would be found willing
to unite in them. And should the judgment of your
Excellency concur with our own, we venture further to
unite with Dr. Underhill in suggesting that the personal
influence of your Excellency in favour of such associa-
tions would contribute in a high degree to promote the
12. Your Excellency has, done us the honour to
request our opinion as to the CAUSES OF THE GREAT
creased we deeply grieve to observe-and increased to a
degree which, if unchecked, cannot fail to produce fearful
results to society at large. ,The fact is too painfully
attested by the crowded state of the penitentiaries And
jails. 'The returnss submitted to your Excellency also
Spoint.to the fact that the increase in this crime consists
especially in the plunder of; provision grounds, for the
most part by young and able-bodied persons, who should
be the sinews of society and the glory of the land. .-
: -'..:,We are not without difficulty in attempting to trace
S*- out the causes of this increasing evil; but we venture to
*' suggest the following, among, probably, a variety of
others in operation:-(1.) We may state it as our convic-
tion that the .depressed statr of agriculture and com-
merce; the abandonment and partial cultivation of some

estates; the small breadth of land cultivated by many of
the settlers (see Schedule I., No. 8, Schedule H.); and
the difficulty of getting remunerative employment (see
Schedule K., No. 1, 6, 13, 16, 23, 31, 41, 55, 57), have
contributed to bring about the evil lamented. Many
young men, who are wholly dependant on the money
wages they can earn from week to week; who have no
settled homesteads; and who have not secured provision
lands to cultivate :-these, being out of employment, or
obtaining only an irregular supply of work, and having
no other dependent means of subsistence, have formed
indolent habits, and yielded to the temptation of plunder
from their neighbours. (Schedule I.) (2.) The drought
also, in some districts, during the greater part of two
years, has painfully curtailed the ability of the peasantry
to feed their children and dependent relatives. This has
driven numbers of young persons from their homes to
seek subsistence elsewhere. (See Schedule I., Nos. 8, 11,
55.) Failing to obtain it, they prey upon the properties
of others. Want and hunger do not justify dishonesty;
but unless principle be very strong, they will powerfully
impel men to yield to temptation. (3.) Nor can we omit
notice that there has been a gradual growth of a vaga-
bond class'in the community, from which the number of
riminals has been swelled. '-Notwithstanding all the in- '
[struction which has been given both in public and in
private, many persons mournfully fail in the discharge of
Iparental duties, and neglect to bring up their children in
[habits of obedience, industry, self-respect, and honesty.
Parents too often lose all proper control over their off-
spring at an early age. In numerous cases children
forsake the parental roof at eleven or twelve years of
age, and frequently find too ready a. welcome in the
yards of vicious neighbours, under the influence of whose

bad advice and example they give way to a reckless,
lawless, and roving disposition: become indolent and in-
solent; and, in time, are numbered among those who
live chiefly by plunder. (See Schedule I., Nos. 11, 23,45,8.)
(4.) We have also with deep sorrow to avow our convic-
tion that nothing tends more strongly to promote the
increase of the crime under notice than the dishonest
transactions of some of the educated and wealthy mem-
bers of the community; and the low tone of morals
which, we fear, too generally prevails through all classes.
When any of the richer classes pursue courses which no
honest mind can approve, and when among the poorer
classes stealing is regarded as a venial offence, the effect
cannot but prove disastrous. (See Schedule H.,Nos. 8, 34.)
(5.) We apprehend, too, that the practice of compound-
ing for the crime of stealing by the imposition of fines or
by the infliction of corporal punishment on the part of
private individuals, has had a baneful influence-tending
to lessen the dread of legal prosecution, and ultimately
swelling the number of convicts. Permitted to pay a
fine for some theft committed on an estate, or allowed to
choose a whipping by a person appointed by the indivi-
, :. dual injured, in preference to being sent to jail, ithe
. ,offender has proceeded to other acts of dishonesty, until
he has become an habitual thief. (See Schedule I., No.,8.)
(6.) In conclusion, your Excellency will allow us; to
state that we fear the treatment of convicts in the peni-
tenriaries and jails has contributed to lessen the terror of
,7 punishment, and.to remove the .restraints on'stealing,
7.- ,-which -that -terror "should create. ':The indulgent treat-
mnent till very recently in the prisons of the country, has
had a pernicious effect. Many have returned to their
friends to report the ease they have enjoyed, and the
good fare with which they have been supplied. Deeply

grieved should we be to utter one *word which could
convey the impression that we desired to see a system of
cruelty, or of undue severity, in the punishment of crimi-
nals. We should be the first to protest against inhu-
manity. But we fear the past liberal diet, and nominal
" hard labour," have lessened considerably the dread of
being punished for the crime of stealing. And this effect
has been increased, as we regret to know, by the manner
in which the culprit is often welcomed back by his
friends, being received and treated as an unfortunate,
and not as a criminal.
The suggestions which we have ventured to offer for
the consideration of your Excellency will, we hope, help
to point out measures adapted to remedy an evil which
is so debasing in its influence on the offender himself,
and so injurious and destructive to the most important
interests of society.
13. In doing ourselves the honour of complying with
your Excellency's wish that we should make any obser-
vations which the subject touched upon by Dr. Under-
ll's letter may suggest," we venture to add some re-
on TAxATION AND LAWS. The views which have
Srte. to us on. this subject, your Excellency will
l le (1 )."And, in the first place, we
ifrperfect agreement with Dr. Under-
M. as t a..aearche .genquiry into
l'.. gataion sincee Freedom.
se' ott wMould more. clearly explain
f any of the social evils we deplore, or
pervy present mistakes in the ktture legislation
.he.country, than such an investigian, fully and inm-
cy conducted. .,And, in the prosecution of such*an .
uiry, we suggest that it should specially include an
restigation into the causes of the failure of numerous
.,..L k. .. : !: : : .<. i "

enactments, and as to whether or not they have- beeh
adapted to the condition and circumstances of the inhabi-
tants generally of the colony; as, for example, the
"Medical Bill," the Registration of Births and Deaths
Act," the Capitation Tax," the tax on Heredita-
ments," the more recent laws respecting "Parochial and
Main Roads," and the late Tram-way Act."
(2.) Your Excellency will observe on reference to
the Schedule (K.) how frequent are the complaints
against the prejudicial working of the immigration
enactments of the legislature. The cost of these immi-
gration schemes to the country your Excellency will
find to have been enormous. We believe an examina-
tion of the official returns will show that from 1834 to
the present time it has not been much, if any, less than
400,000.* We submit, therefore, that searching in-
quiry should be made into the working and results of a
system which has proved so costly, and as to whether
immigration labour has proved cheaper even to the
planter than that of the Creole.
(3.) The Schedules and the former parts of this letter
make repeated reference to the high rate of import
duties on food and clothing chiefly used by the laboring
population. We have also ventured to direct the par-
. ticular attention of your Excellency to the great extent
to which these duties enhance the price to the consumer.
'To show still more conclusively how these duties affect
the peasantry of .the country, we subjoin a statement,
kindly furnished to one of our number by an influential
'merchant, exhibiting the per centage of import duty that
each article pays, according to the invoiced rates of the
different articles that are taxed:-
We are not just now able to ascertain the sums expended in 1851, 1852,
1853, 1860, 1862, and 1864.


per cent.
C Flour ... ... ... per barrel 30 20
4C Corn meal ... ... 8 12
I--'-Mackerel ... ... ... ,, 20 60
Alewives ... ... ... 14-20
Herrings ... ... ... ,, 14 20
Salt fish .. ... ... per cwt. 22 32
Beef ... ... ... per barrel 25 0
Pork ... ... ... ,, 19 0
Candles, tallow ... ... per box 12 0
Sperm ... ... ... 11 0
Soap ... ... ... ,, 22 14
Butter ... ... ... per firkin 14 0
Lard ... ... ... ,, 11 0
Rice ... ... ... per 100 lb. 31 0
Tea ... ... ... per lb. 60 0
Brandy ... ... ... per gal. 520 0
Gin ... ... ... ,, 400 0
Ale and Beer ... ... per tun 50 0
Lucifer matches .. ... 125 0
Goods unenumerated ... 12 -50
We think, on reviewing this statement, your Excellency
will not fail to see the necessity of a re-adjustment of
the import duties as at present imposed.
(4.) Laws relating to the elective franchise is another
.,subject referred to in the Schedule (K.). Wedo not wish
on this occasion to express any opinion as to the extent
tp which the elective franchise should be exercised by
the community of Jamaica; but there are some points
ripect to which, with all submission, we beg your
xcellenidy's attention. -Since the year 1840 several
ateratfons in the elective laws have taken place; arid
we .think repeated changes in this direction seriously
detrimental. -,One of the last your Excellency knows
was, that a person claiming a right to vote at elections,
either for members of the Honourable House of Assem-
bly or for parochial officers, should pay a registration
-fee'of 10s. per annum. Your Excellency needs not be
reminded of the effect of this enactment. In 1861 the
z-Z ... . ..... ... ....- -

population of Jamaica was 441,264; yet in 1861 there
were only 2,455 registered voters; and for 1862 there
were only 2,022 to elect 47 members to represent the
22 parishes into which the Island is divided. In fact,
under the Registration of Voters' Act, many of the most
intelligent men of the Island ceased to record their
names, as a matter of principle; conceiving that possess-
ing the necessary qualifications it was unjust to have to
pay 10s. per annum for the exercise of a political right
considered 'by every true Briton the most valuable and
sacred. And even now the registration fee has, we be-
lieve, been only partially abolished; so that while the fran-
chise is professedly extended to every 6 freeholder, those
freeholders who do not pay 30s. in direct taxation are vir-
tually, and, as we think, unconstitutionally disfranchised.
(5.) Repeated reference has been made to the taxes
on wheels, mules, horses, and horned stock. We shall
only add here one brief statement for your Excellency's
consideration. Complaints on this subject are made not
only on account of the amount paid, but on account of
the marked distinction to the prejudice of the small
settler with his two or three acres of land and in favour
: of the large proprietor. The small settler' has 'td pay
S*-' '- ? for his horse or i-ule 11s., and for his ass, 3s. 6d. ; while
7"1 "'the working' stock on the estate,--steers,' mules, and
i.>..A horned kifid,-Are taxed only 6d. per head. The liard-
.ship of this will appear when it is considered that this
Stax is applied to the repair of roads, which the estates
'.: ". arts and cattle wear out much more than the carts and
-' mules of the small settlers; and, further, that the planter
'.has only to -pay for carts, &c. that are employed for the
conveyance of manures, canes, &c. for the estates' use,
,*- ""'(6). Among minor, yet important subjects for legisla-
S. tive consideration, your Excellency will permit us to


refer to the want of WATER PROviSION'for some populous
districts; some more simple and less expensive method
to the small settler for the Conveyance of Land; and an
improvement on the present provision for protecting the
community in the use of JUST WEIGHTS AND 'MEASURES.
The first is, we believe, not only a source of severe
suffering in some, especially in the mountain districts,
but of serious demoralization, exhausting the time and
labour of multitudes in having to journey for many miles
to obtain the first necessary of life, and inducing habits
of uncleanliness, besides an inducement to rob their
neighbours who may be better furnished than themselves.
(See Schedule B., No. 60.) The expensiveness of CoN-
VEYING LAND is a great hindrance to the purchaser. The
surveying, the titles, the stamps, and the recording, often
cost more than the original purchase. But if a new
system could be adopted, such as by registration, the
purchased land would be easily conveyed from one per-
son to another. The Schedule on the operations of the
peasantry (G.) refers repeatedly to the injustice suffered
by the use of unjust WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. We believe
this is mainly because the law as it now stands is not
Forced. .But as the consequence the poor are suffer.
ji fronithe employment of weights and measures other
than the legal standard. -. ,. .
(7). 'We also'take the opportunity of submitting to
yufr.Excellency that the absence of a practicable and
iAely-administered Bastardy Law is the cause of a vast
amount of vagrancy, vice, and crime. ,The operation of
suh a law would, we are of opinion, prove a powerful
check to the reckless sensuality which is now subverting
social order and religious progress to an alarming extent.
Such a law seems to us imperatively called for as. a pro-
itection to the helpless offspring of illicit connections


from the heartless neglect of vicious parents, and .as a
protection to society at large from the physical, moral,
and social evils consequent upon such children being
cast upon the world without provision.
(8.) There is one other subject, your Excellency will
see on reference to the Schedule (K.), not to mention
which would be to fail to set forth the sentiments of
those whom we represent, and which we, in common
with them, hold to be of primary importance. We
refer to the ECCLESIASTICAL EXPENDITURE of the Island.
This we regard as a heavy burden; and, considering to
.how large an extent the country is taxed to sustain it,
we are compelled to regard it as most oppressive to our
people, who, as we have shown, are so ill able to bear it.
Your Excellency understands our principles as volun-
taries; and knows that we conscientiously object to tax-
ation for religious purposes.; But this is not the ground
on which, in this letter, we submit the subject to the
consideration of your Excellency. We must always
protest, as a gross injustice, against the imposition of
taxes on those who dissent from the services of the
Church in support of which the imposition is made.
But we humbly submit to your Excellency that the case
'as it stands in regard to the Ecclesiastical expenditure
-of Jamaica is peculiarly obnoxious. In England, at the
S.. -;, present time, we believe, few, if any, taxes are imposed
for Ecclesiastical purposes,: except Church-rates, which
iare direct and self imposed by a majority of parishoners
(in vestry assembled. But in Jamaica the Ecclesiastical
revenues, are drawn out of the general taxes 'of the
S.. country, leaving no option of any kind, either to indi-
viduals or communities. The course o0 Island legisla-
tion on the "subject, your Excellency will permit us to
say, has been peculiarly objectionable. After the Act of

