Historic architecture of Mississippi's Gulf coast - slides

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Historic architecture of Mississippi's Gulf coast - slides
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Dessauer, Peter F.
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Peter F. Dessauer
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Gainesville, Fla.
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University of Florida
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SLIDES

PHOTO SLIDES FOR VISUAL
PRESENTATION:
TAKEN FROM THE SOURCES








SLIDES


1. Map of the Gulf Coast: taken from The Golden Coast


2. The Old Spanish Fort; A History of Mississi-Di, by Mclemore.
Pascagoula p. 131


3. The Old Spanish Fort: Oliver, The Gulf Coast of Mississiqoi.
p. 92

PASCAGOULA

From Ocean Springs to Pascagoula the highway leaves the Gulf shores and follows the
old Spanish trail for fifteen miles into picturesque pine lands, and then wends its way
again to the water's edge at Pascagoula: place of mysterious music of the Singing River.
The hereditary industries of the Coast, boat building and fishing, have always pre-
vailed in the Pascagoula country, since the days when early French explorers contacted
the tribe of Pascagoula Indians for whom the settlement was named.
In the year 1717, Joseph Simon de la Pointe built the first house near the mouth of
the Pascagou!a river. It is now known as Krebs Fort. In 1730 Frans von Krebs came
from Germany to Pascagoula and married the daughter of de la Pointe. They occu-
pied the old de la Pointe house. It stands today in the primitive, solid security of its
three-foot thick walls and everlasting cypress timbers. The roof has been renewed
within recent years, but walls, floors and ceilings are the original and intact. It is now
owned by Pascagoula Post of the American Legion.
Pascagoula passed its first half century in a mood of lethargic indifference to the
progress of the world outside. It was 1810 before the town awoke to the activities of
commercial life. Since the War Between the States it has become te Port of Pasca-
goula with gigantic shipyards, fish canneries, paper mills, garment factories, and other
important industries.
Pascagoula has ever been the Coast land of legends. Regardless of the passing of the
Indians, and.the coming of the Spanish, the French, the Germans, the Irish, this region
of rivers, bayous, and dense forests has always woven a spell of beauty and romance.
Here it was that Henry W. Longfellow lived and dreamed and wrote his immortal
poem, "The Building of the Ship."
Here Augusta J. Evans-Wilson lived while writing "St. Elmo."
Here in 1848 William Baxter wrote his beautiful poem "Music of the Pascagoula."
Here Fred N. Scott wrote his famous "Legend of the Pascagoula Indians."
The legend most beloved is that of the Singing River:
"Olustee, son of a Pascagoula chief, while hunting ,ne day in the forest, met Miona,
daughter of a Biloxi chief. They visited awhile, and before long realized they were in
love. Olustee begged the maiden to become his bride and to live with his tribe, but .she
told him, in tears, that while she loved him she was already pledged to Otanga, a mem-
ber of her father's tribe. Olustee continued pleading, and at last won the consent of
Miona, and together they went to the Pascagoulas. The tribe welcomed the lovely
Miona. and planned a grand celebration, including a feast, for the wedding which
should take place the coming morn. That night, while the PasR;'goulas slept, Otani.:a,
the jilted lover, led a band of Biloxi Indians against the Pa:caigoulas. Realizing that he
had endangered his whole people, Oiustee begged that he be allowed to deliver himself
to the enraged Biloxians, but his loyal tribesmen refused to let him make such a sacri-
fice, declaring that they would save him and his bride-to-be or all would perish together.
Men, women, and children marched into the river. When a&i hope was gone they began
singing a death chant which was silenced only as they became submerged by the waters.


Ibid.,, p. 89






page 2


4. The Delmas House: Ibid., p. 97;Pascagoula

'DELMAS HOUSE

In the shadow of two magnolia trees that grow on the hanks of Singing River, stands
all that remains of the oldest home of the Mississippi Gulf Coast. It is the old Valentine
Delmas home, constructed about 1780. The land on which the house is built was
part of an immense acreage, a land grant by Louis XIV, made long before the Spanish
period in which the house was built.
It is a one-story frame building with a low spreading roof which extends over a low-
ceilinged front gallery. The walls are of hand-hewn timbers, floated 65 miles in the
Pascagoula river, shell, moss and lime. The walls and beams stand today in an excellent
state of preservation, but the original roof long since yielded to the rude ravages of
weather and time.
Town building and commercial industries have crowded close around this old Delmas
house, which seems to be waiting with steadfast endurance for some civic-minded per-
son who venerates the grandeur of by-gone days to reclaim it.

5. The Grant House, Pascagoula: Ibid.., p.96
This cannon ball buried itself six feet
in the ground. It was discovered by
Helaire Grant. The house was built in
1820 by Washington Grant, a rela-
tive of General U. S. Grant.


6. The Frederic House, Pascagoula: Crocker, Historic
Architecture in Mississiopi, p. 103.

First portion built in 1829; addition in 1895.
See xeroxed page 103 from Crocker under Pascagoula.


