Columbia County Bank and Gateway Theatre

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Material Information

Title:
Columbia County Bank and Gateway Theatre
Physical Description:
Mixed Material
Language:
English
Creator:
Dessauer, Peter F.
Publisher:
Peter F. Dessauer
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Coordinates:
30.192902 x -82.637354

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved by the source institution.
System ID:
AA00000041:00001

Full Text








ARCHITECTURAL PRESERVATION


Program notebook Feasibility study for
the rehabilitation of the Columbia County
Bank and the Gateway Theatre, Lake City,
Florida to a readaptive use as the Fine
Arts Center for Columbia County.










THE COLUMBIA COUNTY BANK

&

GATEWAY THEATRE


Graduate Final Project for Course AE 687-
688, College of Architecture, University
of FloIrla.


Prepared by: Peter F. Dessauer,:

Supervised by: Professor F. lair Reeves

Sponsored by: Mrs. Nettle -Ozaic, Columbia County
Historical Society
Date: March 16, 1977









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S


The Columbia County Bank; Lake City, Florida


1976


i,


1976


The Gateway Theatre; Lake City, Florida


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e-at r e

787-2255
P. O. BOX 390
LEESBURG, FLORIDA 32748

M E. SUTTKUS, Service Dept. Mgr. Res. Phone
Member of S. M. P. T. E. 787-6718












INTRODUCTION


Undertaking a feasibility study and design problem to readapt the

Columbia County Bank and the Gateway Theatre as the Fine Arts Center for

Lake City, I have herein presented evidence of my research: maps and

site description, building histories and architectural resumes, program

outline, and information on theatre design and building codes. This

study encompasses two quarters of academic work (Fall '76 and Winter '77)

under course AE 687-688 a quarter for research and a quarter for design

drawings.

In September, 1976, three University of Florida graduate students

from the Architectural Preservation studio Ted Bessette, Douglas Ross,

and myself were introduced by Professor Carl Feiss, of the University

Urban and Regional Planning Department to the possibility of using Lake

City as a laboratory to practice readaptive and rehabilitation design of

older buildings to new uses. At that time the Lake City Chamber of Commerce

had invited the University of Florida Planning Department to make a revitali-

zation study of their C-2: Central Business District in an attempt to up-

grade the business and appearance of the downtown area; this would include

studies for the rehabilitation of several old buildings of architectural

value which were partially vacated or were to be sold and totally vacated.

Meeting with Dick Waldren of the Lake City Chamber of Commerce, the three

of us were granted permission to visit older buildings in the CBD, Central

Business District. Through the cooperation and advice of Mrs. Nettie Ozaki,

President of the Columbia County Historial Society, we were wisely directed









-2-




to make our respective choice of buildings) and meet with the respective

owners and managers in each case:

Ted Bessette Blanche Hotel

Douglas Ross Old Post Office

Peter F. Dessauer Gateway Theatre and Columbia County Bank

Encouraged by Mr. Charles Vocelle, President of the Columbia County

Fine Arts Council, who informed me that his society was searching for an

auditorium with proper facilities for theatrical production, I decided to

concentrate on the possibility of redesigning the Columbia County Bank and

the Gateway Theatre as a Fine Arts Center; this project seemed realistic

and practical since both buildings, adjoining one another on the same lot,

were for sale. Meeting with the respective owners Mr. Robert Green, Presi-

dent of the bank, and Mr, Bill Cumbaa of MCM Theatres Inc. for the Gateway -

I received their permission to make an academic feasibility study of their

properties which would include building inspection, measuring, and photo-

graphy. A meeting with the Fine Arts Council produced written permission to

represent their organization as client for this project. Mr. Robert Powers

granted permission to consider the Powers Motors parking lot on Block 72 CBD

as a possible site for future theatre parking. Mrs. Nettie Ozaki offered

the sponsorship of the Historical Society and supported my efforts by pro-

viding the proper introduction for interviews with various city officials

and property owners. Correspondence and letters from these "clients" is in-

cluded in the following pages.

Architectural and historical preservation in Lake City is the long

term intent of the reservations studio's involvement in the Lake City revi-































tilization program. The Lake City CBD contains the largest old commercial

buildings of architectural merit, and these should be preserved to enhance

the unique appearance of the C-2 district and preserve the continuity

they establish with the past. Hopefully, the results of this study and

design proposals will help to persuade the responsible concerned that

readaptive use of old buildings is a practical and feasible aspect of down-

town revitalization.


Peter F. Dessauer

















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to acknowledge the assistance of the following people

whose cooperation facilitated the research and design in this project.

Mrs. Nettie Ozaki, President of the Columbia County Historical
Society

Mr. Richard Waldren, Lake City Chamber of Commerce

Mr. Robert Green, President of the Columbia County Bank

Mrs. Thomas Witt, Cashier

Mr. Bill Cumbaa, Director, MCM Theatres, Inc.

Mr. Curtis Howard, Director, MCM Theatres, Inc.

Mr. Michael Suttkus, Engineer

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Cannon, Amare Theatre, Like Oak, Florida.

Ms. Terry Wood, Photographer

Mr. Charles Vocelle, Attorney & President of the Columbia County
Fine Arts Council.

Mrs. James "Babs" Lackey, Fine Arts Council

Mr. R. E. Powers, President of Powers Service, Inc.

Mr. William Hale, Surveyor

Mr. Joseph Haltiwan, Building and Zoning Official

Mr. Paul Furgeson, Professor Drama, Junior College, Lake City

My Professors: F. Blair Reeves
Phillip Wisley
Hamm Morton

My Student Collegues: Douglas Ross
Theodore Bessette



















FINE ARTS COUNCIL OF LAKE CITY-COLUMBIA COUNTY

c/o Charles Vocelle, Chairman
P. O. Box 1029
Lake City, Florida 32055


September 7, 1976




Mr. Bill Cumbaa
MCM Theatres
P. O. Box 390
Leesburg, Florida 32748

Dear Mr. Cumbaa:

Thank you. The Fine Arts Council has under
consideration your offer to sell the present Gateway
Theatre building for $65,000.00. We greatly appreciate
your interest and the time you have spent on this.
We have an active committee currently at work on a
community center project. That committee will give
serious consideration to your offer.

Very truly yours,



Charles Vocelle
Chairman

CV:dba


cc: Mrs. Ursula Stuart








MRS. HUGH G. MARTIN, SR.
BILL P. CUMBAA
HUGH G. MARTIN, JR.












Mr. Charles Vocelle, Chairman
Fine Arts Council of Lake City-Col.
P. 0. Box 1029
Lake City, Fla. 32055


Sept. 8, 1976 ,i,, r- Lt E-SB



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LORI DA 32748


PA'.X:NON- C&i;o,3i NORfL!S
\2..LL_ & h, ,LEY


Dear-Mr. Vocelle:

I appreciate very much your letter of Sept. 7 explaining your efforts to find an
appropriate community center.

I would like to point out that we would leave the theatre completely intact
except for the projection booth itself, and we would plan to strip that for use
elsewhere, but the seating, air conditioner, carpet, etc., etc. would all be
left intact and as you probably know the building has a sprinkling system for fire
control and could not be replaced for a fraction of the asking price.

We would be glad to furnish you any further information that you would require and
I feel certain that if your organization chose the Gateway that you would have no
trouble in getting the parking lots on either side of Marion Street which are very
close to the theatre properly lighted by the city for the convenience of your
customers.


Yours very truly,



/ Bill P. Cumbaa


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President of Columbia County Fine Arts
Charles Vocelle, Attorney
Brown & Brown, Vocelle and Halley, Att.
2nd Floor State Exchange Building
November 12, 1976
Peter F. Dessauer
1636 NW 6/th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida
32603

Dear Sir:

The Fine Arts Council of Lake City enjoyed meeting Perer F. Dessauer
at our monthly meeting, October 18, 1976.

We will be looking forward to working with Peter F. Dessauer as he
works on a feasibility study of the possible rehabilitation of the
Columbia County Bank Gateway Theatre into a Fine Arts Center for
Lake City.
















October 20, 1976


MCM Theatres Company
P.O. Box 390
Leesburg, Florida


Peter F. Dessauer
1636 NW $/th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida
32603


Dear Mr. Dessauer:


We have recieved your letter dated October 15/th in which you
requested from us permission to make a feasibility study of the Gateway
Theatre in Lake City, Florida, for a possible rehabilitation into a Fine
Arts Center for that Community.


We understand that your project is of an academic value only but
would require measuring, photographing, and survey of the Gateway Theatre.
We grant you permission to gain access to the building through Mr. Carl Fisk
our MCM agent in Lake City, and to do whatever is necessary to record the
measurements and condition of the existing structure.


Hopefully, your final presentation and results of the feasibility
study might be of practical significance for the preservation of the Gateway
Theatre in Lake City.


Sincerely:


r. Cu tis Howard


















SCOLUMBIA COUNTY BANK
P. O. BOX 1609
LAKE CITY, FLORIDA 32055


S.D. SUMMERS, President W.C. McGHIN, Vice President
ROBERT L. GREEN, Executive Vice President L. THOMAS WITT, Cashier
G.A. BUIE, JR., Vice President BESSIE T. POPE, Assistant Cashier

October 18, 1976




Peter F. Dessauer
1636 NW 6th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida, 32603

Dear Mr Dessauer:

You have the permission of the Columbia County Bank
to make a study of our building and include the in-
formation in a feasibility program concerning the
downtown revitalization of Lake City,

Any information that we can give you, we will be
glad to do so.

Sincerely yours,



L, Thomas Witt,
Cashier


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Dealer
in Fine
Motor
Cars


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POWERS SERVICE, INC.
600/ 700 N. MARION ST. TELEPHONE (904) 752-5050 P.O. DRAWER 1119
LAKE CITY, FLORIDA 32055


PONTIAC


w~r


Peter F. Dessauer
1636 NW 6th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida


October 27, 1976









32603


Dear Mr. Dessauer:

You have the permission of Powers Service, Inc. to make a
study of our lot (North and adjacent to the Gateway Theater)
and include the information in a feasibility program concerning
the downtown revitalization of Lake City Fine Arts Complex.

We will be happy to provide any assistance and information
needed.


Sincerely,

POWERS SERVICE, INC.



R. Frank Powers,
President


RFP:lsw












742 DeSoto Drive
Lake City, Florida 32055
October 27, 1976




Mr. Peter F. Dessauer
c/o The Densons
1636 N. W. 6th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32603

Dear iMr. Dessauer:

The Columbia County Historical Society is pleased that
we are continuing to be able to sponsor and benefit from specific
academic projects of our University of Florida School of
Architecture.

We enthusiastically welcome your participation in our
Society's communitywide efforts to encourage preservation-
restoration, rehabilitation and most importantly appreciation
of our architecturally and historically significant sites and
structures.

Since the inception of this longterm project during the
summer of '74, we have appreciated the information provided by
Mr. Reeves and his students. We are especially pleased that you
have selected Columbia County Bank and Gateway Theatre for
your project.

Thank you for being so very thorough and businesslike in
your relationships with the site owners and general public.

It is a pleasure to claim you for "our own" because you and
those of you who haw worked on the previous project have
been a credit to your professors, your school and our Columbia
County Historical Society.

The results of your studies will be a meaningful tool in our
efforts to encourage our citizens to treasure our past and
relate it to our future.

Sincerely yours,



(Mrs.) Nettie B. Ozaki
President
Columbia County Historical Society


















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BAKER, Macclenny--F-2
BAY, Panama City-C-2
BRADvORD, Starkeo---2
B,.cv.aD, Titusville--H-4
DnowARD, Fort Lauderdale---! 7
CALIOUN, Biuntstown-C-l
CFARLOTTE, Punta Gorda-O-6
CITRUS, Invernees-F--3
CLAY, Green Cove Springs---2
COLLIER. East Nao:aTs-O-7
COLUMBIA, Lake City-F-2
DADa, Miami-I-7
Dro0TO, Arcac'la--0-5
Dixicr Cross City-P-~F
DUVAL, Jacksonville----2
ESCAMBIA, PslacS--A-1
FLAGLra, BunnelC--;-3
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GADSDEN, Quincy-D- 1
GILCHRIST, Trenic-n-F-2
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OULr. Port St. Joe--C-2
HAMILTON. Jasper--F-
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HWNot.v, LaBelle-H-6
HCHKANDO, Brooksville-F-4
HICU'LANCS, Sebring--H-5
HIlUSSOROUGH, Tanlpa-F-4
HoU.-s, Boni/ay-C-1
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The project described
County, located in the
along the border with


Total area--S8,560 square r.':ee
Total land area-5-1,13S square
miles
Tota! water area--l,42t squ.rc
nie er
P1;. :.ilin IlGtO federal census--
Runn' ar lioir Lates in !940 popu.
It.lor -20Lh
Populatin 196' JrAl census--
4,9i51,650
Bank asnong states in 1900 poipu-
lation-lUth
Increase of lUilO popular'!. over
IUt--78.1 per centl
Population 1910 federal census-
o,7 )l, 113i
frl pia

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C, Fort Pierce--I-6 S __ Vetoon
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S*Sota-F-5 6cesCOn ST. LOChE
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;. Sanlo;d---4S Ierte
Bushnell-G- Sbling
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Perryn-E-2 S olta Bea ..---
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C- Gorda Haven West ,
E, West *M ENBeaah- Palm
herein is sited in Lake City, Columbia '-

northern portion of the state of Florida, J I
Georgeia. o [ Bartow



optls Lauderdole I
Eitlmated ;lalton July li' i i;at cvltatilon-Penr' iola Bay, --.* ___..ri-d
-'L,U;WUO00 -) Lps rds, 1550. settlement
Length north and 1e1 s (St. sandc>ied alter two years .. .. am ,
Maryo river to Key West)- LUdCAt prmanent settlement-St.
17 zftles AugAsSine by SpanlardsL In 15U5
1'" **eas and w(est *kri (r-. f idd in "United taste )
x.- .I Pr;,- rl::--i' AC".d'tci b5 United 81ttcs--f(rum
SPerry-pl -by treaty in 12i1
ni &bAtndmglttdA to Union as State-S
llighert ei own natural point Lke arCt 8, 14Columbia 5 /'
bitno th8e fee er of thewr e san ateout iltes of ldmilioln
Gp nortgia.t Wifltun c?'. L -:a'lh
Geographic tnuer-i miles west Siate Mottc--ln God We TrLusta
of north of 1iroBkisvie nl Citrus State Ns -namne-The Sunibine s
eq: iIy S Utate
Number of eountleis-7 State biry-Moeklngbird o o o '
Number of communities in 1970 Ltate dll oer-OrUngt Blossom agd
--__ : t& r., 'orai d s f' a Ate ,eailr--Old 5*.,ks at Ilme I We


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lake city



has it all


We have an enduring blend of the Old South: its hospitality
and its friendship. And we have more . much more!
Columbia County and its county seat, Lake City, form an
aggressive, warm, and personal world all their own; they
are the historic root of the state. People here are con-
stantly striving to make this a better place to live. We
are small enough to care, but we are large enough to respond
to the challenge of the future.
In Columbia County you can be busy enjoying yourself- or
lazy enjoying yourself, if you care to be. The people of the
county have a magic and a magnetism that make other people
like us more and more as they get to know us.
We're close to everything, but far enough away to be our-
selves. We're centrally located between the Gulf of Mexico
and the Atlantic Ocean, about an hour from each. We're only
two hours from another wonderful world called Disney. And
there's the added bonus of a short trip to two major metro-
politan areas, Jacksonville and Gainesville, both on the
interstate system.
Our people, diverse in their ideas and their ways of life,
all have a common goal: a better place to live and raise a
family. At social functions they meet and mix freely. You
feel at home no matter where you hang your hat. Everyone
has a ready smile. We believe we've found the best of all
possible worlds, and we'll stop you on a street corner to
tell you just how great it is to live here. We believe that
you pass through this life only once, and we're out to make
the best of every hour and every day. We follow a path of
doing something good with our lives each day.
People give more, here, and they get back more in return.
Newcomers to our county quickly realize that they get more,
much more than they expect.

