Sexualities in Conversation

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Sexualities in Conversation
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This bulletin kicks off a series of reports to be published about conference meetings and workshops on emerging and on-going discussions about the construction and regulation of sexual rights and identities in the global South, including through multiple transnational social, economic, political and cultural entanglements and relationships. An important objective of this project is the engagement of conversations about sexualities across academic disciplines—in particular, between those scholars working in the areas of Law and Human Rights, Culture, and International Development— and between researchers, activists and policy-makers.
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Support for the development of the technical infrastructure and partner training provided by the United States Department of Education TICFIA program.

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Sexualities In Conversation


No. I Caribbean Sexualities, Part I


Welcome to the first edition of
Sexualities In Conversation.
This bulletin kicks off a series of
reports to be published about
conference meetings and workshops
on emerging and on-going
discussions about the construction
and regulation of sexual rights and
identities in the global South,
including through multiple
transnational social, economic,
political and cultural entanglements
and relationships. An important
objective of this project is the
engagement of conversations about
sexualities across academic
disciplines-in particular, between
those scholars working in the areas of
Law and Human Rights, Culture,
and International Development-
and between researchers, activists
and policy-makers.
Andil Gosine
Assistant Professor, York University
andil@yorku.ca


*INSIDE*

Workshop Program........................2
Participants list..........................2.

Highlights: A Workshop Journal
by Joel Simpson...........................4
'W hat we said".............................. 5

The Vagaries of Justice:
The Law Relating to Sex Crimes in
the Caribbean
by Tracy Robinson ......................6

Reading list/Selected Works.........8


MARCH 2oo8


Rights & Regulation

in the Anglo-Caribbean

Cave Hill, Barbados
February I5-I6, 2008

Legal challenges to sexual autonomy, the impacts
of sexual health work and of the HIV/AIDS
industry on sexual cultures, and transnational
efforts to secure sexual rights were some of the
issues considered by nineteen participants
attending an inaugural workshop in Barbados.
Researcher-activists based in Jamaica, Trinidad
and Tobago, Barbados, St. Lucia, Guyana,
Canada and Switzerland met in Cave Hill to
share their experiences of working toward sexual
rights in the region. Four objectives were set for
the event:

1. Identifyand engage key questions abouthow
sexuality rights are being framed, negotiated and
pursued in the Anglo-Caribbean

2. Share and reflect upon advocacystrategies toward
'sexual citizenship'

3. Develop collaboration between researchers and
advocates workingin this area

4. Discuss and develop future modes of engagement
around issues ofsexual citizenship including
conference panels, publications, and other venues
forintervention

For many, the workshop provided a first
opportunity for colleagues working on similar
issues in different Caribbean countries to meet
each other, and identify and evaluate strategies
for advancing their efforts.
Funding for the event was provided by
UNIFEM, the Faculty of Law at UWI-Cave
Hill, York University and the Social Sciences and
Humanities Research Council of Canada.
EGALE Canada also funded the travel of one
participant.










Sexual rights and regulation in the Anglo-Caribbean


WORKSHOP PROGRAM
February 15
9:30-11:00 Welcome from Workshop Convenors
Tracy Robinson, Andil Gosine, Robert Carr

Naming and Framing the Issues and Contexts/
What's happening on the ground
Facilitated by Andil Gosine & Michelle Rowley

11:00-12:30 Session I: Legal Challenges
Presentations by Tracy Robinson, David Murray, Philip Dayle
Moderator: Michelle Rowley

1:30-3 Session 2: The Promise and Pitfalls of organizing through
HIV/AIDS
Presentations by R. Anthony Lewis, Sharon Mottley, Rinaldo Walcott,
Andil Gosine
Moderator: Robert Carr

3:30-5 Session 3: Local, Regional and Transnational Advocacy
Presentations by Robert Carr, Akim Ade Larcher, Joel Simpson,
Karlene Williams-Clarke, Kenita Placide
Moderator: Andil Gosine

February 16
9:30-12 Closing Session: Next Steps
Facilitated by Robert Carr & Michelle Rowley

12 Lunch with guests from United Gays and Lesbians Against AIDS Barbados


PARTICIPANTS

Christine Barrow (UWI-Cave Hill) Robert Carr (UWI-Mona)
Philip Dayle (ICJ) Stacey Gomes (SASOD)
Andil Gosine (York) Gabrielle Hosein (UWI-CDGS St. Augustine)
Kamala Kempadoo (York) Akim Ade Larcher (EGALE Canada)
R. Anthony Lewis (UTech) Sharon Mottley (CCNAPC)
David Murray (York) Kenita Placide (United & Strong)
Nastassia Rambarran (SASOD) Tracy Robinson (UWI-Cave Hill)
Michelle Rowley (Maryland) Joel Simpson (SASOD)
Monique Springer (UNIFEM)
Karlene Williams-Clarke (J-FLAG) Rinaldo Walcott (Toronto)











# Highlights A Workshop Journal #


By Joel Simpson


I think its safe to say that most of us agreed
to participate in this forum not knowing
exactly what to expect. We knew that a small
group of academics and activists from
around the region and the diaspora would
be meeting for a day and a half, armed with
an agenda to consider debates about the
regulation of sexual practices and the
realization of sexual rights. Here are some
of the highlights from the panel discussions:

Session I: Legal Challenges
Philip Dayle started us off talking about the work of
the International Commission for Jurists (ICJ),
including its support for Brazils resolution on sexual
orientation and gender identity to help focus the
discussion on human rights (as opposed to a
cultural/domestic-level debate). David Murray
asked /i. i do we translate advocacy for sexual rights
to movements on the ground?"He concluded that we
need to give more attention to local vernaculars of
rights. Rights-based advocacy needs to be put in local,
cultural contexts to be more effective. Tracy
Robinson (pg. 5) provided a detailed analysis of the
criminalization of sexuality in the region.

Session 2: Organizing through HIV-AIDS
R. Anthony Lewis explained how Jamaica AIDS
Support's Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Community
(GLABCOM) and Jamaica Forum for Lesbians, All-
sexuals and Gays (J-FLAG) developed. Sharon
Mottley offered a background to the AIDS epidemic
in the region and examined where we were addressing
rights issues for homosexuals. Andil Gosine
considered the use of the terminology 'Men who have
Sex with Men' !', M) by international development
agencies. He questioned whether its use was an
impediment to claiming sexual rights in local contexts,
and highlighted the gender-biased implications of
organizing under the MSM framework. Rinaldo
Walcott discussed some implications of HIV/AIDS
work in black communities in North America.

Session 3: Advocacy
Robert Carr discussed the "Stop Murder Music"
campaign as locala" organizing. Akim Ade
Larcher followed up with a description of activities
EGALE Canada is doing in this area. He raised many
questions about how the Global North could more
effectively support local-organizing efforts in the
Caribbean without creating divisions and stymieing


local progress on the ground. I talked mostly about
the organization I co-founded, Students Against
Sexual Orientation Discrimination (SASOD). I
identified our organizational challenges, and proposed
a few strategies for moving forward: engaging the
religious community; mainstreaming LGBT issues;
and building alliances and partnerships with other
human-rights causes and civil-society movements for
mutual support. Karlene Williams-Clarke and
Kenita Placide closed the day with presentations
about J-FLAG and United & Strong St. Lucia.

The presentations were very rich, but the
meat of "Conversations" was in the
moderated discussions that took place after
each panel session. We benefited from the
diversity of perspectives among us. Many
times our discussions were not only
passionate but emotional, especially as we
discussed the implications of racism, sexism
and class to sexual rights organizing.
For the closing session the next morning,
we discussed next steps and decided a few
key things. The group decided to stay
connected to work both as a collective and
as sub-groups to work together on small
projects that made synergistic sense based
on where persons were strategically located.
We decided to start a listserv for workshop
participants, and thought it would be useful
to make the in-person forum an annual
meeting.
It was great meeting folks I have been
reading about and mailing! The workshop
provided invaluable insight into some of the
latest research and organising efforts in
the Caribbean region and the diaspora.
Indeed, the workshop has spurred ideas
about hosting a similar meeting in Guyana
on July 23, 20o8-exactly five years after
parliament did not debate the amendment to
outlaw discrimination based on sexual
discrimination in the Guyana constitution.

