Timber roof framing - slides

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Timber roof framing - slides
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Language:
English
Creator:
Dessauer, Peter F.
Publisher:
Peter F. Dessauer
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.

Notes

General Note:
UF course AE686 : building technology ; Phillip Wisely, instructor

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
System ID:
AA00000046:00002

Full Text

















.In tie hot, wet jungle, walls disappeared and the
roof became a steeply pitched umbrella.


Builders in the hot, dry desert constructed heavy
insulating walls with small openings. Flat white
roofs reflected the heat of the sun.


C
In cold, wet (so-called temperate) climates
builders had to compromise between winter and
summer demands. Dry insulating walls became
variable membranes capable of being opened to
light and air.


Builders in the cold, dry northern deserts used
double walls, double ceilings, and snow covered
roofs to trap air as an insulator.


//
























































FIG. 88.--SIMPLE EASTERN BEARER ROOF, COMMON IN, ALL PERIODS.


- -------------






. 1


4





II
9l




















-41



\ I











1-- .a*- *l



























FIG. 88a.-BRINGING CEDAR LOGS FROM TYRE IN ASSYRIAN SHIPS FOR

THE PALACE OF SARGON.






















TEMPLE


AT THtfBES.


FIG. 89b.-EGYPTIAN PLAN AND EGYPTIAN ROOF.
(After Choisy.)

Argos, and Tiryns had short but sharp winter con-
ditions to encounter, and the Mycenean plans in
consequence, have well-defined hearths. The roofs
were structurally of the same "bearer type
formed probably by logs or poles placed side by side FI. go.-ELEVATIN OF .MINOAN
SHOsES SHOWING ROOFS iLAD TO
over a short safe span. A common ornament in --A. F Af e Enis;.) -
Mycenean and Cretan building is that ofrunnig -


Ha, niuiwumami nnwua,
fll! M ,Ml lfUHUl MMllHIf l.~11#1
Wzz" WAf lmIIH #Ull l~,






TYPE ..
Prtnetal j/ieJs
Bedafhg.


Ir)/er//ed/d/e'


TYPE IT -
Pr/ncfrad J/reifS
Cond mre>s>on
I
I


7he


TYPE mI
/rue Trts. J/ re'sfer


I
iF


I-!. Dl' Im cenre. No
fhw^j


I
I


3-I l Dagr zn
Thrcua/ rSd/ed
by arald/ d/lne


I r-2 ,sh _.. Dah
oarn ,


/Noreytan vIwaode
Church. GCol /'1cern


r-i kegrat
temst re si
a he d6eanr
I


Roof- for ctge
tA w.


I-3 PC/m es gare-al
Sr Creek Teir't/yAe


Cot//de Rw/
on Cracs
N. Wa/eJ.


1r-3 M4Hu a y
Church.


I-4. Horne she/lAr
A.ef A acad/S /S95








I-5 J/o hr by
A/ay/aod (burrh
Bearer Roof ybe


C11-2 ahea
Cialhedmal


QVd Norie a/a/
iadndro on
cadinand..on


Jic/rJori dad
Co//dr. Mfonks
/eybh., Ja//dk.


1-3 Arrh- raced
wibout co/lar. Jrt
eZ/erJ, /7Mancro//.
A/orwich,


We/Af/,ntkr JaoI


X[-6 scv/ S- Column
rcvn6fned in one I/re


THE THREE MAIN CLASSES OF ROOFS WITH INTERMEDIATE TYPES.


.JtOuen





I 5 Trass to lake fwo
in/eriedl/ae or//AJ5


York Cu/d J/a/.


FIG. 77.-RoOF CONSTRUCTION.




ywloliuii. vvirn two wedged elements.












I o /



o, p "ft
qk* eft
wftf


-0


00


4%r


:hanical shocks
Boxes. The early
e ground and
!se posts in the


.
*3


i




an trf cover. (after Manker)


N


The neolithic builders of northern Japan added a
sheltering cap over the smoke vent in a region of.
heavy rain. The extended pole rafters carrying this
cap became a striking element in later Japanese
architecture. (after Drexler)


In New Mexico the deeply buried earth lodge even-
tually became the ceremonial Kiva, dedicated to the
earth spirits.