Once people get here, they tend to stay. We have something
that is hard to define . a kind of spirit that brings
0,000 people to a high-school football game. Our hospital-
ity is informal. It might be a dance at the country club or
simply steaks on the grill with friends and neighbors. Our
life-style is simple and relaxed, easy to adapt to. We
care about people, and people remember what Lake City and
Columbia County have done for them. You will too.


contents
lake city has it all 1
the new gateway 2
in brief... 5
come this way ... 7
beginnings 11
the good life 17
just for fun 19
a sense of refinement 20
a broad religious spectrum 20
government: protector, educator, medical servant 27
county government as educator 28
the college experience 28
medical center for a bistate region 31
moving ahead 37
transportation ranks high on the list of advantages 40
utilities, large and reliable 42
outreach to the world 42
the shopping scene 44


EDITORIAL COMMITTEE


Peter Lord
Don Caldwell
Virginia Bishop
Gene Esco


Youris Dunn
EX OFFICIO
Bill Wheeler
Ray Kirkland


Lake City Columbia County
Chamber of Commerce
Lake City, Florida 32055


This is a Windsor Publication-created and produced for
The Lake City-Columbia County Chamber of Commerce
By WINDSOR PUBLICATIONS, INC.
Copyright'c 1973. All rights reserved. Any permission to use
or reproduce materials herein must be with the express consent
of Chamber and Windsor Publications.
21220 Erwin Street Woodland Hills, California 91364
Evanston, Illinois Cambridge, Maryland
000












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COLUMBIA COUNTY


* GAINESVILLE


the new gateway


Columbia County and its principal urban center, Lake City,
look upon themselves as "The New Gateway to Florida."
A glance at the map gives instant justification. The
county is situated in the center of the state at its
northern border. Its principal highway, Interstate 75,
leads from the Canadian border at Sault Ste. Marie to the
tip of the Florida peninsula. Interstate 10 eventually
will lead from the East Coast to the West Coast. Federal
and state highways converge on the county like the spokes
of a wheel converging at the hub.


People traveling these roadways have looked upon a new
Florida here, a place of rolling hills, quiet forests,
and sparkling lakes. Industrialists see the most vital
elements of a distributive industry, and of industrial
growth exurbanized from major metropolitan areas but in
close touch with markets, financial centers, seaports,
and purchasing power.
Columbia County is a new gateway, indeed. Not only to
Florida, but to a wealth of industrial, commercial, and
personal opportunity.
















































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VALE III For?


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LEGEND
PRINCIPAL STREETS


ARTERIAL, EXISTING
ARTERIAL, PROPOSED
-COLLECTOR, EXISTING
-n..* COLLECTOR, PROPOSED


TRAFFIC CIRCULATION PLAN
PLANNING AND ZONING STUDY
LAKE CITY. FLORIDA
sAt. OUNLOP s ASSOCIATES, m t7


City Map of Lake City, showing the main highways and routes
leading into the town: U.S. 41 and 44 north-south and U.S. 90
east-west. The central part of town, the CBD (Central Business
District) is outlined in red, bordered on the east by Lake
DeSoto and on the west by U.S.41 or First Street, on the south
by U.S. 90 or Duval Street.


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Lake City 1930: Sanborn Map: The best source for tracing the urban
and regional development of the city is the Sanborn Map collection,
a copy of which exists in the University of Florida Library East


" Aa prfeettonec:
(AppreAp


Map Room. Sanborn maps of Lake City were made in the following years:
1884, 1890, 1395, 1902, 1906, 1912, 1924,and 1930.


I4-
SEEMED--=c


Lake .
Hamburg


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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF LAKE CITY


CAPITAL OF COLUMBIA COUNTY


"The healthiest place in the state", often referred as
such for its lack of diseases and epidemics, originated on
the banks of lake De Soto, as a small trading center with a
population of about 100 people. It is in no sense a "new
town",'it is the site of continuous material growth.
During the Seminole War of 1837 it was a military post
known as Alligator, named after a Seminole indian chief of
the name: Halpatter Tustenuggee, "alligator warrior". Chief
Alligator, with his tribes was found at this site in posses-
sion of the fertile land and lake banks, the original site
of their villages. Lake City may have also been the site
of the Indian town: Uriutina; as reported'by Hernando de
Soto, which appears on the records of the Smithsonian Insti-
tution.
It obtained its present name by an Act of the Legisla-
ture in 1859, having been selected by Mrs. James M. Baker,.
wife of an early Lake City attorney. The name is a referen-
ce to the many lakes; up to a dozen, surrounding the city
within a radius of three to five miles.
Lake City, hub of a good farming county, was one of the
important towns of early Florida, the north of the state ha-
ving developed more rapidly than the south,
From 1883 to 1905 it was the home of the State Agricul-
tural College until its removal in 1905 to Gainesville. The
loss of the college could have been one of the obstructing
factors affecting the town's rapid development into a good
size city such as Gainesville. Although the city did not go
through one of the "booms" most towns undergo; which later
decline, it has slowly but surely progressed with its natural
aid of agriculture and its dedicated people.
The flourishment of the town was affected by the intro-











duction of the railroad. By the close of 1855, the Florida
Atlantic & Gulf Central had surveyed the 60 miles from Jack-
sonville to Alligator. The Pensacola & Georgia line was
proceeding at the same rate from Alligator to Tallahassee.
In the winter of 1857, iron rails were laid out and to seg-
ments of the Jacksonville to Tallahassee line were under
construction. The railroad had developed quickly to the
north of the state where the early establishments of towns
had originated; and with it had brought the unification of
both coasts, the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern Atlantic.
The Jacksonville-Alligator line opened traffic operation
in June 1860.
The railway system was designed to develop the interior
of the state rather than make connections with railroads to
the north and keep the trade of Florida in Florida ports.
It was the railroad, and the town's great transporta-
tion facilities by this time, which had made Lake City "the
ideal locale" for the University of Florida in 1883.
Other factors affecting the city growth were: pure
well water, which brought people who were in need of cura-
tion and its great climate. The town also occupies the
heart of one of the best developed general agricultural and
horticultural regions of the state, additionally it was the
center of the Sea-Island Cotton and Cuba-tobacco Industry.
Florida use to export much yearly in these two products bring-
ing with it expertise needed in further development of such
industries, therefore aiding the county. Nowadays, again in
Agriculture, it specializes in timber. Industrially, they
are well-known for the manufacture of mobile homes, and for
phosphate mining. Their third source of income is tourism.
Lake City is often referred to as the "gateway to Flori-
da", her site marking the highest point of the state, or its
greater elevation above sea level, assuring sea breezes from
both coasts.



















The town is located at the core of Columbia County,
which was established and named on February 4, 1832 as part
of Alachua County. It was the 16th county 6f the United State's
territory of Florida.
Lake City's streets radiate from a central square, on
which the Courthouse was always situated. This structure
was replaced four times because of fire reasons. The origin-
al was .located on what is now Olustee Park. After the last
fire on-December 20, 1874,.a two-story frame structure was
built, it is still existent in town, at Alachua Street. In
1902, after the construction of the present edifice, this
building was removed and Olustee Park was created.
Various interesting Houses of Worship are also present
in the town, as well as a Water Plant. Additionally, there
is the Veterans and Administration Hospital, founded in
1920, standing where the first University of Florida was
located. It has nine large brick buildings and is situated
on US 41, at the southern section of town.

Xerox Copy of History:
Taken from previous report on the history of
Lake City Architectural and urban development
by Betty Del Cueto.




11C1K MONTANA T i
CO,1____<_ __ (___ D _E


U:L


DESOTO


LAKE


Wi-- W--Iiz I


-"-----I I_ CUHFRRY
Lake City, Florida L E G E N D
Landmarks for Architectural Preservation
I POST OFFICE
( BLANCHE HOTEL
GATEWAY THEATRE
72 COLUMBIA COUNTY BANK
SDR. KNITTING MILL

__O U CITY PARKING LOT
DUVAL ST. 2
______ 1975 A.D.T. = 6,875 VEHICLES
JASSAU ST. S
"4 ONE-WAY STREET




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CBD LAKE CITY :

This map shows the Central
Business District (CBD-
C2) area of Lake City,
defined by Railroad St.to
the north,Duval St. or
US 90 to the south, Nl/st
St. or US 41 on the west,
and Hernando St. on the
east. Hwy's 41,44, and 90
act as arteries bringing
traffic straight into the
CBD area.


73: Powers Motor Co.

72: Columbia Co. Bank,
Gateway Theatre, and
Powers parking lot.

71: Lot for the new
Columbia County Bank

5: Present parking lot
for the CBD but
proposed for new
library.


4,3,82,81:
b lock-s.


Commercial


f-^













62 1 71
63 70








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15 J
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73


9


14


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13

---~ -- -. MADISON ST

20 1
~ .ORANGE ST


LEGEND
-- EXISTING -' -, F T ,'''I-i
PROPOSED 1, ''-


f -J S Highway 90


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0 4
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CDVAL ST



NASSAU SI

CIRCUL -I,_
STUDY
PLATE 7


Add^
Pal


hJLhuaAD ST.


ESCAMBIA ST.



WASHINGTON ST.



LUON ST



FRANKUN ST



HILI-SbOfO ST



HAMILTON ST


`1













ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS FOR LAKE CITY: C-2 AREA
CBD- Central Business District


AREAS


6.0 sq. miles

.05 sq. mile

.14 sq. mile


GROSS RETAIL SALES

17% of total Columbia County Retail Sales


VALUES

Appraised value of the C-2:

Tax exempt government property

Total

Taxes Collected

Appraised value of property
which produces no taxes


ACCOMMODATION

No. Employees

Retal Space

Parking: Customer
Employee

ESTIMATED ANNUAL PAYROLL

GROSS ANNUAL RETAIL SALES
(Excluding Services)


$6,795,550

$1,796,680t.

$5,000,000

$92,798


$176,680



580

230,000 sq. ft.

350
275


$3,914,600

$9,100,000


Lake City

Core Area

Zoned C-2















PROBLEM CRITIQUE
INSUFFICIENT PEDESTRIAN AND PARKING FACILITIES IN LAKE CITY CBD

The Lake City CBD suffers from several spatial setbacks specifically,

narrow sidewalks and insufficient parking spaces.

The present parking lot, Block 5, which can accommodate 100 cars is

scheduled to be the site for the new county library; parking spaces on

Block 71 no longer exist since this space is now occupied by the new Columbia

County Bank building. In the vicinity of the theatre there is no parking

along Leon, Franklin, Hillsboro, or Hamilton Streets (all 2-way, running

east-west), nor along Hernando and Columbia Streets (one-way, north-south).

Only the east half of Block 3 will retain 60 parking places. Parking along

North Marion Street, the main traffic artery of the CBD is limited and con-

gested. This lack of parking spaces has encouraged haphazard parking on

sidewalks, side steets, on corners, and on private property at all hours

of the day. To alleviate this confusion and establish order and proper func-

tion in my academic study, I have received permission from the Powers Motor Co

to use their automobile lot, adjacent to theGateway Theatre,as a parking lot

for the CBD and Fine Arts Center.

Sidewalks in front of the businesses of the CBD can be extremely narrow

and uncomfortable an example of this being the 4'0" width in front of the

Columbia County Bank and the Gateway Theatre, a situation which creates rude

pedestrian contact during times of access and egress. The sidewalks in the

CBD are cluttered and obstructued by the following: narrow widths, telephone

poles, stop signs, fire hydrons, narrow corner turns, mechanical equipment,

narrow parking areas, lamposts, etc. Ona busy and crowded Saturday after-





























noon it is quite common to witness parking in fire lanes, in front of

bus stop signs, and in areas where parking prohibited; no parking tickets

are issued even though the law is broken, least this might discourage

clientele from visiting the CBD for shopping purposes. Coordinating my

efforts to correct these problems and following suggested solutions pro-

posed by the student planning revitalization group, I shall redesign the

site of the theatre and bank under the premise that North Marion Street

is to be made into a pedestrian mall or at least a one-way street with angle

parking, thus allowing several more feet of sidewalk space.







































in brief...
.i .,,


Population
Columbia County
Lake City
Greater Lake City


View of Lake City looking north into the CBD, with Lake DeSoto
and Lake Isabella to the east.


1970 U.S. Census 1975 Projected
25,250 30,350
10,575 11,500
13,500 15,000


Climate
Average annual temperature 69.00
Average January (coolest) 55.60
Average August (warmest) 81.1
Average annual rainfall 49.8 inches


Government
Columbia County Five-member county commission
Lake City Mayor and four-member commission

Education
Public One senior high school, two junior high schools,
six elementary schools
Parochial One school, grades one-six
Private Two private schools

Higher Education
Lake City Community College (two-year)
University of Florida, Gainesville (40 miles)
Jacksonville University (60 miles)
University of North Florida (60 miles)

Medical
Lake Shore Hospital 128 beds
LJivision Hospital 75 beds
Lake City Veterans Administration Hospital 400 beds
Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation Center, Inc. -
outpatient service
Tanglewood Nursing Home 65 beds
Physicians 18 Dentists 7


Banks Assets (as of March 1973)
State Exchange Bank $30,066,074.47
First National Bank $11,645,399.47
Columbia County Bank $8,051,094.22
Lake City Federal Savings and Loan $16,143,456.58


Retail Sales (1972)
County $61,494,000

Hotels and Motels 39
Rooms 1,239


Transportation
Major highways Interstates 75 and 10; U.S. 90, 441, 41;
Florida 25, 47, 100, and 247
Truck lines 14, plus UPS
Buses Greyhound and Continental Trailways
Air Jacksonville International Airport, 70 miles
Gainesville Municipal Airport, 45 miles
Lake City Municipal Airport

Utilities
Power Florida Power & Light, Clay Electric Co-operative
Natural gas Municipal, allowing five percent annual
growth
Water Municipal in Lake City. Average daily use: 1.4
million gallons. System capacity: 3.5 million gpd
Telephone Southern Bell, 14,000 instruments in use, 1973

Communications
Newspaper Lake City Reporter, five-day p.m. Radio -
Three stations: WGRO-AM, WDSR-AM, WTLV-FM stereo
Television All national TV networks clearly received
from nearby metropolitan centers. Cable TV available.




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//LvrE C/TV F/4.





'- '- .SURVEY OF CBD BLOCK 72:


'..t., The Block is characterized by only 5 parking spaces in front of the
G.-Gateway Theatre and the Bank, with no parking on Franklin Street, Hillsboro Street,or
:Columbia Street.