Joel Simpson is Co-Chair ofSASOD








In the opening session, we were
asked "what are the issues and
questions that are important to you?"
We said-


"Issues of sexual
economic agency and
rights. How do
economic conditions
inform sexual
practices?"
a:
"Isses of racism and le
class." h
u
"Abortion. "


seall prcc tice Ca ed sewa1C itdevntitt.
what are the stakees inv'volved i
aklling different claiMs?"


"Coalition building."


Mobilizing the gay community,
rhich is male-focused. There's
n idea that 'we don't have
:sbians in the Caribbean, we
ave feminists...' Who will stand
p and be counted?"


"An ethics of citizenship."
"TRANSNATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS."

"Demonstration creating spaces within the region for expressing sexual rights."


"Recognizing
what's right in
the Caribbean."


"Wrapping
our minds
around the
opposition
[to sexual
rights]."


"The crisis facing men and boys,
especially anxieties about
masculinity and homophobia."


"The politics of love."












The Vagaries of Justice


THE LAW RELATING TO SEX CRIMES IN THE CARIBBEAN



By Tracy Robinson


Since 1986, seven of the eleven independent
Caribbean countries have overhauled laws
defining and governing sex crimes.1 Only
Jamaica, Grenada, Guyana and St. Vincent
have substantially unreformed laws. And five
of the seven have specialised codes dealing
with sexual offences.
Those reforms are prominent symbols of
feminist mobilization and the violence
against women campaign in the i98os and
nineties. They were not an unmitigated
success for the women's movement. In fact,
M. Jacqui Alexander was one of the earliest
to highlight the problematic implications of
the new laws.2 Nevertheless they introduced
key initiatives that many feminists are
fittingly pleased about: in camera hearings,
protection of the privacy of victims of sex
crimes, abolition of the requirement of
corroboration, and limited use of last sexual
history.



1 Antigua and Barbuda Sexual Offences Act
1995-9; The Bahamas Sexual Offences and
Domestic Violence Act 1991, cap. 99; Barbados
Sexual Offences Act 1992, cap. 154; Belize
Criminal Code (Amendment) Act, 1999-36,
2001-42; Dominica Sexual Offences Act 1998-1;
St. Lucia Criminal Code 2004, 2005 Rev., cap.
3:01; Trinidad and Tobago Sexual Offences Act
1986-27.
2 M. Jacqui Alexander, 1991. 'Redrafting
Morality: The Postcolonial State and the Sexual
Offences Bill of Trinidad and Tobago'. In Third
World Women and the Politics of Feminism, ed.
Chandra Talpade Mohanty, Ann Russo and
Lourdes Torres, 133-52. Bloomington and
Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.


This seemingly progressive lawmaking has
in fact become the contemporary mechanism
of retrenching sexual freedom, refining
sexual outlaws and legislating more of the
sex we choose as dangerous to the nation.
So contrary to the popular account which
says the problem is antique laws, I am now
quite clear that contemporary progressive
lawmaking has been much more insidious.

Retrenching sexual freedom

Modern sexual offences law in the
Anglophone Caribbean has sharpened
buggery as an offence targeting male
homosexual sex. Historically buggery
covered sex with mankind and humankind.
The contemporary laws have generally made
bestiality became a separate offence, usually
less severely penalised. In most places it still
includes heterosexual as well as homosexual
anal sex, but the latest reforms in the 2004
St. Lucia criminal code have distilled the
offence to being capable of being committed
only by a man in relation to another man.
Universally, the penalties for buggery have
increased. They moved from a maximum of
five years imprisonment prior to 1986 in
Trinidad and Tobago to ten years under the
Sexual Offences Act 1986. In the zooo
amendments to that Act, the maximum
penalty rose to 25 years.
Under the reformed laws in some
countries rape has become a gender-neutral
offence and can include non consensual anal
between two men. This only emphasises
that the focus of the retained buggery law is










the prohibition of consensual anal sex. In a
number of the new Caribbean sex laws,
gross indecency has morphed into the
gender-neutral offence of serious indecency,
which now includes sexual activities
between women. It is defined as the use of
the genital organs to arouse or gratify sexual
desire.
The new sexual offences laws censured the
activities of sex workers in an unprecedented
fashion. Historically, third parties benefiting
from sex work faced criminal sanctions, but
sex workers themselves could only be
charged with soliciting in public in what
were quite minor offences. The wave of
reforms to sexual offences laws in the
Caribbean countries have enlarged
solicitation into a general offence-which
suggests that it can be committed in private
as well-and transformed it from a minor
offence to a very serious sex crime.
In addition, non-disclosure of HIV status
and transmission of HIV have become
crimes in countries like Belize, Bahamas and
St. Lucia under the new sexual offences
laws. Someone convicted of buggery in
Trinidad and Tobago might now find
themselves victims of a legal modernisation
that imposes mandatory HIV testing and
post-conviction sex offender status and
monitoring.

The turn to rights

I am increasingly convinced that
impoverished notions of gender equality and
meagre conceptions of woman under-gird
these developments that are ostensibly in aid
of women but in fact disengage sexual
freedom from gender equality. My own view
is the repeal of these laws by Parliament or
by the courts through constitutional
litigation is pre-eminently a feminist priority.
Not surprisingly, we turn to rights, human
rights, to make that case but the history of
the very laws we want to contest and
challenge reminds us that we need to be
attuned to the vagaries of justice.


Both ethically and from an advocacy
standpoint the turn to rights is important,
indispensable even. At the same time it
comes at a cost. I am not suggesting here a
sinister force, simply that human rights
discourse has limits that must be constantly
weighed and evaluated. If one were to
litigate the scope of sexual rights in the
Commonwealth Caribbean, the following
are considerations that would have to be
taken into account:

i. Human rights mechanisms are very
focused on individual complaints by
affected parties-demanding an outing
that would cause many gays and lesbians
intolerable vulnerability.

2. Nowhere are rights absolute. The
process of weighing one right against
another and the public interest-privacy
and equality against public morality for
example-can sometimes leave litigants
with nothing.

3. Equality claims can be insidious-
pitting for expediency like
(marginalised) against like. One of the
most viable constitutional challenges to
buggery laws in the Caribbean is that
the sexual activities of lesbians are not as
heavily penalised as that of gay men.

4. This is a controversial claim but the
articulation of rights is connected to
democratic processes. It is quite clear
that it will be difficult to get Parliament
to reform existing laws or the
Constitutions. Approaching the
countermajoritarian branch of
government-the courts-might seem
to provide an opportunity for unpopular
rights decisions to be taken. The
trouble is, even if that is so, parliament
can take back the process, as they are
attempting to do in Jamaica with the
Charter of Rights and privacy, and in
Trinidad and Tobago with abortion,










through constitutional reform, a
devastating backlash. Moreover,
progressive court decisions from a court
like the Privy Council that is still the
highest court of appeal for most of the
region, and which has serious legitimacy
issues in the region, might excite
stronger hostile responses.


Caribbean peculiarities

Quite apart from those larger concerns,
rights litigation in the Caribbean faces other
challenges:

1. The rules on standing to bring bill of
rights litigation under the Constitutions
are narrow; actions must be brought by
a person affected. There is a legitimate
worry about the risks to persons who
agree to litigants in cases involving
sexual rights.