At Kamchadal, Siberia, the Yakut buried the earth
lodge with pole walls to contain the earth. (after
Brodrick)









































The lashed-pole, thatched-roof assembly






























Sr^
bee'


JR


Ii this ('lonZ. ated plan, farmers could add as many.V
bal/s as lwecre needed for food storage or animal
shelter. TFh' las head vy poles of the basic frame.
crrird thllIltchl'ed roof. First century farmhouse,
fl dlIIrs,\l Vier.lld, near Bremerhaven. (after Hornj


C~Jf
0) Er


4...


r-
,,
-, ~. i..
"' '"'
i,,,

i-~;. 4 ~!:;P.. :~-
~r ~'
"-
~~: ,?: :.


NO




zpan (New York

































V
-'
-
-


FIG. 2. Hut on the Palatine.


Reconstruction


by


A. Davico.


Rivista


antropologia, xxxvIII (95-51).


di


^


































CHM NEY


9,

'tip


* t
a.


AI


*$ ,
U*
.. -.


'e"'I** .
ecmm. ''


mw .-s


9- -^ T ~ .z ~ ~ g
- ^ iiii.iiiiw i.E^'_ 'mmxj *>'t^ *g ^ ^ -






-- .;^ -'
quo--~=
~( UL~S~ ~is
OP qo _O lb~c- ~~'C 5C LI- L
-m4w qpt? I*a
~~bC rt; I qC


dg.-q--
-Im.



TO O,
40 1"Za
1-mowom


-2
--- ,'a

-S --"
,~qmnul~qlp P q


Fig. 34. Farmhouse, Strata Florida, Cardiganshire : exterior.


<$**
V rSS<


d-~, no


-C *"
90


C~L~rj~l


ow,


Z.


C ~IC
r
Cr rr


















W.T.















a., 4L
ah
















II
ort













Ok.4












atfit















Fig. 35. Farmhouse, Strata Florida, Cardiganshire : interior.
41 11 1 f r








r Apr



4NIIIIIII, v % 4c

INI
















Famos -Staapoia ad asie:itrol
Fig*35. 1- -




* .',^4
I.



ik:





o
* .














............ ..........



^ P. . ,, . t ,






ENVIRONS OF LOUVIERS-VILLAGE SMITHY




LUaca -v'" FCL I IC-'- ---y --- ---
ing to a series of widely spaced, long-span portal
frames or trusses, they emphasized the separation
between structural skeleton and sheathing skin. The
concentration of loads upon the isolated points of
support freed the interior for efficient use, and made
possible a more open plan and (where desired) a
window wall.

NOTE
i Cecil A. Hewett 'The Barns at Cressing Temple, Essex'
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 26,
'/ collar beam
1 (1967) 48-70
"scissors rafter
rafter In later adaptations to the Wheat Barn at Cressing
Temple, added about 500oo, the carpenters used
complex hidden mortises and splayed wedges for
transverse tie beam the curved braces. (after Hewett)


transverse tie
transverse
straining beam a

lap dovetail

roof plate


raking strut

lapped raking strut


principal


wall post


post plate on brick footings----






MORTISED


AND DOWELLED


FRAME


purlin


brace or
raking strut,
.- ^


cduc or


plate io" x 1o"


tie beam xx" x 12"


arched brace


. raking strut

sole piece.-


corbel


*


S


































st.d diiremot .
Det friesiska husets takkonstruktion iverensstkim- Friesika kas. Plan, skarnwgr (fef siai AEs i
Det friesiska husets takkonstruktion o6verensstaiim- Friesskah"Plans sk~ i s64Wo e Am d











































Gotlindskt hus, byggt i ski/tesverk. Efter Clemmensen.


j..
'p

/l y
,1b


Hallandsk lada, ,mesula3-byggd. Elter Clemmensen.


I

!ft


Gotlandsk lada, >mesula,-byggd. ELter Clemmensen.