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PROPERTY DESCRIPTIONS AND BOUNDARIES: BLOCK 72

Information taken from the books of the tax accessors office, county building,
Lake City, Florida. Reference: Mr. Gray.


1) Gateway Theatre:


owned by
32748.


worth $56,000.00+

Tax Parcel 11989


MCM Theatres LTD, Inc., Box 390, Leesburg, Florida,

TMR No. is 21134678 P/C=31
N. Div. Begin 36 Ft. N. of S.E. Cor. &
Run N. 69 Ft., W. 115 Ft., S. 105 Ft.,
E. 10 Ft., N. 36 Ft., E. 105 Ft., to POB,
Block 72. ORB. 314-65


2) Columbia County Bank: Box 691, Lake City, Florida32055


worth $80,000.00+

Tax Parcel 11988


TMR No is 21134660 P/C= 23
N. Div. Begin at SE Cor. & Run W.105',
N. 36 Ft., E. 105 Ft., S. 36 To POB,
Block 72.


Property owdred te d J ' "
but rented Z I


-Columbia County Bank '


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Lot for Columbia County Bank Drive-in


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PROPERTY DESCRIPTIONS AND BOUNDARIES: BLOCK 72


continued:


3) Columbia County Bank Drive-in Lot:


Tax Parcel 11987


TMR No. is 27344747 P/C= 10
N. Div. SW 1/4 Ex. 10 Ft.
Off E. Side Block 72


4) Ralph POwers Motors Company; Box 1119, Lake City, Florida, 32055


Tax Parcel No. 11986


TMR No. is 21134643 P/C=10
N. Div. N 1/2, Block 72
ORB 314-107


Property Taxes Paid: March 1975 Figures


11986

11987

11988

11989


Ralph Powers

Columbia County Bank


$673.15

$176. 98

$1,582.51


MCM Theatres, Gateway $1,094.33








Exterior views of the bank and theatre, Block 72;


Facades on North Marion Street


Looking at the north side of the theatre
through the Powers Motors parking lot.


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Rear of the theatre and bank: the drive-in


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Contrast of Classical and Art Deco Facades












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The Bank Drive-in


L --


Northeast corner of the Gateway Theatre,
showing the narrow sidewalk and clumsy
parking space.


Alley between the theatre and bank; low rise
office space inside, owned by the theatre
and rented by the bank.


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Artist's rendition of the bank: 1912.
Letter Stationery head.






COLUMBIA COUNTY BA99K* LA ( E OITY. FLA.


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The Columbia County Bank as completed in 1912: Note that North
Marion Street is still unpaved, the building cornice (since
removed) extends along the south side, the bays contain 10'
high windows fronted by guard rails, and there is a residence
behind the bank where the Drive-in exists today.


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Sanborn Map of Lake City 1906: Columbia County Bank lot vacant.


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62
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W. HILLSBORO


79
7


1".4 ,;-- -
113 .* I
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W. HAMILTON


Sanborn Map of Lake City 1912: Block 72 indicated in red.


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Sanborn Map of Lake City 1912: Columbia County Bank sited and built;
Gateway theatre erected next door in 1946.














HISTORY OF COLUMBIA COUNTY BANK
LAKE CITY, FLORIDA

1. Location:

a. Address 502 N. Marion St., Lake City, Florida 32055

b. Property No. S.E. corner of Block 72, northern division of
Lake City, Tax Parcel No. 11988

c. Property Size 105' x 36'

2. Present Owner: Columbia County Bank

a. Occupant Columbia County Bank

3. Original and Subsequent Owners: Columbia County Bank

a. Dates of Ownership 1912-1976

b. Price Original price was $10,000.00 for the building; $2769.72
cost for property.

4. Date of Erection: Began 1911, completed 1912. Architect, Builder, and
and Contractor unknown.

5. Alteration and Additions:

a. 1951 Remodeling & furniture fixtures; cost approximately $7,000.00;
Barbee Fixture Co., Alabama.

b. November 1963 Modernize and remodel; cost '$30,000.00; by Harry Lee
& Raymond Dicks, Lake City, Florida. Drive-in window installed
on south side; original windows covered by concrete slabs;
building cornice removed.

c. 1971 Bank rents theatre space on north side for additional office
space.

6. Historical Events Famous People Associated with the Building:

a. F. P. Cone Former Florida Governor, President of the bank from
2/17/12 until 8/5/48 at the time of his death. He was
the founder and first president.

b. R. H. Chapman Former law partner with F. P. Cone, and Chief
Justice of the Supreme Court. He resigned from the bank
in January 1945, to assume Chief Justice.

c. Special board meeting 2/5/46 to agree for Cannon's to add
the theatre to our north wall of the building.










S COLUMBIA COUNTY BANK
P.O. BOX 1609
LAKE CITY, FLORIDA 32055


S.D. SUMMERS, President W.C. McGHIN, Vice President
ROBERT L. GREEN, Executive Vice President L. THOMAS WITT, Cashier
G.A. BUIE, JR., Vice President BESSIE T. POPE, Assistant Cashier



The original charter of the Columbia County Bank
was approved by the State of Florida on February 13,
1912, and the bank opened for business on February 17,
1912.

The bank's original Board of Directors were F.P.
Cone, M.P. Moyer, H.P, Cason, J.M. Sikes, W.N. Cone,
R.H. Chapman, R.E. Chalker, Lyman Helvenston, and D,L.
Roberts. The first officers were FP- Cone, President;
J.M. Sikes, first Vice President; H.P. Cason, second
Vice President, and Lyman Helvenston, Cashier,

During the bank's 64 years of continuous banking
service, it has only had three presidents, F,P. Cone,
one of the organizers of the bank, and a former governor
of Florida, served from the opening day until his death
on August 5, 1948.

Mr L.C. Green started with the bank in June, 1917,
in 1918 was elected assistant cashier, and in 1927 was
named cashier and served in this position until December,
1948, when he was elected President of this bank. Mr
Green served as President until his death in October 1964.

Upon the death of L.C. Green, S.D. Summers, who has
over 60 years of banking, was elected President, Mr Summers
served as Cashier until 1927 when he was elected Vice Pres-
ident, and served in this capacity until 1962, when he was
elected Chairman of the Board of Directors.

Robert L. Green, son of L.C. Green, permanently joined
the bank in June, 1949, after working summers since 1946.
Mr Green was elected Assistant Cashiet January, 1950, be-
came a Director in January, 1952, and Vice President in
January, 1957. Since December, 1964, Mr Green has served
as Executive Vice President. During this period of time
the bank has grown from three million to over eleven million
dollars in assets.

Mr W.C. McGhin joined the bank on November 1, 1943. He
was elected Assistant Cashier January 1946, Cashier in Decem-
ber, 1948, and served as Vice President since January 1973.
Mr McGhin has been a Director at the bank since January, 1950.



















Page 2


G.A. Buie, Jr., has been a Director since 1960, and
was elected as Vice President in December, 1964.

L. Thomas Witt, joined the bank June 30, 1969, was
elected Assistant Cashier January, 1972, and has served
as Cashier since January, 1974. He was elected to the
Board of Directors in August, 1975.

Bessie T. Pope joined the bank September, 1954, and
was elected Assistant Cashier in January, 1974.

Mrs L.C. Green, wife of the former President, has
been on the staff of the Columbia County Bank since July,
1942.

The present Directors and Officers are: S D. Summers,
President and Chairman of the Board; Robert L. Green, Ex-
ecutive Vice President; W.C. McGhin, Vice President; G.A.
Buie, Jr., Vice President: L. Thomas Witt, Cashier; G.P.
Summers; and Bessie T. Pope, Assistant Cashier.

The bank is presently located on North Marion Street,
in the building which it has occupied since its opening
in 1912. In December, 1975, the Board approved a contract
with Financial Structures, Inc., of Atlanta to build a new
facility. The bank building, which is presently under
construction, will be located directly to the west of the
present bank site. It will triple the size of the present
facility on North Marion Street and will include approximately
6,500 square feet.







Col 4a County Bank Drive-in Pavilion

Lake City, Florida 32055
Block 72


Tax Parcel No. 11987


TMR No. is 27344747 P/C= 10
N. Div. SW 1/4 EX. 10', off E. Side Block
Drive-in Cashier windows: pavilion behind
Bank Building.


IJU b t1 I lK J(, U I:
FL. SYSTEMS
EXT. WALLS
-G T. FACTOR
PT, WALL FAC.
STR. FRAME' .
QOOF FRAMI1TG
'F. COVER-I;iK
CAB-MILLWORK
FLOOR FINISH
INT. FINISH
PART. FACTOR
PAINT-OFCOR.
HTG/AIR CONO
PLUMBI NG
! ATH TILL:
EL ECTRI CAL.


!40 l100i
TOTAL jSIAPE'
UNITS FACTOR
AREA
DESCRIPTION
BAS
C P


Pl(k:!AU) 1-lJll INUJ.i
SLAB ON GRADE
CONCiETE BLOCK
14 FIRST FLOOR HGT 1.00
[NE 1.00
'IOrl E "
IAt JOIST/RIIGID FRAME
iUll. T UP/fE TAL/GYPSUM
NON E
CONCRETE FINISHED
MASONRY
04 ROOMS FACTOR 1.00
MINIM IUM
HEATING-COOLG. PACKAGE
NUM-FR OF FIXTURES 6
VNFRA
AVFPAGE


NO | OTHER % REPI DEP EPL EXTRA BUILDING
D DEP CON! I C COST FEATIIRES VALUI

fl "IrF
FACTORS UIT
LAND DESCRIPTION _CTOR A--DJ
DFPTH COND. ADJ. FRPICZ
ClT, IM FR CTAL -0 1- -.0 -11'eT)0
S";m . I '..

r _______


72.
Columbia County


T OIES AND sALES


ADJ. UNIT
PRICE
i---Fl- -


NO. OF
UNl 1 TS
- ffO.TO--
aomo


COLLJUM' A CO. i .' .0 -03 i_
Pr.L Et-!iVATE; C .- I;
APP'IkAiAl _kM _
P-Af;Y L V A\ll'l


APPRAISAL DAmTE -"i,,' ,';.1 p I'ROPL RY USE -' NO IG TY i '!:

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19B A S _3- 0r5fl5~3O


A-CPW- 4- 195*4?) *9A 10 _
ELUE ..ESCRIPI10 l SIZE RATE AREA AiJ.. E




SOTAL VALUE MOBILE HOMES AND SPECIAL BLD GS.
t A I. C o 1 :


_ __*_ _rrCC~~_~_ __ __ _7


__ II


I






-..... ... ... ... ... .. -... ......- __ .- __- ?- -r- _____ -______________
Colufr v County Bank Building
Columbia County Bank
Box 691
Lake City, Florida 32055
Block 72 worth= $80,000.00+


11988 0020
TMR No. is 21134660 P/C=23
N. DIV. Begin at SE Cor. & Run W. 105', N. 36', E. 105', S.36'
to POB, Block 72. __
,.TThU..TRCT .C.I -7F,--R,,FLt.TFTCS -TjLU F-P.UT --- -T-
5 IFL. SYSTEMS SLAB ON GRADE :K VAULTS 2920
?0 EXT. WALLS CEMENT RICK VAULT DRS 15200)
HGT. FACTOR 12 FIRST FLOOR HGT 1.00 NT DEPUS. 1600
PT. WALL FAC "' NE 1.00 BK DRV-IN 2500
4 iSTK. FRAME 'ASONRY PILASTFR/STI EL
4 iPOfii FRAMING FLAT ,
6 KRF, CrnVR-DK BUILT UP 1 WOOD
CABi-MIL.LWOp.K NONE{
10 iFLCOP FINISH TIPAZZ STRIP
11 IN i. FINISH PLASTERFRO )IP CT
PAR T. FACTOR 03 RIOGMS FAClIR .70
4 PA INI-DECOR. AVERAGE
27 HrG/AIR COND IHTG. COOLING SPLIT
3 PLUMBING; NUMBER OF 1IXIUIFS 2
1 HA I I IL I -lOfUF AND WALL N ) '6, .. ,,-.
8 ELF-CTL ICAL AVE.RAGI.-

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107 100O 10 109 3j3 --- 7 12 8 ? t
iOiAL .Ul^ ir ADJ. IM '. I AS: SQ. FOOT SY,
iNIls I ACI' .S r ACIOIR YPI AlI RAItE AL i "
AR.A % OF SQ. FOOl ARILA NO. 01' RPLACEMCNT
DESCRIPI ION RATE RAIT RAILE SR. FlEr COST
BASF 1 K 0. -- 7 "" 2 160 1- SA1-4
JUT 50 1+ 07-- i-.; 540 '
CAI 25 B 4. --n.-,; O2 21f6 4306




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COLUMBIA ACO .. 1,r 'Z-0,ST 20 i
,EAI. ESTAF S EC. T'WP RG.i CARD NO.
I- API,,1s^ 0 .J
PARCEL' VALUES

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GENERAL DATA
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ARCHITECTURAL DESCRIPTION AND BUILDING CONDITION:
COLUMBIA COUNTY BANK


A. General Information:

1. Architectural Character: Neo-classical style

2. Condition of Fabric: Good

B. Description of Exterior:

1. Overall Dimensions: 36' x 80'

a. Length: 80' long, 8 bays Divided by brick pilasters.

b. Width: 36' wide, 3 bays Central double door and two large
lanking windows behind four ionic columns.

c. Height: 27' high

d. Overall Shape: Rectangular

2. Foundations: Spread footings, slab on grade floor.

3. Wall Construction: Brick bearing walls.

a. Material, Finish, Color: Walls of bauge brick; classical
facade columns, pediment, and typanum decoration of white
plaster.

b. Thickness: Exterior walls almost 2'0" thick.

c. Condition: Excellent

4. Ornamental Features:

a. Classical Facade: Classical temple portico composed of four
ionic fluted columns with full entablature, corniced pedi-
ment, and typanum with dentils and decorative floral relief;
portico is elevated on a concrete pad 6" high with decorated
tile floor.

b. Front Door: Ionic portico with full entablature and corniced
pediment.

c. Cornice: Along south elevation of building removed.

d. Pilasters: Bases and capitals are moulded according to classical
style.














5. Structural System:

a. Wall Type Masonry (brick) bearing walls, reinforced with
some steel.

b. Roof Framing Timber joists supporting a sloping flat built-up
tar & gravel roof, hidden by parapet.

6. Openings (Doorways and Doors)

a. Front Entrance: Double aluminum frame glass doors, 5'2" wide,
7'0" high, inside ionic portico.

b. East Side Door: Single aluminum frame glass door.

7. Openings (Windows and Shutters)

a. Front: 2 large aluminum frame 1/1 glass pane windows.

b. Original Window Bays: On east side, 7 large windows between
brick pilasters each as much as 10' high, protected by
security bars (see original photo of bank 1912). In
1963: windows removed and bays enclosed with panels of
concrete with pebble aggregate; drive-in window installed.

c. Rear Elevation: 3 aluminum frame jalousy windows, on second
floor, in front of vertical iron security bars.

8. Roof: Built-up tar roof on slopping wood joist, hidden on 3 sides
by brick parapet with 2 beveled courses for caping.

C. Detailed Description of Interior:

1. Floor Plans:

a. Front Open Plan; Public business area: approximately 930 sq. ft.;
access to vaults.

b. Rear = Two Story
Downstairs WC, closet, storage, and Directors room.
Upstairs 2 storage rooms, mec. room.

c. North Offices Rented from Gateway Theatre.