emancipation had passed, one of the first proceedings of
the Legislature was to relieve those who wished to avail
themselves of the office of the State-paid Clergy from
the payment of fees which had heretofore been in force,
and throw the burden on the general community. A
Bill was accordingly passed, which provided that these
fees, which had been paid at Marriages, Christenings,
and Burials should cease; and that in lieu of them the
clergy should be compensated by additional salaries.
The compensation allowed to the Rectors of the different
parishes amounted, we believe, to no less a sum than
5,300 per annum.
i We have not been able to ascertain, on official data,
;r' the exact amount of the present annual grants of the
i House of Assembly for Ecclesiastical purposes, but on
the authority of an Island newspaper, the proprietor of
which is a member of the Honourable House, we believe
the expenditure amounts to 45,000 per annum.
With humble submission to your Excellency, we venture
to express an opinion that this is a burden too great for
the country in its present prostrate condition to bear, and
speciallyy for the support of a religious establishment
ie adherents of which cannot, we think, be numbered
more than one-eighth of the population. ..,- -'.
SIn closing this letter your Excellency will grant us
permission to'suggest the desirableness of some measure
with view to the appointment, by Her Most Gracious
ajesty the Queen, of a Commission from home to in-
quire into the present state of the Colony, and to make a
Sull investigation into all matters connected with its
government, since freedom, in every department, legis-
SJative,'judicial, ecclesiastical, and fiscal, as well as .to all
other subjects -on which Her Majesty's Government
Might consider it necessary to be informed. 'This, we
think, after the lapse of moral than a quarter of a century


from the year of complete emancipation, to be due to
the British nation, which made so costly a sacrifice to
purchase the liberty of an enslaved population. And
we consider such a commission to be called for by the
present condition of the Island, as the facts set forth in
this letter will make evident to your Excellency.
We are aware that such a commission would be atten-
ded with a large expenditure. But having the fullest
confidence that Her Majesty would appoint on it men of
competent statesmenship and of enlarged experience,
and free from all party bias, who would consider not
the interests of a class, but the common weal of the
whole Island, we are persuaded the results would
abundantly compensate for the outlay. We should
strongly cherish the expectation that such a commission
would not only be instrumental in tracing out the causes
of the evils which afflict us; but be able to suggest such
remedies as might, by the blessing of the Most High
God, restore prosperity to every class of Her Majesty's
most loyal subjects in this land,-" planter and peasant,
European and Creole."
Thanking your Excellency for the honour you have
done usin.allowingus thus to give expression to our views.
^? ^ With every sentiment of respect for your Excellency.
> ; ... We are, Sir,. -
Your Excellency's most obedient and humble
.ervints, (Signed.).
G. R. HENDERSON, Chairman. '-
!ENJAMIN-MILLARD, Sefretary.g -
:--D. J. EAST, President of Calabar Institution. .
-" JOHN CLARK, Secretary Y)itto ditto.
1.. E. HENDERSON, Treasurer of Jamaica Baptist-Missy.
Society. *
iELLIS FRAY, Secretcdry, Ditto ditto.
WALTER DENDY, Treasurer of Educational Society.
WILLIAM CLAYDON, Seeretary to Sabbath Schools.

Vide Reports for 1863, 1864, and Jamaica Missionary
Auxiliary for 1865 ; also other sources,
THE REV. W.. HODGSON, of Vere :-" They are extremely
poor, in Vere especially, and at the present juncture (Dec. 4th,
1863) in extreme destitution. I have never known the people
in Vere so poor."-Votes of Assembly, 1863, '64.
THE REV. W. C. MURRAY, St. Thomas in the East :-" They
(the Congregations) are entirely labourers, dependent on their
daily wages for their support. No improvement in their con-
dition; rather the reverse."- Votes of Assembly, 1863, '64.
KINGSTON.-" The commercial crisis of 1861, and the fearful
fires of 1862, have considerably decreased employment and
raised the cry of hard times."--Missionary Report, 1863.
Many circumstances exist, however, which are unfavour-
able to spiritual prosperity on a large scale, such as depression
in trade, and consequent non-employment of a large majority of
our people, producing an amount of destitution which disables
them from attendance to the Sanctuary; and, until there is an
improvemrent in their secular circumstances, we can scarcely
cpect much advancement."-Missionary Report, 1864, page

SPANISH TOWN.-" Drought, small pox, and many incidental
tictions, havevery much affected the pecuniary circumstances
f he people in general, and lessened their ability to contribute
our missions as they did in former years."-Jamaica Axil- ...
ry Report, published 1865.
IwINSTEAD CIRCUIT (St. Thomas in the Vale)./".In Gordon *
ill the people have had an unprecedented trial of their passive
graces from long drought, succeeded by torrents of rain, which
destroyed their crops, and brought them intb deep pQverty.
any have borne their trials nobly, others have yielded and
turned aside to folly, and others have joined what they call a
Phurch.-Missionary Report, 1863, page 112. .

MORANT BAY CincuIT (St. Thomas in the East).-" During-
the year we have had to contend with many difficulties. The
great scarcity of provisions, heavy rains, and general sickness
have interfered with our Sabbath services and diminished our
income."-JMis.s.iotnar Rcport, 1863, page 143.
"Some not being able to contribute, because of their altered
circumstances, to our funds as they were wont to do, have
become very irregular in their attendance," &c.-Miissionacir,
Report, 1864, page 179.
St. Thomas in the Vale).-" The cause has been tried by the
unprecedented severity of the wet seasons, the scarcity of
provisions, and the failure of the pimento crop, which has
brought many to the verge of starvation. Growing crops had
to be watched day and night, or they would have been stolen,
and numbers have to mortgage their prospective crops of cotton
to obtain food."-Missionary Report, 1863, page 143.
"The temporal circumstances of the people at Watsonville
(St. Ann's, Moneague District) have been of a very trying
description. The wet and dry 'seasons have been in excess, and
their provision- grounds have failed to yield them supplies of
food. They have had very little remunerative employment,
and, consequently, little money; and the enhanced price of
cotton fabrics and other articles of clothing prevented many from
attending the means of Grace. Several have fainted in the
day of adversity."-Missionary Report, 1864, page 180.
"Deep poverty, and not the want of disposition to the fur-
t herance of Christian missions, is the cause' of the diminution
S" in' aamoutnt raised in this account."- Report of Jamaica .4uxili-
.' ry, published 1865, page 9. '
... ,_,GRATEFUL-HILL CIRCUIT (St. Andrew and St. Thomas in the
.. Vale).--"This Circuit is situated in the inland extremities of
the parishes of St. Thomas in the Vale, St. Andrew's, anrd Met-
ealfe, remote from the sea about 25 miles both north and south,
S. The inhabitants are chiefly of the labouring and middle classes,
;who, at an early period after freedom, purchased land and
settled here. Nearly all the plantations have gone out of cul-
tivation, and are now-excepting what is occupied with small
settlements-covered with woods. The people, therefore, can-
not procure estate labour, but are wholly dependent on their


freeholds and rented lands, on which they grow coffee, arrowroot,
corn, plantains, yams, and other roots; but their husbandry
is generally of the rudest character, and, consequently, the
return is not as large as it might be. In favourable seasons,
when the soil is congenial, a family may realize i1 a year, from
20 to 25 for the produce they are able to take to market,
but the majority never reach these amounts. When seasons
are favourable, which is a circumstance of rather frequent
occurrence, these small landowners are reduced to great
straits. The people who possess these settlements-some of
which have been divided and sub-divided by the descend-
ants of the first purchasers-are the persons who form the
larger portion of the members of this circuit. The father,
mother, and grown up children are generally members of.
our societies, and are all dependent upon the produce of
the land they themselves cultivate. For four or five per-
sons of this class to be able to contribute to our various
funds, according to our rule, is what we cannot expect, nor do
we ever realize it; and when the failure of crops is severe, there
is, in many cases, a suspension of the ordinary subscriptions
until the return of better times. These remarks will serve to
explain our present state of depression with regard to famine,
The coffee and other crops have fallen very far short of previous
years; and, in consequence, our funds, both ordinary and extra,
ordinary, are much below what is expected from the members
composing our congregations."-Missionary Report, 18 64, page

l Al.iTH (Trelawny).-" This year has been one of general .
icti!nIn addition to the calamities common to nearly all
dis the cultivation of several sugar estates has been
suspended, throwing numbers, directly and indirectly dependent
themB'11t of employment. In the town the failure of pro-
oinl crops; harid fhe war pi'ices of cotton and American bread-
s, 'have "reduced the class to which most of our society
longs to' a 'tiuggle for life."-Missionday Report, 1863, page

S'"! The past year has been one of severe affliction, and also of
abundant blessing. The troubles of the previous year were
Mly preludes to the calamities of the year just ended. Want
'f employment, scarcity of the necessaries of life, and prevailing

sickness, were among the evils with which our people had- to
contend, and fearful-have been the sufferings of some."-Mlris-
sionary Report, 1864, page 181.
ST. ANN's BAY.-(St. Ann's)-" We have. had a very try-
ing year in all respects. The scarcity of food became almost a
famine. The School at St. Ann's Bay has had this year to
struggle for existence. The time is divisible into the starving
and stormy seasons, which have all but forbidden the attend-
ance of the Scholars from the rural parts of the neighbour-
hood."-3Missionary Report, 1863, page 145.
The unprecedented amount of distress felt among all
classes in "this neighbourhood, has caused a falling off in the,
gatherings of this Brancli."-Jamaica Auxiliary Report,
published May, 1865, page 10.
OcHo RIOS CIRCUIT.-(St. Ann's and St. Mary's)-" We
have not been exempt from the general poverty and distress.
Our finances are below those of last year."-Missionary Report,
1863, page 146.
The decrease in funds has not arisen from want of love for
and interest in, the Missiont cause, but from the inability
through POVERTY, of many of our people to contribute as they
were wont to do."-Jamaica Auxiliary Report, published May,
1865, page 20.
BECHAMVILLE CIRCUIT.-(St. Ann's)--" Perhaps no other
part of the Island has suffered more than Bechamville from
the severe drought which prevailed in the first half-year, or
from floods of the latter portion of it; and the distress oc-,
casioned by the unpropitious seasons has been aggravated by
h depredations systematically perpetrated by unworthy eharae-
ters who will not work, but eat at the expense of their'indus-
rious neighbours."-Missionary Report, 1864, page 182,
In the midst of great poverty and destitution, our friends
S in this part of the Island have done what they could, and would
., willingly have done more, had their circumstances admitted of
S' itV.-Jamaica Ausiliary Report, published May, 1865, page 10.
BAT CIROCUIT.-(St. Thomas in East)-" That during a
year of severe monetary pressure, when many struggled for
existence, we are enabled to send, in addition to" our Jubilee
Subscription, the sum of 45 2s. 41d. shows that our people
act from principle."--Jamaica Ayxiliar Missioznry Report,
Published May, 1865, page 10 "
. -.. "' .''


CLU .I:NDON.-(Clarendon)-" For about five months of the
year great destitution prevailed."-1Missionary Report for 1863,
page 149. At "Watsonton-The circumstances of the people
have been fearfully reduced by the almost entire cessation of
labour on the Sugar Estates. Extreme poverty, combined
with the want of suitable clothing, has induced a few to absent
themselves from the house of prayer."-Missionary Report,
1864, page 185.
BRowN's ToWN CincuIr.-(St. Ann's and part of Trelawny).
-" There have been some gleams of sunshine to relieve the
gloom east by distress and indifference. All the
Sunday Schools suffer nearly the same disadvantage from the
people's poverty, the want of teachers, and the severe rains."
-Mi.ssionary Report, 1863, page 152.
"A protracted drought during the early part of the year,
occasioning great poverty and distress among the people, the
picking of the pimento crop, and the rainy season; the
people, in addition to a free school supported by the Episco-
palians, have sadly decreased the average attendance of the day-
schools. Tabernacles.--In the midst of many privations
and deep poverty, occasioned by the failure of the coffee and
provision crops, and the want of remunerative employment,
* many of our members have maintained a consistent walk."-
issionar t Report, 1864, page 187.
Were it not that we believe the great falling off in our
aionary income is caused by the inability of our people and
ndA to contribute as heretofore, owing to extreme poverty,
B e earness of provisions and clothing, and the general depres ...
n s .rf trade, we should be much cast down."-Jamaica Auxi- "
.fpReport, published May, 1865, page 11. '" "" ..
DUcAN's CIMCUIT (Trelawny).-" The past year has been
of unequalled trials, and we are tHankful that the conse-
,iaces have not been more depressing."-- Misswionay Report, "
1 3, S page15 . M ,
.The past year has been to its most trying; the faith of the
people has been -put to the.test, first, by a long-and distressing
ought, then by a general cry of want of labour, and amidst
all," the enormous price of clothing. Many, for want of
proper clothing, have been necessitated to forsake the house
pf God, and yielding to a murmuring spirit, have forsaken God
n the day of their trial."-Missionary Report, 1864, page 188.

MANCHIONEAL CIRCUIT.-" The first year closed has Icml a
trying one to our people, whiw have long been bearing the
cross."-Missionary Report, 1863, page 1 54.
"The dearness of food, the high price of clothing, and the/
limited circulation of money have, in combination, reduced oun
income for the support of the work of God, discouraged some
of our good people, and operated as a sufficient reason, with
the lukewarm, to absent themselves from class and public
worship."-Missionary Report, 1864, page 191.
"We know it is their poverty, and not their will, which has
caused a reduction in the ordinary contributions to the foreign
work."-Jamaica Missionary/ A v.'iliary Report, published May,

All the Missionaries declare that 1863 was the most trying
year for the people of Jamaica that any of them ever knew.
As the result of a severe drought which lasted for several
months, the crops of ground provision, and of coffee, were scanty
and bad, and this scarcity reduced to great straits those in the
upland regions, who depend both for food and money upon the
"produce of their small portions of land. The abandonment of-
estates in the lower country threw large numbers out oj em-
- .ployment, whilst wages, even when labour could be had, did
. -- not average more than 9d. a-day. The price of imported pro-
_ &sions, to which all classes had to have recourse, and of cotton
.c] h, the chief material of dress, was very high, so that inany
ulobtain neither sufficient food nor decent clothing. These
S ugs following the adverse year of 1862, when the country
delugpd b lon-e in 've-mains, thoroughly

-' "- -- ---- INMDTDU.aL REPORTS.
I3ELLEVUE (Trelawny), Rev. Mr. AIRD, Pastor:-" The year
has been one of great poverty among the people. Greater, it
-is admitted on all hands, than has been experienced for the. last

;i .l


twenty or twenty-five years, and this has made the people
MOUNT ZION (St. James'), Rev. W. LAWRENCE, Pastor:-
"The past year has been, without exception, the most trying we
have had for a long period. I never saw so much poverty,
sickness, and distress among my people. For months many of
them were unemployed, which, combined with the almost total
failure of their provision grounds, caused by the unprecedented
drought which prevailed in many parts of the Island, and the
high prices of provisions, reduced not a few of them to the
greatest straits, and deprived them of the power of exercising
their usual liberality in the cause of God."
FALMOUTH (Trelawny), Rev. W. GILLIS, Pastor:-" Some of
our coloured young women who live by their needle, who are
numerous in towns, and who have few to aid them in such
seasons of general and deep poverty as that through which we
are passing, have not had sixpence worth of work to do for a
long time."
NEW BROUGHTON (Manchester).-The Rev. A. G. Ho, .,
Pastor:-" For many months we were subjected to one of our
periodical droughts. In consequence of this there was sad
destitution of ground provisions. The people were obliged to
buy at the stores all they needed for food; and then the coffee
crop which is their mainstay has been a failure, very deficient
:HIn quantity and of inferior quality. There is little remunera-
jive labour on estates in this part of the Island, and the chief .
ependance in our. members is on the-produce of their small
holds. I state this to account for a diminution of our in-

PoRT MARIA (St. Mary's).-Rev. J. SIMPSON, Pastor :-"All -
vg been experiencing great difficulties from the smallness of
:e ,ages and. frequent irregularity in payment, as well as high
prices both in shop and market, but more particularly, owing to
..American war, in articles of .clothing." _.g-,.* -. .
,.OARROx HALL (St. Mary's).-Rev. JAMES M IAMI Pastor:-
".The decrease in funds is less than I at one %1me anticipated;
.for distress, both agricultural and comment," has prevailed
.over the wholo Island, and even now appears to be growing; and
though' my people living in the mountains are not yet the
first to suffer, they must eventually come to the level of the
dwellers among the Sugar' Estates."