161


4v


J











/_
<^


r
r^s


^K'3^ '^-


4


0


1/


Fr
9,t~F C


.
*4


~";a,
~


'M4
. ^'**^A


3i






Kondo of the Toshodai-ji Temple, Nara: transverse section


122















































/.

41b O* 0 0' *




*v



oeo"
q 0 4b
9I gO
L~ V






Ir ~C-
U cr~u
Y+ a






























K111
Y*3








R s
KK

/ /
VIA F//-;





FIG. 93.-SECTION OF THE ARSENAL OF THE PIRAEUS AT ATHENS ILLUSTRATING THE ROOF
CLAUSES OF PHILO'S SPECIFICATION. (From Choisy's Etudes Epigraphiques.)













A'


Fig. 89.
pactiles;


Vitruvius' Etruscan temple (Wiegand's restoration). A= trabes com-
M= mutuli; C= Cantherii; F= column; T= temple. (From La
Glyptothkque Ny-Carlsberg, F. Bruckmann, Munich; 1896-191z)



























FIG. 95.-ROMAN ROOF CONSTRUCTION ACCORDING TO VITRUVIUS. (After Choisy.)














































27.TheBailiaCos,.nd enuryB.





Ii4 -N
. '





P''',- : ... .

"' :' .O i r*


;~~~,.."/ ; :._.
jL::i i: :,:..

, ,

-;, .... .... 27. The Basih'ca, Cosa, 2nd century B.C

.& ...: r --

:,'i :,:; :-,. : .
,. ,..,: .'., .
'* ."=' "-" "' '."



.: '.,, ..-.,
.' .,: ,', -. ,. .,. . ., , .. ,' . .. ,, , ,.
i.,"' ? : ," . .. ,, : ,, '...', ,, : ,
~.'. .. ., :, I .. _. ... ,.. -.. ,, .
,, ,,, ,, . ,, .. ,.. i, r- ., ., o,
,, ,' :- :.. .,., ', ,.: : :,, f. ',


:-, i..'
F ',.',, ', ..

t, .; '-;.. .
)si'- *





l, .-

e^'. 'i': *
. ,.. ..,. .

.' ,. i _,
,,, ~. . .


.:iF
~c, ;~,~1


1





1;IG;. 24. -
poin'on (






















FIG. 25.
poinmon
(d'aprbs


FIG. 26.
doubles


ertins sa.ls

I iET).


- Fermes d6-
(d'apr6s RoN-
b ELET).


-,.__.------. | -~ --------^t j7
.. _^--~" -'-"--- 3" --- ----- - -: -"- ji-"**- -ii -----; -, .,. .--- -- -:..-
-N
** **~r ^*''*"*-'-'.*-^^^.'^C: ^-^."^^ ^ ^ K^ ^7^ ^^r.^


=j- ^-3
I= litB~






























1


FIG. 81.-KING-POST


TRUSSES


AND QUEEN-POST
COMPARED.


RooF





























































IG. 95a.--BASILIA OF VITRUVIUS
.(After H. L. Warren.)


AT FANO.


--- .1











II


& n7h eon Porhco


<--- 78


- 6
-6 ,1erJ
" PterJ


78 4


the wa /s


Jt


_
--


01%


I


Pa ulst oulflcte


Old












-. '


-.8


~- +l-,f ,r. + 1., ,,, *-



.. '- -" -\ .e- ~ ~ .
- -- - .




.* ^ ..- ..--. ^ :-. -. -. ." *-' -.
,- .. .- ."




.o. .*: : _. + ^ '- .i *: '.. *^ .. .. y .....
' : ;. . .* ._-.' ^ : ..' ^-.,'** -
.....t ,... . . ., .

,- ..
-. -. . -

^ ; ^ ':* -' *.^- *2 5-- : **
-'. .. "--. .* . .. .
.-". -.-,,.. *-I .
.5 ..-

'C C~"-, .- '* -* -' *- * ".. -; -
--. s. : .. -.
^^^ ^I^l: ^r
.~~~j 'tL-.t -


"L ~jt4~- -C i s
i rW-' '-p
--A- 1


* :fl
z~T'
V~ ~J r


F..
-*


4-


4. .. a..dil


L- I
' If. ,j
-,.. +


I'll


ILL. 43. Perspective Section of S. Paolo, fJ.m., Rome. (rom DA
i ---


I, a. \
981 .*t^?


a. I'-.


at-C~


-.
p.