7. Bellevue House, Pascagoula: Crocker, Ibid., p. 101


8. Bellevue House, Pascagoula: Oliver, 2n. cit., p. 99

'BELLEVUE
"The Building of the Ship"

Near the east end of Beach Boulevard stands a three-story frame dwelling with a raised
basement of stuccoed brick. The first floor is reached by outside double stairways to the
gallery across the entire front of the house. It is constructed of native pine and cypress,
and contains sixteen rooms, two bath rooms, and three cross-halls. A self-supporting,
winding stairway leads to the third floor. High ~.c:ir and long windows from ceiling
to floor level are features of this old house. Dormer windows serve to break its trans-
verse roof. The original mantels and chandeliers are still in place. The year the house
was built, 1854, is marked on an upper corner near the roof.
When Henry W. Longfellow visited Pascagoula he spent several months at Belle-
vue. It is here that he wrote "The Building of the Sthip," from which I quote:
In the ship-yard stood the Master,
With the model of the vessel
That should laugh at all disaster,
And with wave and whirlwind wrestle!









page 3


Covering mIny a rood of ground
Lay the timber pi!ed around,
Timber of chestnut, and elm, and oak,
And scattered here and there, with these,
The knarred and crooked cedar knees;
Brought from regions far away
From Pascagoula's sunny bay;

S For only what is sound and strong
To this vessel shall belong.
In the War Between the States the house was used as a refuge for Federal soldiers.
In the early 70's a school was conducted here by the Episcopal church.
It has been reported as haunted, a story crea-d probably to keep pilferers away.
For many years the house has been known as the Pollock place. Quite recently the
property was bought by Frank S. Canty, Mayor of Pascagoula.


9. Bellevue House, Pascagoula:
Interior views.
A classic ceiling decoration in Belle-
vue. The center is a circle of roses from
which radiate twelve sprays. The rose
was a symbol of sanctity, of domestic-
ity and joviality and all that transpired
"under the rose" was secret.
The decoration was made out of
very fine lime plaster containing
marble dust mixed with cotton,
chopped straw, honey, and the milky
sap of fig trees.
Although the ceiling about it and
the pendant brass fixture bear signs of
deterioration, it is in a state of perfect
preservation today.


Ibid., p.100


The rare old mahogany self-sup-
porting spiral stairway in the rear hall
of Bellevue leads from cellar to attic.


10. Bellevue House, Pascagoula-Front Porch View: Ibid., p.101

BELLEVUE From this porch Longfellow probably saw
the vision which gave him inspiration for "The Building of the Ship".

11. Old Hall of Justice, Pascagoula: Ibid., p.88


12. Old Place Plantation, Gautier: Crocker, op. cit., p. 100

See xeroxed page 100 included in this report from
Crocker's book.


13,14. Oldfields Plantation and Milk House, Gautier: Oliver,
op. cit., p.p. 56 and 87








page 4


OLDFIELDS

On the main highway from O-eanr Spriings to Piascag',ula, just outside of the quaint
fishing village of Gautier, a sharp turn to the right ieads into an old-fashioned country
road. After five miles of welcome relief from a concrete surface by casy travel over a
shaded, pine-needle road, one enters through a big gate and over a private farm road
to Oldfields, a thousand-acre plantation stretching along the water front of the Gulf.
Approaching the house, a typical story-and-a-half building, one passes huge barns,
milk houses, tool houses, smoke houses, and slave quarters. This house was built by
Alfred Lewis in 1849.
It is almost a replica of the "The Briers," the old Davis-Howell home at Natchez.
It has double doors, and windows across the entire front. The roof extends over a
20-foot porch across the front, and is broken by four dormer windows. High ceilings
and huge rooms around a broad hall bespeak the spacious comfort of an ante-bellum
home.

15; 0'Keefe. Home,,Ocean -Springs Oliver, Ibid., p. 83


16. St. John's Episcopal Church, Ocean Springs: Crbcker,
oD. cit., p. 99.

See xeroxed page 99 from Crocker's book.


17. Louis Sullivan House, Ocean Springs; Ibid., p.96.

See xeroxed pages 96-99 from Crocker's book.


18. Biloxi Bay: Oliver, o. cit., p. 54.


19. Plan for New Biloxi 1721: McLemore, gD. cit. p.131


20. The French House, Biloxi: Ibid., p. 131


21. The French House, Also known as Oak Lodge: Oliver., op.cit.
p. 63, Biloxi.
OAK LODGE

Oak Lodge, known as "The French House" was built in the late seventeen hundreds,
and is a fascinating one-story house with the French grille and railing characteristic of
the period.
With walls of solid brick, and columns of solid hand-hewn cypress, this old house
stands today as sturdy and sound as the giant oaks that shelter it. It is the home of
Mrs. Byrd Enochs.


22. The French House, Biloxi: Crocker, or. cit. ,p. 89


See xeroxed page 89








page 5


23. The Spanish House, Biloxi: Oliver o_.cit., p. 62

THE OLD SPANISH HOUSE

This house was built by a Spanish army captain, and is said to he the only remaining
architectural evidence of the days when Biloxi was under Spanish rule, 1780 to 1810.
It seems very snug under palm tree fronds, this simple two-story house on Water
street. The walls are cement over double brick, doors and windows deep set, ceilings.
low and supported by cypress beams.


24. The Spanish House, Biloxi: Crocker, o. cit., p.89

See xeroxed page 89 from Crocker's Historic Architecture
in Mississippi.


25. Philbrick House, also known as Woodlawn,:Biloxi:
Oliver, The Gulf Coast of Mississippi, p. 65

OLD PHILBRICK HOUSE

The outside stairways and battened shutters at the windows of the old Philbrick House
bear testimony to the tax levied by the French on inside stairways and latticed blinds,
dating the house prior to 1763.
It has impressive entrance doors with exquisite side lights and transoms of rich old
glass. Woodwork throughout the interior is beautifully hand-carved. Records show that
John Murio Pradat of Lyons, France, came over to this country to design and super-
vise the building; and LaGrange, a famous French artist, decorated the walls.
The slave quarters in the rear are the most pretentious in the entire South and are
today in excellent preservation. The slave house contains a huge Dutch oven, and
raised hearth stones.
Until recently this old place was the property of the Campbell family of New Or-
leans, but had not been occupied for several years. Within the past year the house and
grounds have been improved and the gardens restored. It is now the home of Commo-
dore and Mrs. Garner H. Tullis.