2. Flooring: Terrazzo strip flooring.

3. Wall and Ceiling Finish:

a. Original Ceiling Sheetmetal, turneplate, moulded square
panels, 17' high; now hidden from view in public business
area by hung ceiling.








-10-


b. Contemporary Hung Ceiling 13' high, covering original
sheet-metal ceiling still intact.

c. Brick Arches Two in north wall leading from public
business area into additional single story office space,
owned by Gateway Theatre and rented to the Columbia County
Bank since 1971.

4. Stairways:

a. In rear, off hallway, leading up to storage and mechanical room
(above Director's room and W.C.).

b. Ladder stairway in N.W. corner of bank leading upstairs to
storage.

5. Interior Features:

a. 2 large vaulted safes with thick iron doors.

b. Original Ceilings = Turneplate sheetmetal square panels, ornate
decoration, painted white; can be seen still exposed in rear
second story storage rooms.

D. Mechanical Systems and Equipment:

1. Heating: Heater is Holly General Co. gas device, fed by main city
gas line, 80,000 BTU's at sea level; installed about 1963,
located in mechanical room, upstairs above W.C. The main
heater outlet is located on the back wall of the public
business area. There is a heater fireplace in the downstairs
Director's room.

2. Air-Conditioning: 5 ton carrier with cooling tower in rear; first
installed 1957; 1975, new compressor bought for AC system.

3. Costs: $25.00 per month for gas heat.
$180.00 per month for electricity.

4. Electricity:

a. Public Business Area: 8 4' x 4' florescent lights.

b. Electrical switch boxes located in N.W. storage room.

5. Fire Control: No alarm system, no sprinkler; have two fire ex-
tinguishers in accordance with insurance regulations.

6. Hot Water Heaters: (2) one in upstairs storage room under sink;
second in rear room of north office space rented from
Gateway Theatre.















*I 4 j


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As it is today: 1976-77


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As it was then: 1912


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The Temple Portico facade creates a strong sense of entrance, unexelled by
any other architecture in the CBD; the imposing ionic columns and the proportions
of the entablature make this the best example of classical and revival architecture
in Lake City.


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Capital: Ionic Volute on fluted
column; entablature and
pediment above.


Doorhead: The Ionic Order repeated.


Dentils: Beveled Bricks; Pilasters


Details: The Architect and/or designer of the Columbia County Bank is
unknown; however, there is nothing else in the city which can
compare with the design and intricacy of the classical orders
as exhibited on the bank's portico.


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Column Bases:


Ionic Volutes: above and below


Stylobates on mosaic tile
entrance veranda.


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Tile inscription- Columbia County Bank


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Pilaster Capital


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CLASSICAL DETAILS: CLASSICAL REVIVAL


Beveled bricks as Dentils


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The Directors' Room


Stairway to the upstairs storage.


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Upstairs: the original ornate paneled ceiling
still intact.


Mechanical Room: Roof Joists exposed.


*4-



























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Arches: leading from the Public Business area

into the rented offices between the theatre

and the main bank building.


Computer and File Room


Storage


President's Office


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"Columbia Theatre" of 1946, Lake City, Florida; later renamed "Gateway"



















GATEWAY THEATRE 1946

This photograph is a copy of the original, in the hands of Mr. and
Mrs. Robert Cannon, owners of the Amare Theatre, Live Oak, FLorida. This
shows the original appearance of the "Columbia Theatre" (1967 renamed
"Gateway") when it opened in 1946. The architectural style is Art Deco,
the exterior being of maroon andcream tile. In 1966, MCM Theatres changed
the exterior, covering the tile with a coat of stucco and made other changes
which can be seen by comparing this to contemporary photographs presented
throughout this notebook.











-11-


HISTORY OF THE GATEWAY THEATRE


From an interview with the original owners, Mr. Robert and Mrs.

Dorothy Cannon, on December 4, 1976, in Live Oak, Florida, at the Amare

Theatre, I was able the learn the following:

The Cannon's bought the property in 1946 from Mr. Fred P. Cones, who

was owner of the Columbia County Bank and Governor of Florida. The Cannon's

built the theatre in the same year, naming it "Columbia Theatre;" later the

name was changed to "Lake Theatre." The theatre's designer, architect,

builder, and cost are unknown; the Cannon's were unable to recall these

facts.

In October, 1966, Mr. and Mrs. Cannon (Cannon Theatres, Inc.) sold the

theatre to MCM Theatres, Inc., of Leesburg, Florida. The new owners under

the direction of Mr. Bill Cumbaa, closed the building for two months for

intensive interior and exterior remodeling. The principle changes included:

stucco exterior over the original maroon and blue tile, new wide technicolor

screen, new seats and wall furnishings, and a new projection room on the

balcony floor instead of the lobby. Other interior lobby changes can be

seen on the architectural blueprints drawn by Jack R. Jones, for MCM Theatres,

October 31, 1966 (now in the possession of MCM Directors). The theatre,

under its contemporary name "Gateway," reopened in February of 1967.

According to Mr. Bill Cumbaa, Director of MCM Theatres, Inc., inter-

viewed November 26, 1976, the Gateway Theatre building is worth $56,330.00

and its projection equipment $7,000.00.

















Addendum to Page 11


From a telephone conversation with Mr. Robert Cannon

on February 11/th I learned the following about the original

design The Columbia Theatre:



A) Original Facade Coloration of the Columbia:

1. Exterior Tile- cream color with dark maroon bands.

2. Doors- maroon

3. Signs- The markees, vertical and horizontal,were maroon
with neon lights.

a. C & T was gold

b. "Columbia" was red

c. "Theatre" was red and green flash

b. Vertical Bands on either side of the vertical
Markee were rainbow colors (orange, green,blue ?)

B) Contractors and workers:


L C Thompson- building Contractor- Douglas, Georgia.

L C Thompson, Jr.- Builder- Douglas, Georgia.


Tile Contract was $4,687.00, laid by Raymond de Mattia,
Contractor, Daytona Beach, Florida.









-12-


PROPERTY OWNERSHIP

1. Sold Feb. 20, 1945;
Deed 46, p. 113;


2. Sold Jan. 10, 1946;

Deed 50, p. 113;


AND TITLE TRACE FOR GATEWAY THEATRE2

Cones -* Cannon.
Fred P. Cones and his wife Mildred T. Cones to
Robert E. Cannon and his wife Dorothy M. Cannon.

Ida Feagle, widow,to Mr. R. E. Cannon and his
wife Dorothy Cannon.
Small strip of land 10' wide behind what is now
Columbia County Bank, for $10.00.


3. Sold Oct. 24, 1966; Cannon Theatres, Inc. to Martin, MCM Theatres, Inc.
Record Book 212, p. 76; price $85,000.

4. Sold June 14, 1967; Cannon's to Martin's
Record Book 223; p. 184; $10.00 for small strip of land.


5. Sold Nov. 29, 1973;


MCM Theatres Ltd. to MCM Theatres Ltd., Inc.,
price $10.00.


information taken from County Clerks Office and Record Books, Columbia
County Court Building, Lake City, Florida.










-13-


ARCHITECTURAL DESCRIPTION AND BUILDING CONDITION:
GATEWAY THEATRE


A. General Information

1. Architectural Character: Commercial art deco movie theatre style.

2. Condition of Fabric: Good

B. Description of Exterior: Red Brick; Front Stuccoed.

1. Overall Dimensions:

a. Length: Approximately 110' x 46.

b. Overall Shape: Rectangular on axis, oriented east (entrance)
to west.

c. Height: Approximately 32' ft. high.

2. Foundations: Concrete Block

3. Wall Construction: Bearing walls of red brick and brick tile;
reinforced on north and south sides by 6 buttresses, 2'
wide and spaced approximately 14' apart.

a. Material, Finish, Color: Red brick in bond of 1 row headers,
6 of stretchers; front facade of stucco on brick, painted
charcoal grey and white.

b. Thickness: Exterior load bearing walls in some areas as much
as 15" thick; interior load bearing walls 11" thick; load
bearing walls support roof trusses.

c. Walls in excellent condition.

d. Ornamental Features: Front facade, east side main entrance,
adorned with metallic sign, neon lights, advertisement
panels.

4. Structural System: Load Bearing Walls.

a. Wall Type Thick buttressed brick and brick tile walls
supporting steel roof trusses and built-up tar & gravel
roof.

b. Roof Tar & gravel built-up roof, steel trusses spanning 45'
width.










-14-


c. Condition: Recently retired when moisture stains on interior
ceiling indicated moisture leak.

5. Openings: Front entrance is a pair of double swing glass doors -
one for entrance, one for exit; N.E. corner of theatre
is a single glass door entrance; 2 double fire door
exits off stage on N. and S. sides, doors 2" thick metal.

6. Roof Details:

a. Cornice: Parapet of brick around tar and gravel roof with tile
coping on top.

b. Notable Features: Neon light antenna on front facade.

C. Detailed Description of Interior:

1. Floor Plans: Theatre consists of lobby, balcony seating, and open
auditorium with stage.

a. Lobby Front entrance leads into lobby which contains the
concession stand, WC's, powder room, manager's office,
storage, and ticket counter.

b. Balcony Above lobby, consisting of seating, projection room,
WC's, and air-conditioning room.

c. Auditorium 396 seats, with cinema stage 15'6" deep for screen;
at least 25' high ceiling.

2. Stairways:

a. Stage 6 steps on each side, leading from auditorium floor to
stage and exit fire-doors.

b. Balcony Stairs Located N.E. part of the theatre, off the lobby
next to manager's office.

3. Flooring:

a. Lobby and Auditorium: 4" thick sloping concrete slab.

b. Balcony: Supported on some 30 braced truss systems rafters
1 x 6's, joists 2 x 8's, and vertical studs 2 x 4's. The
balcony flooring boards need to be replaced.

c. Stage: Flooring boards supported on 2 x 8 longitudinal joists
resting on concrete block piers.










-15-


4. Interior Wall Features:

a. Walls covered by decor turquoise burlap drapes backed by
2" fiberglass insulation acoustical material.

b. Lighting: Wall lights, 4 on each side; blue & yellow color,
on 2 circuits.

5. Ceiling:

a. Material Celitex ceiling panels.

b. Contents Fire control sprinkling system, fiberglass ducts
for heating and air-conditioning (combination of heating
and oil strips) between ceiling and top of roof.

D. Theatre Mechanical Systems and Equipment:

1. Stage utilities: S.W. and N.W. corners of theatre.

a. 9 electrical switch boxes, S.W. corner; single phase system 220-110
volts; highest voltage for a single piece of equipment is
220.

b. Pipe, S.W. corners; water line for fire sprinkling system, fed
from city system.

c. Combination Air-conditioner-Heater; an "International" diesel
oil burner, Mark Twenty, 1967 or 1968 with twenty year
warranty. Covers the auditorium. Compressors in S.W.
and N.W. stage and cooling towers outside.

d. Air-conditioner for Lobby: Located upstairs in room next to
projection. Fedders air-conditioner, Rudd Manu. Co. installed
1975. Covers lobby and balcony.

2. Lighting:

a. 4 wall lights on each side.

b. 24+ stage lights 60 watt bugaway lightbulbs.

c. 4 emergency lights on ceiling above stage.
4 emergency lights on ceiling under balcony.

d. Exit lights above fire doors.


3. Bathroom Facilities: Men and Women's W.C.'s; no hot water.
































-16-





4. Fire Prevention: Sprinkler system installed 1946, fed from city
water line; spinklers are lined along the ceiling and
throughout the building. 85 Ibs. pressure; heat sensitive
over 1000F.






* *1rl


Front of the Gateway Theatre: 1976


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View of theatre's north side from Power's Motors parking lot.


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Gateway Interior: Auditorium and Stage.


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Theatre Auditorium Fire Exit


Detail of theatre roof tile coping.






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2


Access and Egress:


With theformation of
a North Marion Street
Pedestrian Mall, access
to the Fine Arts Complex
on Block 72 is best
achieved via US High-
way 41 or N. l/rst St.


Columbia Street, leading
to the theatre parking
lot, is one-way, north.


Egress is west on FranklV
Street, back to US High-
way 41.


LEGEND
tE .T '. TRAFFIC PATTERN
SF hW.P -C, TRAFFIC PATTERPI


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CIRCQIL Al'I PLAN
LAKE CIT)
TRAFFIC SA ETi STUDY
LATE 7


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Room


Fire Exit














Fire Exit


/ 'Fire Exit














Fire Exit


\Ier's Office


Bubble Diagram of major functions and their relations in theatre design.






Bubble Diagram of Performing Fine Arts Complex functions as they would be arra
in the existing perimeters of the Columbia County Bank and the Gateway Theatre
City, Florida.


Entrance


Fire Exit


Auditorium


11 cony


North Marion Street Mall, ..
4 ---4 --


- Fire Exit
;'. / ,;/ ,". ////


S1 il : ....,`', .... I ,"/











LAKE CITY PERFORMING-FINE ARTS COMPLEX:


PROGRAM SPECIFICATIONS



I. SITE BLOCK 72 (Reference-see pages 5 and 6 for problem
critique)

A. Premis: Due to lack of parking area to complement the
future CBD North Marion Street Mall, the North half
of Block 72, presently owned by the Powers Motors
Company, will be used and redesigned as a parking lot
in this study.

B. Parking Lot Description (Sheet No. 1, Solution):
The purpose of the parking lot is to provide parking
to service the mall during the day and the Performing
Fine Arts Complex during evening operation, plus land-
scaping for aesthetic appeal for the mall and public
function. There are 30 available parking spaces, one
specified for handicapped; the central median, 30'
wide, could accommodate 15 more parking spaces; however,
the lot should present an aesthetic appeal thus, the
row of shady oaks, adding natural effect and unique
feature to the CBD while serving to direct attention
away from the monotony of the theatre north side
(Sheet No. 4, Solution).

C. Pedestrian Mall: the North Marion Street Mall would
be narrow, from storefront to storefront only 36' wide;
thus, the mall landscaping should be simple, allowing
as much space as possible for pedestrian circulation.

1) A few specific points for benches, night lights,
and trees are designated in the plans (Sheets Nos.
1 and 2, Solution).

2) Mall Surface sidewalks and concrete curbs removed;
surface then paved with brick, sloping to specific
points for drainage.

D. Facades: (Sheet No. 3, Solution) The classical facade
of the bank and the art deco of the theatre clash in
comparison; therefore, facade design should accent
the difference and enforce the individuality and
separation of the two. A curtain glass wall in the
18' space between the buildings serves to this end.










1) The theatre facade should be simplified to the
minimum elements of its art deco character: i.e.
the central marquis and vertical neon "theatre"
should be retained.

a. The stucco should be painted a light cream
color to cover the existing brilliant
which, reflecting too much light, can be
irritating to the beholder.
b. The central doorways will be used as post
performance exits and no longer as main
entrance to the auditorium.
c. The ticket window is to be retained as a
characteristic design feature.

Full restoration of the gateway facade to the 1946 "Columbia" is
possible, but not necessary unless financing and willingness of the
clients determine this.

2) Bank facade preserved intact with the following
revisions:

a. New windows of bronze tint glass and frame;
1/1 pane, as best can be decerned from original
photo of bank 1912.
b. Downlighting underside of the roof portico roof
to illuminate the entrance at night.
c. Ramp around the elevated portico base to facili-
tate ease of approach, for the handicapped in
wheelchairs, and eliminate an uncomfortable
clumsy step.