Mj


-.- ..-. -


! .


. IL


T+ I t


i


1, vl

























1:
!!C















Al l















wt
~,

























,v













SM6,-
,,~~~ : ,. ,: .
,'7.. c.





q'
., .. ,
. .. .. ... [" ;;/ ." ,.
.~

,
,.,,... ,o ,..,i: :,.. .,,, o' ..,.],



,;,
,., liS ~~ I L'r ":o .!;
,, i ,'. 1 ";o
t ; i :, ; ; i
,. .. .. .







La ": : ": : I;'L
k -r , ,,. 4 i. .


r wA'r .wk,





















































































S I


"~ .c;5~'F~;
id i
'
*"'"-' ~'


Iwl,





















Kyrkan i Lomello, Lombardiet. Ca 1025. Efter Kings-
ley Porter. Langhusets system i plan och sektioner. ,
- Sta Prassede i Rom. Tvarbagesystem och d tak
av samma typ som i Lomello, dsk&dliggjort i per-
spektiv. Jamfir fig. sid. 24.



























The long curved bents or blades used in arched
braced timber roofs were derived from the frequent
use of 'crucks' or curved braces in barns.


The 'cruck' had long been used in primitive barns
and shelters throughout Europe to replace straight
rafters, as in this Ukrainian peasant hut.


The original battle ami dlu b i l)' t, I 'r r 1 arl, in tfhi,
crHck contructiott at M nIl; Kilnl ta, li,, 'r
vt,, tl,,, -,,,I I \ l, 1 ; .L .... t.


W/hln thi Hitl cr nl ck ; ,adi lti to irch braced roof
(o I;ttlntI iol it g .vc a rigit i co'tliction to the wall.


















(3'ourre
7/er orc/s4,re


2hr o/n Crwc4e
/rnco/ns4'ire


FIG. I02.-ENGLISH
BINING WITH THE
S(After


CRUCK TRADITION CO-
BEARER TRADITION.
Innocent.)

























10I.-ENGLISH BEARER-BEAM ROOF, SWARDESTONE
CHURCH, NORFOLK. (After Brandon.)


.IG.











ri3'edm uwe c/ s


Becarer


S


(//L2~'c?777


used cu


Sz7e




T IIAbE.R ROOFS


THATCH. '





5'
1.*




EARLY ENGLISH TIE-33EAI\.
FI4. 7s5


IV


13.
/I
IIi


13.


'6.


8


Ak


IPER-PE hDICUL An I
DEPRE SSE.D3 TIE- 13EAM .


FiG.76








































KEY


A ground sill t
B lijncital posts
C somerorwallnlate
D bressumer
E posts
F studs
G studs,puncheons
or quarters
H crossquarters
J braces
K beams
I. joists
M ptineiWa rafters
N riWde Piece
0 common rfters


P purlins
SI}king-osts
S tie-beams
T braces
V queen.-otts
W collars and
X J ind-beams
Y lathe
Z fi ngs
Cirt s s





ti ACEDj


R ACED.
"O OO.






m-3EA M


STRESS. /" "
16.

3.

DECORATE.EO


OR*


TRUSSED


F


COLLAf


RAFTER


'~


77


I6


II


16.


Scisso A-


F


ROOF


40


78


3.


.




- BE, AN


I












I'4


'7


HAMMER

FIG1


-I3EAM ROOF

79


I.


16.


OOUB3L.


17.


6.


?.


I- M-


-BEArA ROOF


F


.1


,f
:,,



* )i
*^

* ,

"I


I C. 80


SINGLE.


































68


FIG. 104.-SKETCII


SECTION


AND PLAN


( I.
-C'.


OF WESTMINSTER HALL


SECOND ROOF, SHOWING BUTTRESSES.