26. Philbrick House or Woodlawn Plantation, Biloxi:
Crocker, Historic Architecture in Mississippi, p. 92

See xeroxed page 92 for more information.


27. Philbrick Doorfront, Biloxi: Oliver, op. cit., 64


28. Philbrick Hearth: Ibid., p. 28


29. Philbrick Slave Quarters: Ibid., p. 66


30. Gillis House, Biloxi: Crocker, op. cit., p. 91







page 6


31. Magnolia Hotel, Biloxzi Oliver, o. cit_., p. 70

OLD %MAGNOLIA HOTEL

One of the oldest hostelries on the Gulf coast is the Magnolia hotel, built in 1347, a
huge square frame building, with wide galleries and small balconied windows.
SThe house is set back from the water's edge, unlike newer buildings that crowd to
the front. Magnolia and oak trees and a long sward of green grass, with a paved walk
to the street and the water front, give the old hotel an air of modest dignity.
Modern hotels on the beach and inland attract the modern travellers, but the old
Magnolia hotel has been in business continuously for almost a century, and retains a
loyal following of those who love its atmosphere.


32. Church of the Redeemer, Gothic Style, Biloxi: Ibid.
p. 68

CHAPEL AND CHURCH OF
THE REDEEMER

Back of the imposing Church of the Redeemer, built by the Protestant Episcopal de-
nomination in 1889, stands the original chapel, facing narrow Bellman street.
This frame chapel, erected in 1853, was attended by the Jefferson Davis family for
many years. When the new church was completed the Davis pew was moved into it,
and is today draped with a silk Confederate flag and marked by a silver name plate.
Many of the beautiful windows in the church are memorials to the beloved Jefferson
Davis and members of his immediate family.


33. Episcopal Chapel, Church of the Redeemer, Biloxi:
Crocker, Historic Architecture in Mississippi, p. 91

See xeroxed page 91 from Crocker's book.


34. The Ralph Wood House (1852), Biloxi: Oliver, o2. cit.,pP73


35. Ralph Wood House, Biloxi: Crocker, or. cit., p.90

See xeroxed page 90


36. Father Ryan House, Biloxi: Oliver, .-. 2~t., p. 72

HOME OF THE 'POET-'PRIEST OF
THE CONFEDERACY

An old Southern home on West Beach boulevard attracts marked attention.
It was the home of the poet-pries: of the Confederacy, Father Abram Joseph Ryan.
In the days when Father Ryan occupied this house i:e erected a cross in the front
steps for ecclesiastical identification. After his death the cross was removed. A volunteer
palm grew up through the steps ,s if to commemorate the cross. It is now a giant palm
tree and flourishes in the center of the front steps.







page 7


37. Fisher Folk House, Biloxi: Oliver, The Gulf Coast 2f
MississiL, i, p. 67


38. Boat Building, Biloxi: Ibid., p.52


39. Shrimp Boats and Packing Houses- Economy for Biloxi:
Ibid., 59


40. Blessing of the Fleet, Biloxi: Ibid., p. 75

'BLESSING OF THE FLEET

In a grassy cove, near the water's edge on Back Bay, stands a high white cross. Each
year on the Sunday before the shrimp boats set sail for the season's haul, hundreds of
shrimping craft from all over the Gulf country assemble and line up in precise forma-
tion to receive the blessings conferred by the robed priests who come from every Roman
Catholic parish along the coast.
During the idle season the boats have been washed and painted. They come for the
ceremony decorated in gay flags and pennants.
The services are usually held at midnight. Priests and people gather at an altar erecftd
near the high white cross. A small organ plays softly the Ave Maria. The swishing
waves along the shore blend with the chanting of prayers for God's hlcssings on the
ships and their men and cargo. The priests and altar boys go down to the writer's edge,
where the priest sprinkles Holy Water on boat after boat, invoking God's blessing.
After this ceremony each boat pulls into the open waters and proceeds on its duty.
The families of the men and their friends celebrate in feasting, dancing and merry-
making, each nationality according to the customs of its own people.


41. Tree Gazebo, Biloxi: Ibid., p.60


42. Tree Gazebo, Biloxi: Kane, The Golden Coast, p. 109.


4.3. Biloxi Cemetery, Biloxi: Oliver, 2p. Ci., p.74

OLD FRENCH CEMETERY

The most valuable plot of ground along the entire coast driveway is an acre at the
entrance to the city of Biloxi where are buried the early settlers. Over many of the
old graves are canopies of Spanish moss. Many of the torbs are individual vaults built
above ground.
Here is the tomb of hero Jean Cuevas. During the War of 1812 Cuevas, held
prisoner prior to the battle of New Orleans, defied British officers by refusing to show
them the waterways to the city.
On All Saints Day the descendant. of these dead bring flowers, artificial or real, to
decorate the graves, many of which are covered with oyster shells that have been
washed to pure white by the rains of time.


44. Biloxi Cemetery, Biloxi: Mclemore, Poa. Cit., p.131









page 8


45. Lighthouses on the Mississippi Gulf Coast: Oliver,
22, ct., p. 61

LIGHTHOUSE

Approaching Biloxi shores this beautiful white lighthouse can be seen for miles, day and
night. It is a beacon of invitation and welcome for all travellers.
Built in 1848 it stands today in a truly amazing state of preservation.
During the War Between the States, a citizen of Biloxi is said to have climbed the
sixty-five foot tower and removed the powerful lens from the light and buried it. After
the war it was dug up unharmed, and was restored to its place.
Another story distinguishes the old lighthouse as the only public building in the entire
South to be draped in mourning when President Lincoln was assassinated. It was
painted a deep black and remained so for several weeks.
For sixty years a mother and daughter were the sole tenders of this light. The daugh-
ter lives today within the shadow of the lighthouse. She is old and almost blind.