The significance of the bank facade: the classical ionic portico
is a strong formal expression of entrance and will serve in this
capacity for the Fine Arts Complex.

II. Bank Building

A. Exterior Restorations and Revisions

1) Entrance ramp red brick material, same as mall
surface.

2) Windows restored to original design but fitted
with bronze tinted glass (ASG 1/4" thick), to
diminish heat gain from east and south side expo-
sure. Framed in bronze color or dark brown color
aluminum and custom made by Alenco (see xeroxed
entry from Sweet's Catalogue).










-2 East Facade Windows 2 1/1 panes.

-5 South Side Windows double hung, with jaloise transom above,
designed according to specified sketch (Sheet No. 5,
Solution).

-Oval Window Above Entrance panes removed and replaced by bronze
tint panes or colored stained glass to reflect rainbow
colors.

3) Cornice restoration of this along the entabla-
ture level, south side, is optional depending on
available expense; shown as restored on Sheet No.
5, Solution.

4) Plantings along the front east and south sides
of the bank are of such diminutive size that
they serve no actual landscape purpose; since they
might interfere with window restoration and pose a
maintenance problem, I recommend that they be
removed.

B. Interior: The 950 sq. ft. public business space of
the bank is to become the intermission lobby and
exhibition area of the Fine Arts Complex.

1) Ceiling the original intact 17' high tin
panel ceiling should be exposed, repaired, painted;
hung ceiling and florescent lighting removed
permanently.

2) Ceiling Lighting 9 hanging clusters of 3 x 3
down and bulb light chandeliers, illuminate moulded
ceiling panels above and floor space below. (See
entry from Sweet's Catalogue, 5100 Series, Robert
Long, Inc.)

3) Walls interior walls will be expressed by interior
pilasters at points corresponding with those on
the exterior (see Sheet No. 6, Solution for details).
Floor and ceiling mouldings, pilaster bases and
capitals are to be painted white; wall and pilaster
shaft texture = neutral orange nylo rib material.

4) Floor grey acrylic floor carpet; color 10042
sandalwood, or 10043 peru beige heather/Bigelow-
Sanford, Inc., Grograin II contract carpet lokweave.

5) Office behind exhibition partition shall have
manager's desk, seating,and telephone.









6) Vaults lock mechanisms to be disengaged; doors
fastened open; used for coat and exhibition storage.

7) Back Rooms of Bank used for theatrical storage,
costume, and make-up.

8) Design of Lobby Doorways see details Sheets No.
6 and 8, Solution.

III. Central Passage: New construction between major load
bearing walls of the bank and theatre includes spaces for
passage lobby to auditorium, restrooms, make-up room,
and mechanical-storage room. Construction should be heavy
and strong enough to support the mechanical system on the
roof and prevent vibrations from such being felt throughout
the building.

A. Height 13' 6" roof height to attain roof level to
match fire exit from the theatre balcony.

B. Roof Material tar and gravel built up roof.

C. Interior Ceiling hung ceiling 8-10' high allowing
2'-3' space above for ducts from roof mechanical system
(heating and cooling) to feed air into major spaces of
the complex.

D. Curtain Glass Wall recessed 3' from bank facade;
bronze tint glass (ASG 1/4" thick); see Sheet No. 3,
Solution.

E. W.C.'s should include one toilet stall which conforms
to handicapped specifications.

F. Make-up room should be provided with vanities, mirrors,
and wash bowls.

G. Costume rooms should have portable furnishings and
portable partitions for privacy.

IV. Auditorium: Theatre Performance

A. Gateway Theatre Lobby becomes a foyer, a people col-
lection and dispersal space, for entrance and exit to
and from auditorium and balcony.

1) The interior walls for the offices and WC's of the
gateway theatre should be demolished opening the
space for circulation; interior piers essential
for supporting the balcony construction must be
preserved.









2) The gateway entrance doors should be locked shut
and covered inside by opaque curtains; handles on
the exterior should be removed and an indication of
"exit" should be visible on the outside. These
doors should serve as intermission and post per-
formance exits, handles on the interior. Also,
the glass can serve as a window, a source of natural
light into the foyer.

3) Fire Exits doors at S.E. and N.E. corners.

4) Interior Furnishings the ceiling is minimum height
creating a low dark space. Down lighting should
be installed in the ceiling, "exit" lights over
the exit doors, and to indicate location of the
stairs. The walls should be covered by light
colored nylo rib material.

B. Auditorium seating for 282 people; existing seats
meet required standards for comfortable theatre attendance.

1) Special seating for the handicapped should be pro-
vided in the N.E. corner near the auditorium door.

C. New Stage = area approximately 30 x 20 = 600 sq. ft.
which is adequate performing stage for small town drama
theatre.

1) Procenium Thrust gateway theatre stage is 15'
wide, designed for a movie screen. Thus, the stage
should be thrust forward at least 20'; and elevated
to the level of the asphalt lot in the rear of the
auditorium to facilitate delivery of stage and
scenery equipment through garage door (See Sheet
No. 7, Solution).

2) Exit passage to exit firedoors is provided on either
side of the stage.

3) Tracks for curtains and lights can be extended
between exit passage walls which should be of
masonry material, 2-3 HR fire resistant.

4) Flood lights for the stage can be located in
the balcony projection room.

D. Balcony: 99 Seats

1) Revisions with demolition of gateway lobby interior
walls, it is quite possible that the balcony will
have to be rebuilt, with trusses of heavier thicker
timbers spaced further apart.









2) Repairs the existing balcony flooring is in-
adequate and should be replaced.

3) Replanning new design for balcony seating,
storage rooms, and retention of projection room
(Sheet No. 2, Solution).

4) If centralized mechanical system for heating and
cooling is installed, airconditioner apparatus and
ducts should be removed from the balcony.

V. Mechanical System: Air-conditioning and Heating

A. First Option retention of multi-individual separate
units, as shown in measured drawings; all are in working
condition. Where new design interfers with location,
cooling towers can be resisted on the roof of the
passage.

B. Second Option I recommend that in the long run it
will be more economical and efficient to have a central
mechanical system servicing the whole complex.
Several Locations:

1) All mechanical system equipment on the roof,
adjacent to the bank wall, thick enough to absorb
vibrations.

2) Cooling tower on roof; condenser and compressor
in space designated "mechanical room".

3) Cooling tower on roof; condenser and compressor
in one of the bank rooms of the bank.

I would recommend putting all the mechanical equipment on the roof,
thus permitting as much free interior space as possible. The roof of
the public WC's is a central point of the Fine Arts Performing Complex
from which ducts, running short distances, can reach all major spaces.
Construction of the roof should be heavy and strong enough to
accommodate the load of mechanical equipment. The mechanical system
should be single duct, all-air, variable volume.

VI. Actors' Courtyard: in the S.W. corner of the Performing-
Fine Arts Complex there is provision for a small landscaped
space, tree and shaded seating, which I have designated the
"Actors' Courtyard" (See Sheets Nos. 1 and 2, Solution).
This space is defined by the back of the bank building, the
wall enclosing the firescape, the fire exit loading out from
the stage and auditorium, and a wall 8' high enclosing the
space to privacy with an opening to Hillsborough Street.










A. Firescape aluminum ship's ladder at 30 pitch.

1) Surrounded by brick wall.

2) Exit door from firescape enclosure should be
openable only from inside out, to prevent anyone
from mounting the ladder to the roof.

B. Actors' Parking the drive-in lot behind the bank
closes to public business 5:30 or 6:00 p.m. daily;
this lot could be used by actors' parking during
evening performances.

C. Actors' Entrance on rear of bank building.

D. Materials the material of the courtyard wall,
firescape wall, and new construction should be the
same color and size brick as the bank building.







3011


O.A. height 14"; O.A. width 6";
extends from wall 7". Interior
wall bracket, mounted on
center 4" up from bottom of
nnister.
nipping weight: 7 Ibs.


3012


Brass exterior wall
bracket similar to 3011.
Shipping weight 7 Ibs.


Glass: One 6" dia. opal spheres.
Clear crystal sphere optional.
Up light: 25w, A, not to exceed
60w.
Down light: 30w, R-20, not to
exceed 50w.
Three way switch optional.



Three way switch not available.


3014 (Shown)

O.A. height 16"; O.A. width 8";
extends from wall 11". Interior
wall bracket with mounting
stud on center, 4" up from
bottom of back plate.
Shipping weight: 9 Ibs.


3015
Brass exterior wall bracket
similar to 3014.
Shipping weight: 9 Ibs.


Glass: 8" dia. opal sphere.
Clear crystal sphere optional.
Up light: One 25w, A, not to
exceed 60w.
Down light: One 30w, R-20,
not to exceed 50w.
Three way switch optional.



Three way switch not available


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Robert Long Inc
950 Linden Avenue
South San Francisco, Ca. 94080
(415) 871-6222

3021

O.A. height 12", O.A. width 6";
extends from wall 7'2". Interior
wall bracket, mounted on
center 2'2" up from bottom
of cannister.
Shipping weight: 6 Ibs.


Glass: One 6" dia. clear crystal
sphere; opal sphere optional.
Up light: 10w, 10slln
intermediate screw base.
Down light: 25w, R-14,
intermediate screw base.
Three way switch optional.


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* ,-~. ,^ s~O.A lengt 36".-
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5013

O.A. height 18"; O.A. width 16"
Stem and Chain Standard.
Shipping weight: 10 Ibs.
Hanging weight: 7 Ibs.


Glass: Two 6" dia. opal
spheres; clear crystal spheres
optional.
Up lights: Two 25w, A, not to
exceed 60w.
Down lights: Two 30w, R-20,
not to exceed 50w.


Robert Long Inc
950 Linden Avenue
South San Francisco, Ca. 94080
(415) 871-6222

5021
O.A. height 18"; O.A. dia. 22".
Stem and Chain Standard.
Shipping weight: 17 Ibs.
Hanging weight: 11 Ibs.


Glass: Five 6" dia, clear crystal
spheres; opal spheres optional.
Up lights: Five 10w, 10slln
clear, intermediate screw base.
Down lights: Five 25w,
R-14, intermediate screw base,
Three way switch standard.












































.4 i

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PROJECT: Baylor University -Waco, Texas AGENT: Hendrix Products -Houston, Texas
ARCHITECT: Calhoun-Tungate-Jackson Houston, Texas GENERAL CONTRACTOR: B.F.W. Temple, Texas










SERIES


8.15/Ale



600 WINDOW REPLACEMENT SYSTEM


1000~s Ju'm""'


SECTION DETAILS
3"11- 1- 0"


Ptenco's Panning System will receive
o, af the following Alenco aluminum
wrenw products:
0 SERIES 700 HORIZONTAL ROLLING
* SERIES 950 PROJECTED
* rtn 0978 IN-SWING
*I ES 650 DOUBLE HUNG/
150 SINGLE HUNG
URIES 1600 WALL SYSTEM
E RES 1000 DOUBLE HUNG
?ES 1000 SINGLE HUNG


APPLICATION:
ALENCO'S Window Replace-
ment System offers com-
plete design flexibility
to the architect and
builder when renovating
proud buildings of yes-
ter-year.


FEATURES:
ALENCO'S Window Replace-
ment System is based on
ALENCO'S proven Wall Sys-
tem Compoents:Single Hung
and Double Hung, Project,
Inswing,Horizontal Roll-
ing Fixed Glassand Panels.


ALENCO 15














agents & distributors


ALABAMA
Mobile, Alabama 36607
BUCK TAYLOR MANUFACTURERS SALES
P. O. Box 7433 1813 Oak Knoll Dr.
Ph: (205) 479-6101
Montgomery, Alabama 36100
SOUTHERN SASH OF
MONTGOMERY, INC.
P. 0. Box 446 506 N. Court Street
Ph: (205) 265-3521
Birmingham, Alabama 35234
BINSWANGER GLASS COMPANY
P. O. Box 10143
Ph: (205) 252-9891

ARKANSAS
Little Rock, Arkansas 72203
BINSWANGER GLASS COMPANY
P. 0. Box 2699 2400 Commercial St.
Ph; (501) 374-0336

CALIFORNIA
Buena Park, California 90620
SASHCO
7379-C Orangethorpe Avenue
Ph: (714) 522-1177
San Diego, California 92110
PACIFIC BUILDING SPECIALTIES
5202 Lovelock
Ph: (714) 297-1493

COLORADO
Colorado Springs, Colorado 80907
OLDACH BUILDING PRODUCTS CO.
212 West Buchanan
Ph: (303) 636-5181
Denver, Colorado 80223
AMERICAN BUILDERS SUPPLY CO.
1203 West Byers Place
Ph: (303) 744-1396


CONNECTICUT
Bridgeport, Connecticut 06608
E. R. SMITH INCORPORATED
1318 Kossuth Street
Ph: (203) 336-2109


DELAWARE
Wilmington, Delaware 19800
DELAWARE SUPPLIERS, INCORPORATED
3110 Lancaster Avenue
Ph: (302) 656-7716

FLORIDA
Clearwater, Florida 33516
GENE SAMPLE GLASS CO.
13173 60th Street North
Ph: (813) 536-3735
Hialeah, Florida 33015
B & B SPECIALTIES, INC.
8440 N. W. 185th Street
Phi (305) 822-8778
Jacksonville, Florida 32203
GEORGE P. COYLE & SONS, INC.
P. O. Box 2267
Ph: (904) 356-4821


GEORGIA
Atlanta, Georgia 30341
M. L. WEISS COMPANY
P. O. Box 80547
Ph: (404) 633-9586

ILLINOIS
Addison, Illinois 60101
INLAND ARCHITECTURAL METALS, INC.
905 South Westgate Drive
Ph: (312) 628-0550

INDIANA
Indianapolis, Indiana 46205
CLARK ENGINEERING, INC.
2217 Duke
Ph: (317) 545-3319

KANSAS
Topeka, Kansas 66601
D. A. CANTWELL COMPANY
P. O. Box 223
Ph: (913) 272-1451
Wichita, Kansas 67201
CLACO SUPPLY, INCORPORATED
P. O. Box 946 322 Riverview
Ph: (316) 264-9354

KENTUCKY
Louisville, Kentucky 40204
PENCO, INCORPORATED
1110 Baxter Avenue
Ph: (502) 584-1167

LOUISIANA
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70821
A. B. BROUSSARD & SONS, INC.
P. O. Box 3114
Ph: (504) 665-6157
Lake Charles, Louisiana 70604
C. M. LONG, INCORPORATED
P. 0. Box 1352 1230 Second Street
Ph: (318) 433-0369
Monroe, Louisiana 72101
BINSWANGER GLASS COMPANY
1819 Royal Street P. O. Box 1265
Ph: (318) 861-0504
New Orleans, Louisiana 70005
TRIAD BUILDING SPECIALTIES, INC.
P. O. Drawer L
Ph: (504) 889-1490
Shreveport, Louisiana 71106
BINSWANGER GLASS COMPANY
451 West 61st P. O. Box 6317
Ph: (318) 861-0504

MICHIGAN
Grosse Point, Michigan 48236
AMERICAN WALL & WINDOW CO.
P. 0, Box 5254
Phi (313) 567-8100

MINNESOTA
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55408
W. L. HALL COMPANY
2816 Du Pont Avenue South
Ph: (612) 827-2839