IROSE HILL (St. Thomas in the Vale).-RtJ. THoMAs Boyr.
-" The past year has been one of great trial, the severest,
indeed, in this respect, since I caine to Jamaica. Poverty and
sickness have been very prevalent, depressing the energies of
the people, and putting it beyond their power to do as much as
they wished for the support of the Gospel."
Stirling (Westmoreland.)-REV. ID. FORBES, Pastor.---" The
past year has been one of very great depression as to the con-
dition of the labouring population. Wages have been low
and the necessaries of life high in price, the people having no
grounds Of their own. With a population of 5,000 in the
district, only three Estates are in active operation, employing
between 500 and 700 people. And how the remainder make
out to live I do not understand."
REV. T. BOYD, in a letter dated September 23rd, 1864, and
published in "PRESBYTERIAN RECORD of November, 1864,
says :-" This year, as well as the last, has been characterized by
a protracted drought, so that, in this district at least, yams,
which are abundant at this season of the year, are exceedingly
scarce. These are all the people have to depend upon for their
procuring food and clothing; while, in addition to this, there is
the high price of clothing materials, arising from the American
war, putting it beyond the power of many to obtain even
decent clothing for themselves and children. From these cir-
cumstances following so closely on the hardships of the two
years preceding, you will be able to form some ider of the
distress which has been and still is prevailing in the midst of
.' our poor people.' .; iL-' :. '. l ; S '
S'" is really ve2y painful, on visiting their yard, to find leildren
S ruair ing about stark naked, not from a want of regard to nlecency
A,..- on the part of the parents, but from the utter inability to
p i'cure what is needed. Schools suffer 'much from this state
.:' of matters, so'that only half, and sometimes not that, of the
usual number of children attend; while, from the same cause,
"maiy 'woishippers are also -hindered from meeting in God's


FAIRFIELD FOR 1863.-" The past year has been one of
trial, owing to tihe generally i.revailing distress consequent
on the long drought. For wise purposes it has pleased our
Heavenly Father to withhold from us the early and the latter
rain. All crops have failed-and where the ground gave
some little return for laborious culture, the produce frequently
became the prey of thieves, who have shown themselves in
Great numbers at this time."
IRwIN HiLL.-" The contributions haye proved lower this
year than last, which is scarcely to be wondered at, when it is
remembered how our Islands are affected by the American
i wars. The low price of exports from this Island has made it
necessary for Proprietors to curtail the expenses of the sur-
rounding Sugar Estates, and to reduce the rate of wages among
our people, who live chiefly on what they earn in the cultiva-
tion of the Sugar-cane. God has provided us richly with food,
but far less money than usual has been circulated."
NAZARETH.-" The condition of a large portion of our people,
with regard to externals, has not been good on account of the
drought which lasted for some months, with very disastrous
consequences to all crops." .. ... ,';. *- :-..
BETHABARA.-" Drought and consequent scarcity of pro- .
ions were the cause of much distress to some of our people.
The coffee crop failed to a great extent, and the ground pro-
ions still more. Plundering of provision grounds, and an
over-crowded gaol, were among the sad consequences."




ALL ... ,...,


2. 1

'f -


! *

'- *"



. 1 .








ST. JOHN'S ...

... ... Falmouth ... ...
Bethtephil ... ...
Hastings ......
Waldensia ...
Bunker's Hill ...
Rio Bueno ... ...
Refuge... ... ...
Duncans ... ...
Stewart Town ...
Alps ... ... ...
Spring Gardens ...
Montego Bay

... ... Salter's Hill
Mount Carey
Shortwood ...
... ... Lucea ... ... ...
Green Island ...
Sandy Bay ...
Mount Peto
Gurney's Mount...
Watford Hill ...
... Savanna la Mar ...
Fuller's Field ...
Bethel Town ...
... ... Black River ...
Bethsalem ......
Wallingford ...
... ... Kingston ... ...
..... Yallahs
... ... Annotto Bay ...
... ... Buff Bay ... ...
...... Bethlehem ... ...
*EAST Belle ('astle... ...
Stokes' Hall ...
s ... S1panish Town ...
...... Mount Merrick ...
... ... 1Po'uint llill ... ...
Mount Birrell ...


Rev. T. Lea
,, G. It. Henderson

,, J. Kingdon

,, D. J. East
E. Fray
,, W. W. ebb
*,, P. O'Meally

,, J. E. Henderson
J. Reid
W. Dendy
,, E. Hewett
,, J. Maxwell
,, W. Teall
,, ,,

C. Randall

J. E. Henderson
,, J. Clarke
,, W. Burke
,, E. Hewett
,, J. Barrett
,, G. Milliner

,, E. Palmer

,, S. Jones

,, I. Porter
,, J. B. Service
,, I. B.Harris

J. M. 'Phillippo
,, I. ]'. Watson
,, ,)
,, 11

I ,

i ,- ..,.








fc > 1 ^- -.. .^ .! --. ..^ i r 1' :" s.*4-I. ^

-"x/ ,.;.** .-; ;,.^ *. i.-w g.i. 4 *. ^ T
t^ ^.r-^ ^ ^ 4^.U" .^ '. ;- *

.1t '- .. -* Ba

*Ra :f, 4.*'.,, ."S . ; -* :''

:':^ ^ ^ .. : ;,* ^ "^ :' '.. 4"'*1"

rf . \-,ri p.- ..", .,;. :;- 3. ,f .*.st r s- ra & aio ^aS'


..... V ... ... ... ....Hayes ... ... ...... Rev. A. Duckett
SE non ... ... ... ... ,, ,,
,, Four Paths ... ... ... ,, W. Claydon
,, The Cross ... ... ... ,, A. Duckett
,, Elim ... ... ... ... ,, ,,
CLARENDOu ...... Greenock ... ... ... ,, W. Claydon
,, Thompson Town ...
,, Mount Zion ... ,, F. Johnson
,, Stacey Ville ... ... ,, R. Dalling
Paradise ... ... ... ,, ,,
Sr. TIoMA.vS-Y-VALE Sligo Ville... ... ... ,, J. M. Phillippo
,, Mount Nebo ... ... ,, J. Gordon
,, Jericho .. ... ... J. Hume
ST. MAurY'.S ... ... Port Maria... ... ... ,, C. Sibley
,, ; Oracabessa ... ... ... ,,
r. 'Mount Angus ,, T. Smith
ST. A.'s ... ...... St. Ann's Bay .. ,, B. Millard
,, Ocho Rios ... ... ... ,,
,, 5Moneague ...... 4.. ,, J. Gordon
,, 'Coultart Grove ...... ,, J. J. Steele
,, Salem ......... .. ,, J. Bennett
Grateful Hill ... ...
,, Brown's Town ... ... ,, J. Clark
,, Bethany ... ... ... ,, ,,
,, Tabernacle ... ... ... ,, ,,
,, Sturge Town/ ...... ,, ,,
,, Clarksonville ... ... ,, F. Johnson
Gibraltar ..... .....,, W. M. Webb
MANCIIESITER .... Porus ... ... ... ... W. Claydon
,, I Mandeville ... ... ... ,, ,,



T. L.a.

J. Kinglon.

G. Henlerson.

5. STEWAr To
W. M. Webb

7. Rio Bur:-o.
S 1). J. East.


3nCA. .
E. Fray.

:. Henderson.

44 2

"Among aged, sickly, and dependent." The people are less well
off in everything. The largest retail provision dealer states
that his sales are 50 per cent. less than they were ; so that he
has been compelled to countermnand his standing orders to that
"With few exceptions poor." Many cannot obtain goods and
clothing-some almost naked. Sick and aged especially desti-
tute. Illustrations given in detail of particular cases. Most
decidedly not so well off nor so well clad as formerly.
Especially among the aged and sickly. Formerly the people
built good houses, and took a pride in being nicely dressed, and
most of them saved money ; but now few good houses are built,
and the people are not well clad."
k "As a whole the people are not as well off as they were a few years
ago. Much distress among the very aged ; also among the
young, who are too lazy to work. They are less well clad than
Numbers are very poor, and most are poorer than they were.
Not much absolute poverty, except among the aged and sickly
Distress among this class because the younger members of
families are less able to support them than formerly. They are
neither so well off nor so well clad as formerly, the signs of
which :-1. Children in greater numbers and at a more tender
age are sent to work in the picaninny gangs. 2. The decreased
attendance of children at the day-schools. 3. The falling off of
religious contributions. 4. The numbers who stay away from
public worship for want of decent clothing, or for the want of
such clothing as they have been accustomed to wear. 5. The
'" inferiority of the clothing which most are wearing at the present
time. The people, as a whole, do not dress anything like so
well as they used to do. -
.There is much poverty among the labouring population of this
district, and much real distress among the females. They are
not as well clad as formerly. They wear the commonest
description of clothing, and many are in ragged clothes. -.1
& Especially among the aged and sickly. Many of them formerly
assisted by their relatives and friends, who now find it out of
their power to aid them. Even the able-bodied people, many
of them find it hard to live. There is much poverty, and It is
daily increasing. Much real distress among the aged and
.infirm-the afflicted widows with young children. They are
in want of the necessaries of life. The peasantry are decidedly
worse off. I never knew them so poor. They are not clad so
well as formerly. Indeed, while at work many of them are half




naked, though in the market and at church their clothing i,
decent. It will not, perhaps, be far wrong, speaking of them
as a whole, to say that they now come to church in clothing
similar to that in which they used to labour, and work in old
things, in which formerly they would not have appeared out of
doors. Many of the children are not clothed at all, and are
therefore kept in doors and from school. The aged are also in
many cases without decent clothing. A good many persons
may be met with about the streets in a half nakdl condition,
but most of them are lazy, and ought to be taken charge of by
the state, or they must eventually find their way to gaol.
12. MouNT CAREY & Poverty, universal and wide-spread. Not absolute want of
13. BETnIEL owy. clothing except among the aged, the sick, and a class of female
E. ewett. coloured persons, who, once in better circumstances, are unfitted
for manual labour.
Among these three classes, hunger, nakedness, and the most dis-
tressing accompaniments of abject poverty are to be met with.
The peasantry are by no means as well off as formerly.
1. There is a remarkable difference in the clothes in which thcv
appear in the house of God on the Sabbath-day. This is
especially the case with the young people, who are naturally fund
of dress and personal display. 2. Many persons are kept from
church who used to attend regularly, because they cannot appear
in what they consider suitable apparel, and such as they were
once able to assume. Many children are kept from the day and
Sunday schools from the same cause. Numbers of children are
to be mnet with in the mountain districts in a state of nudity, or
with a piece of ragged cloth hanging before them from their
14 SnonTwoon. There is much poverty in this district. Many are unable to meet
J. MNaxwell. necessary wants. Many children are completely stunted through
lack of proper and sufficient food. As a rule those who labour
on the estates are poorer than those who depend on their own
home cultivation. Distress especially among the aged and
infirm. The peasantry are decidedly less well off and less
decently clad than formerly. There are many persons who, at
a certain period of the year, cannot get food sufficient to sustain
life, and many once well-to-do families have been reduced to a
-J, V' '. state of comparative poverty, and some to a condition of absolute
poverty. Too many are to be met with but half clad, and some
grown-up persons entirely naked. I have met boys and girls
S "'i. ',~~." i n a particular part of this district in i state of entire nudity;
and the comnion reports of ottr Sunday school visitors are,
that as they go about the neighbourhood in pursuance of their
.-.. '-rT. duty, they meet with persons on almost every hand in this sad
and disgraceful state. And there are one or two cases reported
of daughters found in this condition. The change in the
-, ,, appearance of the people is very plainly seen in our congreoa-
4 'ii .',.* ..* *-;. tions on Sundays, excepting a few young persons who, at tis
season, spend all they get in a showy dress or two. What most
S .. now wear bears no comparison with what they used to wear
,. ... formerly; and there are some who cannot come so frequently
.- .. . to the house of God as they would like, on. account of not having
S. sufficient and suitable clothing..
15. SALT RS sHILL & There is a general cry of povety, in some cases of real distress,
MAnDOxno. ... principally among the old, sick, and diseased, who cannot obtain
W. Deudy.

the help they formerly had from relatives and friends. In the
Maldon district the distress has not been so severe as in many
other places, in consequence of its being favourably situated for
the seasons. The evidence of poverty is seen in the excuses made
for non-attendance at places of worship and schools.
Off the Island.

W. Teall.
19. MOUNT PETO & 'No returns.
C. E. Randall.

J. Clarke.


Very much poverty among the old, the young, and widows with
young children. Among these classes much distress. The
peasantry are neither so well off nor so well clad as formerly.
Rice bags form the covering of some. Young people are not
ashamed of walking out naked. Men and women go to work
in rags.
No returns.