.46. Lighthouse, Biloxi: Mississippi, A Guide to the Magnolia
State. p. 175.


47. Beauvoir, Biloxi; Oliver, The Gulf Coast of Mississippi,
p. 36

'BEAUVOIR HOUSE
JEFFERSON 'DAVIS SHRINE

On February 1, 1941, a date marking the approximate eightieth anniversary of the
election of Jefferson Davis as President of the Confederate States of America, the
United Daughters of the Confederacy and the Sons of Confederate Veterans of Missis-
sippi undertook the duties and resFpc sibilities of establishing a shrine in memory of
Jefferson Davis. Naturally "Beauvoir House," the last home of the Davis family,. is
the place for the Shrine. The organizations are restoring the building and refurnishing
it as it was when the Davis family lived there. For the past seventy-five years, Beauvoir
served as a home for Confederate veterans and their wives. With the passing of the
years, the beloved veterans have gone to a last bivouac, and there is no longer a need
for an old soldiers home.
Mr. W. A. Evans, in an article published in The Journal of Mississippi History,
writes:
"In the restoration of the Shrine, the entire m:in floor has been made into a
residence. Its furnishings are the original possessions of Jefferson Davis that were used
in Beauvoir House, wherever possible, and 'nst items are being replaced with furniture
of the Davis period of occupancy Beauvoir House was not a palace, and its furnishings
were not palatial. 'Briarfield', ti, home of the Davis family, was in the hands of the
enemy during much of the CIvii War period, and few furnishings from there ever
reached Beauvoir House. The pe:iod was one of great economic distress in the South,
and Davis labored under too many disadvantages to make much money or to buy
expensive furnishings."











page 9


48. Beauvoir, Biloxi: Crzocker, =~E ,p 93.

See xeroxed pages 93, 94, and 95.


49. Beauvoir, Biloxi: Kane, op_. cit., p. 115


50. Guest House at Beauvoir: Oliver, o. cit., p.40

GUEST HOUSE UNDER THE OAKS OF BEAUVOIR


In 1902 Mrs. Davis deeded Beauvoir to the Mississippi Division of the United Sons
of Confederate Veterans. The deed provided that Beauvoir was to be perpetually used
as a memorial to Jefferson Davis, and suggested as fitting and proper "a free and
welcome home for all ex-Confederate soldiers and sailors resident in the State of
Mississippi, and their widows and orphans and servants." This policy was adopted.
Dormitories and small cottages were built on the grounds east of Beauvoir House.
Now the ranks of Grey have thinned until only two followers of the beloved leader
are living at Beauvoir, one 94 years old and the other 102. More than two hundred
sleep in the cemetery back of Beauvoir House.
It is not necessary to dwell upon the love and reverence which every soul in the
Southland feels for Jefferson Davis, or upon the dignity and respect accorded his
character and his memory by all the world.
In the Shrine the United Daughters of the Confederacy, together with the Sons of
Confederate Veterans, are providing a beautiful, historic place, second to none in
patriotic interest and simple grandeur.
It is open the year-round to visitors. A hostess "Daughter" greets everyone, and
you really live for a precious time in the family of Jefferson Davis.



51. Beauvoir Entrance: Crocker, p. cit.. p. 94

See xeroxed page 94


52. Beauvoir, Biloxi: Mclemore, A Histpory af Mississippi, p. 611


53. Beauvoir Interior, Biloxi: Oliver, OP. ciJ., p. 37


54. Beauvoir reflecting pool, Biloxi: MississiDpi, A Guide
to the Magnolia State, p. 293.






page 10


55. Rosemont Plantation: Oliver, 2o. cit., p. 45


ROSE MONTH

The highway from Beauvoir House leads to "Rosemont", a plantation fathoms deep
in history. Rosemont is near Woodville, the town selected by Harvard University, in
an extensive survey, as "the least changed, and most typical of the Old South."
Rosemont was the home of the mother of Jefferson Davis, and here he spent iis
young manhood. Immediately after his marriage, in the year 1845, he brought his
bride to visit his mother, then in her eighty-sixth year.
Rosemont is a plantation-type cottage, with broad gallery, large rooms and wide halls.
It is in a state of perfect preservation although more than a hundred years old. The
windows reach from ceiling to floor, and are shuttered with heavy blinds. The house
is surrounded by dense shrubbery, live oaks, and magnolias.
The family burial ground, just outside the yard gate, contains the grave of Jane
Davis, the beloved mother of an immortal son, Jefferson Davis.
In St. Paul's Episcopal church, c. 1807, Jefferson Davis received early religious
training, and learned to sing the hymns of his day to the music of a quaint old pipe-
organ. The organ was a gift from Major A. M. Feltus, imported from an abandoned
monastery in England. It was brought by ship to New Orleans, and thence to
Woodville by ox-cart.



56. Waverly (1821); IbU L A- p. 46


eAUDUBON'S "HAPPY LAND"'WAVERLEY (1821)

Wilkinson county, of which we had a glimpse, is neighbor to West Feliciana parish.
It is pleasant to sketch the career of the great naturalist-painter, John James Audubon,
in the locality of Jefferson Davis.
Following a period of disappointment in the city of New Orleans, Audubon and
his wife found sanctuary in the Feliciana country. They so enjoyed the congenial
environment close to nature that Audubon soon called the country "Happy Land."
In 1821 Audubon taught music to the young ladies of the community at "Waverley",
and Mrs. Audubon assisted family finances by tutoring the children of several adjoining
plantations..
Waverley is a charming example of American Colonial design, and is now owned
by Mr. and Mrs. George M. Lester. who make it their year-round home.