2. The rights at stake are amongst the
most underdeveloped in Caribbean
constitutional law: equality, and privacy.

3. Savings law clauses in the older
independent countries constrain severely
constrain judicial review where the laws
being challenged were in existence prior
to independence.

4. In Trinidad and Tobago, the sexual
offences law is a 'special act' which
means it was enacted by special
majorities and is thus valid despite
contraventions of the Constitution.

5. Caribbean constitutions have strong
limitation clauses which say that you can
restrict rights where it is reasonably
required to protect public order, health,
morality and defence.

Despite this, rights advocates and activists
should recognize that the Caribbean is a


dynamic environment even through progress
is never smooth or unequivocal. Things do
and can change.
The present Chief Justice of Trinidad and
Tobago recently held that a law that said sex
could not include sexual orientation for the
purposes of equal opportunities protection
could not be consistent with equality. Sadly
that decision appears to have been overruled
by the Privy Council but it signals that some
Caribbean judges will take a progressive
stand on these issues. In its most significant
decision, Joseph v Att-Gen, the Caribbean
Court of Justice has so far demonstrated
that it wishes to be liberal forward thinking
court.

We must also remember that even if briefly,
Parliament in Guyana approved of sexual
orientation being named as a prohibited
ground of discrimination in the
Constitution; and the Belize Political
Reform Commission said very clearly that
sexual orientation should be a prohibited
ground of discrimination under a reformed
constitution.
These are the vagaries of justice and
rights- incremental, often equivocal
progress. Rights are not a panacea or a
magic potion. We must engage them in
advocacy with self-awareness and an
optimism that they take us on a potentially
perilous and productive road towards
citizenship.


* Tracy Robinson is a Senior Lecturer in
Law at the University of West Indies.


Authors possess full copyright ownership of
their material in this bulletin. Articles may
be reprinted with their permission only.
Write to andil@yorku.ca with enquiries.












Reading List/Selected Works


Alexander, M. Jacqui, 2005. Pedagogies ofCrossing: Meditations on Feminism, Sexual Politics, Memory
and the Sacred Durham: Duke University Press.

Calixte, Shana L., 2005. `Things Which Aren't to Be Given Names: Afro-C.Ii ilbbc.ii Diasporic
Negotiations of Same Gender Desire and Sexual Relations'. Canadian Woman Studies 24 (2/3): 128-37.

Carr, Robert, 2003. 'On'Judgements': Poverty, Sexuality-Based Violence and Human Rights in 2Ist
Century Jamaica'. Caribbean Journal ofSocial Work(2): 71-87.

Genrich, Gillian L., & Brader Braithewaite, 2005. 'Response of Religious Groups to HIV/AIDS as a
Sexually Transmitted Infection in Trinidad'. BMC Public Health: 1-12.

Gosine, Andil, 2007. "Race', culture, power, sex, desire and love: Writing in 'men who have sex with men,'
IDS Bulletin 37 (5): 27-33

Gosine, Andil, 2008. 'Reading Mia Mottley's statement on (homo) sex: an interrogation of HIV/AIDS
scripts on sexuality (and a call to engage alternative strategies for sexual autonomy),' in Gender, Sexuality
andHIV/AIDS: The Caribbean and Beyond, D. Roberts and R. Rheddock (eds.) Kingston: Ian Randle

Kempadoo, Kamala, 2003. 'Sexuality in the Caribbean: Theory and Research (with an Emphasis on the
Anglophone C'.Ii lblc.mi '. Social and Economic Studies 52 (3): 59-88.

Kempadoo, Kamala, 2004. Sexing the Caribbean: Gender, Race and Sexual Labor. New York:
Routledge.

Lazarus-Black, Mindie, 2003. 'The (Heterosexual) Regendering of a Modern State: Criminalizing and
Implementing Domestic Violence Law in Trinidad'. Law &SocialEnquiryz8 (4): 979-1008.

Murray, David, 2006. Who's Right? Human Rights, Sexual Rights and Social Change in Barbados'.
Culture, Health and Sexuality. May-June 2006 Vol. 8, No. 3. London: Routledge/Taylor Francis.

Phillips, Joan L., 2002.'The Beach Boys of Barbados: Post-Colonial Entrepreneurs'. Transnational
Prostitution: Changing Global Patterns, edited by Susanne Thorbek and Bandana Pattanaik, 42-55.
London: Zed Books.

Robinson, Tracy S., 2000. Fictions of Citizenship, Bodies without Sex: The Production and Effacement of
Gender in Law'. SmallAxe: Journal of Criticism 7: 1-27.

Sharpe, Jenny & Samantha Pinto 2006. `The Sweetest Taboo: Studies of Caribbean Sexualities; A Review
Essay'. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society32 (I): 247-74.

Wekker, Gloria, 2006. The Politics ofPassion: Women's Sexual Culture in the Afro-Surinamese
Diaspora. New York: Columbia University Press.

White, Ruth and Robert Carr, 2005. 'Homosexuality and HIV/AIDS Stigma in Jamaica'. Culture, Health
and Sexuality 1-13.


Thanks to Kamala Kempadoo for sharing her bibliography, "Caribbean Sexuality-Mapping the Field"




Full Text

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S e x u a l i t i e s I n C o n v e r s a t i o n N o 1 C a r i b b e a n S e x u a l i t i e s P a r t I M A R C H 2 0 0 8 W e l c om e t o t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n of S e x u a l i t i e s I n C o n v e r s a t i o n T h i s b u l l e t i n k i c k s of f a s e r i e s of r e p o r t s t o b e p u b l i s h e d a b ou t c o n f e r e n c e m e e t i n g s a n d w o r k s h op s on e m e r g i n g a n d o n g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n s a b ou t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d r e g u l a t i o n of s e x u a l r i g h t s a n d i d e n t i t i e s i n t h e g l o b a l S ou t h i n c l u d i n g t h r ou g h m u l t i p l e t r a n s n a t i o n a l s o c i a l e c o n om i c p ol i t i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l e n t a n g l e m e n t s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s A n i m p o r t a n t ob j e c t i v e of t h i s p r oj e c t i s t h e e n g a g e m e n t of c on v e r s a t i o n s a b ou t s e x u a l i t i e s a c r os s a c a d e m i c d i s c i p l i n e s i n p a r t i c u l a r b e t w e e n t h os e s c h o l a r s w o r k i n g i n t h e a r e a s of L a w a n d H u m a n R i g h t s C u l t u r e a n d I n t e r n a t i on a l D e v e l op m e n t a n d b e t w e e n r e s e a r c h e r s a c t i v i s t s a n d p ol i c y m a k e r s A n d i l G o s i n e A s s i s ta n t P r o fe s s o r Y o r k U n i v e r s i ty a n d i l @ y o r k u .ca R i g h t s & R e g u l a t i o n i n t h e A n g l o C a r i b b e a n C a v e H i l l B a r b a d os F e b r u a r y 1 5 1 6 2 00 8 L e g a l c h a l l e n g e s t o s e x u a l a u t on om y t h e i m p a c t s of s e x u a l h e a l t h w or k a n d of t h e H I V /A I D S i n d u s t r y o n s e x u a l c u l t u r e s a n d t r a n s n a t i o n a l e f f or t s t o s e c u r e s e x u a l r i g h t s w e r e s om e o f t h e i s s u e s c o n s i d e r e d b y n i n e t e e n p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t e n d i n g a n i n a u g u r a l w o r k s h o p i n B a r b a d os R e s e a r c h e r a c t i v i s t s b a s e d i n J a m a i c a T r i n i d a d a n d T ob a g o B a r b a d o s S t L u c i a G u y a n a C a n a d a a n d S w i t z e r l a n d m e t i n C a v e H i l l t o s h a r e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s of w or k i n g t o w a r d s e x u a l r i g h t s i n t h e r e g i o n F ou r ob j e c t i v e s w e r e s e t f o r t h e e v e n t : 1 I d e n t i f y a n d e n g a g e k e y q u e s t i o n s a b o u t h o w s e x u a l i t y r i g h ts a r e b e i n g fr a m e d n e g o t i a te d a n d p u r s u e d i n th e A n g l o C a r i b b e a n 2 S h a r e a n d r e fl e ct u p o n a d v o ca c y s t r a te g i e s to w a r d s e x u a l ci t i z e n s h i p 3 D e v e l o p co l l a b o r a ti o n b e t w e e n r e s e a r c h e r s a n d a d v o ca te s w o r k i n g i n t h i s a r e a 4 D i s c u s s a n d d e v e l o p fu tu r e m o d e s o f e n g a g e m e n t a r o u n d i s s u e s o f s e x u a l ci t i z e n s h i p i n cl u d i n g co n fe r e n ce p a n e l s p u b l i ca ti o n s a n d o t h e r v e n u e s fo r i n te r v e n t i o n F or m a n y t h e w or k s h op p r ov i d e d a f i r s t op p or t u n i t y f or c ol l e a g u e s w or k i n g o n s i m i l a r i s s u e s i n d i f f e r e n t C a r i b b e a n c ou n t r i e s t o m e e t e a c h ot h e r a n d i d e n t i f y a n d e v a l u a t e s t r a t e g i e s f or a d v a n c i n g t h e i r e f f or t s F u n d i n g f or t h e e v e n t w a s p r ov i d e d b y U N I F E M t h e F a c u l t y of L a w a t U W I C a v e H i l l Y or k U n i v e r s i t y a n d t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s a n d H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C ou n c i l of C a n a d a EG A L E C a n a d a a l s o f u n d e d t h e t r a v e l o f o n e p a r t i c i p a n t I N S I D E W or k s h o p P r og r a m . 2 P a r t i c i p a n t s l i s t . . 2 H i g h l i g h t s : A W or k s h o p J ou r n a l b y J oe l S i m p s o n . . . . . . . . . 4 W h a t w e s a i d . 5 T h e Va g a r i e s of J u s t i c e : T h e L a w R e l a t i n g t o S e x C r i m e s i n t h e C a r i b b e a n b y T r a c y R ob i n s o n . 6 R e a d i n g l i s t / S e l e c t e d W or k s . 8