MISSISSIPPI
Jackson, Missisippi 39205
BINSWANGER GLASS COMPANY
861 South State Street
Ph: (601) 352-8313
Meridian, Mississippi 39302
BINSWANGER GLASS COMPANY
P. O. Box 407
Ph: (601) 693-4541


MISSOURI
St. Louis, Missouri 63144
THE MAUNE CO.
8500 Eager Road
Ph: (314) 962-8100


NEW HAMPSHIRE
Manchester, New Hampshire 03105
GEORGE J. KEHAS COMPANY
P. O. Box 576 119 Walnut Road
Ph: (603) 627-7646


NEW JERSEY
Bloomfield, New Jersey 07003
MARVIN METAL PRODUCTS COMPANY
80 Orchard Street
Ph: (201) 748-4400

Bloomfield, New Jersey 07003
NEW JERSEY WINDOW SALES
80 Orchard Street
Ph: (201) 748-4400


NEW YORK
Buffalo, New York 14216
A. O. STILWELL COMPANY
85 Great Arrow Avenue
Ph: (716) 877-4300


NORTH CAROLINA
Charlotte, North Carolina 28210
MAXSON-BETTS COMPANY
P. O. Box 15257
Ph: (704) 332-1281


OHIO
Akron, Ohio 44310
FRED J. CRISP, INCORPORATED
720 North Main Street
Ph: (216) 253-5103


OKLAHOMA
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73118
AMERICAN BUILDERS SUPPLY CO., INC.
P. O. Box 18924 148 Northeast 48th
Ph, (405) 528-7031


PENNSYLVANIA
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15227
J. A. F., INCORPORATED
P. O. Box 9805
Phr (412) 882-0800
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19144
CHARLES G. NOSKA COMPANY
501 West Chelton
Phi (215) 843-3100


TENNESSEE
Chattanooga, Tennessee 37401
BINSWANGER GLASS COMPANY
P. O. Box 607 1507 Broad Street
Ph: (615) 265-3424


Knoxville, Tennessee 37917
CONSTRUCTION SERVICES, INC.
P. O. Box 3333
Ph: (615) 524-1496

Memphis, Tennessee 38111
BINSWANGER GLASS COMPANY
P. O. Box 11246 322 South Hollyv r
Ph: (901) 324-3521

Nashville, Tennessee 37209
JOHN W. McDOUGALL COMPANY
P. O. Box 90207
Ph: (615) 383-4036


TEXAS
Abilene, Texas 79601
ABILENE GLASS & MIRROR
173 Walnut
Ph: (915) 677-2837

Amarillo, Texas 79105
CROWE-GULDE CEMENT COMPANY
99 North Tyler P. O. Box 9026
Ph: (806) 373-4205

El Paso, Texas 79930
DENNEHY CONSTRUCTION MATERI LM
2520 Memphis Street
Ph: (915) 565-5829

Fort Worth, Texas 76104
CHAS. F. WILLIAMS COMPANY
P. O. Box'1724 328 Lipscomb Street
Ph: (817) 332-6363

Houston, Texas 77018
HENDRIX PRODUCTS COMPANY
P. O. Box 10566
Ph: (713) 686-3481

Mesquite, Texas 75149
REPUBLIC GLASS & GLAZING
1700 Potter Lane
Ph: (214) 285-1956

McAllen, Texas 78501
PALMER BUILDING SPECIALTIES
P. 0. Box 10 1315 East Highway
Ph: (512) 686-6575

San Angelo, Texas 76901
ANGELO GLASS & MIRROR CO.
11 Washington Avenue
Ph: (915) 655-6769

Wichita Falls, Texas 76308
BARNETT GLASS & MIRROR CO.
3920 Kemp P. O. Box 4198
Ph: (817) 692-7900

UTAH
Salt Lake City, Utah 84105
ASSOCIATED SPECIALTIES, INC.
1059 East 9th Street
Ph: (801) 363-4436


VIRGINIA
Richmond, Virginia 23220
AR-WALL, INC. OF VIRGINIA
P. O. Box 5291
Ph: (804) 359-4428

WISCONSIN
New Berlin, Wisc. 53151
ARWIN BUILDERS SPECIALTIES, INC.
2145 South 162nd Street
Ph: (414) 782-1090

WYOMING
Casper, Wyoming 82602
STEVE DEMONKOS CONSTRUCTION
MATERIALS
P. O. Box 2715
Ph: (307) 234-0715


I iIRLEnCOI


DIVISION OF REDMAN BUILDING PRODUCTS, INC.


Bryan, Texas: P, O. Box 3309 77801 (713) 822-0121


NATIONAL SALES
MANAGER
Lloyd L. Dooley
P. O. Box 3309
Bryan, Texas
713 822-0121


WESTERN REGIONAL
MANAGER
Richard O. Slaton
1264 Monterrey Blvd.
Euless, Texas 76039'
817 267-5127








ASG TiNTEd PLATE

DESCRIPTION AND USES
ASG Bronze and ASG Gray tinted glass products are
twin-ground, polished plate glass manufactured by
a modern process which protects surfaces against
parallel distortion. Both products are glare and
heat reducing and are Intended for applications
where glare control and reduction of solar heat are
desired or where color can contribute to design.
ASG Bronze and Gray tinted glass qualify as heat
absorbing glass, Class 2, Style B under Federal
Specification DD-G-451c. Solar radiant heat
absorption requires special design considerations
for size, shape and glazing. It is extremely
important, therefore, that the Information on page
6 be carefully reviewed when selecting and
specifying tinted plate glass.

GRADES
ASG Bronze and Gray plate are available in glazing
quality only.

PRODUCT VARIATIONS
Textured Bronze and Textured Gray Plate: Both
Bronze and Gray tinted plate are available as rough
plate (no grinding or polishing) or rough plate
(polished one side). These are used as spandrel
glass, decorative partitions and for glazing applica-
tions where obscurity is desired.

WARRANTY EXCLUSION
IAll, implied warranties including the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are
excluded from sales of the products described in this section.
See the ASG Policy Concerning Warranties on back cover of
this catalog.


At the Broadway Office of the Tucson Valley National Bank,
ASG 1/4" Bronze plate glass Is used throughout.
ARCHITECT: Friedman & Jobusch, Architects & Engineers,
Inc.

SUGGESTED SPECIFICATIONS
All tinted plate glass specified herein or shown on
plans shall be ASG twin-ground Bronze (ASG twin-
ground Gray, Textured Bronze or Textured Gray),
thick, glazing quality, as defined by
Federal Specification DD-G-451c, and made by
ASG Industries, Inc. Glass shall be handled and
installed by glazier in accordance with ASG
published glazing recommendations.


DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES

(1) (2) (3) (4) (4)
Thickness Maximum Approx. % Solar %
Product Quality And Standard Net Light % Total Solar (5)
Tolerances Sizes Weight Transmitted Ultra Violet Energy Shading
(Inches) (Inches) (Lbs./Sq. Ft.) Transmitted Transmitted Coefficient
ASG BRONZE 3/16 126 x 240 2.54 56 29 55 .73
ASG BRONZE
(TWIN GROUND 1/4 32 126 x 240 3.00 50 22 48 .68
POLISHED PLATE) GLAZING 3/8 120 x 240 4.70 37 13 33 .56
1/2 120 x 240 6.31 27 9 24 .49
3/16 126 x 240 2.54 50 36 53 .71
ASG GRAY GLAZING 1/4 126 x 240 3.00 44 29 46 .66
(TWIN GROUND + 1/32
POLISHED PLATE) 3/8 120 x 240 4.70 29 18 33 .56
1/2 120 x 240 6.31 20 12 24 .48
TEXTURED PLATE
BRONZE
(POLISHED ONE SIDE) 17/64 58 x 120 3.28 47 20 45 .65
GRAY + 1/32
(POLISHED ONE SIDE) GLAZING 17/64 58 x 120 3.28 40 27 43 .63
BRONZE
(ROUGH BOTH SIDES) 9/32 124 x 240 3.70 44 17 41 .62
GRAY +1/32
tOUGH BOTH SIDES) 9/32 124 x 240 3.70 38 24 40 .61


Thicknesses listed are standard. Consult our sales offices for availability of special
thicknesses less than 1/2".
2. Sizes listed are those which are normally manufactured. Mechanical and/or thermal
stresses in any specific design will generally limit maximum sizes furnished. Refer to
wind load charts, page 5. Consult our sales offices for availability of larger sizes
for restrictions in sizes of Bronze or Gray due to solar thermal stresses.


3, Percent light transmitted values are calculated for incidence perpendicular to the sur-
face of the glass and equivalent to I.C.I. Illuminant "C" (Approximate total daylight).
4 Percent solar energy transmitted values are calculated for incidence perpendicular to
the surface of the glass and equivalent to the solar energy distribution generally
accepted as the engineering standard.
5, Shading coefficient is for glass without any further interior or exterior shading devices.
Refer to Table 12. page 480 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, 1967
3












































service door note 1: Interior face wall mounting is the preferred type and the most economical.
Selection chart note 2: Apton types shown are for standard Service Doors. For the Air-Check Door, all
I type designations start with 'A" instead of "S".


selection features


Apton
type


mounting


SFP Interior face of wall
push-up Standard for doors up to 80 sq. ft.
(manual) Simple and rapid operation SEP Exterior face of wall
nual) Minimum clearances Between jambs. (Apply when
SP clearances insufficient for face mounting)

SFC Interior face of wall
Standard for doors 80 sq. ft. and over SEC Exterior face of wall, exterior operation
Efficient and versatile Exterior face of wall, with thru-wall interior
chain eight or et hand operation STC operation. (Clearances insufficient for
Smooth reduction gearing
Up to 35 ft. wide interior face mounting)
SBC Between jambs, interior operation
(Clearances insufficient for face mounting)

SFK Interior face of wall
Operable from both sides
when so specified SEK Exterior face of wall, exterior operation
crank Smooth reduction gearing Optional operation from both inside and out.
Removable crank handle
Up to 35 ft. wide SBK Between jambs, interior operation
(Clearances insufficient for face mounting)


Effortless
Rapid and versatile
Remote control
For frequent operation
Up to 60 ft. wide


SFM


Interior face of wall


SEM Exterior face of wall. Motor drive on exterior.
Exterior face of wall, with thru-wall drive.
STM Motor operator on interior.
(Clearances insufficient for interior
face mounting)


SBM


Between jambs, interior operation
(Clearances insufficient for face mounting)

APTON METAL PRODUCTS CORP. 3


operation


motor








SERVICE DOORS continued ts technical support


/STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS


Furnish rolling Service Doors as manufactured by
Apton Metal Products Corp., Inwood, N.Y. 11696.
Material and workmanship to be guaranteed for one
year. Erection to conform to Apton standards.
Work excluded: Preparation of openings, structural
supports, access panels, trim, field painting. On
motor operated doors, exclude wire, wiring, or dis-
connect switches.
Operation to be (Push-up, with handles). (Chain and
reduction gears; maximum pull of 35 Ibs.). (Crank
and reduction gears, crank box with removable han-
dle). (Motor refer to options below).
Curtains to be composed of interlocking slats of (gal-
vanized steel) (aluminum) (stainless steel), designed
to withstand a windload of 20 Ibs. per sq. ft. Wind-
locks to be applied where required by opening span
or heavier windload. Galvanized steel slats to be from
hot-dipped copper bearing strip, with 1.25 oz./sq.
ft. zinc coating, and phosphate coated for paint ad-
hesion. Strip to conform to ASTM A93 and A446.
For doors up to 14'-0" wide, slats to be #22 Gauge;
from 14'-0" to 18'-6" wide, slats to be #20 Gauge;
over 18'-6" wide, slats to be #18 Gauge. Alternate
slats to be fitted with malleable iron endlocks. Bot-
tom of curtain to have two reinforcing angles of
(steel) (aluminum) (stainless steel).
Counterbalance assembly to consist of helical torsion
springs with a 25% safety factor, mounted on
shaped cast anchors, supported by a continuous
solid torsion rod. This mechanism to be permanently
lubricated and enclosed within a steel pipe shaft.
Deflection of shaft not to exceed .03" per lin. ft. The


spring tension adjusting wheel is to be readily ac-
cessible from outside the bracket plate.
Brackets to be not less than 1/4" thick steel plate, to
contain self-aligning ball bearings for suspension of
the counterbalance assembly. Brackets to be mount-
ed to the structural wall angle to form a self-sup-
porting member, and form an enclosure for the hood.
Brackets to be reinforced with welded steel bands
for support of hoods. Gears to be of high grade iron,
cast from machine-cut patterns.
Guides to be composed of structural (steel) (alumi-
num) (stainless steel) angles, minimum 3/16" thick,
of sufficient depth to retain curtain under normal
windload. For doors requiring windlocks, guides to
be provided with windlock bars. Guides to be as-
sembled with 3/8" diameter bolts spaced not over
3'-0" on centers.
Hoods to be not less than #24 Gauge (hot galvan-
ized phosphate-treated steel) (aluminum) (stainless
steel), formed to fit brackets, and reinforced top and
bottom with stiffening returns, with intermediate
hood supports where required by door width.
Locking provision for padlocks to be (slide bolts on
push-up doors) (chain holder on chain doors) (lock-
ing disc on crank doors) (self-locking gearing on
motor operators).
Finish on steel to be one shop coat of rust inhibiting
metal primer, except on galvanized surfaces. On
aluminum, finish to be (mill) (clear anodize). On
stainless steel, finish to be (2B mill) (#4 satin).
(Special finish to be ).


SPECIFICATIONS FOR OPTIONS


* Motor operators to be integral assemblies with
NEMA rated electrical components, consisting of
high torque motor and solenoid brake, gear reducer
with worm gears enclosed in oil bath, self-locking
gearing, geared limit switch, emergency chain opera-
tor with disconnect and electrical safety interlock,
internal reversing magnetic starter, push-button sta-
tion with open-close-stop, internal pre-wiring. Motor
to be removable without affecting chain operation
or limit switch setting. (Refer to Page 5 for special
equipment to be considered).
* Safety edge bottom bars to be furnished on motor
operated doors, which, upon contact with an object,
is to stop (or reverse) the downward travel.
* The Air-Check weatherstripped door design to be fur-
nished, with neoprene seals in contact with all edges
of flat (F) slat curtains, weatherstripped guides, hood
baffles, and astragals.
* Insulated slats to be added to the Air-Check specifi-
cations, to further reduce heat and sound transmis-
sion, using polyurethane fillers within the flat slats.
* Astragals of neoprene to be provided, to weather-
strip the bottom edges of doors.
a Flat slat (F) curtains to be furnished, instead of
standard curved slats.


* Windlocks to be provided (where windload design ex-
ceeds 20 Ibs./sq. ft. standard).
u Vision lites of clear plastic to be provided in curtains;
each assembly to be 10 cut-outs totally approx. 100
sq. inches.
m Pass doors to be installed within rolling doors, using"
flush panel metal doors with cylinder lock. Both door
and frame to swing clear. On motor operated rolling
doors, include electrical interlocks (cut-out switches).
* Cylinder locks to be affixed to bottom of curtains. On
motor operated doors, include electrical interlocks
(cut-out switches).
* Shop coat to be baked-on grey acrylic enamel.
* Galvanizing hot-dipped, to be applied to (guides)
(pipe shaft) (brackets) (bottom bars) (gears), in
addition to the slats and hoods that are galvanized
as standard.
* Fascias to be furnished at open areas behind hoods,
if indicated to be by door manufacturer.
* Sloping bottom bars to be designed to match floor
pitch as indicated.
* Exterior mountings to be provided with exterior
hoods and covers over operators. When operators
are indicated to be on the interior, furnish gear cov-
ers and thru-wall drives.