GREENWOOD (1832)
57. Greenwood Plantation: Ibd., p.47GREENWOOD (

For four years the Audubons lived at "Beech Woods", the Percy plantation resi-
dence, later destroyed by fire. It was here, in 1825, that the famous painting, the
Wild 'litrkey Cock, was made. Here, too, Audubon 'painted in oils a portrait of himself
while looking in a mirror.
Stanley C. Arthur, an authority on the intimate life of Audubon, says, "WVhen
the cotton gin-house was not in use at Beech Woods its floor was swept clean and
Audubon gave the beaux and belles dancing lessons."
After the loss of Beech W\,ods, "Greenw.wcad" was built about 1832. The mansion,
now the home of Mr. and Mrs. Frank S. Percy, is 100 fret square. It was chosen hb
the National Gegraiphic magazine as the finest example of Greek Revival architecture
in the State. The house is approached through a grovIe f more than oi:e hundred live
oaks, heavily draped with Spanish Imns .
Audubon roamed the wmods of his Happy Land, and fund subjects for eighty-two
of the drawings contained in the famous "elephant edition" of his works.









page 11


58. Greenwood. Interiors: Tol., p. 58


59. Lighthouse, Ship Island: Ib'li., p.50


SHIP ISLAND

Ship Island! These words mean romance, strategy, and spoils to "the Coast."
Ship Island, a white sandy bar lying between the Mississippi Sound and the Gulf of
Mexico, is approximately seven miles long and a half mile wide.
At intervals from 1699 until the late 1720's Ship Island was the harbor for French
explorers. D'Iberville spent three days at this island before landing in small boats on
the shore of Biloxi Bay.
The first fort and warehouse were built here in the year 1717. In 1724 the Coast's
first cargo of native pine lumber was shipped from Ship Island. General Paqkenham
tried to take New Orleans in 1815, and this island served as a base for the British
navy. From this harbor the British fleet of sixty vessels sailed to "the last naval engage-
ment in which Americans fought a foreign foe in American waters." As early as 1847
the island was reserved for military purposes. In 1858 the War Department author-
ized the building of a fort to protect the short-cut into New Orleans via Rigolets Pass
and Lake Pontchartrain.
In May 1861 Jefferson Davis wrote to Major General David E. Twiggs, C.S.A.:
"I wish particularly to call your attention to the Mississippi Sound, the channel of com-
munication between New Orleans and Mobile, for which we have attempted to make
provision by the occupation of Ship Island."
With this brief factual introduction we shall proceed to see more of the "occupation"
which was planned, and later included both Confederate and Union soldiers.


60. Ship Island Lighthouse and Fort Massachusetts:
Ibid., p. 51


OLD FORT -' ASS'ACHUSETTS

In the year 1860 the Federal Government had the work of building a fort on Ship
Island well under way, and had ordered forty-eight cannon shipped from Pittsburgh.
The outbreak of the war in 1861 left the Union garrison isolated on the island. In
May 1861 the Federal soldiers destroyed the fort, thereby hoping to prevent Confed-
erate soldiers from establishing there. For three months, five small companies of Con-
federate soldiers held the fort, having rearmed it with eighteen cannon after its "de-
struction." It was then known as Fort Twiggs, in honor of a gallant officer in the Con-
-federate army.
The Federal fleet was blocking the n.outh of the M iissippi river, and sending re-
peated threats to the small band of Confcdeiate soldiers on the island. In desperation
the Confederates evacuated and fired tLe fort ii September, 1861. The following De-
cember, General Benjamin "Spoon" B1irer m evcd into the ruined fort with a garrison
of about 7,000 Federal soldiers, and changed :th name to Fort Massachusetts. Some
historians say this name was given in hnor of Gen. Butler's home State, while others
say it took the name from a National guirboat, the Massachusetts.





page 12


61. Interior Brick Construction of Fort Massachusetts:
Ibid., p. 52

The fort is on the extreme west end of Ship Island. The fortification is nearly cir-
cular in shape and built of brick; sand bags made its walls bomb-proof; brick piers are
built within the works, and heavy timbers thrown thence to the walls. Tunnels lead
to dark cells where soldiers were held prisoners. It was originally intended to carry up
the walls sufficiently high for one tier of casemate and one tier of barbette guns, and to
have a moat, with a glacis without, to protect the masonry. But the fort came into active
service before it had been completed.
Gen. Butler and his seven thousand held the fort until ordered to move against Mo-
bile. The old fort was again "destroyed," and the "other side" moved in.
The Confederates constructed eleven bomb-proof casemates, a magazine, and bar-
racks, and mounted one heavy Dahlgreen gun in position to command the channel
leading into the harbor. After holding it thus for about two months, rumors of an
approaching heavy naval force reached the garrison. Realizing that they were out-
numbered and that the foe was adequately equipped, the Confederates abandoned the
fort, burned their barracks, and made their way to the mainland. This escape was well
timed. The very next day, a large force was landed from the gunboat Massachusetts,
and took possession of the fort.
There is a story that General Butler, in his travels through Alabama, Mississippi, and
Louisiana, became such a fond and intense collector of silver spoons as souvenirs of his
rendezvous in the "Rebel" South, that he became well known as General Spoon Butler.
Old Fort Massachusetts, "fired and destroyed" by Yinkees and Rebels, stands today,
an historic landmark, now the home of the Gulfport Post of the American Legion. It
is visited by boatloads of sightseers, and is a veritable Southern playground in mid-ocean.