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S e x u a l r i g h t s a n d r e g u l a t i o n i n t h e A n g l o C a r i b b e a n W O R K S H O P P R O G R A M F e b r u a r y 1 5 9 : 3 0 1 1 : 0 0 W e l c om e f r om W or k s h o p C o n v e n or s T r a c y R o b i n s on A n d i l G o s i n e R o b e r t C a r r N a m i n g a n d F r a m i n g t h e I s s u e s a n d C o n t e x t s / W h a t s h a p p e n i n g o n t h e g r o u n d F a c i l i t a t e d b y A n d i l G o s i n e & M i c h e l l e R ow l e y 1 1 : 0 0 1 2 : 3 0 S e s s i o n 1 : L e g a l C h a l l e n g e s P r e s e n t a t i o n s b y T r a c y R ob i n s o n D a v i d M u r r a y P h i l i p D a y l e M od e r a t or : M i c h e l l e R o w l e y 1 : 3 0 3 S e s s i o n 2 : T h e P r o m i s e a n d P i t f a l l s o f o r g a n i z i n g t h r o u g h H I V / A I D S P r e s e n t a t i o n s b y R A n t h o n y L e w i s S h a r o n M ot t l e y R i n a l d o W a l c ot t A n d i l G os i n e M od e r a t or : R o b e r t C a r r 3 : 3 0 5 S e s s i o n 3 : L o c a l R e g i o n a l a n d T r a n s n a t i o n a l A d v o c a c y P r e s e n t a t i o n s b y R ob e r t C a r r A k i m A d e L a r c h e r J oe l S i m p s o n K a r l e n e W i l l i a m s C l a r k e K e n i t a P l a c i d e M od e r a t or : A n d i l G os i n e F e b r u a r y 1 6 9 : 3 0 1 2 C l o s i n g S e s s i o n : N e x t S t e p s F a c i l i t a t e d b y R o b e r t C a r r & M i c h e l l e R o w l e y 1 2 L u n c h w i t h g u e s t s f r o m U n i t e d G a y s a n d L e s b i a n s A g a i n s t A I D S B a r b a d os P A R T I C I P A N T S C h r i s t i n e B a r r o w ( U W I C a v e H i l l ) R ob e r t C a r r ( U W I M o n a ) P h i l i p D a y l e ( I C J ) S t a c e y G om e s ( S A S O D ) A n d i l G os i n e ( Y or k ) G a b r i e l l e H o s e i n ( U W I C D G S S t A u g u s t i n e ) K a m a l a K e m p a d oo ( Y o r k ) A k i m A d e L a r c h e r ( E G A L E C a n a d a ) R A n t h o n y L e w i s ( U T e c h ) S h a r o n M ot t l e y ( C C N A P C ) D a v i d M u r r a y ( Y or k ) K e n i t a P l a c i d e ( U n i t e d & S t r o n g ) N a s t a s s i a R a m b a r r a n ( S A S O D ) T r a c y R o b i n s o n ( U W I C a v e H i l l ) M i c h e l l e R o w l e y ( M a r y l a n d ) J oe l S i m p s o n ( S A S O D ) M o n i q u e S p r i n g e r ( U N I F EM ) K a r l e n e W i l l i a m s C l a r k e ( J F L A G ) R i n a l d o W a l c ot t ( T or o n t o )