W. Burke.
23. BLACK RIVERn. o returns.
Jas. Barrett.
24. BETIISALEI AND No returns.
G. Milliner.
25. KIrxSTOX AND No returns.
S. Oughton.
E. P'alner.

AxNOTTO 1BAY. The distress and poverty among our people considerable. The
S. Jones. peasantry are less decently clad. Some of them have scarcely
any clothing.
BuFF BAY. There is much poverty in the district. Individuals having small
S. Jones. children are unable either to clothe them so as to send them to
BETHLEHEM. school, or to clothe themselves so as to attend the house of God
J. J. Porter. themselves on a Sabbath-day. .
BoiTow. There is great distress and want, want of clothes, nakedness, and
i. B. Service. destitution. Mothers and fathers are crying and mourning that
both themselves and their children are naked. Some of them
are obliged to lock up their little ones in their houses because
,. .they are ashamed to allow them to walk about the streets. It .
is disgusting to see the state of some of the people and children
T.. here. .oi -th -"
.BELLE CASTL & Much poverty; great distress; less well off; not generally less
STOKES HALL. well clad, the people's generally besetting sin being love of dress
. B. larris. and shw. .
SAImsH TowN & There is very great poverty, and that to a very considerable extent.
SLIGOVILLE. Cases of real distress are very numerous. Their circumstances
i: M. Phillipp. are far inferior to what they were three or four years ago ; their
clothing is not so good, either in quality or condition, as formerly.
As an evidence of this, numbers a few years since possessed rising
horses or breeding mares, draft horses and carts, mules, donkeys,
and considerable quantities of small stock, which, from different
S. causes, they'do not possess at the present time. I think I am
within the truth in saying that upwards of 100 of the labouring
classes in this parish, who used to keep horses and carts, have

16. LUCEA,


_____ p ~


been obliged to part with them, or to discontinue their use,
within the last two or three years. I have seen from 30 to 40
horses and carts frequently on the mission premises in Spanish
Town on a Sabbath-day, by which whore families have been
conveyed to the house of God and the Sabbath school. Within
the last two years they have been reduced to a third of that
number. I refer in this statement more particularly to the
Caymanas and Salt Pond part of the district. In relation to
clothing, many of the people who once manifested a blameable
fondness for dress are now in rags, while numbers are scarcely
ever seen at a place of worship from insufficiency of really
necessary apparel. Nearly one-half of my congregation absent
35. MOUNT MERRICK, themselves from public worship from this cause alone.
36. POINT HILL, AND A deal of poverty ; some cases of real distress.
R. Watson.
39. HAlxrs, Poverty prevails distressingly in the parish of Vere, especially
40. EsoN, in the village of Hayes. It prevails much in Lower Cla-
41. THE CROSS, AND tendon, in the districts of Gravel. Hill'and Cross. The dis-
42. ELI.. tress among the peasantry, tradespeople, seamstresses, is to a
A. Duckett. pitiable extent. The people are less well off than formerly.
Much used to be said of their comfort, liberality, and prospects.
Many of the members of the church were better dressed than
now. Many females lived decently by the needle who are now
in a starving state. Many of those once improving in religion
and intelligence, and had been contemplating a better settlement
for their family than the casual depeydance on estates, are now
unable to raise the means. Many are unable to educate their
children because they cannot find daily food and clothing. The
children who do come to school are more weakly than formerly.
It hlias been the custom of dry goods" sellers here to provide
good dresses, &c., for estates, August and Christmas. Now they
meet no urchasers. Many of the children who do come to school
have only one suit. The appearance of some is shameful.
Many of the people had carts and drays formerly working on
S. the roads: they have them still, but they are rotting in their
yards for want of employment and on account of the heavy
.-' 43. F ouBR F.AtI ~" .;" .'... ..';: ""' '
44. GREEYi . .
*2 45. ToxMpSNTs TO -- ..
W. Clayon.-' *
48. STACEY IILLE Ail -have betn residing in this district twelve years, and never knew
49. PAn.AIE4. D the times more severely felt by the labouring people than npw.
R. Dalling. There is real distress. Some are meanly clad indeed. It Ua a
49"". .'. --. t-common thing now to meet with grown up young men and
Women who are as good as naked, so as to shock the eye of
decency. Great numbers of the people have to be eating their
S .. meals without fish of any kind, not having the means of*'po-
curing that article, especially as it is so very dear at present.
50 A This is the case with vast numbers living in adjoining districts.
0-. PoRm MARIA AND Off the Island. .
Sl. ORACasA. *
C. Sibley. ,


52. MoUNT ANOUs. There is much poverty among the labouring classes, and real
T. Smith. distress. Generally the peasantry are not as well off as in
former years, and are not so well clad. Many cannot come to
53. ST. ANN's BAY & chapel for want of clothes.
54. Ocno lhos. There is much poverty, and much distress among the aged widows
B. Millard. with families ; a certain class who have been reduced to want
by robberies in their provision fields ; persons who have been
wholly dependent on their provision grounds, and who are now
unable to go out to labour ; a class of coloured women unable
to do out-door work ; and some who are indolent, and ever will
be in distress. The peasantry are much worse off and less
decently clad than formerly. They have not money to purchase
sufficient clothing. In the town there is much poverty and
distress among coloured females and families formerly dependent
on slave-hire, now having no means of subsistence, seamstresses,
half-inch carpenters, and masons.
55. MONEAGUE AND Much poverty and distress ; want of work; want of money; want
56. MOUNT Nr.no. of clothes. Some are naked.
J. Gordon.
57. COULTArnT GROVE No returns.
J. J. Steele.
J. Bennett.
60. BROWNSTowN, There is much poverty and distress; more than I have known
61. BETHANY, AND since emancipation. Until lately the peasantry in this district
62. STURcGIn Towr:. were among the most prosperous in the Island. They cultivated
J. Clark. lrrlvp -k1i-cl ,offee ni-mento and sunl ar Some nof them raised

14. & MOUNT ZaoN.
0 F. Johnson.
SP. O'Mealley.


considerable quantities of small stock. They were accustomed
to dress well. Their houses generally were good and substantial,
and many of them well furnished. The greater part of them
attended places of public worship ; their children were sent to
day and Sabbath schools. The amount of crime was compara-
tively small; but during the last two years they have suffend
severely from scarcity of food, want of clothing, and othae
privations of poverty.
There is much poverty and distress. The people are neither -
well off nor so well clad as formerly.

There is an unusual amount of poverty. Numbers are' so dAl
tressed as to have been unable to attend the house of God f
* many months for want of decent clothing, especially the ag
S. ... ....-- -3:. .. -:





Thomas Lea.

J. Kingdon.

G. R. Henderson.

1. Want of work. 2. Want of rain. 3. Want of industry on the
part of some of the people. 4. Unreasonable demands in some
instances as to work, and also unpunctual payment on the part
of some of the planters. 5. High prices of, and exorbitant
duties on Nhe articles which the poor consume.
1. Want of work. 2. Want of energy and industry in some other
way when the estates fail them. 3. Deatroying of provisions
by estates cattle, and rats. 4. Irregular payment of wages, and
the stopping of wages for the merest trifles, under pretext of
damage done to the estates. 5. The keeping of shops on estates
by the overseers for the sale of all kinds of provisions, and in
some cases of cloth, &c. This is one of the most pernicious
evils existing in connection with the estates in this district.
6. Want of rain. 7,. Heavy taxes.
Want of work ; want of rains ; want of industry, and in some
cases want of punctual payments.

6. STEWARTTowN& 1. The partial cultivation of estates. 2. Lack of work on pens.
7. GIBRALTAR. 3. High prices of goods. 4. Poverty of rented land compared
W. M. Webb. with the rent paid. 5. Waste of time. 6. Idleness. Thieving,
especially among the young.
S. Rio BuENO. 1. The enormous increase in the price of clothing. 2. A con-
D. J. East. siderable increase in the price of imported food. 8. The
scarcity of ground provisions consequent upon successive
droughts. 4. Reduction in wages for amount of work done.
5. Scarcity of employment. 6. Want of ability or disposition
to turn their labour to other account when the estates fail them.
7. This is said to be the case especially with young lads, wko
will not seek lands for cultivation when estates labour fails, but
prefer to roam about in idleness. ',- .
",.9. REFUGE AND 1. Want of work. 2. Irregular payments. 3. Thoughtlessness
10. DUNCA-s. and downright laziness on the part of many of the young people.
E. Fray. 4. Irregular payments on estates have done much harm. i -
11..MONTEGO BAT. 1. Want of work. 2. Irregular payments. 2. Thoughllessness
L12. WATFORD HILL. and downright laziness- on the part of many of the young
:.J. E. Henderson. people. 4 .
1. High price and inferior texture of cotton stuffs. 2. The fall of
." A .. the sugar markets. 3. Scantiness of the regular rains. ,. A
13. MOUNT CARaY & 1. Idleness, negligence, and the nature of the climate. 2. Enor-
14. BETHEL TOWN. ," mously enhanced price of cotton goods.
E. Hewett. ,
15. SHOUTWOOD. 1. Laziness, especially amongst the young, who do little or nothing
J. Maxwell. during the six labouring days, and who seem quite. content to
get hold of anything to satisfy the demands of nature for the
present moment, witholtt any ambition to rise in.comfort and
respectability. This is evident from the disproportion between




the population and the breadth of land under cultivation.
2. Failure in the fruitfulness of land purchased by the people.
Many of them are hard-working, but their labour profits them
comparatively little, as their small patches of land are exhausted,
Iby ten, twenty, and more years' constant cultivation. 3. Tlie
difficulty of obtaining good land for rent ; the robbery of pro-.
vision grounds during the last two years. I-know some persons,
members of this church, who were in pretty good circumstances
but have been reduced to 1.. a, v through the repeated plun-j
during of their grounds. ".. TI.. enormous price of clothing
and of salt provisions. 6. Low price of ginger. 7. Want o4
thriftiness is striking fatally at the root of the people's pros1
perity. "Very many of them spend what they get during the
present season (ginger crop") in things they could do without
for the mere sake of display, so that to the eye of a casual
observer they would just now seem to be very well off, while
from August to January they will be in the very depth of
poverty. 8. The low rate of wages on the estates. 9. Bad1
pay ; sometimes they are kept out of it for weeks and months
have to walk for it many times in rain; and sometimes, oat
some pretext or oiliher, they are kept out of it altogether.
17. M LDOoN.
W. Dendy.
18. LUCEA. Off the Island.
W. Teall.
21. MOUNT PETO & No returns.
C. E. Randall .
23. SAVANNA-LA-MA4R 1. Want of remunerative labour in many cases. 2. In some case
J. Clarke. roguery in employment. 3. Laziness in many. 4. Want
C, looking forward and laying by for sickness. 5. Inability a
FL'F others from old age and effects of former usage.
24. FULLER'S FIELD. No returns. .
SW. Burke. .
SJ. Barrett. .. ?,. :.
BETHSALEM AND No returns. ..
7 WALLINGFORD. .... ... ,, .
A G. Milliner. .. -'.
E. Palmer. .... ..
ANNoTTO BAY. 1. Low rate of wages. 2. High price of clothing. 3. Success,
S. Jones. : droughts, so that the ground does not produce more than o
I half what it did in proportion to the amount planted. 4.
Price of imported food.
81. BUFF BAT, AND 1. The unjust policy of the British Government. 2. He1
32. BETHLEHEM. taxation. 3. Want of employment.
J,, J. Porter,
33. BosTON. The abandonment of the estates,
. J. Service.

II. B. Harris.

36. SrANiS Towx.
J. M. Phillippo.

38. MounT ManRICK
S R. E. Watson.

41. HATES. -
42. ENON. -
43. CRoss, AND
44. ELIM.
-K A. Duckett.

1. In this district the continual trespass of cattle, for which there
is no redress. 2. A want of proper and convenient roads to tlw
provision grounds. 3. Disease in the cocoa plant. 4. Want of
a steady and remunerative employment.
The chief causes of distress in the highlands of the parish are:-
1. Long prevalent epidemic sickness-measles, whooping cough,
small pox, and fevers of a malignant type ; at one time excessive
rain, since then droughts, and generally unpropitious seasons-
the first rotting provisions, the second withering them.
3. Heavytaxes on the working stock of the peasantry. 4. Exces-
sive dearness of imported articles of food. 5. Want of employ-
ment. 6. Inadequate wages. In the lowlands the same causes
have operated in an unusual, and in some respects in a still
greater, degree. The people have suffered much from heavy
imposts on their taxable property, particularly on their horses
and carts. The owners were usually employed on adjacent
properties four days a week, and used these on the Friday in
conveying fruits and ground provisions from their grounds, and
on Saturday in conveying them to the Spanish Town or
Kingston markets. In this way they materially added to their
wages earned on the properties, and were not only in circtun-
stances of comfort, but were stimulated to increased industrial
habits. On the imposition of the exorbitant tax on their carts
and horses the death-blow was given to the commerce and
resources and aspirations of these people. Having also to pay
tolls, and considerable sums as market dues, in numerous case,
they scarcely realized more than a, shilling for their two day.-'
labour. They were thus obliged tb discontinue their traffic, and
with it the means of adding to their former scanty sources of
support. And although the taxes on horses and carts have been
reduced, and toll-gates have been abolished, market fees arc
still high, and sometimes capriciously collected ; moreover these
imposts have left their effects behind. The horses and carts of
most of the people are gone, and with them, "in most cases, all
prospect of obtaining others. Most of them have been sold, or
levied upon for taxes. The confidence of the people in their
representatives has been shaken by this mistaken policy, and a
corresponding apathy has been created in their own minds. *(
The flood last May sweeping away much of what the people pos-
sessed, such as coffee, canes, ground provisions. 2. The droughts
since. 3. High price of clothing. 4. High duties on imported
food. 5. The low advantages which some shopkeepers take of;
some of the people by the use of short weights and measures,,
and by putting exorbitant profits on their goods. 6. Want of
capital in the country. -.:-
1. Heavy taxes on carts and mules used on the road. 2. Stores
kept on sugar estates by overseers. 3. Reduced wages. 4. The
impossibility of the labourer getting justice in courts of law in
disputes respecting wages. 5. High rate of rented lands.
6. The partial employment afforded bythe estates, the crops being
over by May. 7. The practice of using larger pans for sugar
boiling while the price per pan remains the same. 8. Importa-
tion of Coolies and Africans. 9. The pride and laziness,
especially of the young people,