62. Gulfport, Ariel View: Ibid., p. 33

ULFPOR T

As outstanding as a new novel in a fresh jacket among time-worn volumes, is the
modern town of Gulfport in the center of Gulf Coast crescent.
Broad streets, new, clean buildings of modern design and construction, placed with
blueprint precision; well lighted streets, laid out with an engineer's planned accuracy,
make this town conspicuous aind exhila, ating.
Along the beach drive extending to the gates of "Beauvoir," are hundreds of
homes of colonial architecture, mission" cottages, and a modernized creation of the
planter's type home. Around these homes and reaching to the shore line are miles of
private parks and gardens with palm trees and a riotous array of Southern blooms.
Gulfport was the dream of William Harris Hardy, a statesman and a soldier in
the Confederate army. The realization of that'drcanm was made possible by Capt.
Joseph T. Jones, an eastern capitalist who "loved Mississippi" and devoted his time
and money to the upbuilding of Gulfport.
Through the efforts of Capt. Jones the Great Southern hotel was built, hanks were
firmly established, and a terminal harbor for the Gulf & Ship Island railroad was
secured. He is called the "Father of Gulfport" and many outstanding beauty spots in
the town are monuments to him.
A bronze bust has been erected in the heart of Guifport to William Harris Hardy,
who visualized this beautiful city. The bust rests on an exquisitely carved marble base,
and is the work of Leo Thlstoy Jr., a son of the Russian writer.
Great ships go out to sea from Gulfport harbor. Small craft carry their daily loads
to Fishermen's Paradise, and around the Islands in the Gulf.
Modern hotels are always filled with visitors, seeking the sunshine and flowers in
winter, and the Gulf breezes and long, white sand beaches in the summer.
No time-scarred, ante-bellum homes, no m;,ss driapd oaks bending over narrow
streets, no foreign atmosphere, no haunted houses, no Ieg cnds, no strange romanticism
about Gulfport. Stepping suddenly from the old world into this modern, open, tom-
mercial city of hustle and enterprise is a bewildering and fascinating experience.











pr.sp' 13


63. Dixie White House, Pass C:: rtan: Ib ., p. 22

THE DIXIEE WHITE HOUSE

Beginning in the days when Jefferson Davis, the only President of the Confederate
States of America, found a haven of rest on the Gulf Coast, presidents of the United
States have sought physical upbuilding and mental ease from the cares of government
by a sojourn in Pass Christian.
Andrew Jackson came in his day. Theodore Roosevelt here visited his friend John
M. Parker, a Governor of Louisiana. In 1913, President Woodrow Wilson and his
family found a happy home in a white frame and brick cottage on the tropical shores
of The Pass.
The house has a broad gallery across the front, and square pillars. Outside twin stair-
ways lead to the gallery from either side of an extension landing which is supported
by arched plaster pillars. The house is pleasing in its simplicity and comfortable appoint-
ments. Beneath the raised gallery is an intriguing patio with a central fountain and at-
tractive native plants. The yard is enclosed by a picket fence along the public driveway.
Two giant magnolia trees stand as sentinels at this famous cottage.
Since its occupancy by President Wilson it is known as "The Dixie White House."
Mr. and Mrs. A. M. Lockett are the present owners.


64. Ditie White House Under Court, Pass Christian:
Ibid., p. 23


65. Ballymere, Pass Christian: Ibld., p. 25

BALLYMERE

Ballymere, the Donald G. Rafferty home, is the oldest house in Pass Christian (1839).
One hundred thirty feet long and two rooms deep, it seems unwilling to lose an inch of
gleaming water front.
Its roof extends over a broad gallery across the lengthy front. The timbers are
hand-hewn cypress, and the roof is made of green cypress shingles. It is set back from
the driveway, and nestles in the deep shadows of old clhn3, oaks and magnolias.
There is a vine-covered patio in the rear. The gardens cover several acres, with a
great variety of native plants and fine japonicas. Rose covered trellises lead from the
house to the patio and gardens. A tidy white picket fence completes the rear picture of
Ballymere.
The house contains rare pieces of Colonial and early American furniture. The formal
reception room is furnished with dainty Empire pieces, handsome French mirrors in
wrought gold frames, and tapestries.


66. Interiors of Ballymere, Pass Christian: Ibid., p. 24






page 14


67. Trinity Episcopal Church, Pass- Christian: Ibid., p.21


TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH

On what is now the southwest corner of Church and St. Louis streets stands one of the
oldest church buildings on the Gulf Coast.
A frame building erected in 1849, its timbers of pine and cypress have withstood the
ravages of time and heavy storms, and it stands today, in prim Gothic serenity.
"Trinity," with its beautiful memorial windows and quaint shuttered ventilators, is
surrounded by mos:,-draped trees. The church cemetery is across the street, in a grove
of fine oaks.




68. Ossian Hall. Pass Chrlatian: Ibi., p.29

OSSIAN HALL

Ossian Hall, on East Beach Boulevard, stands like a Greek palace facing the Gulf. It is
a magnificent white brick structure with giant fluted columns, its upper and lower gal-
leries enclosed by exquisite iron grille balustrades.
Long known as the old Miltenberger place, it was erected in 1849 by Seth Guion.
Throughout, the house proclaims that it was built for endurance as well as beauty
and today it stands, after ninety years, stately and sturdy as the splendid oak trees sur-
rounding it.
The charming moving picture, "Come Out of the Kitchen," starring Marguerite
Clark, was filmed at the old Miltenberger home.
Ossian Hall is owned by Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Galloway.