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H i g h l i g h t s A W o r k s h o p J o u r n a l B y J oe l S i m p s o n I t h i n k i t s s a f e t o s a y t h a t m os t o f u s a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s f o r u m n ot k n o w i n g e x a c t l y w h a t t o e x p e c t W e k n e w t h a t a s m a l l g r ou p of a c a d e m i c s a n d a c t i v i s t s f r om a r ou n d t h e r e g i on a n d t h e d i a s p o r a w ou l d b e m e e t i n g f or a d a y a n d a h a l f a r m e d w i t h a n a g e n d a t o c o n s i d e r d e b a t e s a b ou t t h e r e g u l a t i o n of s e x u a l p r a c t i c e s a n d t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of s e x u a l r i g h t s H e r e a r e s om e of t h e h i g h l i g h t s f r om t h e p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n s : S e s s i o n 1 : L e g a l C h a l l e n g e s P h i l i p D a y l e s ta r te d u s o ff ta l k i n g a b o u t t h e w o r k o f th e I n te r n a t i o n a l C o m m i s s i o n fo r J u r i s ts ( I C J ) i n cl u d i n g i t s s u p p o r t fo r B r a z i l s r e s o l u t i o n o n s e x u a l o r i e n ta t i o n a n d g e n d e r i d e n ti t y to h e l p fo cu s t h e d i s cu s s i o n o n h u m a n r i g h t s ( a s o p p o s e d to a cu l t u r a l / d o m e s t i c l e v e l d e b a te ) D a v i d M u r r a y a s k e d h o w d o w e t r a n s l a t e a d v o ca cy fo r s e x u a l r i g h ts to m o v e m e n t s o n th e g r o u n d ? H e co n cl u d e d th a t w e n e e d to g i v e m o r e a t te n ti o n to l o ca l v e r n a cu l a r s o f r i g h t s R i g h t s b a s e d a d v o ca cy n e e d s t o b e p u t i n l o ca l cu l t u r a l co n te x t s to b e m o r e e ffe cti v e T r a c y R o b i n s o n ( p g 5 ) p r o v i d e d a d e ta i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e cr i m i n a l i z a ti o n o f s e x u a l i t y i n th e r e g i o n S e s s i o n 2 : O r g a n i z i n g t h r o u g h H I V A I D S R A n t h o n y L e w i s e x p l a i n e d h o w J a m a i ca A I D S S u p p o r t s G a y L e s b i a n a n d B i s e x u a l C o m m u n i t y ( G L A B C O M ) a n d J a m a i ca F o r u m fo r L e s b i a n s A l l s e x u a l s a n d G a y s ( J F L A G ) d e v e l o p e d S h a r o n M o t t l e y o ffe r e d a b a ck g r o u n d to t h e A I D S e p i d e m i c i n t h e r e g i o n a n d e x a m i n e d w h e r e w e w e r e a d d r e s s i n g r i g h t s i s s u e s fo r h o m o s e x u a l s A n d i l G o s i n e co n s i d e r e d th e u s e o f th e te r m i n o l o g y M e n w h o h a v e S e x w i t h M e n ( M S M ) b y i n te r n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n ci e s H e q u e s t i o n e d w h e t h e r i t s u s e w a s a n i m p e d i m e n t to cl a i m i n g s e x u a l r i g h ts i n l o ca l co n te x t s a n d h i g h l i g h te d t h e g e n d e r b i a s e d i m p l i ca ti o n s o f o r g a n i z i n g u n d e r th e M S M fr a m e w o r k R i n a l d o W a l c o t t d i s c u s s e d s o m e i m p l i ca t i o n s o f H I V / A I D S w o r k i n b l a ck co m m u n i ti e s i n N o r t h A m e r i ca S e s s i o n 3 : A d v o ca c y R o b e r t C a r r d i s cu s s e d t h e S to p M u r d e r M u s i c ca m p a i g n a s g l o ca l o r g a n i z i n g A k i m A d e L a r c h e r fo l l o w e d u p w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a cti v i ti e s E G A L E C a n a d a i s d o i n g i n th i s a r e a H e r a i s e d m a n y q u e s ti o n s a b o u t h o w th e G l o b a l N o r t h co u l d m o r e e ffe ct i v e l y s u p p o r t l o ca l o r g a n i z i n g e ffo r ts i n t h e C a r i b b e a n w i th o u t c r e a ti n g d i v i s i o n s a n d s t y m i e i n g l o ca l p r o g r e s s o n t h e g r o u n d I ta l k e d m o s tl y a b o u t th e o r g a n i z a t i o n I co fo u n d e d S t u d e n ts A g a i n s t S e x u a l O r i e n ta t i o n D i s c r i m i n a ti o n ( S A S O D ) I i d e n t i fi e d o u r o r g a n i z a ti o n a l c h a l l e n g e s a n d p r o p o s e d a fe w s t r a te g i e s fo r m o v i n g f o r w a r d : e n g a g i n g t h e r e l i g i o u s co m m u n i t y ; m a i n s t r e a m i n g L G B T i s s u e s ; a n d b u i l d i n g a l l i a n ce s a n d p a r t n e r s h i p s w i t h o th e r h u m a n r i g h t s ca u s e s a n d c i v i l s o c i e t y m o v e m e n ts fo r m u t u a l s u p p o r t K a r l e n e W i l l i a m s C l a r k e a n d K e n i t a P l a c i d e cl o s e d th e d a y w i th p r e s e n ta t i o n s a b o u t J F L A G a n d U n i te d & S t r o n g S t. L u c i a T h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w e r e v e r y r i c h b u t t h e m e a t of C o n v e r s a t i o n s w a s i n t h e m od e r a t e d d i s c u s s i on s t h a t t oo k p l a c e a f t e r e a c h p a n e l s e s s i on W e b e n e f i t e d f r om t h e d i v e r s i t y of p e r s p e c t i v e s a m o n g u s M a n y t i m e s ou r d i s c u s s i o n s w e r e n ot o n l y p a s s i o n a t e b u t e m ot i o n a l e s p e c i a l l y a s w e d i s c u s s e d t h e i m p l i c a t i on s of r a c i s m s e x i s m a n d c l a s s t o s e x u a l r i g h t s o r g a n i z i n g F or t h e c l os i n g s e s s i o n t h e n e x t m or n i n g w e d i s c u s s e d n e x t s t e p s a n d d e c i d e d a f e w k e y t h i n g s T h e g r ou p d e c i d e d t o s t a y c o n n e c t e d t o w o r k b ot h a s a c o l l e c t i v e a n d a s s u b g r ou p s t o w or k t og e t h e r o n s m a l l p r o j e c t s t h a t m a d e s y n e r g i s t i c s e n s e b a s e d on w h e r e p e r s o n s w e r e s t r a t e g i c a l l y l oc a t e d W e d e c i d e d t o s t a r t a l i s t s e r v f o r w or k s h o p p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d t h ou g h t i t w ou l d b e u s e f u l t o m a k e t h e i n p e r s on f o r u m a n a n n u a l m e e t i n g I t w a s g r e a t m e e t i n g f ol k s I h a v e b e e n r e a d i n g a b ou t a n d e m a i l i n g T h e w or k s h o p p r o v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o s om e of t h e l a t e s t r e s e a r c h a n d or g a n i s i n g e f f or t s i n t h e C a r i b b e a n r e g i o n a n d t h e d i a s p or a I n d e e d t h e w or k s h op h a s s p u r r e d i d e a s a b ou t h os t i n g a s i m i l a r m e e t i n g i n G u y a n a on J u l y 2 3 2 0 08 e x a c t l y f i v e y e a r s a f t e r p a r l i a m e n t d i d n ot d e b a t e t h e a m e n d m e n t t o ou t l a w d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b a s e d on s e x u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e G u y a n a c o n s t i t u t i o n J oe l S i m p s o n i s C o C h a i r o f S A S O D

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I n t h e o p e n i n g s e s s i o n w e w e r e a s k e d w h a t a r e t h e i s s u e s a n d q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t t o y o u ? W e s a i d S e x u a l p r a c t i c e a n d s e x u a l i d e n t i t y W ha t a r e t he s t a k e s i n v ol v e d i n m a k i n g d i f f e r e n t c l a i m s ? I s s u e s o f s e x u a l e c o n o m ic a g e n c y a n d r ig h t s H o w d o e c o n o m ic c o n d it io n s in f o r m s e x u a l p r a c t ic e s ? C o a l i t i o n b u i l d i n g M o b i li zi n g t h e g a y co m m u n i t y w h i ch i s m a le f o cu se d T h e r e s a n i d e a t h a t w e d o n t h a v e le sb i a n s i n t h e C a r i b b e a n w e h a v e f e m i n i st s W h o w i l l st a n d u p a n d b e co u n t e d ? D e m on s t r at io n c r e at in g s p ac e s w it h in t h e r e g io n f or e x p r e s s in g s e x u al r i g h t s I s s e s o f r a c i s m a n d c l a s s A b o r t i o n T R A N S N A T I O N A L R E L A T I O N S H I P S A n e t h i c s o f c i t i z e n s h i p R e c o g n i z i n g w h a t s r i g h t i n t h e C a r i b b e a n W r a p p i n g o u r m i n d s a r o u n d t h e o p p o s i t i o n [ t o s e x u a l r i g h t s ] T he c r i s i s f a c i ng m e n a nd boys e s pe c i a l l y a nxi e t i e s a bout m a s c ul i ni t y a nd hom o phobi a T he p o l i t i c s o f l o ve