48. PoRus AND
W. Claydon.
R. Dalling.
52. PORT MARI, AND No returns. Off the Island.
C. Sibley.
54. MOUNT ANGUS. 1. Want of employment. 2. Low rate of wages. 3. High prices
T. Smith. of food and clothing.
55. ST. ANN'S BAY. 1. Wretched policy of the Imperial Parliament in introducing
56. Ocuo Riros. slave-grown sugar on the same terms as free grown. 2.' Bad
B. Millard. seasons. 3. Ignorance of small produce growers in the cultiva.
tion of their lands ; not manuring, &c., &c. 4. Low prices ol
chief articles of export :-Pimento, logwood, arrowroot, and
sugar. 5. Very high price of wearing apparel. 6. The import
duties in proportion to the invoices prices of food. 7. The
possession of ONLY small freehold lots of land, not affording the
means of subsistence, and inducing habits of indolence. 8. The
inability of some, and the unwillingness of others, to take care
of their aged parents. 9. The want of a law compelling fiatherl
to support their illegitimate children. 10. The indolence of
many of the young people. 11. Thefts of provision grounds
12. The want of ability or willingness to raise articles ol
consumption or export on a larger scale. 13. Want of propel
poor laws. 14. Want of medical attendance on the poor and
destitute, and available medical attendance on poor labourers.
57. MONEAGUE AND 1. Floods. 2. Droughts. 3. High price of food. 4. High price
58. MOUNT NEBO. of clothing.
J. Gordon.
J. Steele.
to. BROWN'S TowN. 1. The severe droughts of the last two years. 2. The failure
61. BETHANT, AND the coffee crops of 1863-4. 3. The small yield of pimento
2. STURGE TowN. 1864, and the low price it obtained. 4. The diminution
J. Clark. employment. 5. Above all, the failure of provision crops,
S" the constant robberies which deprived the most industrious
S careful people of the little foo k:e seasons had spared. 6.
Want of water entailing great 'ering, people having to tra.
Many miles to obtain it for drinking and household p
there being neither river nor spring where they could o
this necessary of life; from Dry Harbour to the borders
S' : Clarendon, a distance of 26 milesand from Knapdale to Ri
Head, a distance of 12 miles --
J. Bennett.
65. CLARKSONVILLE The high price of all the necessaries of life.
66. MOUNT' ZION. '
E. Johnson.


67. Ar.rs AND The high price of food and clothing, and the inferior quality It
68. SpRINO GARDENS, the latter, which renders it fiecessary to purchase so much the
P. O'Meally. more frequently, or to go in rags and nakedness till it can Ie



1. FALMOUTI. There is decidedly less employment than in former years. Many
Thomas Lea. persons go from property to property unable to get work. S,-ores
walk about the whole week. The number of Creoles employed
is much smaller, and on many estates the greater part of the
work is done by inunigrants.
2. WALDENSIA. Only a very small proportion of the people in this district can
3. BUNKER'S HILL. obtain work. Many walk from six to ten miles from their
J. Kingdon. homes seeking employment, and fail to obtain it more frequently
than they succeed. Coolies do the greater part of the work.
4. BETHTEPHIL AND There is decidedly less employInent. Many persons wander about
5. HASTINGS. from property to property, and cannot obtain work. Many
G. R. Henderson. Coolies are employed ; fewer Creoles.
6. STEWART TowN Work is less easily'obtained than formerly, from the very partial
AND cultivation carried on on the estates of these districts. The
7. GI eALTAb. properties employ just half the hands they did two or three
years ago.
8. Rio BUENO. A planter of the district says : "There is no less employment'in
D. J. East. seasonable weather, but in severe dry weather like the present
little or no work is required in the cane fields." Another
. planter says : Work is freely offered, but not easily obtained,
Sowing to the increasing idleness of the Creoles. Were it other-
: wise, African immigrants would not have been sought for and.
obtained from Government on this estate." Another planter
says: "At the present time there is no difficulty in obtaining
.*... .* labour. The severe droughts of the last two years have rendered
.. the provision grounds of the labourers less productive than usual,
and they in consequence seek work."
The labourers declare that on all estates there are more hands than
can obtain employment; that on Monday morning, every week,
from tan. to twenty are turned back from each, even in crop time,
because there is not woik for them to do ; that in former years,
S. on one estate in particular, the headman had to go out to seek
for labourers, whereas now there are more offering than are
required ; that on one estate even now, in crop time, the mill
is only allowed to work four days a week ; that after crop there
is scarcely any work for able-bodied men to do; that this last
state of things is consequent upon the increasing employment of
children's gangs, the location of indentured Africans and Coolie
immigrants, and the increase of population in the district.
One planter states that as many Creoles are employed as formerly,

E. Fray.

J. E. Henderson.

E. Hewett.

J. Maxwell.

W. Dendy. "
18. LuCEA.
W. Teall.
21. MouNT PETO, &
C. E. Randall.
J. OClarke ,

even though Coolie labourers have been introduced; but a
this property cultivation has been extended. Another plante
says: There is a smaller number of Creoles employed, moZ
than formerly, but entirely through their own idleness." 0
this and on the neighboring estates there are thirty indenture
Work is less easily obtained now than in former years, because tb
planters say they cannot employ more people. Week after
week people return without employment, and very few me
employed on the estates. The work is generally done by womq
and children.
It is now very difficult to obtain work, especially out of crop tin
Hundreds of persons who apply for work on a Monday mornit
are sent away without being employed. Most certainly
number of Creole labourers is smaller. The Coolies do nea
all the light work on some properties. Work is much 1
easily obtained than in former years. The immediate cause,
doubt, is the fall in the price of sugar, the circumstance that
usual amount of canes was not planted during the past two
and the scarcity of the periodical rains for the same time. Th
are, however, remote causes, among which may be mentioned
throwing up of estates since freedom and the importation
Coolies, who are employed in preference to the native labour
They employ a smaller number of Creoles.
The labourer can only obtain work at certain seasons of the y
for but a few able-bodied men is there to be obtained re
and constant work, year in and year out, which has rendered
necessary for the labourer to regard his provision ground as
the first importance. The labour market is completely glut
and numbers are turned away even in crop time for wan
money to pay, or because there is not work for them to do.
some cases the manager tries to give all his hands a little w
and a little money, so that he may keep his labourers ab
him. On three estates in this district there are Coolies
Africans whose labour displaces that of an equal number of
Creole population.
Very little work can be obtained, as there is only one sugar
in .the neighbourhood, and only one pen. Those who cuit
ginger on a more extensive scale than others, employ lab
to aid them in pealing and curing, &c.- Beyond this there
work. Week after week persons go to and return from
estate near without being able to secure employment. ',
Since "freedom" sixteen out of twenty estates have been t
up in this district, and employment has thereby been le

No returns.

No returns.

Off the Island.

Work is less easily obtained than formerly from scarcity of'ma
and the throwing up of so many properties. Africans
Coolies take the places of the Creoles to a great es
About one-half of the labourers are of the former two cd

W. Burke.
J. Barrett.
G. Milliner.
E. Palmer.

30. ANNo
31. BurrFF
S. Jones;

33. BosTO
J. Se


Contentions, cheatings, and law-suits for wages have disgusted
many of the Creole labourers and driven them from the estates.
No returns.

No returns-.

No returns.

Tro BAr. There are fewer labourers employed on the properties than for-
BAY AND neriv.
EHIEI... Work is less easily'obtained now than formerly, because all the
J. Porter. properties in the parish, with two exceptions, have been thrown
up. On one of these the employment of Africans and Coolies
displaces the Creole labourer.
N. There is no estate labour at all, there ieing only one estate in
rvice. Portland, viz., Burlington, from which to Anerly Hall, in St.
Thomas-hi-the-East, there is a distance of thirty-five miles of
land uncultivated. The people go even that distance to seek
CASTLE & Employment is not easily obtained now.

H. B. Harris.
36. SrANISI Towx &
J. M. Phillippo.

.R.E. Watson.
41. HATEs.
42. EONx.
44. RLI.L
'A. Duckett.
45. FouR PATHS.
46. GaREOCK.'
47. TooxesoN TowN
148. Poars AND
W. Claydon.
S R. Calling.
C Sibley. *

There is less employment than in former -ears, which is evidenced
by the number of persons seeking it, and by incessant com-
plaints of the want of work on the part of numbers willing to
labour. There are not more than about thirty or forty Africans
out of a population of 12,000, as by census of 1862, of whom
3,170 were registered as labourers, and 565 as planters or small
There is a great want of employment since the throwing up of the
mines of this district.
S- -.. ..
Work is difficult to be obtained. Hundreds of the people are
without employment. Creoles are not now employed in cane
cutting, weeding, planting, and watching. Formerly they did

Work is much more difficult to obtain. Only Clarendon Park in
this neighbourhood has been abatidoned ; but the crowds that
flock from all parts of Manchester glut the labour market,
and with Coolies and Chinese immigrants render it very difficult
to obtain labour.
Work is not very easily obtained. There are to estates in this
district now kept up.

Off the Island.

54. MOUNT Axous. Work was more easily obtained in this.district formerly than now
T. Smith. because so many properties have been thrown up, and because
of the introduction of Coolies and Africans.
55. STr. ANNE'S BAY & Work is less easily obtained from a variety of causes. 1. Failh
56. OcHo lios. in some years of the pimento crop, and the low price of th
B. Millard. article prevents owners from cleaning walks, and some from
picking. 2. Cattle being at so low a price has prevented thy
planters from spending more than is absolutely necessary
3. Some properties formerly in cultivation are nearly abandoned
4. The two years' drought has caused a less production of sugar
Thus, on four estates in 1860 were made 635 hogsheads ; in 186
only 561 hogsheads. 5. The reduced circumstances of famnili
formerly wealthy prevents the employment of so large a number
of dependants, as labourers, tradesmen, nurses, servants, seanv
stresses, &c. There are very few immigrants in this neighbour
hood. :
57. MoNEAouE AND Scores of able-bodied men cannot find employment. On Gosh-
58. MourN NEno. and Gayle nearly all the labourers are foreigners. Other pro:
J. Gordon. parties employ very few natives.
59. COULTART GRove No returns.
J. Steele.
J. Bennett.
62. BRowa's TowN, Large numbers of labourers are thrown out of employment fro
63. BETHANY, AND the partial abandonment of estates.
J. Clark.
65. CLARCSONVILLE & It is difficult to get work, owing to the overstock of labouref
66. MOUNT Zrox. seeking employment on the two estates here. The people cor
F. Johnson. to them by hundreds from other parts of the parish. There a
only'Creole labourers.
67. ALPS AND All the properties in this district have been thrown up.
.P. O'Meally.



1. FALMUTrn. Most articles of imported food are dearer. Cotton has more
Thomas Lea. doubled in price, while duties on the latter, taking into
account the advancein prices, are advanced to 38 per cent
2. WALDENSIA. Imported food is sold at greatly advanced prices compared
3.' BuNKEn's HILL." former years. Yams are about 12s. per cwt. -
J. Kingdon.

ir'. l l U

G. R. Henderson.
W. M. Webb.
8. Rio BUENO.
D. J. East.

E. Fray.

J. E. Henderson.

. 13. MOUNT CARE &
- : E. Hewett.

Pork, mackerel, salt fish, beef, butter, cornmeal and herrings are
all dearer.

Imported food is fully 50 per cent. dearer now than in former
years. Ground provisions are unusually high.

The retail prices of clothing have increased as follows :-

be 41d. to 6d., now 71d. to 9d.
3d. to 4jd., ,, 7 d. to Is.
3d. ,, 7%d.
6d. ,, 7d. to Is.
41d. to 6d., 9d. to Is. 3d.
2s., 3s.
9d. ,, Is. 3d.

Nor are goods sold at the advanced prices anything like -o guud
and durable as those formerly sold at the lower rates.
The advance in the retail price of food is as follows :-
Cod fish used to be 3d. lb., now 4d.
Pork in 1863 ,, 6d. lb., ,, 9d.
Meal ,, 3d. qt., ,, 4.d.
Flour ,, 3d. qt., ,, d.
B. E. Peas ,, 4d. qt., 6d.
Herrings, for three lid. to 2d., now Id. to lid. for one.
Ground provisions in this district vary greatly at different seasons.
Average price 10s. It sometimes goes up to 16s. Clothing of
all sorts has increased in price. This evil has been greatly aug-
mented by the Government allowing the ad valorem duty of
125 per cent. to remain, thereby practically placing a tax of
nearly 40 per cent. upon all articles of apparel.
Ground provisions are now about the same as they have been for
the last ten years. (J. E. H.) I do not consider imported food
is dearer. The prices of ground provision have risen and fallen
in past years, and are now about the same as formerly. They
ought to. be cheaper than 12s. cwt.
Cotton goods are enormously enhanced in price. Articles of
the flimsiest description, and most unendurable, are only t&
be obtained at double the charges made during the Ameri-n
can war. The commonest Osnaburgh selling at 4jd. then
now sells at 9d. per yard. Calico formerly at 6d. now
at Is. Prints formerly 64. now Is., and this for the comra
mon fabrics. Ground provisions are dearer than they were
in this district, and 'from the want of rain, and the destruction
of the provision grounds by the thief, they are likely to be
much dearer. I live in the midst of a large provision district,
and hear constantly of the present and prospective dearth of
.provisions. Almost all imported provisions are high in price.
The exact difference between the present and former price
I cannot state, but they are at least 25 per cent. dearer than
they were. Cornmeal would be formerly bought at 20s. per
barrel; now it is from 28s. to 32s. ; salt fish formerly cost
14s. to 18s. per cwt., now it is 25s.: and other salted pro-
visions in like proportion. The enhanced cost and duties

Osnaburgh used
Blue Coating
Do., Long Cloth
Common Rug

have interfered with both the importation and consumptie
of provisions.
J1. axORTWOOD. The price of all provisions here has greatly increased during th
J. Maxwell.' last few years, and is now unusually high. Up in this mour
tain yams are sold at 12s. and 14s. per cwt., and sometimes eve
at a higher rate. At present salt fish is going at 6d. per lb
pork is. per lb. Flour 3d. per pint. Since my residence hea
(3 or 4 years ago) the first was selling at 41d., the second at 9d
W. Dendy.
18. LUCEA. Off the Island.
19. SANDY BAY and
W. Teall.
21. MOUNT PTro.
C. E. Randall.
23. SAVANNA-LA--MAR GROUND PROVISIONS vary at different seasons of the year. Frol
J. Clarke. April to August they are high. Then lower. There is M
great difference in prices compared with former years in'thi
parish. IMPORTED FOOD is far dearer than it was.
24. FULLER's FIELD. No returns.
W. Burke.
26. BirTHSAni3t and
G. Milliner.
28 to 35. No returns.
36. SPANIS TowN & Salt Fish formerly 3d. now 6d.
37. SLIGOVILLE. Salmon ,, 7d. ,, 9d.
J. M. Phillippo. Flour ,, 3d. ,, 6d.
Rice ,, 44d. ,, 7d.
Herrings ,, 4 for 3d. ,, 2 for 3d.
Shad ,, 4 for 3d. ,, 2 for 3d.
Mackerel ,, 2 for 3d. ,, 1 for 3d.
Salt Pork ,, 6d. 9d.
Salt Beef ,, 4d. ,6d.tol0id. K
Clothing, such as calicoes, is not only higher in price, but
Swidth is less. It is understood that almost all impo
articles of food, and the most indispensable articles of d
have lately risen from 30 to 40, or 50 per cent. .
38 MOUNT MERRICK. Imported food is dearer than formerly.-(Same prices quo
89. POINT HILL, AND foregoing.)" .. .
R. E. Watson...
41. HATES. Ground provisions are unusually high.'
42 ExoN.
43. GOSS, AND . .
44. EMM.. ;.
A. Duckett. .
45. FOUG PATHS. Ground provisions are about 50 per cent. higher; they
46. GREENOCK. fabulous prices. Imported food, flour, -rice, fish-al
.17. THOMPSON TOWN from 50 to 75 per cent dearer.
W. Claydon.