69. Dorothy Dix House, Pass Christian: Ibid., p. 27

THE HOME OF DOROTHY 'DIX

An attractive cottage, with latticed, gingerbread copings, and criss-crossed banisters
enclosing a broad gallery, low-cut shuttered windows, and over all a spreading roof
with many chimneys, describes the exterior of the summer home of Dorothy Dix, the
nationally known writer of "Letters to the Love-Lorn." In private life "Dorothy Dix"
is Mrs. Elizabeth Merriwether Gilmer.
On Beach Boulevard, in a setting of oaks, magnolias, and palms, this white, spread
ing cottage seemingly rises out of a bed of native shrubbery. Here Dorothy Dix has
written many of her columns of encouragement to the youth of America.
Song birds inhabit the blossoming trees along the shores of Pass Christian. Dorothy
Dix likes to believe an Indi-in legend of the birds:
"Back in 1519 a handsome young Spaniard of noble birth, in the spirit of adventure,
brought a group of explorers to the Gulf Coast to chart the lands belonging to the
Crown. Drifting with the tide one summer day he heard the enchanting music of a
strange song bird in the nearby primeval forest, and following the exquisite notes, he
found a beautiful maiden lying beneath the bough of an ancient oak tree. Here in the
wilderness he learned to love not only the maiden but the feathered friends who lured
him to this enchanted spot. The charts were finished, and the companions of the young
nobleman became impatient at his delay in leaving. As he lay sleeping and dreaming
one moonlit night, his companions set sail, and the sea winds rocked him onward to
Spain. The Indian maiden, overwhelmed with gri 'ver her lover's departure, threw
herself into the Gulf. Her spirit lives in the sokng biuds at Pass Christian, and tragedy
shall befall the person who kills a bird in this area."










page 15


70. Houses of Pass Christian: Ibid., p.30

A Modern adaptation of a Plantation Home

An Ante-Bellum Home


71. House in Pass Christian: Ibid., p. 31


"PASS CHRISTIAN

Incorporated in 1838, the town of Pass Christian was in its early days the summer
resort for the aristocracy of New Orleans.
In Pass Christian they declare in poetic phrase, "God wafts the breath of this favored
Southland to the frozen North to show them that summer lives." The thrifty inhabi-
tant sends the message northward in luscious fruits and fragrant blossoms that thrive all
year on the coast. Here the treasures of earth, sea, and sky abound.
Broad galleries and wide halls of age-old'homes invite the soft sea breezes. Sunshine
sweeps through latticed windows into ancient plastered walls. Mocking birds perched in
magnolia trees sing their sweet songs throughout the night.
Pass Christian derives its name from a channel known as Christian's Pass which was
discovered by Christian l'Adnier, a member of the crew of the "Nadine" commanded
by d'Iberville.
People of "the Pass" have always been lovers of the sea. The first yacht club in the
South was organized here in 1849. The beach is long and beautiful and the water is
wading depth for a mile out in low tide. Almost every man and every boy in the Pass
is captain of his own sea craft.


72. Middlegate Gardens, Pass Christian: Ibid.,p. 26


eMIIDDLEGATE GARDENS

On old St. Louis street one gets a glimpse of the foreign mingled with the modern sur-
rounded by the antique: Middlegate Gardens, finest of their kind in America.
The gardens were established in 1925 by Mr. and Mrs. R. S. Hecht, who wished
to perpetuate in a very real form the happy memories of their visit to Japan.
To accomplish this desire, a setting was chosen where nature would give abundant
aid and encouragement.
Tea houses were built and decorated, carrying out in minutest detail their Far East
origin; quaint bridges and pergolas were constructed amid bamboo, flowering almond,
and Japanese magnolias; lotus lily ponds were made; bronze Buddhas, hundreds of
years old, were imported; the whole forming an artistic picture of exotic Japan.
The gardens are open throughout the year, and are visited by many thousands.


73. Inn By The Sea, Pass Christian: Ibid., p. 18








page 16


74. Claiborne Plantation, Bay St. Louis: Ibid., p. 17


CLAIBORNE PLANTATION

To the right of the beach drive, on a dirt road through cut-over pine land, one passes
a great game preserve en route to the old Claiborne Plantation home which is locally
referred to as the Baldwin plantation. The place is particularly interesting because of
its early history. It is a planter's type house with broad front gallery and dormer
windows, the main floor resting on high brick piers. The gallery is reached by a single
flight of steps, and its roof is supported by slender hand-hewn columns across the front.
There is a wide central hall from which huge, high-ceilinged rooms open. The walls
in the hall and dining room are attractively decorated with paintings of fishing and
hunting scenes by Coulon, a New Orleans artist. Atop the building is a square observa-
tory, which gives an outlook across the vast so etch of marshlands to the Gulf beyond.
This plantation was the property of the noted historian, Col. J. F. H. Claiborne.
The house was built about 1800, of timbers grown and hewn on the place and bricks
made and burned by slave labor.
It is said that the brick piers running under the house were originally joined by iron
bars to form giant cages used for temporary restraint of negro slaves when first brought
from Africa. It was expedient that they he kept in confinement until they became
submissive and would not endanger or frighten the slaves in the regular quarters. The
ruins of the old slave quarters are at the back of the house.



75. The Nicholson Cottage, Waveland: Ibid., p. 15


N~7CICHOLSON COTTAGE

A small white story-and-a-half house with green roof and dormer windows, a few
doors from the Old Pirate House, is of special interest to writers and newspaper
people. It is known as the Nicholson cottage, and was the home of "Pearl Rivers," a
pioneer newspaper woman.
In 1849, in Pearlington, Mississippi, on the banks of Pearl River, Eliza Jane Poitevant
was born, and from this river she later took her pen name "Pearl Rivers."
When Miss Poitevant was seventeen she married Col. Alva M. Holbrook, owner
of the New Orleans "Picayune." Col. Holbrook lived only a short time after the
marriage. His widow undertook the management of the "Picayune" then considerably
involved financially. Due to her clever management the newspaper was made success-
ful, and is today a leading publication of the South.
Four years ago the place was purchased and reconditioned by the present occupant,
Mr. Charles J. Rivet.