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T h e V a g a r i e s o f J u s t i c e T H E L A W R E L A T I N G T O S E X C R I M E S I N T H E C A R I B B E A N B y T r a c y R o b i n s o n S i n c e 1 9 8 6 s e v e n o f t h e e l e v e n i n d e p e n d e n t C a r i b b e a n c ou n t r i e s h a v e ov e r h a u l e d l a w s d e f i n i n g a n d g ov e r n i n g s e x c r i m e s 1 O n l y J a m a i c a G r e n a d a G u y a n a a n d S t V i n c e n t h a v e s u b s t a n t i a l l y u n r e f or m e d l a w s A n d f i v e of t h e s e v e n h a v e s p e c i a l i s e d c od e s d e a l i n g w i t h s e x u a l o f f e n c e s T h os e r e f o r m s a r e p r om i n e n t s y m b ol s o f f e m i n i s t m o b i l i z a t i o n a n d t h e v i ol e n c e a g a i n s t w om e n c a m p a i g n i n t h e 1 9 8 0 s a n d n i n e t i e s T h e y w e r e n ot a n u n m i t i g a t e d s u c c e s s f or t h e w o m e n s m ov e m e n t I n f a c t M J a c q u i A l e x a n d e r w a s on e of t h e e a r l i e s t t o h i g h l i g h t t h e p r o b l e m a t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e n e w l a w s 2 N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e y i n t r od u c e d k e y i n i t i a t i v e s t h a t m a n y f e m i n i s t s a r e f i t t i n g l y p l e a s e d a b ou t : i n c a m e r a h e a r i n g s p r ot e c t i o n of t h e p r i v a c y of v i c t i m s of s e x c r i m e s a b ol i t i o n of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t of c o r r o b o r a t i o n a n d l i m i t e d u s e o f l a s t s e x u a l h i s t o r y 1 A n t i g u a a n d B a r b u d a S e x u a l O f f e n c e s A c t 1 9 9 5 9 ; T h e B a h a m a s S e x u a l O f f e n c e s a n d D o m e s t i c V i o l e n c e A c t 1 9 9 1 c a p 9 9 ; B a r b a d o s S e x u a l O f f e n c e s A c t 1 9 9 2 c a p 1 5 4 ; B e l i z e C r i m i n a l C o d e ( A m e n d m e n t ) A c t 1 9 9 9 3 6 2 0 0 1 4 2 ; D o m i n i c a S e x u a l O f f e n c e s A c t 1 9 9 8 1 ; S t L u c i a C r i m i n a l C o d e 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 5 R e v c a p 3 : 0 1 ; T r i n i d a d a n d T o b a g o S e x u a l O f f e n c e s A c t 1 9 8 6 2 7 2 M J a c q u i A l e x a n d e r 1 9 9 1 R e d r a f t i n g M o r a l i t y : T h e P o s t c o l o n i a l S t a t e a n d t h e S e x u a l O f f e n c e s B i l l o f T r i n i d a d a n d T o b a g o I n T h i r d W o r l d W o m e n a n d t h e P o l i t i c s o f F e m i n i s m e d C h a n d r a T a l p a d e M o h a n t y A n n R u s s o a n d L o u r d e s T o r r e s 1 3 3 5 2 B l o o m i n g t o n a n d I n d i a n a p o l i s : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s T h i s s e e m i n g l y p r og r e s s i v e l a w m a k i n g h a s i n f a c t b e c om e t h e c on t e m p o r a r y m e c h a n i s m of r e t r e n c h i n g s e x u a l f r e e d om r e f i n i n g s e x u a l ou t l a w s a n d l e g i s l a t i n g m or e of t h e s e x w e c h o os e a s d a n g e r ou s t o t h e n a t i o n S o c o n t r a r y t o t h e p o p u l a r a c c ou n t w h i c h s a y s t h e p r o b l e m i s a n t i q u e l a w s I a m n o w q u i t e c l e a r t h a t c o n t e m p or a r y p r og r e s s i v e l a w m a k i n g h a s b e e n m u c h m o r e i n s i d i ou s R e t r e n c h i n g s e x u a l f r e e d o m M od e r n s e x u a l of f e n c e s l a w i n t h e A n g l op h o n e C a r i b b e a n h a s s h a r p e n e d b u g g e r y a s a n o f f e n c e t a r g e t i n g m a l e h om o s e x u a l s e x H i s t o r i c a l l y b u g g e r y c o v e r e d s e x w i t h m a n k i n d a n d h u m a n k i n d T h e c o n t e m p o r a r y l a w s h a v e g e n e r a l l y m a d e b e s t i a l i t y b e c a m e a s e p a r a t e of f e n c e u s u a l l y l e s s s e v e r e l y p e n a l i s e d I n m o s t p l a c e s i t s t i l l i n c l u d e s h e t e r os e x u a l a s w e l l a s h om os e x u a l a n a l s e x b u t t h e l a t e s t r e f or m s i n t h e 2 0 04 S t L u c i a c r i m i n a l c od e h a v e d i s t i l l e d t h e of f e n c e t o b e i n g c a p a b l e of b e i n g c om m i t t e d on l y b y a m a n i n r e l a t i o n t o a n ot h e r m a n U n i v e r s a l l y t h e p e n a l t i e s f or b u g g e r y h a v e i n c r e a s e d T h e y m ov e d f r om a m a x i m u m o f f i v e y e a r s i m p r i s o n m e n t p r i o r t o 1 9 8 6 i n T r i n i d a d a n d T o b a g o t o t e n y e a r s u n d e r t h e S e x u a l O f f e n c e s A c t 1 9 8 6 I n t h e 2 00 0 a m e n d m e n t s t o t h a t A c t t h e m a x i m u m p e n a l t y r o s e t o 2 5 y e a r s U n d e r t h e r e f or m e d l a w s i n s om e c ou n t r i e s r a p e h a s b e c om e a g e n d e r n e u t r a l of f e n c e a n d c a n i n c l u d e n o n c o n s e n s u a l a n a l b e t w e e n t w o m e n T h i s o n l y e m p h a s i s e s t h a t t h e f oc u s o f t h e r e t a i n e d b u g g e r y l a w i s

