Homosexuality: A constitutional question

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Title:
Homosexuality: A constitutional question
Physical Description:
4p
Language:
English
Creator:
Simeon C. R. McIntosh
Publisher:
Barbados Advocate
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean, barbados, rights, constitution

Notes

Funding:
Support for the development of the technical infrastructure and partner training provided by the United States Department of Education TICFIA program.
General Note:
This article is extracted from the Online version of the Barbados Advocate. It was written by Simeon C. R. McIntosh , Professor of Jurisprudence and Dean, Faculty of Law, UWI, Cave Hill, Barbados.

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Caribbean IRN
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Caribbean IRN
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All rights reserved by the source institution.
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AA00000007:00001


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Full Text
Homosexuality: A constitutional question
Web Posted Mon May 30 2005
By Simeon C. R. Mcintosh
Recent public reaction in Barbados and Trinidad and
Tobago, condemning, in essence, any move on the part
of the State to decriminalize homosexual intimacy
among consenting adults in private, is testimony to
the poverty of the rights discourse in the
Commonwealth Caribbean. In Barbados, an Anglican
cleric, in response to a suggestion by the Attorney
General that decriminalization be seriously
considered, has gone so far as to suggest that, if
homosexuality is to be decriminalized, then the people
of Barbados should first have their say in a public
referendum.

Similarly, in Trinidad and Tobago, no less a group
than Lawyers for Jesus, who may indeed have judges
amongst their number, have been equally condemning of
the idea that persons of that particular sexual
orientation should enjoy the equal protection of their
fundamental rights and freedoms.

This is especially sad, for it betrays a rather
simplistic understanding of the nature of the
fundamental rights and freedoms to which we have
committed ourselves in our constitutional texts, and
of the form of democratic governance such rights and
freedoms actually inform. What is more, it shows that,
in our public debate on the issue, we have missed the
critical question by miles.

The central question raised by the suggestion that
homosexuality be decriminalized, and that persons of
that particular sexual orientation enjoy the equal
protection of the law, is whether the State has the
constitutional authority to criminalize homosexual
practices among consenting adults in the privacy of
their homes or other private places. This is indeed
the question, notwithstanding that the main policy
objective behind the Barbados Attorney Generals
suggestion was to address the problem of the spread of
HIV/AIDS in Barbados.

Interestingly, this is the very question that pertains
to the States authority to criminalize heterosexual
practices among consenting adults in private. But we
do not consider this a genuine question since we take
it for granted that the State does not have that
authority. The question therefore arises: what is it
about homosexual practices that would make them the
proper subject for criminalization and punishment?

Judging from the responses to the Attorney Generals
suggestion, coming from members of the clergy and the
public at large, I surmise that the answer would be
that homosexuality is unnatural; it is a sin and an
abomination; and, most importantly, the overwhelming
majority of the populace are emphatically against
decriminalization.


But, unfortunately, these prevailing sentiments about
homosexuality hardly constitute an adequate response
to the question of the constitutional authority of the
State to criminalize homosexual practices among
consenting adults. The answer to the question rather
turns on an adequate understanding of the nature of a
constitutional democracy and the limitations imposed
on the State in respect of those forms of behaviour
that it can or cannot criminalize.

Constitutional democratic rule is the only form of
political rule that makes a strong claim to moral
distinction. It is the form of political rule that is
predicated on an assumption of persons as rational,
free and moral equals, capable of making critical
choices about their lives and, therefore, of
formulating and pursuing their own conceptions of a
good life. Constitutional democracy is therefore the
only form of political rule that seriously respects
the basic moral rights of persons, of which our
constitutional bills of rights are but contingent and
particular attempts at a more specific political
instantiation. On this view, the right to vote, on the
principle of universal adult suffrage, is no ordinary
political right. Rather, it rests on a more basic and
deeply profound moral right: the right of people to
engage in self-government and in the choice of the
fundamental rules for their governance, and to
participate as equals in decision making about
policies that would affect their lives.

In the event, these basic moral rights, specified in
our constitutional bills of rights, are rights that we
have, simply in virtue of the fact that we are human
beings. They are therefore not rights legislated by
political institutions, nor are they determined by
political majorities. They cannot be withdrawn at the
convenience of legislators or judges, based on public
referendum, or by constitutional amendment, no matter
how overwhelming the publics support for the
amendment might be. In sum, these rights define the
moral and political independence of persons which the
State cannot breach except for compelling reasons.
This leads to the question of the States authority to
criminalize behaviour.