- -- - -111111-111 1 t--



















Juncr/on & ~Cfn 7urussedc
\Vfr& and ccrOSaBeam


~C1SbS


7T.


Jecion, P.


10 12545
I""I ^/e


1 n Y 4

for 7u .


1c/fkon


FIG. I04a.-WESTMINSTER HALL. M MBERS OF THE ARC AND
(After Re-port by Sir a h -Bai :' -
i--, .-_ .'_.-- -.., -"' ~f^ j -^" ;' ~ - 'f J ^ t~f^ **t ~ ifi~ fB ^ ^


XX .


Iai eto


jr


I


Fw,7_177


i


zzzl














50OLE-Pi ECI


El
-I
I'it


,r 0
i m I
'I!
1W,'


S A-. .*
1S^C1,"-7
+( ORc'l


r


|Of
i.,

1 O-
8---1,
It
't- -'


DEVELOPMENT
OF H AMMER-


BEAM3


F ROV\


TRUSSED
7RA T SS. .
RAF T ere


F


THE PPINCtPA L


OF


MEvDIE.VAL


TI13rE 11


W THI


HEIR.


tAAI(N


PAOOTS
PARTS


1. RI GE


PIECES


2.PURL N5 .
3.W~ALL- PL-ATES.


-1E AFA5.


9. KING-POST.
10. ST RuT.
(I, PR.I CIPAL RAFTERS
1i.QU ,EN,4POSTS .


5.5 M PLE- BRACES 13. PARAPETS .


6. ARCHED-13R


AC S.


7.rX ALL- PLKTE.S
. CORE. LS .


. 4-.COLLAR-BE AMS.


tSo. SIDE


16.


-POST5


SOLE PIECES.


17. HAAMER-BEAMS.


_ __ -- .~ __


4p 8


KI tOD5


4.TIE.




GOTHIC PERIOD


441


S G m Z H l m I t
FIOURE 4oz-Romanesque and Gothic timber roofs: (A) early Romanesque (Italian): rafters resting on
extrados.of vault; (B) Romanesque (French): tie-beam introduced to relieve vault; (c) Romanesque (French):
collar-beam used instead of tie-beam; (D) Gothic (French): diagonal braces used instead of tie-beam; (E) early
Gothic roof of Peterborough cathedral with wooden ceiling; (F) Gothic (English): trussed rafter roof with
collar-beam; (G) Gothic (English): curved-brace roof with collar-beam; (H) late Gothic (English): so-called
tie-beam roof. Note low pitch; (I) late Gothic (English): hammer-beam roof.


A


D


kt
















































Fig. 194


Fig. 191


U7


Fig. 1o96


DQ U UN


Fig. 192


F.i(- 19 A' 196. - Maqcpit-
tes ('t croqtlis de divtrscs
li;il)cpniitc s ('11n Mo,'Cn Aige
(dcIrl 'sitcS itix i4IgeCs I !() 't i 70.


/


/


Il'if, i i


----


'
;. .

^ <


































[H. B. L .
English or Park-grown Oak. French or Forest-grown Oak.

FIG. 14.-COMPARISON OF THE ENGLISH AND FRENCH-GROWN OAK.





tLim m f tlLm


Jec^X.


75t enms
15"Ce,7ury
Clr-


A


M


Jec y.7


---.... I I I -4-5


G


iii|
[From Viollet-le-J
FIG 98.--1iS. (;OTIIIC "TRUSS WITH TENSION MEMBERS FULLY RECOGNIZED.


POf


..K







l/f,'-


* ~/I.

(


I' I' I


( I',


j'ir1yt I


II' ''
i.r


Ili,
''
I.'''


L)wuWug


II ,


*I
I


1,1 ,111 1


.; A,.


I^^^v ^ ( S;jlk;





s~ "I/ %


TFI'~/'/1// 'II


k I


F


I


I


tee ~-~91PL"
-----~


fc^?


. "11


11 A


~i~ vr

























































A~ ~:


V


'lit.


S\ I


I,


I----;-
--~--
,,


li-

~3-.3


..T


I


;ii


-its~L~, _,_


i?

















i ji



AMP,~


0,



111111111poo

~-~--~- ~ ~ t~ '~i~~tl\'~G~~S3 ~ INb




jv.
to or~
1R41

















4 N' 4
4,'4 N3~







123








'9



I.