76, The Pirate's House, Waveland: Mississip_, A Guide
To The apgnolia State, p. 301


77. Under Ground Passage of the Pirate House, Waveland:
Oliver, The Gulf Coast of Missis~ s p. 14


















page 17


78. The Pirate House, Waveland: Ibid., p. 12



'THE 'PIRATE HOUSE

In 1802 a New Orleans business man, said to be the head and overlord of the Guil
Coast pirates, built a substantial planter's type cottage on the beach near Waveland
and Bay St. Louis.
It is a simple, comfortable house with exquisite iron grill banisters around the
broad front gallery and leading down the wide steps to the front walk. Heavy square
columns support the roof which extends over the gallery. Three dormer windows break
the front roof line and give the house a well proportioned appearance. Strong slatted
shutters with heavy iron fastenings help to secure the interior against intruders. There
is a brick ground-story, and an outside stairway to the first floor. The walls, inside and
out, are covered with thick white plaster.
Legends are many of this old Pirate House. One has it that a secret tunnel runs
from a sub-cellar into the Gulf, and through this tunnel pirates transferred their booty
from ships to their strongholds beneath the house. Unexpected openings into suspicious
looking lockers and half-concealed closets in queer underground compartments give the
imagination vast room for bold adventure.

This old house at one time sheltered Jean Lafitte. It was more than a century ago
that Lafitte, during the historic days of pirate terror along the Gulf Coast, captured
and scuttled ships from almost every country. History tells that in September 1814
a British Commandant offered Lafitte thirty thousand pounds to fight with the British
and lend his power against the city of New Orleans and the Coast. He declined the
offer, and joined forces with General Jackson and Governor Claiborne in exchange
for a pardon and restored citizenship for himself and his followers.
The old romantic Wishing Well on the rear premises, "where wishes always came
true," is now covered by blossoming vines. The gardens which for many years were
a wild riot of bramble and tropical undergrowth, are today formal gardens where
bloom in great profusion lovely azaleas, queen's wreath, and countless varieties of
choicest roses.
The property is owned by Mrs. Edmund Singreen of New Orleans. The house has
been carefully restored, and furnished with rich old pieces and rare bric-a-brac in
perfect harmony with the Louisiana planter type home.














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MISSISSIPPI COAST GEOGRAPHY


A. Climate: Subtropical

1. Rainfall--60" per annum on the coast

2. Average mean temperature--64.60 F

3. Nine-month growing season--average frost-free season
is 250 days

4. Natural storms--hurricanes

B. Topography

1. Coast line--200 miles long, characterized by a chain
of low, sandy keys that are a buffer against Gulf of
Mexico, such as Cat Island, Ship Island, Horn Island,
Petit Bois Island

2. Coastal geology--coastal terrace formation of sand,
gravel, and shell beds

3. Coastal plain meadows--5 to 10 miles wide, level sur-
face; soil is gray and sandy, and thus too poor for
intensive agriculture; in swamp areas the soil is
black and peat-like; the water is slow flowing and
sluggish

4. "Piney Woods"--southern half. of Mississippi down to
the coast; here, above the coastal plain meadows, the
soil is red and yellow (sandy), abundant in longleaf
and yellow pine

C. Geographic Boundaries of Mississippi Coast

1. East boundary--Petit Bois Island, at 88023' W. Longi-
tude

2. West boundary--Pearl River which flows into the Gulf
of Mexico

3. Southern Point of Mississippi--lower point clear
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D, Flora and Fauna

1. Flora--live oak, long needle yellow pine

2. Fauna--marsh birds, such as flamingo and duck

E. Resources

1. Little agriculture--soil too poor

2. Piney woods--intensive lumbering

3. Ocean--fishing year round and ports

4. Water resources--fishing and recreation



Sources:

Mississippi, A Guide to the Magnolia State, pp. 29-
35.


- .

















TROPICAL STORMS AND DISASTERS


Along the Mississippi Gulf coast from 1879-1969 there were
14 recorded hurricanes.



1947--September 19, over Waveland



1965--September 9, Hurricane Betsy swept over the
Louisiana-Mississippi line



1969--Camile hits Bay St. Louis and her destructive
force went 150 miles inland


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COASTAL INDIANS--ABORIGINES
OF MISSISSIPPI GULF COAST PRIOR 1700



A. Tribes on the Coast

1. Biloxi--called themselves "Teneka Haya" or "First
people"; this tribe met Iberville in 1699 and helped
him form the first white settlement

a. Siouan family

2. Pascagoula

3. Indian population: at the time of Iberville's landing
1699--estimation of 25,000-30,000 Indians in the ter-
ritory now Mississippi

B. Indian Architecture

1. Villages--compact and fort-like with huts facing a
central square

2. Cabins--posts chinked with mud, bark, and moss; roofs
of cyprus or pine bark, intermingled with grass and
reeds

3. Earth mounds/shell midden mounds

C. Indian livelihood: hunting, fishing, small agriculture

1. From the land--tobacco, corn, beans, pumpkins, melons

2. From the water--herring, sturgeon, alligators, craw-
fish, shellfish


Sources:

Arrell M. Gibson, "The Indians of Mississippi," Chap-
ter 3, pp. 69-89, A History of Mississippi, volume I, Richard
A. McLemore, ed., University and College Press of Mississippi,
Jackson, 1973.

"Archaeology and Indians," pp. 45-59, Mississippi, A
Guide to the Magnolia State, American Guide Series, Hastings
House, publishers, New York, fifth printing, 1959.