The power of the State to criminalize and punish
certain forms of behaviour is a critical aspect of its
sovereignty. But in a constitutional democracy, this
power is exercised within constitutional limits.
Specifically, the basic moral rights of citizens
define the substantive limits on the authority of the
State regarding the forms of behaviour it can or
cannot criminalize, and the degree and forms of
punishment it may impose for the commission of crimes.
In a word, the State must have morally compelling
reasons for criminalizing certain forms of behaviour.

This is a critical point. Criminal law is
overwhelmingly the most coercive aspect of law. In the
arrest, trial, conviction and punishment of the


criminal defendant, the awesome power of the State is
brought to bear on the single individual. It is for
this reason that Herbert Packer would define the
criminal sanction as the laws ultimate threat; and
for this reason, the States activities in
criminalizing and punishing behaviour are always in
special need of moral warrant.

Consideration of a classic crime like rape would help
make the point. The State has morally compelling
reasons for criminalizing such behaviour given that
the violent act of rape constitutes the most egregious
violation of the basic moral rights of the victim: the
right to bodily integrity and of self-realization.
That is to say, the act of rape denies to the victim a
basic moral right that we each hold dearly: the right
to make that critical choice as to the circumstances,
and with whom, one would choose to be intimate. In a
word, then, the criminalization of rape is morally
justified because it constitutes the violation of
certain fundamental interests and values we have
committed to constitutional protection.

The very arguments that we have advanced to explain
the criminalization of rape must now be applied to a
determination of the issue of the criminalization of
homosexual practices among consenting adults. That is
to say, the moral justification for the States action
must be predicated on the knowledge that homosexual
behaviour constitutes a violation of certain basic
moral rights of persons, rights we have committed to
constitutional protection.

This, we have seen, is never the form of argument
advanced by those who are so strongly against
decriminalizing homosexual behaviour and for good
reason: this argument is simply not available to their
case. And because of this, a related question is
placed in high relief. It is a question as to whether
the States act in criminalizing homosexual behaviour
among consenting adults is itself in violation of the
fundamental rights of those persons who wish to engage
in intimate homosexual acts, without the threat of
criminal sanction. We may address this question by
considering the States authority to criminalize
heterosexual behaviour among consenting adults.

Earlier, I noted that we may take for granted the
States lack of authority to criminalize heterosexual
behaviour among consenting adults. But why does the
State lack such authority? The answer is rather
simple. Heterosexual behaviour among consenting adults
in private is protected by certain basic moral rights
and freedoms, such as freedom of thought, conscience,
and association; the rights of privacy, autonomy and
self-determination, which together entail the right to
make critical choices as to the forms of intimacy one
chooses to engage in.

But these rights and freedoms are held by all members
of a democratic society as equals; they do not belong


only to those persons of whose intimacies we approve.
Indeed, they are the rights that define the moral and
political independence of all persons. Therefore, our
personal preferences, religious or otherwise, that
others do not engage in certain intimate practices of
which we disapprove, could hardly be the sufficient
warrant for inviting the State to criminalize the
behaviour or, as in the instant case, inviting the
State not to decriminalize it.

The Attorney General of Barbados was therefore on
solid constitutional ground; the criminalization of
homosexual behaviour among consenting adults is
unconstitutional. The theological debate over the
sinfulness and immorality of homosexuality is
protected by our fundamental rights of free speech,
conscience and religious beliefs. The debate is an
essential part of a moral discourse, open to all
conscientious citizens in the democratic polity, as to
the kind of society they should wish for themselves
and their posterity. That moral discourse may be
reflected in legislation, duly enacted. However, that
very moral discourse enjoins that the courts in a
democratic polity repudiate statutes in defence of
legal rights or interests that, though officially
acknowledged in the constitutional text and widely
accepted in principle, are largely overlooked or even
consciously and unjustifiably denied in practice.

In sum, then, the ideal of law embodying a conception
of the moral equality of persons, enjoins in
particular the infliction of penalties on unpopular
persons or groups without compelling moral
justification. As one commentator puts it. The rule
of law entails a requirement of equal citizenship,
obliging government to justify the distinctions
between persons on which it relies; and that
obligation is not merely one of political wisdom or
expediency, dependent for its efficacy on the
vigilance of politicians or the force of public
opinion, but has legal force, regulating the validity
of laws and administrative orders and decision. The
public debate in Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago,
with its preoccupation on criminalizing homosexual
practices among consenting adults in private, is
hardly illuminating of the foundational terms of our
legal and constitutional order.

(Simeon C. R. Mcintosh is professor of Jurisprudence
and Dean, Faculty of Law, UWI, Cave Hill.)=


Full Text


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