9I:1







II





r





A





it, 1v
S..


A Choeur


B- Choeur


Intrados et extrados


des votes


















- .4
*


4- ,
A--- S


r. I:: ~ t~ flr:'r~C + C'


ft' 8' ~I Lr. t"


iS
i





;:9*~
~s: : ~''


OI L.


eat
IXIM
0.




'*'> '


r" <*
f-5,




































FIG. 215 (ci-dessius). Cliarpente (Ie l'cglise
de la Madeleine a Troyes (Aube), x I e si'cle,
1'une des plus anciennes qui existent (en(oire
en France (Cl. H, Deneul).





FIG. 217 (ci-coni/'). -- Catlldrale Saillt-
Gatien de Tours : aspect de la 'charpente
(la forget) (xIee et xive si&cles), en chine
et chataignier, (iivre de Guillaumti ILe
Roux. Restauration d(Ie l'entreprise Blreton
A. Bo rgtrcil (I.-et-L.).


EIG. 218 (ci-dessous). .Chateau de Laval
(Maycnne) : C(arplnte de la Tour. (Cl.
A. Irliiid a Nalntes).


FIG.- 216. D.--- detail d, la charpente des combles
ide la cA:ithb6ral(l e Amiens.


1 ;i \


















I


r4,





























'f"
y- t,




I,..











ek-.a. "-








Osterlars rundkyrka, Bornholm. Skak ca 1:40, 0

































!
,t
.


I .'L.A FilMIcE.
S;,,rIG. 345. L flclic en c irs d(e rcstatu-


DIE SAINT-BI.^NI(GNIE DIE


SDIJON .
Fl;, 346. L-a flIche testaur6e..


.4




: rhc courtyards of many Italian palaces.
Curved roofs with built-up timbers are also found on the town-halls of Padua
:;36) and Vicenza (1560), and in sundry other buildings in north Italy. In
i* ance this type seems to have been evolved independently butconcurrently.
Similarly the double-slope or mansard roof (p 253) appeared in Italy and Eng-


S84: --- -


_ ,__ ----32 7?'


FIGURE 16i--Renaissance carpentry in Italy. (Left) Centringfor the main aches fSt r ;
(right) roof of the church of Santa Maria &i Miracoli, Venicr.


CO'ITRZED



































































FIGURE i6S.-French Renaissance dome-construction. (Left) Doube d om f tof Chr. (.u

Paris, 635-56; (centre) doubdoome of the Churchof Va-deGrce, Pa-i *k" .'

dome of the second Chirch ofthe/ hIalidesi Park, 169316.. FW


< .


i

i
--


lv .
ii
m


st
~I

























FIGURE 163-Mansard


with parapet
eaves gutter


gutter on
on right s


It


roofs.
9ft side


(Above) Simple type,
, and with dormer and


(below) trussed type with
gutter.


parapet


;ide ;

























VARIANTE A\
SAILLIE FORMAANT


/EC
AUVENT.


FIG. 150 bis.


- Lucarne


< la capucine .





















1a






ENGLAND



* eCROS BRACLNG


O--6----- o


FIGURE 174--Design forth composite roof-trusses of the Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford, y Wren. (Abo
Elevation of a single truss; (below) cross-bracing between the trsses.






fy\ ^H

*: *


4 4


I


,..


-~eu,








The Early Domestic Architecture of Connecticut


Tv R. LI A/


fR.I CAPAL
tRATTL L


F AMl A


CAL


Pfor


LA Vt


& V


Fly IlA1


i


7? -T I


/


ZJI. J(7


FIGURE


-Lo


J


or
7 P


52.


46































tAl T lf t -


Itl Zi 4
14 -Ci


, Yr zt. so'


TvaiA


I. To1l


ix'




I t~*


to provide a bearing for


the common


ii


ratters


or Ine rouu.