--- I ~- 111 1- 14 --










SERVICE DOORS continued ts technical support


CLEARANCE DETAILS
For dimensions of door sizes larger than shown or for other mount
ings or special conditions, refer to the factory.


PUSH-UP FACE OF WALL type SFP


C+4"


C 2
2"


-I A--OPG. WIDTH W -fB


width inches
A&B
to

8' 5" 7
12' 5" 7V4
18' 5" 7V2


height
H
to

6' 3"
9'3"
12' 3"


C

14
15
16


CHAIN FACE OF WALL type SFC


C+1


L~----OPG. WIDTH W-- B -


typical guide assemblies

face of wall


for fastening to
masonry, using
expansion bolts


for fastening to
steel, using ma-
chine bolts


width inches
W A B
to

8' 5" 71/4 72
12' 5" 7V 8
18' 5" 8 8%
24' 5" 84 83/4
30' 5" 83/4 94

C
height W Wr
H to over
to 18' 18'

6'3" 14 16
9'3" 15 17
12'3" 16 18
15'3" 17 19
18'3" 18 20
20'3" 19 21


windlock guide for
extreme windloads
or wide openings


PUSH-UP BETWEEN JAMBS type SBP


height
H
to

7' 7"
10'8"
13' 9"


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CLEAR OPG.--
WIDTH W


C

14
15
16


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CHAIN BETWEEN JAMBS type SBC


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width inches
W A
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9' 3" 2V4 7
13' 5" 3 7%
19' 10" 3V4* 8
25' 10" 8V4 84
31' 11" 8Y 8%
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height W W
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to 18' 18'

7' 7" 14 16
10' 8" 15 17
13' 9" 16 18
16'10" 17 19
19' 11" 18 20
22' 0" 19 21


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outside


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WALL V varies with
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door width

typical for chain, crank, or motor operation


c+2"


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I W -*







IJT3 OVERALL PRODUCT

FIXED ALUMINUM SHIPS LADDERS
300 to 700 pitch


RUSSO ARCHITECTURAL METALS, INC.
2128 East Aurora Road, Twinsburg, Ohio 44087
Telephone: 216/425-9107


L
METAL


'1976 Russo Architectural Metals. Inc.


"See Russo's Catalog on ALUMINUM RAILING SYSTEMS
in Sweet's General Building File, Section 5.11/Ru"











taken from:


TIME-SAVER STANDARDS FOR BUILDING TYPES
Edited by Joseph de Chiara and John Hancock
Callender, McGraw Hill Book Company, New
York, 1973; "Chapter Three"


By JO MIELZINER


The twentieth century brought an entirely new
attitude toward shaping our theaters. Whereas
in the past, a consistent, developing produc-
tion technique gave rise to a single, if gradually
developing theater shape for each period, in the
last 60 years several theater shapes have been
available for our use. Due partly, no doubt, to
nineteenth-century historicism and scholar-
ship, a revival of earlier stage forms sprang up
to accompany the mainstream tradition of the
proscenium stage. There began to be a multiple
choice of theater shapes for plays in the twen-
tieth century-a situation that was unknown in
previous times. This movement clearly under-
scored the tremendous activity in theater arts
-the thinking and lack of it-being done by
all people involved.

Proscenium Theaters
From the turn of the twentieth century to the
present day, the proscenium theater-a direct-
line survival of the horseshoe opera house that
originated in the Renaissance-has continued
as the most generally accepted and widely
built theater shape in this country. By defini-
tion, a proscenium theater is a shape in which
the audience faces the performing area on one
side only and sees the performing area through
an architectural opening that often has an
elaborated architectural frame-although that
is not an essential element. The performing
area is not always limited by that opening; it
can project out a nominal distance into the
auditorium in the form of what is called a fore-
stage or apron. In essence, this is not an inti-
mate theater shape, since the audience and the
actors are each in separate, but connected, in-
terior rooms (see Fig. 1).
At the turn of the century, many American
proscenium theaters were outmoded and run
down, despite the fact that the theater itself
was prosperous. Unlike European theaters of
the time, in the United States experiments were
hampered by the lack of space, prohibitive

The Shape of Our Theatre, Clarkeon N. Pot-
ter, Publisher, New York.


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Fil. 2 The typical early-twentleth-century American theater had meager end often inndequato stage atid support n:l
facilities.


labor costs, and the overriding profit motive of
the commerical American theater. Very few of
these theaters were built with adequate ma-
chinery-stage elevators or turntables. Tenants
were expected to bring everything with them,
including turntables and all lighting equipment.
Consequently, early-twentieth-century produc-
ing groups dedicated to the new stagecraft
and contemporary American playwrights found
their theaters woefully inadequate In shape and
meager in equipment.
The absentee landlord's profits were not put
back into the buildings or into new equipment,
particularly stage lighting equipment. Actually,
landlords were not absent physically. What was
missing was any real love of the arts of the
theater; instead they substituted a love of prof-
its, If they were away from their theaters for
any length of time, their general managers were
on hand to keep a watchful eye on financial op-
erations.
One New York City landlord-builder ordered
a theater constructed with as little space as


possible for the stage, the lobby, end between-
legroom rows. In one instance the box office
was omitted entirely. In spite of the owner's
concern over his new theater's capacity to oper-
ate on a profitable level, the absence of any
professional theater people on the owner's or
the architect's staff was responsible for the
amazing omission. Only in a last-minute inspec-
tion by the owner did this situation reveal itself,
and a hastily designed and very cramped box
office was quickly put in.
One theater builder in Philadelphia forgot to
include dressing rooms and later had then
constructed in a separate building across an
alley, back of the theater. This little conve-
nience meant that the artist, to get from his
dressing room to the stage, had to go down to
the basement, literally duck under sewage and
steam pipes, and then go up into the other
building. All this showed little understanding
for the art of the theater-and no respect for iti;
artists (see Fig. 2).
Because of this general situation it was t'i,


Cultural


THEATERS


Fig. 1 The proscenium shape.
















producer, not the theater owner, who was
forced to keep up with the times and pay for
proper facilities and equipment to install porta-
ble dressing rooms backstage. I note these
almost unbelievable instances not in tih, spirit
of gossip, but to stress the need for the con-
stant presence of a professional theater expert
-not on the outskirts of a projected theater
design, but in a position of responsibility.
However, some producer-managers who
were clients for their own theater buildings had
a real love of theater itself, and an under-
standing of the latest European stagecraft de-
velopments. Among them were the Frohmans,
David Belasco, and Florenz Ziegfeld; the latter
retained architect-scene designer Joseph Ur-
ban to design his own theater. Winthrop Ames,
a wealthy amateur of the arts, and a thoroughly
professional producer, put up the Century
Theater on Now York's Central Park West. This
2,000-seat theater was notably ahead of its
time, but was soon demolished because no
contemporary repertory company could fill it.
If the absentee theater owners had been
more knowing, if they had even more material-
istic imagination, they would have made the
kind of improvement that Billy Rose later made
to his Ziegfeld Theatre (since demolished).
There he equipped the backstage as well as the
auditorium with the latest, most efficient
lighting equipment and lighting control sys-
tems. Even if motivated solely by financial
self-interest, this produced lucrative rentals
from his tenants, and also provided presenta-
tional potential for the users.
Because the picture frame theaters were
badly designed and therefore nearly unusable,
they have recently been much downgraded.
They were not bad simply because they were
old or because they had proscenium forms,
but because of their initial poor design. What
most of us have forgotten is that the prosceni-
um stage has been for centuries and will remain
one of our most useful theater shapes.

A Revival of Ancient Shapes
As early as 1914, a group at Teachers Col-
lege in New York used the simplest bleachers
and seats on four sides of a medium-sized room
to create an arena stage. An ancient theater
shape, the arena stage was used in the great
coliseums and arenas of Greece and Rome-
but never specifically for drama. This new
usage was the beginning of a revival.
The arena is a theater-in-the-round. The
stage is surrounded on all sides by the audi-
ence. This arrangement puts the greatest num-
ber of the audience in intimate proximity with
the performer. Both the audience and actor are
in the same room. Others were gradually won


Fig. 4 The open-thrust shape.
to this cost-saving stage form which automati-
cally minimizes the expensive, elaborate sce-
nery usually associated with the proscenium
tradition. (See Fig. 3.)
The period following World War I was ex-
citing both in Europe and America. Inspired by
a fresh approach to writing and the new Euro-
pean expressionistic stage designers and pro-
ducers-Adolphe Appin in Switzerland, Max


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Fig. 5 The open stage of Jacques Copeau's Vieux Colomhier, Paris, had multiple levels end a flexible but permanent
architectural set.


Fig. 3 The arena shape.


Cultural

THEATERS


Reinhardt and Leopold Jessner in Germany-
our best young playwrights, Eugene O'Neill,
Elmer Rice, and John Howard Lawson, helped
launch and stimulate a new attitude toward
stagecraft in the United States.
Expressionistic scene development in Ger-
many and Russia was also reflected in America.
Lee Simonson, Norman Bet Geddes, and Robert
Edmond Jones produced designs of dramatic
imagination for scenery and stage. However,
since they were not in the mainstream of com-
mercial thinking, few of these new stages
were actually built.
Conventional Broadway was not the only
vital place; community and college playhouses
sprang up all over the country. But the time and
cost of producing scenery led directors to by-
pass that traditional problem and to investigate
other techniques of stagecraft.
Early in this century, the ancient open-thrust
stage, which had been used before the develop-
ment of the proscenium theatre, was revived
by several directors and producers. High costs
of proscenium productions, which required
elaborate and sometimes complicated scenery
as well as high operating costs, led to this re-
vival. Coupled with this was a desire to bring
greater intimacy to the theater again. (See Fig.
4.)
The open-thrust stage had experienced an
earlier revival in Europe. Davioud and Bourdais'
unexecuted 1875 opera house design proposed
a stage of extreme thrust, extending 50 ft into
the auditorium with seating on three sides. And
in the twenties, the Parisian actor-director
Jacques Copeau conceived a truly open theater
chamber of intimate proportions in his Theatre
Vieux Colombier. His open stage had multiple


lil


















levels, a number of entrances and exits, and a
flexible architectural set, which was perma-
nert and therefore cost-cutting. Neither of
these European theater designs directly in-
fluenced American stage designs, however,
until the educational theater did so much to
spur the revival of the open-thrust stage. (See
Fig. 5.)
American educators felt that the proper
method of teaching Shakespeare was to permit
students to act and to observe performances of
his plays on the type of stage for which they
were written. Educators often attempted
makeshift open-thrust stages in whatever
theaters were available to them. Scenery of the
proscenium tradition was virtually eliminated
in open-thrust stagecraft. And ultimately per-
manent open-thrust stage theaters were con-
structed by the producers of Shakespeare fes-
tivals for such regional and community groups
as those at San Diego, California; Portland,
Oregon; and later the Folger Shakespeare Li-
brary in Washington, D.C.
A thrust stage must not be confused with
extended forestages in proscenium theatres,
which utilize techniques of acting, direction,
and designing that do not differ from standard
proscenium stagecraft. A true thrust stage is a
platform extending into an open auditorium in
which the audience truly surrounds the stage
on three sides. There may be exits in the back
of the stage, as well as under the audience
through vomitory tunnels. A thrust stage is an
area deep and wide enough on which to play a
full scene. When an apron or forestage is only
an adjunct to a proscenium stage, it should not
be considered a thrust stage (see Fig. 6).


and more cultivated. There was a new boom in
theater construction. The quarter-century
hiatus in building, however, had left its mark. A
whole generation of architects and designers
had been passed by, and the new generation
was unschooled in the development of stage
design. This ignorance led to rampant confu-
sion in theater design.


Multiple Choice at Midcentury

When theatre building activity was resumed,
the proscenium was the only widely known
theater shape; therefore it continued to be
popular. To make the proscenium more effec-
tive for mid-twentieth-century use, new devel-
opments were introduced by architects and
designers. Electrically operated flying scenery,
electronic control systems like those that pre-
set positions for stage elevators, and prede-
termined lighting plans made the designing of
theaters as complicated as it made the physical
operation simpler. More and more sophistica-
ted attention to good sight lines and seating
furthered the continuation of the proscenium
tradition.
Clients, on the other hand, sometimes con-
tinued a status-seeking reverence for seven-
teenth- and eighteenth-century European
models that could not, in all ways, take advan-
tage of these new techniques. A significant
example of this reactionary view was the atti-
tude of the Metropolitan Opera Board of Direc-
tors toward commissioning a new opera house
in Lincoln Center. I am not criticizing the archi-
tects' designs or even their execution. The
design was chosen with the conviction that the
"Golden Horseshoe" of their old (1882) house
was sacrosanct. A sentimental attachment to
the past, as well as a lack of sympathy with
contemporary design, may well have influenced
the Board's decision. But I would suspect that
the fear of alienating the few, but financially
critical constituents was the dominant factor in
their decision.
I am well aware that backstage the mechani-
cal facilities of the new Metropolitan Opera
House are up-to-date and undoubtedly do much
to keep down the backbreaking operational
overhead.
That they did not attempt to peer into the
not-too-distant twenty-first century is under-
standable. The life-span of contemporary
structures-particularly those associated with
the performing arts, is shortening so quickly
that new theater shapes may serve satisfactori-
ly for only a generation or two. But in delib-


erately choosing a multitiered eighteenth-
century horseshoe seating plan, the directors
were guilty of a graver error than just inflicting
substandard sight lines. That error was the
failure to recognize that our twentieth-century
visual art forms are not just passing fads, but
are deeply dyed in our daily lives, in our means
of communication and our social behavior. It
seems strange that the impresarios of an art
form as abstract as music should allow them-
selves to close their eyes to even the most
universally acceptable visual arts of our mid-
century.
Today, only after careful consideration,
proper planning and design will the proscenium
theater regain its usefulness. A modern prosce-
nium theater need not be rigid in its dimen-
sions-either in width or height. Side panels
adjacent to the proscenium can have facilities
for openings and side stages. Offstage rooms-
right and left, up and down, traps and fly loft-
all have to be provided. All these elements lend
great flexibility, to the Proscenium stage, but
also make it more complex and more expensive
to build. Basically, the proscenium is one of the
most flexible theater shapes because any
and all styles of production can be effectively
realized. For the director, the problems of sight
lines and other questions inherent in prosceni-
um productions are fluid. In stagecraft, partic-
ularly lighting and settings, everything from the
most stylistic and simple designs to the most
elaborate and imaginative settings can take
full advantage of this shape. Even a play such
as Hair, which was first performed on an open
stage, was successfully produced on Broadway
in a proscenium theater. (See Fig. 7.)
The limitation of this theater shape is that it
tends to be less intiiota than either the The-
ater-in-the-round or the open-thrust stage. Yet
it also must be remembered that many play-
wrights want the kind of separation between
actor and audience that the proscenium shape
gives. On the whole, if I were limited to a single
stage form, I would choose a flexible prosceni-
um with an ample forestagse
During the 1950s, labor and material costs
again led clients as well as producers and de-
signers to seek new methods of stagecraft. So
it was that arena stages or theaters-in-the-
round gained wider acceptance as a suitable
setting for spoken drama. They were less ax-
pensive to build and required virtually no con-
ventional scenery. A strung influence during
the theater explosion, the arena stage in
Washington, DC., clearly demonstrates how
sophisticated theater-in-tllh-round can be. D.-


Fig. 8 The apron shape.