R. Dallinj

C. Sibley
54. MOUNT Ax
T. Smith
55. ST. ANN'S
56. OCHo RIOs
B. Millar


;LLE & Ground provisions not being so plentiful now as a few years ago
the price has necessarily risen. Imported goods are dearer.
g. Calico formerly 41d. per yalrdl now is. Fish formerly 3d. per
lb., now 6d. per lb.
A, AND Off the Island.

Gus. The price of ground provisions is unusually high. Imported
i. food is dearer, also clothing.
BAY & In consequence of the drought ground provisions have at times
been at famine prices. During the last two years they have
d. been much higher than usual. This has borne severely on the
people, as in consequence of the droughts, instead of having to
sell they have had to buy from distant places, or they have had
to live on American "Bread Stuffs." Generally imported food is
not dearer. Flour is pretty much the same as before. Rice is
l1d. and 3d. dearer. Salt Fish, owing to a failure in the
fisheries, is very high, and Salt Pork has. also risen.
AND Ground provision has not risen. Imported goods are half a.
BO. much again.

J. Goraon.
J. Steele.
60. BRowN's TOWN
J. Clark.

J. Bennett.
66. Mot ZION, -
'.'--PF. Johnson.
S67. AL-s AND

.y .

Ground provisions during the latter part of last year were sold
for more than double their average price. So scarce were they
that we should have had a famine, but for supplies from Cla-
rendon and elsewhere. At the beginning of this year small
quantities were obtained in the neighbourhood, and prices went
down; now the supply is falling short, and prices are again
advancing. The high import duties and occasional fluctuations
in the market greatly enhance the price of imported food, such
as flour, salt-fish, &c.
A few months ago ground provisions were higher, but are not

Ground provisions are rather higher now. All kinds of imported
goods are dearer. .

These are the plentiful times; but ground provisions will soon
be very scarce. Imported food is much dearer than formerly.
Salt-fish formerly 3d. lb., now 41d. to 6d.





1. FLMrOUTrn. 1. Where estates have mountain lands they can generally be rent
'ihomas Loa. at an average rental of 20s .per acre. The land on one esta
of this district is rented at 2 8s. per acre per annul
Nearly all lands rented by the people are at very long distant
from the places at which they live and work. 2. Very litt
produce is raised in this district for exportation. The di
advantages under which the peasantry labour in raising ax
exporting produce, are (a) Want of proper machinery; (b) IA
prices realized from the merchants, and loss incurred by beige
often compelled to take goods instead of cash; (c) Chiefly ti
roads are often in such a state as to render the transport-l
produce to the sea ports very troublesome, expensive, a4
sometimes impossible. 3. I (Rev. Thomas Lea) do not thi4
the people at present have sufficient confidence in each other
in their advisers for the formation of Joint Stock Compani
for raising and exporting produce. A few persons think aW
associations might be formed.-
2. WAL.DENSIA AXD 1. Land may be rented on most of the estates in this district
3. BUNKER'S HILL from 20s. to 24s. per acre. 2. Very little is raised in this dist
J. Kingdon. for exportation, except it may be a little sugar. 3. Many
the labourers say they are prepared to combine for mu
4. BETHTEPIIIL AND 1. Where mountains are connected with estates, land may
. HASTINGS rented at 20s. to 24s. per acre per annum, but this is gene
SG. Henderson. long distance from the residences of the people. 2. The
exports are sugar and pimento. Owing to combination
the merchants the people often fail to get a fair price. 3.
S" have not sufficient confidence in each other to forza
operative associations.
6. STEWART TOWN 1. The people in my district can obtain inferior land to rent
AND Wood-stock, Arcadia Mountain, Dornoch Pen, and
IRALTAb. Bideford and Hopewell estates, at from 20s. to 24s. -per
2. They export a little pimento and coffee. 3. The peoI
too suspicious to form co-operative associations.
8. Jr BuExo. 1. Land at from 16s. to 24s. may be rented at Bengal,
D. J. East. owner reports that the rent is obtained with difficulty
some instances is altogether evaded. Lana is also
several small properties, but on these it is becoming
exhausted. Bryan Castle estate allows the people to
provision grounds without charge. 2. In this distri
peasantry raise a very limited supply of ground provisi
their own consumption or for the market. Some also
S' sugar and tobacco, but not for export. They only

jr ** *

Pimento and dye-wood in very small quantities. Their dis-
advantages in exporting would be those of small producers ii
competition with large ones, and of the ignorant in trading with
knowing ones who happen to be unprincipled. 3. They would
gladly unite in an industrial society for the exhibition of pro-
duce, but I question whether they would be prepared to form
co-operative associations.
9. REFUGE AND In the Reftuge district, land can be obtained from Oxford anil
Lo. DuNCAx's. Cambridge estates. In the Clark Town district from Swans-
E. Fray. wick and Hyde : and in the Kettering district land can be
rented within the last six months from Windsor. The annual
rent charged is 24s.
11. MONTEGO BAY & 1. Land may be rented at from 20s. to 24s. per acre. 2. A few
12. WATFOaD HILL. manufacture sugar, and find a ready sale, but not at remiunera-
J. E. Ilenderson. tive prices. I'think the merchants at Montego Bay give a fair
price for what they buy. These persons would meet with little
encouragement did the state of the roads allow the labourur to
bring his own produce to market. A little more competition
would be beneficial to the seller. They are cheated by false
weights used by a class of persons who go into the country
districts to buy produce. Most of the roads which lead to the
settlements of the peasantry are utterly neglected, and are in a
most disgraceful condition. Government has thrown many
hindrances in the way of small settlers. (1) By neglecting
roads. (2) By taxing their wheels and working stock. 3. I do
not think they would form co-operative societies, as they have
so little confidence in each other. /
13. MOuNT CAREY & In the Mount Carey district, in the parish of St. James, the people
14. BETHEL Towj. either work' on the estates or grow the cane and make sugar,
E. Hewett. and also attend to the cultivation of ground provisions. In
Bethel Town district, in the mountains of Westmoreland and
Hanover, there are no sugar estates, the people living on their
own or rented lands, cultivate ground provisions, arrow-root
and ginger, in large quantities. The two latter articles are
largely exported. The manufacture of sugar I do not think
profitable. It is always hazardous, involves great manual
:labour, and frequently fetches very low prices. Besides, the
machinery thepeasantry cannot compete with that of the
S..larger players. Ginger is largely cultivated in the mountains
S' of t. Jame and Westmoreland, and mostly sold to merchants
S..nU,. Zsar :.. ,. at. Montego Bay, Savanna-la-Mar, Lucea, and Black River.
Agents are employed by merchants during the ginger season,
and are to be met with in almost every nook and corner in
rro n little shops in which to bartet and exchange. In some instances
the gro(vers are sh-bjected to -extortion and robbery through false
,,1ai,., oul. w 'eights and measures, hat. this.is every year becoming more
S. dficult,. as intelligence increases and education advances. Both
Singer and sugar are very much reduced in price, compared
with the former rate. Formerly sugar realized at Montego Bay
from 48s. to 56s. per barrel, now it only realizes 28s. to 32s. per
barrel. Ginger formerly fetched from 4id. to 9d. per lb., now
it is from 2d. to 6d. Arrow-root formerly brought from 6d. to
S7d. per lb., now only 3d. to 41d. There can be no doubt the
producers of these articles labour under disadvantages because
the middleman pockets a portion of the profits. A producer
sells a barrel of ginger at 42s per cwt. in Jamaica; could he

- -- -.- -. -----U

J. Maxwell.

W. Dendy.
18. LUCEA.
-.: W. Teall.
.21. MousNT PETO
G. Clarke.

4. FIuLLRan's FIELD.
W. Burke.
J. Barrett.
'. G. Milliner. ,
E. Palmer.

send it to England direct, after the payment of freight anl
duties, it would bring him from 50s. to 60s. :-a large difference
to a poor man having only a few barrels to dispose of. But the
great difficulty with the peasantry in direct exportation, is, !
that they cannot wait for a return of sale and proceeds, in-
volving a delay of six months before they get their money. If,
anything could be done to remove this difficulty, it would be
a great boon. There are numbers of persons in these mountains
who have for some years combined their produce for shipment
to England, and who have been materially benefited thereby.
Associations of this kind should be encouraged. But great
care is necessary to prevent misunderstanding and consequent
destruction of confidence. The.people are suspicious of each
other, and not generally prepared for co-operative associations
Yet the effort should be made to organize industrial societies'
and if conducted simply, and managed by those in whom the
people have confidence, would I hope succeed.
1. The following are the properties in this district on most
which land has been sold out, or is rented to the peasantry :-
Richmond Hill, Retrieve, Duchetts Spring, Catadupa, Laplan
Belmhnount, Chesterfield, New Battle, Plum, Mountain Sprin
The rent varies from 16s. to 24s. per acre. On some the catt
commit great depredation, from which the tenants obtain a
redress. Large tracts of these properties are lying uncultivated
in any way. 2. The people grow ginger and ground provision#
The former is the only article of export. 3. I do not think
our people are prepared to form co-operative societies. The
lack confidence in each other.

No returns :-Off the Island.

1. Land may be rented on numerous properties at from 208.1
... 24s. per acre. 2. The people raise ginger, coffee, arrow-t
pimento, sugar, and ground provisions. 3. They are W
prepared to form co-operative and industrial associate'
They have no confidence n each other, nor in merchants.
fidence has often been sorely shaken, and is now destroyed.
No returns.

No returns.

No returns.
O 6RT!8

r. .


30. ANxoTro BAY. All the properties rent land at. from 20s. to 28s. per acre to what-
S. Jones,. ever extent the tenant can cultivate. 2. The people here raise
ground provision, sugar, coffee and chocolate, for home con-
sumption, and to some extent for export. 3. We fear they
would not be prepared to form industrial and operative
societies for want of sufficient confidence in each other.
31. Burr BAY, AND 1. Land may be rented for provision grounds on any property in
32. BETiLEr.re1. the parish (Portland). Lands are rented with and without
J. Porter. houses-with from 36s. to 48s. per acre, without from 16'. to
18s. 2. The produce raised consists of ground provisions and
sugar, but there are no exports. 3. As far as I have been able
to ascertain, the people are willing to sustain Co-operative
33. BOSTON. 1. Land may be rented on all the thrown up properties, at frain
J. Service. 20s. to 24s. per acre, but from the want of money not many
can rent. 2. They raise ground provisions, arrow-root, cocoa
nuts, and pimento. 3. If aided and instructed they would
make the trial of co-operative associations.
34. BELLE CASTLE, 1. Land may be rented on same properties for provision grounds,
AND but not on those under cultivation. Indeed there seems to be
.5. STOKES HALL a decided objection, and settled prejudice against it. Each
II. B. Harris. tenant supposed to cultivate from one to three acres. Annual
rent, from 16s. to 32s. 2. They raise ground provisions, cocoa
nut oil, arrow-root, sugar, and a little coffee and pimento. 3. I
believe they will be too happy to form co-operative and
industrial societies.
36. SPANISH TowN, & 1. Land can be obtained for hire to almost any extent on the
37. SuLGO VIr.T.. high lands, but not in the low lands ; in some parts of the
J. M. Phillippo. latter it is not to be obtained at all. The rent-charge per acre
in the mountains is 12s. per annum, in the lowlands, 20s.
The extent of land hired seldom exceeds one acre, in some
cases half an acre engaged for a year only. Two or three acres
are sometimes leased by an individual or family for a term of
years, but this is by no means common. 2. Principally in the
mountain portion of the district the peasantry raise yams,
cocoa, plantains, bananas, sugar, coffee, peas, beans, pine
apples, together with almost every description of tropical
fruits. In the low-lands, the products are similar, with the
addition of eassada and greater quantities of peas and beans,
melons, and other vegetables. I should think the people in
this district are treated fairly by the purchasers of their pro-
duce. They possess such knowledge of commercial transac-
tions that it would be difficult for any one to defraud them.
S. 3. I feel confident that numbers of the more respectable and
: ; .....- *. : industrious would be glAd to avail themselves of the advan-
S ., tages which co-operative and industrial societies would offer,
and that they would ultimately prove a very great blessing to
the whole of the labouring population. I have no hesitation
Sin expressing my opinion that no plan that could be devised
S would operate to such a degree to stimulate the industry and
promote the temporal well-being of the population.
38. MOUTMERRIC. 1. The people raise ground provisions, coffee, sugar, corn, and
39. POmT H.LL, AND peas. 2. Most likely they would be willing to form co-opera-
40. MOUNT BIERRELL. tive and industrial societies for Imutual assistance and encou-
R. E. Watson.. ragement in raising, selling, aind exporting produce. -

42. H' s.
43. Cnoss, AND
44. EiL.i.
A. Duckett.

45. Fortu PATII:-.
46. (iii.ocK.
47. 'fT'o.esVosTowx.
48. PoRUr, AND
WV. Cli.ydon.
50. STAcer VILLr:.
51. ] h'AI!A lSEL.
It. Dalliag.