0o O


PIC AL


GA!MBRLL


fy/ ML


-Ti


A G


I I LWU pW --Tjull b


:i
;i
:i
1
.i
ri


I,


T L


f KA MI












*

I r
': ^ *<




** ; '

I





'_


4 J. -L

ia~~Fii


.ll


'I,


'a 'Jg
I



'I


.'' I. -
n nL i




1^1',,,,----
1.P4 ";1-







h^I ' *'
,-..



,-,-,,I -


"A,


= di


4T


'*'*
-';SrF



*1


Li
i

i


.r
C'
a r0
:

"~


i '


PLAN, ELEVATION, AND SECTION OF A MEETINGHOUSE (FROM ASIHER BENJAMIN, The Country Builder's Assistant)


9P


rr.
*f~'''
LL 15


w


d


. -*
,. -


r


~- ---- ---,


~g-;g










.

,,


UL~


r
'


A N Vt
^ '-f
tjitr^ ^A




nadeup of an arrangement of two continuous purlins-


one for each roof slope-that were supported by the gal-
lery columns, and which in turn provided intermediate
support for the common rafters, part way between the
plates and the ridge (see cross-section below).






p"-. s M s 1 O61
^^ ~ ~ ~ ~ o r"'^\ \ \N^-














L ./


-S. ...~


'r

qa v


--
~w::lfIs:i::::

--
.:...
Y,

i:::~5


-
-
- -



-~ -*. .-r -

* ~ *.. -r
4--
A--


...Ls..
^j- -"
^QS-"'"

*^*k: *


2 1 x


8


rR
4n-p. -'
;- a


NC;*-~;


L r


.T1




4
a-


.t


~tt
'Ii


r -



i "
444


V


'4
A


h

'e~py
V<


/


c-. s


!


~f,
i:..


o












--- -o

..
"* '3-- "- ... i -


iit B .'' 4%. -& ..
*^9~~~r-^t^f^^^


-c-" .-A


1% *

t t. It*A. 4'-


--4
l'' v










A\ \ ^
'i-.-W \S
































































,1'


.r


JLA


iII;i



ii.K

1I7















.k li


w a- 7
'rr,,,***m


/ ti


/--i
r ..=cS
I-----,


;' ....


-----E=


-~--
------I~-

;- _--
-----e
---~-~----c~-~--~-1=


'T -1





(if.,'


(Sj


2,- art 16.6


` .


-r a. -


-0

'~ ~ ~~6 c */


/ :


4


t


i ;---~-
3-


i--


k -.. .. .~ ., ~:


I -




1


/R


>-/-. -3 -rt. 1 -i, .


,#


* P


S--- ---- -


S- --


'V


* /


~/i


-0r"'
s:.-*>-
A^S-->--




- i- 1 -h- .5o


(4 t.


Sr


4--


/ .


.1


-'-a





















a



-


-lJ -I -C -g *- r.-* i rl j C -3 d~ L- - rr -- Rn e-a C.- -


* 1 -


I v- .

ie ~~ m' -; r ~ - h4 r aC aI)~1 aC a. aC.4~ a a na noi~t~l*


traj.w JAMArd b JT Dpkr. JSqk- Miber. JaLnrl.


- .


- - --


-*',- '-,-; "e-: --' '"'... -
.,.


- i. -
-~ ~~ -

t g- -r


Ar ~----I--I--- -


2 'ml. 1


' r


-- ` ~ :-- u i;rr snarrr~


-


^ .


c~"
^ - -


--
~ 3-J,


~
-_






C


* 4*A

1?



t I


C


Fg. 64.


art. 1275.


C'2
'. _;.;-_.;






7i
II


t 9/ri. /13


r


./ -. r


i
I


/. ./ '.. a t,f J .


~- .- -
C---- .Z
1--- .


C .~1


r- ..
r
J' C
~-
z


.00_










--


b'~ ,7/ till


h;. ?2.


-, ; I.I/!/I.


'"l 7.. r/,* /.I/,Ap


f art. /i -. ~


- !4F


II


b a.


, ... .
L, '








,


', x~~ 'r


-f. 77.' art. $2.


,ps` 4~


/'///a,,.


' *





b : ~