Thus, by the end of the twenties, theater pro-
fessionals had a choice of not only the tradi-
tional proscenium stage but also the revived
open-thrust and the arena stage forms.


Hiatus in Theater Building
The Depression of 1929 brought a virtual end
to theater building in the United States until
the end of World War II. No commercial the-
aters were built in major American cities be-
tween 1929 and 1950. The sole exception was
Rockefeller Center's Center Theatre, built in
1936 and demolished in 1950. In the thirties,
only a few colleges and universities had the
funds to build modern theaters with stages
designed for modern stagecraft and modern
repertory requirements.
After World War 1I, America was ripe for a
"cultural explosion." Mid-twentieth-century
Americans were more affluent, better traveled,


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Fig. 7 In today proscenium theater, the width of the proscenium opening can often be varied by adjustable panels.


Cultural


THEATERS








































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Fig. 8 The arena stage in Washington, D.C., designed by architect Harry Weese in 1961, is an exemplary modern
arena-shaped theater.


signed for Zelda Fichandler in 1961 by Chicago
architects Harry Weese & Associates, it is a far
cry from the frequently seen, makeshift the-
aters-in-the-round. Well planned and success-
ful, it is actually a theater-in-the-rectangle, but
the principle of an audience surrounding the
stage is identical. Here both the architect and
the owner worked carefully to meet the needs
of the company and to solve the technical prob-
lems and limitations of such a theater shape
(see Fig. 8).
One built-in limitation of arena stages is ap-
plicable to all stages surrounded, or partly sur-
rounded, by the audience: the director must
constantly change his axis to prevent one group
of viewers from being presented with poorer
images than othersections of the audience.
Actors, as well as the director, must use en-
tirely different attacks on performance and
movement. Lighting is also more difficult in
arena staging because of the mandatory econo-
my; however, when handled by an artist, this
flexible medium can stress the nonillusionistic
approach to a design.
In addition, the ability to vary settings is a
limitation, both because architectural forms
are impractical, and because elevations on the
stage have to be limited in scale. In choosing a
repertory for an arena stage company, certain
plays-such as the classical plays of Sopho-
cles, Euripides, Shakespeare, Moliere, and
Sheridan--succeed while, on the other hand,
some plays written for the proscenium stage
must be omitted.
One of the primary advantages of an arena
theater is intimacy. Even with 1,000 seats, the
most distant member of the audience need not


be much more than 32 ft from the nearest part
of the stage. Although in more sophisticated
theaters-in-the-round, it is possible to use
traps and to fly elements overhead from a
modified grid above the center of the stage,
scenic investiture is ordinarily reduced to only
the most expressive and economical forms of
lighting and projection, costumes, props, and
simple portable scenic elements that do not
mask the actor from any part of the surround-
ing audience. On the whole, I think the
advantages far outweigh the disadvantages of
arena theaters. The fact that presentation style
stresses imagination and simplicity is surely a
strong argument.
Throughout the fifties and sixties a major in-
novative force in theater architecture has been
Irish theater director Sir Tyrone Guthrie. In
the fifties, after much acclaimed experimenta-
tion in England and Scotland, Guthrie was in-
vited by the bright, ambitious young communi-
ty leaders of Stratford, Ontario, to establish a
theater. Intended primarily for the classics, the
theater was first set up inside a tent, and later
rebuilt under a permanent architectural struc-
ture (see Figs. 9 and 10).
Tyrone Guthrie's concept for Stratford,
which was worked out with theater designer
Tanya Moisewitsch, was appropriately a clas-
sical one. The auditorium is based on a steeply
banked, semicircular, Greco-Roman, three-
sided seating arrangement; it surrounds an
open-thrust stage that has many basic elements
of the Elizabethan stage. Besides entrances
from the rear wall, Guthrie also used vomito-
ries, which are entrances and exits to the stage
from below the audience seating areas.


Little if any background scenery is used.
Stress is on costumes, props, and lighting,
which the director/designer team use in the
most imaginative and simplest way to create
scenic atmosphere. Light is used almost en-
tirely as illumination, with very little sophistica-
tion in movement, color, or image projection.
On the other hand, their sophisticated use of
costumes and properties has been extremely
important in creating a sense of mood and
character. The impact of the theater was inter-
national. It was intimate and vital, and ex-
tremely suitable for the classics.
A few years later, after the Ontario theater
had been built, Outhrie himself initiated, with
Oliver Rea, a similar venture In Minneapolis,
Minnesota. There, he planned with architect
Ralph Rapaon a variation on the Stratford,
Ontario, theater. Corrections were made, for
example, in the sight lines at extreme left and
right. He included facilities for hanging scenery
behind the thrust, It is a token proscenium
behind the thrust stage. This combination of
the two theater forms was a major innovation.
And thoughtful architects and designers
throughout the country and abroad studied it
with great interest.
An open-thrust stage can be extremely sim-
ple, like Tyrone Guthrie's Stratford, Ontario,
theater. It can then be elaborated by planning
an adaptable grid for lights, props, and scenic
elements to be hung directly over the thrust.
Yet all this fits into the basically simple
staging that is germane to the shape.
The advantages of thrust are clear and
strong, but so are its disadvantages. Of the
advantages, the greatest is perhaps the
fe6tgUK-e-ed sense of involvement gained by
bI5o The audience and the actor. Intimacy natu-
rally is enhanced; the movement and pace of
the play are swift; and the technique is fluid and
cinematographic. The open-thrust stage does,
however, diminish the significance of the "il-
lusionistic" style of stage design. (Depending
on one's point of view, admittedly, this may be
counted either as one of its advantages or as
one of its limitations. For me, illusion is one of
the lesser achievements of the contemporary
theater.) The open stage requires a totally dif-
ferent approach. The cast cannot be directed to
act only toward the front, because the audience
is on the sides as well. And, in a sense, they
must act dimensionally within a scenic scheme,
rather than in front of it. Costumes also become
more important as do the few but choice prop-
erties with which the actors work. And finally,
because background pictures are not being
created, lighting must become a living element
through which players move.
Generally, the open-thrust stage is more
flexible than the arena. With the open-thrust
stage, the director does not have to worry so
much about the actor's back being to the
audience. But because the open-thrust is more
complicated to design, it may turn out to be
more expensive to build than the arena or pro-
scenium theatre.
Perhaps the most outstanding disadvantage
is that the more realistic a play is, the less ef-
fective it may be for the open-thrust stage.
Shakespearean plays and other earlier classics
are easily adaptable since in their writing and
production they were presented on open Eliza-
bethan stages with a minimum of scenic ef-
fects. Much of nineteenth-century drama is
considered ill-suited for the open-thrust stage;
but this also presents an opportunity for an
imaginative director to approach these plays
with a radically fresh style.
Of the multiple choices in theater shapes at
midcentury, then, three were prominent-pro-
scenium, arena, and open-thrust; but more in-
volved, complex choices of theater shapes were


Cultural


THEATERS








Cultural

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Fig. 9 The Stratford, Ontario Shakespeare Festival Theatre has been an influential interpretation of the open-
thrust stage. It combines an Elizabethan stage with a Greco-Roman audience seating plan.







Cultural

THEATERS









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--- - --promise of a mulorm stage. It could be changed from (a) the proscenium shape to b) the open-thrust shape, and













: -- .. : -:_-. -_. cl lo the arena shape.
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.. .- -ULTICH0CE IN A SINGLE THEATER
:historical theater shapes, which are available



i-' i new combination of multiples has appeared.
Now, we can attempt to have several, or all



(a) (b) '"







Fig The total theater schem, designed by Wlter Ghreepius in 1929, is a chimera holdrms in a singlfrth the buillusdingve
Sproe of mudorm stage It could be changed from () the prosen in the same auditorium. This uniquest shape, and
-. the ae.tion of present-day theater design and to thet
_:- _-_.--......... : .,-, ~ye utter confus ion of present-day theaternd design
Besides the choice among three traditional,




.. to the educate r planners and desi gnre to perform Shake-
_---_---_'-'_-- nIpearean plays in th e original setting has appeared.
...... ... extended of to a des ire als forms in single buildingh-
-teen in th- an d nineteenth-century playThis in the
Sp ossibility has led towhich they wextreme originally pro-
tioduced. Not contpresent-day with a n open-thrust stage
r, Utheater confo r plays writtesent-day fo r that basic shape,
st from the days of clas desical Greee to thperform Shake- Middle
Jspeerean plays inh the origi nal setting has been
r I 'exlatendedr plays. This desire has now spread from igh-
t .theaters for whit t he producers origin community
duced. Not content with an open-thrust stage





it |Wheater for plays written found s ar e available, the
SbuildinA g es, producers also want -one proscenium thande-
Ster, in which to present Renaissance ande-
later plays. This desire has now sexpreadssly forom
Arena theaters.) Ho weaver, sufficient funds doll.
Where sufficient funds are available for such a sp thendid
pCrom iC b solution. As a compromis-one poean t ust and
ione op be recognizedl as thcco ate hisara
sire. (It mconfust be remembered that in g and design
but ourocesses ow n were p lays written expressly for


arenasides the a terms ) However, sufficient funds donal,
historic always theater shapes, which are available for such a splendid
solution As aew com prombination of multiples has appeared.
mediately be recognized as to havet, several, or allchitets












mediately be recognized as that, architects,


















stage engineers, and designers have attempted
to build, within a single theater, multiform
stages, which can be changed from one shape
to another.


The Multiform Stage

Inspired by the total theater scheme of the late
architect Walter Gropius, which was designed
in 1929, but never executed, engineers have
attempted tour-de-force theaters that could be
altered from proscenium stage arrangements to
open-thrust stage arrangements-and even to
the arena shape. Engineering and mechanical
ingenuity, coupled with accurate electric con-
trols, have made these chimeras appear at-
tainable. It is my feeling, however, that this
concept has never been successfully realized.
Multiform stages were developed for clients
who felt they could afford to build only one
theater, but were unable to commit themselves
to a single stage form. The mechanical multi-
form stage was also intended to make flexible
space operational for theaters of large size, and
to save manpower and time in rearranging
stage form and audience seating plans.
In Fig. 11 I have illustrated one theater in-
terior that can be used for two types of stage
productions by rearranging some of the seating
and changing the proscenium proportions. The
first is a true proscenium technique. Then, by
using an elevator to bring up a thrust stage and
readjust the seating elements, this same the-
ater can be used for a second technique-the
open-thrust stage.
At the Loeb Drama Center at Harvard Uni-
versity, mechanical means have been provided
to create three entirely different relations be-
tween acting area and audience seating. De-


signed by architect Hugh Stubbins and theater
engineer George Izenour, the Loeb Theatre in-
terior itself does not essentially change-only
the mobile units within its walls and under its
ceilings. The avowed purpose of this highly
selective and mechanical complex was to satis-
fy the needs of student directors, actors, and
authors to create any and all stage shapes at
will (see Fig. 12).
For all multiform stages, there is a price paid
-not only in dollars, but also in sacrifice of
function. No multiform stage can be either a
perfect thrust or a perfect proscenium stage.
Yes, they work. But the additional expense,
both in design and construction and ultimately
in operational costs, is not worth the loss of
unified purpose that characterizes a theater
with a single stage shape. Such experiments
fail basically for the very reason that in none of
their two or three or five alternate adjustments
has one a feeling of a well-designed, simple,
clean, direct, single-form theater. In order to
make a collective multiform that works at all,
each single arrangement must be a compro-
mise.
It has been my experience that impressive
and technically practical as some of the ex-
periments may be, in none of their various
chameleon-like changes are they as effective in
either arrangements or elements as the stages
designed for a specific purpose.
Even a theater that can be changed to create
only two of the basic stage shapes is a com-
promise. But such dual-form or "hybrid" the-
aters appeal to clients who desire some of the
advantages of the thrust stage and, with a mini-
mum of changeover, the use of the same audi-
torium as a proscenium stage. And it must be
admitted that a stage that can be changed from


Fig. 11


arena shape to open-thrust shape may not be so
serious a compromise. The real difficulty is in
designing a theater that will accommodate both
the axial vision demanded by the proscenium
stage and the radial vision that is basic to the
open-thrust stage.
I have been involved (although after instinc-
tive personal protest) in designing a number of
dual-form theaters. An honest architect or de-
signer must hold a Monday-morning quarter-
back session with himself, if not in public,
upon the completion of an important job. I feel
that a public session here will provide a valu-
able share of my experience.
It was tragic that one of the great architects
with a true and sensitive understanding of the-
ater, the late Eero Saarinen, should have lived
to complete only the Beaumont Theater of
Lincoln Center. It was a privilege to be code-
signer with him on the stage and auditorium.
When Eero and I were given the responsibility
for designing the two theaters for the Lincoln
Center Repertory Company, we met privately
for long, honest studies. I found, to my plea-
sure, that our basic concepts were in agree-
ment. First, neither of us believed in anything
but single-form stages; we both were com-
pletely opposed to a multiform stage. If our
original proposition had bean accepted, we
would have had the upstairs theater slightly
smaller and the downstairs theaters slightly
larger. One of them would have been pure
thrust stage and the other pure proscenium.
The question of which form would be which
size would have been left to the building com-
mittee. That is, if the committee voted that the
larger theater should have a proscenium stage,
we wanted that theater to be a pure proscenium
theater, in the best sense, and the other to be a
pure open-thrust stage-and vice versa. (See
Fig. 13.)
We were overruled. In fact, some members of
the committee even talked about a basic multi-
use scheme for the Beaumont. We turned that
down completely, but we realized that we
would have to accept the compromise of a dual-
form design. Our original proposition would
have been the wiser decision, and ultimately
far cheaper in both initial costs and in subse-
quent operating costs.
However, Lincoln Center gave us months of
exploratory time and supported the costs of ex-
perimental designs and models which were
shown to the building committee of the Reper-
tory Company and to a group of theater critics.
A small, but very volatile minority of them sup-
ported the idea that the opial-thruat stage
should be the dominant form. Rut at the end of
the investigation, the consnltrle was Ithat we
should design the larger theater so tiht it could
be used as a proscenium theater atirl as an
open-thrlust stall; and that wvt, as dtesigners,
should find some practical means of making
the changeover relatively simple.
We pointed out that to meet the production
schedule of a repertory company for a two-hour
changeover between matinee and evening, it
would be imperative to install expensive auto-
matic mechanical equipment. For example, if a
production using open-thrust was completed at
5 or 5:30 and the evening schedule called for
proscenium staging, an enormous amount of
work would be required not only in changing
the scenery and lighting, but in changing the
seating plan and the open-thrust stage itself.
What we designed at the Beaumont Theater for
this changeover can be effected in 2 hours.
It is achieved by locating !re front group of
seats on a large lift that descends to the sub-
basement where a turntable rotates them,
substituting an open-thrust stage, which is then
raised into position. Proscenium panels at the
Beaumont can be opened to make a maximum


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