PoRT .1AlI A.



1. Lands are rented on a few of the properties at 26s. per anc
2. The labouring people do not export any produce, except
small quantity of bees wax and honey, which a few person
sell to ship captains. They grow cassada, sweet potatoes, beai
peas, maize and Guinea corn; but hardly enough for fanid
consumption. 3. A few will be willing to uniite in co-operati
and industrial associations.
The peasantry raise ground, provisions, coffee, and sugar. Th
exportconsiderable quantities of coffee. Some will be will
to form co-operative and industrial societies ; but gieat ca
will be necessary in their formation, or they will be ve
detrimental to their interests.
1. There are three properties in my district on which land can
rented-Stanhope, Kelletts, and Morant. The annual rf
per acre is 2(s. 2. The labouring classes raise cane, coff
and ground provisions ; coffee they grow for export as well
for home consumption. Some of the people deal largely in t
cultivation of tobacco, which begins to pay remarkably w(
3. I cannot say whether the people would be disposed to un
in co-operative and industrial societies.
Off the Island.

C. Sibley.
MOUNT ANGUS. 1. Land is rented on several estates at an annual charge of 2
T. Smith. per acre. 2. The people have a little coffee and pimento
their freeholds,- which are the only exportable produce, but
is very little. 3. They will be willing to form co-operat
and industrial societies.
ST. ANN's BAY. 1. Land may be rented in the Saint Ann's Bay District,
Ocilo lios. Drax-Hall, at 48s. a year; Seville, formerly 60s. ; for a
B. Millard. quantity now, 40s. per acre in cultivation, and an acre to
cultivated. Coolshade, 36s.; Richmond, 36s. ; Blenheim, 83
Content, 20s. ; Old Banks, 24s. ; Blowfere, 36s. ; New Grou
Look Out, and a few other places. In Ociw Rios Dis
Roaring River, 48s.; Annandale, 24s. ; Rockfield, 24s. ; (
Pond, 20s.; Healthy Hill, 20s. to 28s.; Relief, 20s. ; HI
Field, 20s. ; Thatchfield, 20s. ; Woodfield, 16s.; Soho,
Prospect, 20s. ; Goshen, 20s. On several of these proper
only a few acres can be rented out. I cannot state the nut
of persons in the district who rent, but the following amA
.. received on four estates for.1864, will show how the
vary. No. i. 11 12s. ; No. ii. 19 16s.; No. iii. no iA
SNo. iv. 151 2s. In some places the grounds are remote fr
,-. dwellings. 2. The peasantry raise pimento, formerly 3d. to
Snow Id. per lb.; sugar, 22s. and 24s., now 16s. per cwt. ;
6d. a qt., now 9d. to Is.; corn (a few), 6s. and 8s., now 4s.
... sometimes, 6d. ; honey, is. per bottle ; wax, Is. 9d.
The disadvantages are the export duty on pimento, but
not very heavy. 3. I cannot say whether the people
willing to form co-operative and industrial societies.
want of mutual confidence, of persistent'industry,
energy, and also of education, will prove serious
which, however, with patient teaching, may be modified.
MONE.GUE ANDm 1. Land may be rented on several properties, but it does not
MOUNT NEBO. 2. The people raise ground provisions, coffee, tobacco,
J. Gordon. sugar cane. 3. They are prepared to form co-operative s

F ......

J. Steele.
60. Buowx's TowN,
62. STlURo; TowN.'.
J. Clark.

J. Beicett.
F. Johniso).
67. Ai.rs, AND
P. O'Meally.


S. Thomas Lea.
'. Wa.'LDEsIA AnD
J. Kingdon.
1 I: G. i. liut(erson.
6. STEWArT TowNs.
W. AM. Webb.
Ri8. Rio BLEXO.
D. J. East.

Xo returils.

1. Land is rented at from 10.-. to 40s. per acre per anmun.
2. The people cultivate for household use, and for sale in the
markets, ground provisions and sugar ; for exportation, coffee,
and pimento, and a small quantity of sugar. Only a few rai!e
sufficient to make it worth their while to become exporter- on
their own account, and these generally get a fair price for their
produce from respectable merchants, and get paid in cash.
sometimes beforehand. Some, however, fall into the hands of
dishonest traders, and do not get a fair price for their produce.
3. If the subject of co-operative societies were taken up by
persons in whose knowledge and judgment and integrity tlhi
people place full confidence, they would unite in them. They
woull, however, need advances on the produce shipped.

1. The peasantry raise coffee, pimento, corn, ginger, beani, and
grounmd provisions : some of the former for export, but they
sell to the merchants, and do nut ship on their own accounts.
The bad roads are a great hindrance. Several of the properti,-
rent land to the people at 20s. per acre. 2. The people rai-v
-inger, arrow-rcot, coffee, sugar, for export ; ground provision-
for home consumption. Those who have shipped complain ot
having to wait so long for their money, and having no other
means of living, barter in the island. for what they can get.



1. Poverty. 2. Idleness. 3. Ignorance. 4.Want of labour, are,
we think, the causes of the increase of crime.
1. Poverty. 2. Idleness.

1. Poverty. 2. Idleness. .

1. Want of employment. 2. Idleness, especially among the young

1. The diminished means of parents, who being unable to support
their children, allow them to go from their homes to live as
they can. 2. The gradual growth of a vagabond class' in the
community, the natural exeoescence of freedom, which allUows a
man to become a vagabond if he chooses. The most notoriouss

10. DuNcANs.
E. Fray.
|2i 12. ATFORD HILL.
J. E. Henderson.
[ 0 UNAS

E. Hewett.
J. Maxwell.
W. Dendy.
0. SA.Dx BAT.
W. Teall.
C. E. Randall.
J. Clarke.

-W. Burke.


thief of this district has been known to say that he would a
work while lie could live without it. 3. The small breadth
land which the peasantry are content to cultivate, and whit
not being sufficient to employ them and their families more th
from two to three days a week on an average throughout t
year, engenders in the children loose and idle habits. 4. T
low tone of public morality in regard to the crime of steal
Many scarcely consider petty thefts a sin, a state of monr
inherited, and formerly encouraged on sugar estates, by t
indulgences allowed during crop-time ; encouraged by the col
mon practice on estates of compromising felonies, by intlicti
fines for larceny of canes and sugar, &c., instead of prosecute
according to law. 5. The indulgent treatment of prisoners
the public gaols, so that when the term of imprisonment expir
it is said that many return to their friends, to report the no
treatment they have received. 6. The popular treatment wid
a criminal on coming out of gaol frequently meets with, bel
hailed by friends and neighbours as an unfortunate who 1
found deliverance.
The fact that the people now steal from provision grounds pro'
that they are pressed by want.

For the most part idleness. The young people used to find
easy to live in the yards of the well-to-do people, who rea4
gave them food for an hour's work during the day, especial
they were in any way related to them. This, with the prest
there is now on all classes, cannot now be done. They have, tl~
fore, been sent forth to obtain their own living. Not bI
good labourers the estates will not employ them. They b
no land, nor have the means to rent any, if they so wi
They have, therefore, become vagabonds, and prey upon
provision grounds of the more industrious. I believe 1
numbers of them were left orphans in the visitation of chole
1. Pride and laziness. 2. Improvidence on the part of the y
3. The want of reimunerative employment.

1. Laziness. 2. In a few eases of young children, hunger.

Off the Island.

1. Want of employment. 2. Neglected education. 3. Bad
and careless fathers. 4. Bad training. 5. Laziness. SA
revels. 7. Gambling.
No returns..


G. Milliner.
E. Palmer.
31. Burr BAY.
S. Jones.
J. Porter.
33. BosTox.
J. Service.
H. B. Harris.
36. SPANisu TowN.
J. M. Phillippo.
R. E. Watson.
41. HAYES.
42. ENox.
43. CROSS.
44. ELIM.
A. Duckett.
47. TIuoMPsoN Tows
48. PORus.
IW. Claydon.
iv C. Sibley.
T. Smith.
S5. St. ANS's BAE .
OoRo Rios.
& ,, B. Millard.
4'57. MONbAGUE.
S" > J. Gordon.
. J. Steele.

L ._

Laziness, especially on the part of the young people.
No returns.

N o returns.

Partly poverty ; mostly indolence and vicious habits.
Want of employment.

1. Want of religious education. 2. Want of employment.

1. Bad example of those who occupy the higher ranks of life.
2. Want of proper training and religious education.

1. Generally poverty. 2. In many cases idleness and dis.-ipated
habits. 3. Not unfrequently improvidence.

1. Poverty in part. 2. In part indolence and covetousness.

1. The natural disposition of some, who would steal if they were
kings. 2. Laziness in some. 3. Starvation in others from want
of employment. .4. The system of barrack life on the estates.

Juvenile vagrancy, arising from want of parental authority, which
is totally set aside.

Want of industry. : *:k

No returns. Off the Island. .-
.- .; :

A* -2


-1. In some, but comparatively few cases, poverty. 2. Unsettled
Habits of young men. 3. Want of employment. 4. An in-
.veterate habit of stealing in some.
1. Laziness. 2. Want of employment. 3. Irregular payments.

No returns.


60. BRowN's TowN.
J. Clark.

63. SALEM.
J. Bennett.
F. Johnson.
68. ALPS.
69. SriNoG GARDEN.
P. O'Meally.

Thomas Lea.

J. Kingdon.
G. R. Henderson.

1. Many steal from absolute want, blut few of these are brought
before the courts. 2. The greater part of the thieves are
able men and boys, who either cannot get employment or are
too lazy to work.
Some from distress.

1. Want. 2. Laziness.



1. Taxation and the extravagant import duties on food and v
manufactured articles press heavily on the labouring clasf
2. The people complain that the magistrates are generally th
employers. As Nonconformists, they are compelled, thou
covertly, by taxation, to pay heavily for the support of a Stip
diary Church, from which by far the greater portion of tb
(say three fourths) entirely dissent. The 10s. fee on I
registration of votes.
1. Taxation and import duties press heavily on the people.

Taxation and import duties press heavily upon the people.
duties on all imports are much too high. It is also h.1
make poor and old people, who keep a donkey just to
provisions to and from market, pay so high a tax; alsoI
people who use their horses only to go to their ground e
pay 11s., when Planters' Stock used for working on roadt
not so taxed. Also that a poor man owning a mare, for
he is taxed Is., should be made to walk in cases over 20
and then pay Is. more to the Clerk of the Peace for his
Although the people are so heavily taxed, yet when the
. Estate is near the roads are :almost given up so that
can scarcely pass, and are almost broken. The bridges
such a bad state that horses and saddles have been
falling through. The Minister of the district has coml
repeatedly to the Local Board. Another "gentleman
written, but for some years people have been oblige
pair their own bridges, and in some cases their own
2. They are compelled to pay heavily for the support
Stipendiary Church, from which three fourths entirely

*V '- "^


.6. STEWART TOWN Taxation is pressing upon all classes, and more so uVon the higher
7. GIBRALTAR. and middle ; the people have few direct taxes. There is much
W. M. Webb. corruption in our Petty Courts, which tells against the labour-
ing people. The people also have.to complain oI the heavy burden
of a political Church, which they have to support.
8. REFUGE AND 1. The tax on the food consumed by the people is objectionable;
0. Dc:Nc,.s. and the law which compels them to support a State Church is
E. Fray. unjust.
10. Rio lBu'xo. The 10s. fee on the registration of votes has been only partially re-
D. J. East. pealed. This still disfranchises the 6 freeholders. 2. Thihigh ad
valorenm duties charged upon the dry goods, worn almost exclu-
sively by the labouring classes. 3. The cart license, still enor-
mously high, the burden of which is specially felt by the small
settler. In fact, the whole system of taxation is wanting in the
consideration which the Mother Country exercises towards the
industrial classes. The burden of taxation, which for many
years it has been the policy of the Home Government to throw
upon the better-to-do classes, to the relief of the poorer, is in
Jamaica imposed upon the latter without regard to their being
less able to bear it. The Island policy seems to be also at
variance with that of the Mother Country in laying heavy taxes
on food, and the necessaries of life, which it has for many years
been the Home policy to reduce. 4. But in Jamaica taxation I
can probably only be reduced by a reduction of expenditure ; I
and in my opinion that reduction should conunence with the
Church Establishment. In a country so impoverished it could
not be too much to ask the State-paid Church to submit to a
reduction of one third of its revenues. This would allow at
once of a reduction of taxation to the extent of 15,000.
11. MONTEGo BAT. The 10s. fee on the registration of votes has only been partially
12. WATFORD HILL. repealed. I also consider it a hardship that a man who keeps
J. E. Henderson. a horse should have to pay a tax equal to that paid by one who
J. Reid. keeps a horse forpurposes of pleasure, that he should have topay
a heavy tax upon cart wheels and upon his donkey. Especially
do I wonder it a hardship that though a dissenter from, he has
to contribute largely to the support of a Church Establishment,
which is emphatically the church of the rich. It is my decided
S'e-. opinion that the whole of legislation, since the advent of
Freedom, has been extravagant, partial and unjust, and with the
exception of having provided comfortable berths for official
persons, has not been beneficial to any classes in the Island,
S.. while it has pressed most injuriously. 2. The systems of immi-
gration, the sufferings of the victims may not be described;
but the heavy expense (till recently) was defrayed from the
taxation of the country ; while the object was, or at all events
has been, to drive the native labourer from the estates, and
force him to seek his living elsewhere. 3. The road enactments.
-Vast sums are spent on the main roads, and on those which
-- lead to estates, or pens, or to gentlemen's country mansions,
whilst those which lead to the villages and freeholds of the
people are sadly neglected, and many of them are dangerous to
travel over. 4. Moreover, there is the taxing of the working
animals and carts of the labouring man, at the same rate as the
horse kept for pleasure. 5. The 10s. fee on registration of
votes has been only partially repealed. 6. We cannot pass by
the Stipendiary Church swalloving up a large portion of the