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t h e p r oh i b i t i o n of c o n s e n s u a l a n a l s e x I n a n u m b e r of t h e n e w C a r i b b e a n s e x l a w s g r os s i n d e c e n c y h a s m or p h e d i n t o t h e g e n d e r n e u t r a l o f f e n c e o f s e r i ou s i n d e c e n c y w h i c h n o w i n c l u d e s s e x u a l a c t i v i t i e s b e t w e e n w om e n I t i s d e f i n e d a s t h e u s e of t h e g e n i t a l or g a n s t o a r ou s e o r g r a t i f y s e x u a l d e s i r e T h e n e w s e x u a l o f f e n c e s l a w s c e n s u r e d t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f s e x w or k e r s i n a n u n p r e c e d e n t e d f a s h i o n H i s t or i c a l l y t h i r d p a r t i e s b e n e f i t i n g f r om s e x w or k f a c e d c r i m i n a l s a n c t i o n s b u t s e x w or k e r s t h e m s e l v e s c ou l d o n l y b e c h a r g e d w i t h s ol i c i t i n g i n p u b l i c i n w h a t w e r e q u i t e m i n or o f f e n c e s T h e w a v e of r e f or m s t o s e x u a l of f e n c e s l a w s i n t h e C a r i b b e a n c ou n t r i e s h a v e e n l a r g e d s ol i c i t a t i on i n t o a g e n e r a l o f f e n c e w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t i t c a n b e c om m i t t e d i n p r i v a t e a s w e l l a n d t r a n s f or m e d i t f r o m a m i n or of f e n c e t o a v e r y s e r i ou s s e x c r i m e I n a d d i t i on n o n d i s c l os u r e o f H I V s t a t u s a n d t r a n s m i s s i o n o f H I V h a v e b e c om e c r i m e s i n c ou n t r i e s l i k e B e l i z e B a h a m a s a n d S t L u c i a u n d e r t h e n e w s e x u a l of f e n c e s l a w s S o m e o n e c o n v i c t e d o f b u g g e r y i n T r i n i d a d a n d T ob a g o m i g h t n ow f i n d t h e m s e l v e s v i c t i m s of a l e g a l m od e r n i s a t i o n t h a t i m p os e s m a n d a t or y H I V t e s t i n g a n d p os t c o n v i c t i o n s e x o f f e n d e r s t a t u s a n d m o n i t or i n g T h e t u r n t o r i g h t s I a m i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t i m p ov e r i s h e d n ot i o n s of g e n d e r e q u a l i t y a n d m e a g r e c o n c e p t i o n s of w om a n u n d e r g i r d t h e s e d e v e l op m e n t s t h a t a r e o s t e n s i b l y i n a i d of w om e n b u t i n f a c t d i s e n g a g e s e x u a l f r e e d om f r o m g e n d e r e q u a l i t y M y ow n v i e w i s t h e r e p e a l of t h e s e l a w s b y P a r l i a m e n t or b y t h e c ou r t s t h r ou g h c on s t i t u t i o n a l l i t i g a t i o n i s p r e e m i n e n t l y a f e m i n i s t p r i or i t y N ot s u r p r i s i n g l y w e t u r n t o r i g h t s h u m a n r i g h t s t o m a k e t h a t c a s e b u t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e v e r y l a w s w e w a n t t o c o n t e s t a n d c h a l l e n g e r e m i n d s u s t h a t w e n e e d t o b e a t t u n e d t o t h e v a g a r i e s of j u s t i c e B ot h e t h i c a l l y a n d f r o m a n a d v oc a c y s t a n d p oi n t t h e t u r n t o r i g h t s i s i m p o r t a n t i n d i s p e n s a b l e e v e n A t t h e s a m e t i m e i t c o m e s a t a c o s t I a m n ot s u g g e s t i n g h e r e a s i n i s t e r f o r c e s i m p l y t h a t h u m a n r i g h t s d i s c ou r s e h a s l i m i t s t h a t m u s t b e c o n s t a n t l y w e i g h e d a n d e v a l u a t e d I f o n e w e r e t o l i t i g a t e t h e s c op e of s e x u a l r i g h t s i n t h e C om m o n w e a l t h C a r i b b e a n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t w ou l d h a v e t o b e t a k e n i n t o a c c ou n t : 1 H u m a n r i g h t s m e c h a n i s m s a r e v e r y f o c u s e d o n i n d i v i d u a l c om p l a i n t s b y a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s d e m a n d i n g a n ou t i n g t h a t w ou l d c a u s e m a n y g a y s a n d l e s b i a n s i n t ol e r a b l e v u l n e r a b i l i t y 2 N ow h e r e a r e r i g h t s a b s o l u t e T h e p r o c e s s of w e i g h i n g o n e r i g h t a g a i n s t a n ot h e r a n d t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t p r i v a c y a n d e q u a l i t y a g a i n s t p u b l i c m or a l i t y f or e x a m p l e c a n s om e t i m e s l e a v e l i t i g a n t s w i t h n ot h i n g 3 Eq u a l i t y c l a i m s c a n b e i n s i d i ou s p i t t i n g f or e x p e d i e n c y l i k e ( m a r g i n a l i s e d ) a g a i n s t l i k e O n e o f t h e m os t v i a b l e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a l l e n g e s t o b u g g e r y l a w s i n t h e C a r i b b e a n i s t h a t t h e s e x u a l a c t i v i t i e s of l e s b i a n s a r e n ot a s h e a v i l y p e n a l i s e d a s t h a t of g a y m e n 4 T h i s i s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l c l a i m b u t t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f r i g h t s i s c o n n e c t e d t o d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s e s I t i s q u i t e c l e a r t h a t i t w i l l b e d i f f i c u l t t o g e t P a r l i a m e n t t o r e f o r m e x i s t i n g l a w s or t h e C o n s t i t u t i on s A p p r o a c h i n g t h e c ou n t e r m a j or i t a r i a n b r a n c h of g ov e r n m e n t t h e c ou r t s m i g h t s e e m t o p r ov i d e a n op p o r t u n i t y f or u n p o p u l a r r i g h t s d e c i s i o n s t o b e t a k e n T h e t r ou b l e i s e v e n i f t h a t i s s o, p a r l i a m e n t c a n t a k e b a c k t h e p r o c e s s a s t h e y a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o d o i n J a m a i c a w i t h t h e C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s a n d p r i v a c y a n d i n T r i n i d a d a n d T ob a g o w i t h a b or t i o n

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t h r ou g h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m a d e v a s t a t i n g b a c k l a s h M o r e ov e r p r og r e s s i v e c ou r t d e c i s i o n s f r om a c ou r t l i k e t h e P r i v y C ou n c i l t h a t i s s t i l l t h e h i g h e s t c ou r t of a p p e a l f or m os t of t h e r e g i o n a n d w h i c h h a s s e r i ou s l e g i t i m a c y i s s u e s i n t h e r e g i o n m i g h t e x c i t e s t r o n g e r h o s t i l e r e s p o n s e s C a r i b b e a n p e c u l i a r i t i e s Q u i t e a p a r t f r om t h os e l a r g e r c o n c e r n s r i g h t s l i t i g a t i o n i n t h e C a r i b b e a n f a c e s ot h e r c h a l l e n g e s : 1 T h e r u l e s o n s t a n d i n g t o b r i n g b i l l of r i g h t s l i t i g a t i on u n d e r t h e C o n s t i t u t i on s a r e n a r r o w ; a c t i o n s m u s t b e b r ou g h t b y a p e r s o n a f f e c t e d T h e r e i s a l e g i t i m a t e w o r r y a b ou t t h e r i s k s t o p e r s o n s w h o a g r e e t o l i t i g a n t s i n c a s e s i n v ol v i n g s e x u a l r i g h t s 2 T h e r i g h t s a t s t a k e a r e a m o n g s t t h e m os t u n d e r d e v e l o p e d i n C a r i b b e a n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l a w : e q u a l i t y a n d p r i v a c y 3 S a v i n g s l a w c l a u s e s i n t h e ol d e r i n d e p e n d e n t c ou n t r i e s c o n s t r a i n s e v e r e l y c o n s t r a i n j u d i c i a l r e v i e w w h e r e t h e l a w s b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d w e r e i n e x i s t e n c e p r i or t o i n d e p e n d e n c e 4 I n T r i n i d a d a n d T ob a g o, t h e s e x u a l of f e n c e s l a w i s a s p e c i a l a c t w h i c h m e a n s i t w a s e n a c t e d b y s p e c i a l m a j or i t i e s a n d i s t h u s v a l i d d e s p i t e c o n t r a v e n t i o n s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n 5 C a r i b b e a n c o n s t i t u t i o n s h a v e s t r o n g l i m i t a t i o n c l a u s e s w h i c h s a y t h a t y ou c a n r e s t r i c t r i g h t s w h e r e i t i s r e a s o n a b l y r e q u i r e d t o p r ot e c t p u b l i c o r d e r h e a l t h m or a l i t y a n d d e f e n c e D e s p i t e t h i s r i g h t s a d v o c a t e s a n d a c t i v i s t s s h ou l d r e c o g n i s e t h a t t h e C a r i b b e a n i s a d y n a m i c e n v i r o n m e n t e v e n t h r ou g h p r og r e s s i s n e v e r s m o ot h o r u n e q u i v o c a l T h i n g s d o a n d c a n c h a n g e T h e p r e s e n t C h i e f J u s t i c e of T r i n i d a d a n d T o b a g o r e c e n t l y h e l d t h a t a l a w t h a t s a i d s e x c ou l d n ot i n c l u d e s e x u a l or i e n t a t i o n f or t h e p u r p os e s o f e q u a l op p o r t u n i t i e s p r ot e c t i o n c ou l d n ot b e c on s i s t e n t w i t h e q u a l i t y S a d l y t h a t d e c i s i o n a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n ov e r r u l e d b y t h e P r i v y C ou n c i l b u t i t s i g n a l s t h a t s o m e C a r i b b e a n j u d g e s w i l l t a k e a p r og r e s s i v e s t a n d o n t h e s e i s s u e s I n i t s m os t s i g n i f i c a n t d e c i s i o n J os e p h v A t t G e n t h e C a r i b b e a n C ou r t of J u s t i c e h a s s o f a r d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t i t w i s h e s t o b e l i b e r a l f or w a r d t h i n k i n g c ou r t W e m u s t a l s o r e m e m b e r t h a t e v e n i f b r i e f l y P a r l i a m e n t i n G u y a n a a p p r ov e d of s e x u a l or i e n t a t i on b e i n g n a m e d a s a p r oh i b i t e d g r ou n d of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i on ; a n d t h e B e l i z e P ol i t i c a l R e f or m C om m i s s i o n s a i d v e r y c l e a r l y t h a t s e x u a l or i e n t a t i o n s h ou l d b e a p r oh i b i t e d g r ou n d of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n u n d e r a r e f o r m e d c o n s t i t u t i o n T h e s e a r e t h e v a g a r i e s of j u s t i c e a n d r i g h t s i n c r e m e n t a l of t e n e q u i v o c a l p r og r e s s R i g h t s a r e n ot a p a n a c e a or a m a g i c p ot i on W e m u s t e n g a g e t h e m i n a d v o c a c y w i t h s e l f a w a r e n e s s a n d a n op t i m i s m t h a t t h e y t a k e u s on a p ot e n t i a l l y p e r i l ou s a n d p r od u c t i v e r o a d t ow a r d s c i t i z e n s h i p T r a c y R o b i n s o n i s a S e n i or L e c t u r e r i n L a w a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t I n d i e s A u t h or s p os s e s s f u l l c op y r i g h t o w n e r s h i p o f t h e i r m a t e r i a l i n t h i s b u l l e t i n A r t i c l e s m a y b e r e p r i n t e d w i t h t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n on l y W r i t e t o a n d i l @ y o r k u c a w i t h e n q u i r i e s