revenue for the support of her services, the majority of popula-t
tion neither derive nor wish to derive any benefit from then.
7. Import duty law ; clothing taxed 12. per cent.
13. MOUNT CAELrY. The 10s. tax on claim to vote has been only partially repealed, I
1L. 1l.TII:rL TowN. 2. The Immigration laws are considered most unjust. Imnnigrants.i
1'. Uewetit. lhaive been brought by thousands into the country, and the very
people who-se lablur they have- displaced have been compelled
by law to pay their quota for bringing them here, and have ti
provide for them in the gaols, hospitals, and poor-houses, anmid
to assist in sending them back to their own home at the eml
of their contract. A heavy debt has been contracted for these
schemes against the desire and interests of the masses, whichK
is saddled on them and their children for years to come.
3. The laws inflicting an Ecclesiastical Establishuient on the
people are considered unjust, and most injurious to the interest
of the religion of the Lord Jesus Christ. The Churches oa
the Estalblishment, in most places, are not largely attended
the labouring classes. Not more than one-fifth are depend
on her ministers for religious instructions. The labou r
poor have at the same time their own places of worship
erect, and to maintain, and to attend them on the Sabbath
day ; and while they support in part, or entirely, their o
ministers, are compelled by law to meet the pecuniary
quirements of the Church of the few and the rich. Th
unjust laws involve taxation to the amount of between 30,
andti 40,000 per annum. -4. The main road laws are c
sidered unjust, because by the operation of these the
roads are made and kept in good order, while the o
roads (the feeders to the main lines) have been allowed to t
into decay, until they are almost impassable in some disti
It is in these districts where the roads are so much negle
that freeholders and provision growers live and labour, an.
is a very serious drawback to the value of their produce
they cannot bring it to the market without great expense,.,
danger to life and limb. 5. Little has been done since
advent of Freedom by the Government for the encourage.
and elevation of the masses of the Colony. It has not
paternal, but antagonistic, except in the annual grant of -
for educational purposes. 6. It must be considered that
administration of the law is principally in the hands. :
class of persons (the Planters), except in the towns; and
F. is a widespread impression that the law as administer
them is not always fair and just. The Courts for the -
cation of minor matters are not sufficiently numerous,
'. they held with sufficient frequency. Petty Courts
always conducted with sufficient dignity, and are freq
*- N swayed by partiality. 6. The taxation of the coia
heavy and oppressive, and more than it is able to bear. l
not be more than is required by the present exigencies
Government, but it is more than capital and labour
called upon to pay. My impression is, that next year it
exceedingly difficult to collect the taxes;' unless songe
commercial and agricultural improvement takes place it
impossible to collect them at all. Taxes on food a
injurious when imposed on articles consumed by the.
classes. The taxes on clothing are also high, and b

B- -~ "- -~ p


heavily on the labouring classes, because they are the main
The adjustment of taxation seenis to be further unfair in the
following particulars : A laboring mania who uses his horse or
mulde for the purpose of conveying his produce to market pays a
tax of 10s. oh the animal, but the sugar grower pays only 6d. on
the ox that draws his sugar to the wharf.
15. SHO TWOOD. The burden of taxation is not equal or proportionally so. The
J. Maxwell. support of the Church of England out of the public treasury,
and the grants therefrom to other religious bodies, are oppressive.
16. SALTEl'S HILL. No returns.
W. Dendy.

18. LuCERA.
W. Teall.
'22. Gur.NE'sIMoUNT
C. E. Randall.
J. Clarke.
J. Barrett.
G. Milliner.
E. Palmer.
31. BuFF BAY.
S. Jones.
gA. J. Porter.
J. Service.

H. B. Harris.

5 'I

36. SPAXisH TowN.
J. M. Phillippo.


Off the Isla

No returns.

Our laws n
taxed for
No returns.

The taxation:
on the lal
No returns.

No returns.


eed just administration. 'We have no right to be
partial loans to benefit individual immigration.

n of the country at the present time presses unjustly
pouring classes, directly as well as indirectly.

'The law requiring those who have a donkey to pay s. ll ,,auni
those having a horse to pay 10s., and Is. lietneM~ wIflii thle
sugar proprietor pays only 6d. per head for each 'Wekiag stock,
is unfair.
1. I think the immigration law and the new Aogg ig 1ar sae
objectionable. 2. Heavy taxes of horses and earte als I. TIe
revenue for the support of the Church Establishmeit, fhom
which the majority of the people receive no benefit. 4, In the
petty courts many of the people have the impression that they
cannot obtain justice from the fact that the magistrates are, for
the most part, interested parties.
1. It is supposed there is generally a bias in the laws to the plan-
ters.-As for instance, a mule on an estate pays 6d. tax, while
to others the charge is lIs., and in the same ratio in other
taxable properties.

* 38. MouNT MERaICK
R. E. Watson.
. 41. ITAYES.
42. EXox.
43. CROSS.
44. ELIM.
A. Duckett.
45. FouR PAHrs.
47. Tu.)ii'soN TowsN
48. PoNTus.
W. Claydon.
R. Dalling.
C. billey.
T. Sminith.
55. ST. ANNE'S !IAY.
56. Ocio 10o3.
B. Millard.


Laws,. as in administration relating to punishment for what is ,
called a 'breach of contract on many properties, so that i
while the labourer may be turi.el off at imy time without. '
knowing how to obtain redress.

1. The administration of the laws is not generally in sympathy .
with the people. 2. In some cases the taxes press heavily on
the peasantry : they are now unusually heavy.

1. Registration of Votes Act only partially repealed.

The tax ol bond fide working estate stock is 6d., that on a donkey
is 3s. 6d. I think the tax should be equalized. 2. Another
unjust law is the Immigration Act. 3. I understand some
clauses have been introduced into the New Petty Debt Act
preventing any small freeholder from claiming damages for
trespass of horned stock, unless such freeholder can prove his
fences are sufficiently strong to prevent such trespass. This .
will bear most cruelly on many of the people, as no fence of any j
reasonable strength will keep out some cattle. 4. The tax on
all, horse kind, whether used for working or for pleasure, i'*
mwt .t 5'6 The t, q1 rt-w.h ele now I believe 't 6Bs. *.

5Cni;Ohn T A Ihr.

Ii ore q niA

a y ecreasing..
57. MoDnus, Tae ties on iported ood and clothing are oupresswiv Y .
-58. MoNTm Napo. a0,000 a year Yo pUppor the Ow m-ch of Englanlsd .
a t req s staq oA 4eed, t
S2Ibloe e .'1s

Pn mptre, the aat
4ai y decreasing.
57. MoxroAnz, The duties on imqorte4 fpod and clothing are oppressive;
58. M0OMT NzPo. 36,000 a year Lo sports the Chinch of Epglandis u14
.lJ.'Oordon. *" 1. The horse tax is objectionable. The Magistratet' Dem
partial in its administration.

59. COCLTA'rT GnovE No returns.
J. Steele.

CO. BnowN's Tom N.
61. PlETTilA1N.
62. STuROE Towm,.
J. Clark.

63. mSI,.l A.XD
64. Gnrtl-.rEIL [ILr..
J. Bcnnctt.
1". MoUx-r zlw..
F. Johnson.
G7. Ar.r. .
GS. i'l~trinO GAeAnDE
1'. O.\'eally.

Thomas IEa.

No. Ir. MO J. E. lyertci-'on,.

The Export duties press heavily in proportion to the exports of "
the peasantry; and as they are designed to meet the cost of
in1migraitinn,, and immigrant labour having thrown them out
of employment, it is unjust to make them pay for it, while the"
import duties on provisions and clothing press with peculinr
force on them, in this time of scarcity of food and low wages,
and difficulty in most places of obtaining employment. 2. There
is, great reason to complain of the application of the -amount1
raised by taxation, especially for religious purposes. Nearly the
whole of the labouring population being Dissenters, 40,000 or
inore are spent on the Church attended %only by a tithe of the
community, ind that the richest portion. '
rices portion :

I consider the taxes too heavy on the people. The taxes on
horses aiind wheels work injuriously to the peasantry.



1. Very large numbers are unlble-to obtain -employment suitable-
to their condition in society, and their previous habits of life.
2. Many tradesmen suffer through the large importation of,
manufactured articles. Many who are unemployed have no
trades. Gneral poverty throws many needlewomen out of.
employment, and it is generally believed that this class suffer
many privations. 3. Tradesmen generally earn from Is. I l. to
2,. per day. Wages are lower now than they were some years
iao. 4. There is a decided lack of skilled labour. 5. All
classes suffer through the depression of the times.
1. There is much poverty, chiefly among needlewomen, many of
whom awre in great distress. Carpenters, cabinet makers,
masons, also find it difficult to obtain employment. 2. Car-
penters are paid from 2s. to 2s. 6d. per day;-masons the same:
neiedlewomcn .id. per day. 3. There is a want of skilled
laboiurirs. 4. The evidences of poverty and distress are (al
keeping away from church; (b) keeping away from school; (c)
the tact that their furniture is often sold at public outcry for
the payment of debts, and the further facts that those who are
owners of houses are allowing them to fall down, because they
have not tihe means to repairthem. 5. The criminal population
of this town has increased from poverty, pride, and idleness.

90 .

* -


23. SAivAmrA LA MA.'A 1 Maui are in want of employment. 2. All, without distt'" ion
J. Clarke. ; 'of colour, are badly off. 3. Thu wages of artisans have 1),r'
reduced. 4. Many feinhs are destitute. 5. The caitingl off
.3. ,.' of religion has led to '.arilessi'ss and indolence, and these have
tended to increase the criinainol lioulo lti4n.
36. SPrAsnr Towl. 1. A great number are in want -of Ci14mplnlyminlt, butlh iitirul) n0ad
J. M. Phillippo in part, principally dli istit strvrants, trade, men, and Viw.-. er-
women. The colomrnd cla-, (f taniilde- a;' les -well were" brought u1p in cinII'aiRtilive comfort, wVith lv'' .mil
S ' servants. T'he town was ou;e filled with lhlgin g-holt ;%, uhili
S. employed many donmectic sc4rvaints ; but the railaiy t5 Ktingl;I t
and the change of thli law courts iha: e ciiiIlh-t' t:kIIn Niv.yv
l. '. "all profit from tihe lodging-liouise kcr ,h>1s," an11141 cipl'yinl l
: from many servants. 2. ()tit of 12,715 ].i'rsi' iii tihe l[, i-II,
there are in Spanish 'Town-
White males, 19)5 Brliowin males, 854-1 lihlck ial'-, 101
females, 227 fuiiiades, 13-12 fiiial.., 17:31

422 2196 27 1V

The tradesmen, 1180 in ninloeer, mostly live in town, animt ..
maybe expected frim 'their niiLl)eri tl' have a v'r lncarii
S,, existence. There are
S33 Bakers :133 Blicks iths
38 Brkhildaveri 3 L',t ilders.
228 Carpilnrs ;: M .i.
91 SlioruIok,:, 127 Tiilhrs
., 20 W hi.ehlwrilht,
Many of the carpientiers, minoi.1, 1n11 'irl;vrs woI'k oui
town. But the Lakers, tailorr, a;tl -len-lk.rvs'work i. l .i
"- :' the immediate district. They do not Ii., e .iy -lop work ti .1.,
forsale in the country, most of that tl. 'vription if work 1,, ii,,
imported. Perhalis a little heavier duty un reladIy.-llind io-
ported clothing nughlt he productive i"f good, if the sta!-- wlre
S ..: ....... .admitted cheaper. The introduction of' a ew wewing mahi iii..-;
would also be a great booI1 to tlihm; for iimany of tlnhse pj',iij
are not fit for agricultural work, and lh,ive the cotnitry to .. C
employment of a less laborious kind in the towns. 'TIln-r
are 1045 domestic servants in the panTish, moa;t if then, in it.
town, not half of them in a situation at any given timi, jf).30 ,1
Females. 772 seamstresses f:re always poor, most of them ini;.
getting occasional work of the country people vbefVore the Aug;t
S1 :. ;.i and Christmas holidays. .22 latiuid esse.-, of ilholi not
;-'- ,- quarter find work. 136 fishermen and fiherwomen, who, o,
tihe whole, do very well, but would do muich bettor if ti-h-
curing were properly understood. The town ii pauper--strick,-i.
SThose who have a little work to do can barely manage to
..'&support themselves, and consequently the old are thrown on
the public to support. There are 422 over 00 years of iii,
most of them receiving )parochial relief. There are 672 in tli;
country, of whom very few get any kind of assistance. Take
half the domestic, servants, viz., -'0, two-thirds of the lain-
U.- h dresses-280, and the smne of tl:e .st,.;a tre.sis, 440=-14410 in
IC^.. the town without regular emply,'nt; and you get i numilib

,V .

of pel' tvlho could be profitably employed in paper manre
thfctute, dye works, or something of the kind, but who rnxus
otli'rwis' continue to lead a life of poverty, and almost .ce-
saI ily iunmorality. These people are really not fit for fiel work,1
:odl i:,any who lead criminal lives, come into the town,'in the'
lirrt instance to find employment suited to them. 4," Tradeg
IiKwn charge 3A. per day, and willnotcome down in their chargers.
T'ilo'nrs :nJ sholiiiakers work by tie job to order.
;. r A n's 1. There are many persons in want of employment, either wholly,
I", y. ,I .in part. 2. The classes suffering most fiomnthis cait- anr
h 'la," <.olou(red female; (b) families formerly dependenton slave-hjr#*
1iw haviii,n no means of subsistence,- (c) seamstresseA, (d) car,
p litC(''s, wlho earn 3,. ; s2. J inch ones; i8s. 6d.,'masous dittoi
T'iher is lack of skilled workimeu, ': '


-. .
l ei,'. fi

111 WEST TNDIES: their Social and Religious ., ,
onlition. EBy Enivxa Bxz U D.UHIL,; LL.D. Crown
s 6, .. (,., cloth. '
"Thle l-t hod, experi ence of a manwho has sepn with his owl-
-all It h,' llt s usi. The 1ook gives us a singularly ar eeabl .,
:, n a f. t hiartiali(, .ud.our, and (' telli nce th which .

London: JACKSON, WALrOcD, d ReiB. gio .::

1" ua. P' y AuEe. I'rita4r, 7, 8,, 0u C B ae, Chaoery s4 BC.