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R e a d i n g L i s t / S e l e c t e d W o r k s A l e x a n d e r M J a c q u i 2 0 0 5 P e d a g o g i e s o f C r o s s i n g : M e d i t a t i o n s o n F e m i n i s m S e x u a l P o l i t i c s M e m o r y a n d t h e S a c r e d D u r h a m : D u ke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s C a l i x t e S h a n a L 2 0 0 5 T h i n g s W h i c h A r e n t t o B e G i v e n N a m e s : A f r o C a r i b b e a n D i a s p o r i c N e g o t i a t i o n s o f S a m e G e n d e r D e s i r e a n d S e x u a l R e l a t i o n s C a n a d i a n W o m a n S t u d i e s 2 4 ( 2 / 3 ) : 1 2 8 3 7 C a r r R o b e r t 2 0 0 3 O n J u d g e m e n t s : P o v e r t y S e x u a l i t y B a s e d V i o l e n c e a n d H u m a n R i g h t s i n 2 1 s t C e n t u r y J a m a i c a C a r i b b e a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l W o r k ( 2 ) : 7 1 8 7 G e n r i c h G i l l i a n L & B r a d e r B r a i t h e w a i t e 2 0 0 5 R e s p o n s e o f R e l i g i o u s G r o u p s t o H I V / A I D S a s a S e x u a l l y T r a n s m i t t e d I n f e c t i o n i n T r i n i d a d B M C P u b l i c H e a l t h : 1 1 2 G o s i n e A n d i l 2 0 0 7 R a c e c u l t u r e p o w e r s e x d e s i r e a n d l o v e : W r i t i n g i n m e n w h o h a v e s e x w i t h m e n I D S B u l l e t i n 3 7 ( 5 ) : 2 7 3 3 G o s i n e A n d i l 2 0 0 8 R e a d i n g M i a M o t t l e y s s t a t e m e n t o n ( h o m o ) s e x : a n i n t e r r o g a t i o n o f H I V / A I D S s c r i p t s o n s e x u a l i t y ( a n d a c a l l t o e n g a g e a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r s e x u a l a u t o n o m y ) i n G e n d e r S e x u a l i t y a n d H I V / A I D S : T h e C a r i b b e a n a n d B e y o n d D R o b e r t s a n d R R h e d d o c k ( e d s ) K i n g s t o n : I a n R a n d l e K e m p a d o o K a m a l a 2 0 0 3 S e x u a l i t y i n t h e C a r i b b e a n : T h e o r y a n d R e s e a r c h ( w i t h a n E m p h a s i s o n t h e A n g l o p h o n e C a r i b b e a n ) S o c i a l a n d E c o n o m i c S t u d i e s 5 2 ( 3 ) : 5 9 8 8 K e m p a d o o K a m a l a 2 0 0 4 S e x i n g t h e C a r i b b e a n : G e n d e r R a c e a n d S e x u a l L a b o r N e w Y o r k: R o u t l e d g e L a z a r u s B l a c k, M i n d i e 2 0 0 3 T h e ( H e t e r o s e x u a l ) R e g e n d e r i n g o f a M o d e r n S t a t e : C r i m i n a l i z i n g a n d I m p l e m e n t i n g D o m e s t i c V i o l e n c e L a w i n T r i n i d a d L a w & S o c i a l E n q u i r y 2 8 ( 4 ) : 97 9 1 0 0 8 M u r r a y D a v i d 2 0 0 6 W h o s R i g h t ? H u m a n R i g h t s S e x u a l R i g h t s a n d S o c i a l C h a n g e i n B a r b a d o s C u l t u r e H e a l t h a n d S e x u a l i t y M a y J u n e 2 0 0 6 V o l 8 N o 3 L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e / T a y l o r F r a n c i s P h i l l i p s J o a n L 2 0 0 2 T h e B e a c h B o y s o f B a r b a d o s : P o s t C o l o n i a l E n t r e p r e n e u r s T r a n s n a t i o n a l P r o s t i t u t i o n : C h a n g i n g G l o b a l P a t t e r n s e d i t e d b y S u s a n n e T h o r b e k a n d B a n d a n a P a t t a n a i k, 4 2 5 5 L o n d o n : Z e d B o o ks R o b i n s o n T r a c y S 2 0 0 0 F i c t i o n s o f C i t i z e n s h i p B o d i e s w i t h o u t S e x : T h e P r o d u c t i o n a n d E f f a c e m e n t o f G e n d e r i n L a w S m a l l A x e : J o u r n a l o f C r i t i c i s m 7 : 1 2 7 S h a r p e J e n n y & S a m a n t h a P i n t o 2 0 0 6 T h e S w e e t e s t T a b o o : S t u d i e s o f C a r i b b e a n S e x u a l i t i e s ; A R e v i e w E s s a y S i g n s : J o u r n a l o f W o m e n i n C u l t u r e a n d S o c i e t y 3 2 ( 1 ) : 2 4 7 7 4 W e kke r G l o r i a 2 0 0 6. T h e P o l i t i c s o f P a s s i o n : W o m e n s S e x u a l C u l t u r e i n t h e A f r o S u r i n a m e s e D i a s p o r a N e w Y o r k: C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s W h i t e R u t h a n d R o b e r t C a r r 2 0 0 5 H o m o s e x u a l i t y a n d H I V / A I D S S t i g m a i n J a m a i c a C u l t u r e H e a l t h a n d S e x u a l i t y : 1 1 3 T h a n ks t o K a m a l a K e m p a d o o f o r s h a r i n g h e r b i b l i o g r a p h y C a r i b b e a n S e x u a l i t y M a p p i n g t h e F i e l d